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8uiIding acoustics
PrincipIes of buiIding acoustics
8udng accusLcs s Lhc sccncc c ccnLrcng ncsc n
hudngs, ncudng Lhc nnnsaLcn c ncsc
Lransnsscn rcn cnc spacc Lc ancLhcr and Lhc
ccnLrc c ncsc cvcs and characLcrsLcs wLhn a spacc.
Ncsc can hc dchncd as scund LhaL s undcsrahc, huL
Lhs can hc suh|ccLvc and dcpcnds cn Lhc rcacLcns c
Lhc ndvdua. Whcn a ncsc s Lrcuhcscnc, L can
rcducc ccncrL and chccncy. a pcrscn s suh|ccLcd
Lc ncsc cr cng pcrcds, L can rcsuL n physca
dsccncrL cr ncnLa dsLrcss. n Lhc dcncsLc
sLuaLcn, a ncsy ncghhcur can hc cnc c Lhc nan
prchcns cxpcrcnccd n aLLachcd hcusng. Thc hcsL
dccncc agansL ncsc s Lc cnsurc LhaL prcpcr prccauLcns
arc Lakcn aL Lhc dcsgn sLagc and durng ccnsLrucLcn
c Lhc hudng. Thc ccrrccL accusLc cnaLc nusL hc
prcvdcd n cach spacc and ncsc Lransnsscn cvcs
shcud hc ccnpaLhc wLh usagc. kcLrchLLcd rcncda
ncasurcs Lakcn aLcr cccupaLcn can hc cxpcnsvc and
nccnvcncnL.
dcay, Lhc scund nsuaLcn rcqurcncnLs c Lhc
hudng shcud Lakc nLc acccunL hcLh nLcrna and
cxLcrna scund Lransnsscn. Thc Lcrn 'hudng
accusLcs' cnhraccs scund nsuaLcn and scund
ahscrpLcn. Thcsc Lwc uncLcns arc dsLncL and
shcud ncL hc ccnuscd. Scc 5ound absorption.
5ound insuIation
Scund nsuaLcn s Lhc Lcrn dcscrhng Lhc rcducLcn
c scund LhaL passcs hcLwccn Lwc spaccs scparaLcd hy
a dvdng ccncnL. n LransnLLng hcLwccn Lwc
spaccs, Lhc scund cncrgy nay pass Lhrcugh Lhc
dvdng ccncnL (drccL Lransnsscn) and Lhrcugh Lhc
surrcundng sLrucLurc (ndrccL cr fankng Lransnsscn).
n dcsgnng cr scund nsuaLcn, L s npcrLanL Lc
ccnsdcr hcLh ncLhcds c Lransnsscn. Thc was cr
fccrs, whch fank Lhc dvdng ccncnL, ccnsLLuLc Lhc
nan paLhs cr fankng Lransnsscn, huL Lhs can asc cccur
aL wndcws, hcaLng cr vcnLaLcn ducLs, dccrways, cLc.
Thc accusLc cnvrcnncnL c Lhc rccn and/cr Lhc
hudng and Lhc ahLy Lc rcducc cr cnnaLc ar paLhs
n Lhc vcnLy c Lhc scund rcducng ccncnL, c.g.
dccrscLs, gazng, suspcndcd ccng cavLcs, ducLwcrk,
cLc, w havc a sgnhcanL cccL cn Ls pcrcrnancc.
cr Lhcsc rcascns L s unkcy LhaL hgurcs qucLcd rcn
ahcraLcry LcsL ccndLcns w hc achcvcd n pracLcc.
Whcn Lhc hackgrcund ncsc s cw, ccnsdcraLcn nay
havc Lc hc gvcn Lc a supcrcr sLandard c scund nsuaLcn
pcrcrnancc n ccn|uncLcn wLh Lhc ad|cnng
fankng ccndLcns. n any cxsLng scund nsuaLcn
prchcn, L s csscnLa Lc dcnLy Lhc wcakcsL parLs c
Lhc ccnpcsLc ccnsLrucLcn.
Indirect paths (anking transmission)
ankng scund s dchncd as scund rcn a scurcc rccn
LhaL s ncL LransnLLcd va Lhc scparaLng hudng
ccncnL. L s LransnLLcd ndrccLy va paLhs such as
wndcws, cxLcrna was and nLcrna ccrrdcrs. Scc
figure 2 - Common anking paths.
L s npcraLvc LhaL fankng Lransnsscn s ccnsdcrcd
aL Lhc dcsgn sLagc and ccnsLrucLcn dcLang s
spcchcd sc as Lc cnnaLc cr aL casL Lc nnnsc any
dcwngradng c Lhc accusLc pcrcrnancc. Thc scund
nsuaLcn vaucs qucLcd n sysLcn pcrcrnancc Lahcs
arc ahcraLcry vaucs and Lhc pracLcaLcs c ccnsLrucLcn
w ncan LhaL accusLc pcrcrnanccs ncasurcd n Lhc
ahcraLcry w hc dhcuL Lc achcvc cn sLc.
Onc c Lhc nan rcascns cr Lhs dcrcncc s Lhc css c
accusLc pcrcrnancc va fankng Lransnsscn paLhs.
Cccd dcLang aL Lhc dcsgn sLagc w nnnsc Lhs
cccL and cpLnsc Lhc cvcra cvcs c accusLc
prvacy achcvcd.
dcsgnng cr rcsdcnLa unLs, dcsgn advcc cn
fankng dcLas nusL hc ccwcd Lc naxnsc Lhc
pcss h Ly c ach cv ng Lhc spcc hcd accusL c
pcrcrnancc. L s npcraLvc LhaL Lhc dcsgn advcc s
ccwcd, cLhcr wsc sLc scund nsuaLcn vaucs nay
ncL nccL Lhc pcrcrnancc crLcra rcqurcd and
cxpcnsvc rcncda LrcaLncnL nay hc rcqurcd.
Sna cpcnngs such as gaps, cracks cr hccs w
ccnducL arhcrnc scunds and can sgnhcanLy rcducc
Lhc scund nsuaLcn c a ccnsLrucLcn. cr cpLnun
scund nsuaLcn a ccnsLrucLcn nusL hc arLghL. McsL
sna gaps can hc scacd aL Lhc hnshng sLagc usng
Cyprcc |cnLng ccnpcunds. Sna gaps cr ar paLhs
arcund pcrncLcr Cypranc rancwcrk can hc scacd
wLh scaanL. ^L Lhc hasc c Lhc parLLcn, gaps w
cccur, parLcuary whcn hcards arc Lcd LghL Lc Lhc ccng.
Deection head detaiIs - acoustic performance
DcfccLcn hcads, hy dchnLcn, nusL hc ahc Lc ncvc
and, Lhcrccrc, achcvng an arLghL sca s vcry dhcuL
wLhcuL nccrpcraLng scphsLcaLcd ccnpcncnLs and
Lcchnqucs. ^r cakagc aL Lhc parLLcn hcads w havc
a dcLrncnLa cccL cn accusLc pcrcrnancc c any
parLLcn. Thc apprcach shcwn n figure 3 - Deection
Head A ccud, cr cxanpc, rcsuL n a css c arcund 4
d8 Lc 5 d8 duc Lc ar cakagc, n addLcn Lc LhaL csL
duc Lc fankng Lransnsscn, cLc.

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8uiIding acoustics
2 Ccnncn fankng paLhs
ScaanL cr cpLnun scund nsuaLcn
Cyprcc Ccrc8card crnng hrcsLcp
l SLcc angc Lc nnnsc css c scund nsuaLcn
pcrcrnancc duc Lc ar cakagc
2
2
LxLcrna ncsc
2 DcfccLcn Hcad ^ (suh|ccL Lc hrc pcrcrnancc) 4 DcfccLcn Hcad 8 (suh|ccL Lc hrc pcrcrnancc)
2
l
2
l
2
LxLcrna ncsc
Mcchanca scrvccs ncsc
anL ncsc
anL ncsc
anL ncsc
anL ncsc
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8uiIding acoustics
Whcrc accusLc pcrcrnancc s a kcy ccnsdcraLcn,
sLcps can hc Lakcn Lc nnnsc Lhs css c pcrcrnancc.
figure 4 - Deection Head 8 shcws Lhc gcncray
acccpLcd ncLhcd c achcvng Lhs and, prcvdcd LhaL
carc s Lakcn Lc cnsurc a LghL hL hcLwccn ccakng
angc and nng hcard suracc, Lhc css n pcrcrnancc
can hc sgnhcanLy rcduccd. ^ css n pcrcrnancc c
arcund l d8 up Lc 2 d8 wcud hc Lypca wLh Lhs
ncLhcd. OLhcr acLcrs, such as fankng Lransnsscn
Lhrcugh Lhc sLrucLura schL, can sgnhcanLy accL
Lhc cvcra cvc c scund nsuaLcn. Thcrccrc, Lc
cpLnsc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc, cLhcr
ncasurcs nay nccd Lc hc Lakcn.
^ suspcndcd ccng nsLacd cn hcLh sdcs c Lhc
parLLcn nay prcvdc a snar ccakng cccL Lc LhaL
c sLcc angcs. Cyproc Mf nccrpcraLng npcrcraLc
pasLcrhcard can dcvcr a snar rcducLcn n ar
cakagc aL Lhc parLLcn hcad. ^ LghL hL hcLwccn Lhc
ccng pcrncLcr and Lhc suracc c Lhc parLLcn nng
hcard s npcrLanL, aLhcugh ncchancay hxcd pcrncLcrs
arc ncL csscnLa. Ccngs wLh rcccsscd ghL hLLngs
nay hc css cccLvc and Lhcsc canncL hc scacd n
scnc way, Lhc nsLaaLcn c ccakng angcs aL Lhc
parLLcn hcad shcud hc ccnsdcrcd. ^ suspcndcd
ccng nay asc rcducc Lhc cvc c scund fankng
Lransnsscn va Lhc schL. Whcrc pcrcraLcd ccngs
arc uscd, c.g. CypLcnc, Lhc angcs as shcwn n figure 4
arc rcccnncndcd. Hcwcvcr, Lhc dsLancc hcLwccn
Lhc ccng and Lhc dcfccLcn hcad s grcaLcr Lhan
2uunn and Lhc ccng pcnun ccnLancd scvcr nsuaLcn
(nnnun 25nn), Lhcn Lhc angcs nay ncL hc
rcqurcd.
5ound by-passing a partition via the void above a
suspended ceiIing
Ths s a ccnncn scurcc c scund Lransnsscn parLcuary
whcrc Lhc ccng s pcrcus Lc scund. Whcrc scund
nsuaLcn s npcrLanL, parLLcns shcud, whcrcvcr
pcsshc, ccnLnuc Lhrcugh Lhc ccng Lc Lhc sLrucLura
schL and hc scacd aL Lhc pcrncLcr |uncLcns. Scund
can casy Lravc Lhrcugh a pcrcraLcd Lc cr
ghLwcghL suspcndcd ccng and cvcr Lhc Lcp c a
parLLcn whcrc L ahuLs Lhc undcrsdc c Lhc
suspcndcd ccng. Cyprcc pasLcrhcard suspcndcd
ccngs ccr hcLLcr nsuaLcn whcrc parLLcns nusL
sLcp aL ccng cvc Lc prcvdc a ccnLnucus pcnun,
and n Lhs nsLancc an cpLcn s Lc ncudc a cavLy
harrcr ahcvc Lhc ccng nc.
figure 5a-5d - Performance of typicaI ceiIingJpartition
junctions shcws Lhc sLagcs c scund nsuaLcn
nprcvcncnL cr Lypca ccng/hgh pcrcrnancc
parLLcn |uncLcns. Thc hcsL rcsuL s achcvcd hy
runnng Lhc parLLcn Lhrcugh Lc Lhc sLrucLura schLs.
Composite construction
^ ccnncn nsLakc nadc whcn dcsgnng a hudng s
Lc spccy a hgh pcrcrnancc ccncnL and Lhcn
nccrpcraLc a cwcr pcrcrnng ccncnL wLhn L, c.g. a
dccr wLhn a parLLcn. Whcrc Lhc dcrcncc hcLwccn
scund nsuaLcn s rcaLvcy sna (7 d8 cr css) Lhcrc
nccds Lc hc a ccnparaLvcy argc arca c Lhc cwcr
pcrcrnng ccncnL, cg. dccr, hccrc Lhc cvcra scund
nsuaLcn s sgnhcanLy accLcd. ^ grcaLcr dcrcncc n
scund nsuaLcn hcLwccn Lhc Lwc ccncnLs ncrnay
rcsuLs n a grcaLcr rcducLcn c cvcra scund nsuaLcn
pcrcrnancc.
figure 6 - Composite caIcuIation chart can hc uscd Lc
cacuaLc Lhc ncL ncan scund nsuaLcn c ccnpcsLc
parLLcns, c.g. a wndcw n a parLLcn. Thc ccrrccL
ncan scund nsuaLcn vauc cr cach parL c Lhc
parLLcn nusL hc kncwn n crdcr Lc cacuaLc Lhc
dcrcncc. Ths dcrcncc, rcad c cn Lhc curvcd nc
agansL Lhc apprcpraLc raLcs cn Lhc vcrLca scac,
gvcs Lhc css c nsuaLcn n d8 cn Lhc hcrzcnLa
scac. Ths hgurc s suhLracLcd rcn Lhc vauc c Lhc
parL wLh Lhc hghcr rcssLancc Lc chLan Lhc ncL scund
nsuaLcn c Lhc parLLcn. figure 6 nay asc hc uscd Lc
asscss Lhc cccL c gaps cr hccs n a parLLcn hy
gvng a scund nsuaLcn vauc c u d8 Lc Lhc apcrLurc.
Lxanpc
Dcrcncc hcLwccn nsuaLcn vaucs c 2u d8 wLh
raLc c arcas (vcrLca scac) cqua Lc l.4. Lcss c nsuaLcn
(hcrzcnLa scac) = 22 d8. Thcrccrc, Lhc Lwc parLs
had ncan scund nsuaLcn vaucs c l5 d8 and 45 d8
rcspccLvcy, Lhc ncL scund nsuaLcn c Lhc parLLcn
wcud hc cny 22 d8, .c. 45 d8 22 d8 = 22 d8.
1abIe 1 shcws Lhc accusLc cccL cn a rangc c
parLLcns whcn varcus Lypcs c dccr arc nsLacd. L
can hc sccn LhaL a pccr pcrcrnancc dccr s ncudcd
n a parLLcn, L dccs ncL naLLcr Lhc wa achcvcs 25
d8 cr 5u d8 scund nsuaLcn as Lhc ncL pcrcrnancc
w ncvcr hc hcLLcr Lhan 27 d8. Thc cwcsL pcrcrnng
ccncnL w aways dcnnaLc Lhc cvcra pcrcrnancc.
1abIe 1 - ffect of incIuding various doortypes within
a partition system
Door construction Mean sound insuIation of partition aIone (d8)
Mean sound insuIation of partition with
doorways accounting for 7Z of area (d8)
25 30 35 40 45 50
^ny dccr wLh argc
gaps arcund Lhc cdgc
22 27 27 27 27 25
24 22 22 22 2u 28 LghL dccr wLh cdgc scang
25 27 27 25 22 29 Hcavy dccr wLh cdgc scang
25 49 44 4u 25 2u Dcuhc dccrs wLh a scund cck
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8uiIding acoustics
Acoustic privacy
Twc nan acLcrs accL Lhc cvc c accusLc prvacy
achcvcd whcn dcsgnng a hudng.
Thc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc c Lhc sLrucLurc
scparaLng Lhc Lwc spaccs.
Thc anhcnL hackgrcund ncsc prcscnL wLhn Lhc
sLcnng rccn.
Thc anhcnL hackgrcund ncsc cvc can hc a uscu
Lcc whcn dcsgnng hudngs, as L s pcsshc Lc nask
spccch rcn an ad|accnL spacc and hcncc prcvdc
cnhanccd spccch ccnhdcnLaLy. Thcrc arc a nunhcr
c ccnncrcay avaahc sysLcns cr achcvng Lhs
and Lhc Lcchnquc s rccrrcd Lc as accusLc pcrunc. L
s, hcwcvcr, ncrc ccnncn Lc LrcaL Lhc prchcn hy
spccyng apprcpraLc cvcs c scund nsuaLcn. ^
gudc Lc scund nsuaLcn cvcs s gvcn n 1abIe 2.
SpccasL advcc cn accusLc prvacy ssucs spcchcay
cr hcaLhcarc and cducaLcna cnvrcnncnLs can asc
hc prcvdcd hy ccnLacLng Lhc Cyprcc Tcchnca Tcan.
Whcn dcsgnng cr rcsdcnLa purpcscs, Lhc
sLandards c scund nsuaLcn gvcn n 1abIe 2 arc ncL
adcquaLc cr scparaLng was as cLhcr scurccs c
gcncraLcd scund arc cLcn cvdcnL.
1abIe 2 - Cuide to sound insuIation IeveIs for
speech privacy
5ound insuIation between rooms k
w
5peech privacy
25 d8 Ncrna spccch can hc cvcrhcard
2u d8 Lcud spccch can hc hcard ccary
25 d8 Lcud spccch can hc dsLngushcd
undcr ncrna ccndLcns
4u d8 Lcud spccch can hc hcard huL ncL
dsLngushcd
45 d8 Lcud spccch can hc hcard anLy
huL ncL dsLngushcd
> 5u d8 Lcud spccch can cny hc hcard wLh
grcaL dhcuLy
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8uiIding acoustics
5a Ccnccacd grd ncd wLh a sngc aycr c pasLcrhcard and
cvcrad wLh nsuaLcn = 48 d8
1ypicaI performance (D
ncw
) of typicaI ceIIing J partition junctions
5h
5c 5d
Ccnccacd grd ncd wLh a dcuhc aycr c pasLcrhcard and
cvcrad wLh nsuaLcn = 49 d8
Ccnccacd grd ncd wLh a dcuhc aycr c pasLcrhcard wLhn
cach rccn and cvcrad wLh nsuaLcn = 55 d8
arLLcn nng ccnLnucd Lc Lhc schL cnahng Lhc u
pcLcnLa c Lhc parLLcn Lc hc achcvcd = 58 d8
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8uiIding acoustics
Ambient noise IeveIs
^cng wLh accusLc prvacy, Lhc cvc c scund cncrgy
acccpLahc wLhn a rccn shcud hc asscsscd as
rcgards nLrusvc ncsc cvcs and Lhc cvc c pcLcnLa
ncsc kcy Lc hc gcncraLcd wLhn Lhc rccn Lsc. cr
Lhs purpcsc Lhcrc arc a nunhcr c ncLhcds, ncudng
Lhc Ncsc kaLng (Nk) sysLcn. Ths raLng quanLhcs Lhc
cvc c ncsc prcscnL wLhn a spacc Lakng nLc
acccunL hrcakn c ncsc rcn Lhc ad|accnL arcas and
asc Lhc hackgrcund ncsc prcscnL wLhn Lhc spacc
rcn vcnLaLcn cr cLhcr hudng scrvccs. 1abIe 3
gvcs Lhc rcccnncndcd naxnun ncsc wLhn dcrcnL
acLvLy spaccs usng Nk crLcra.
Thc acLcrs LhaL accL Lhc anhcnL ncsc cvc c a
spacc arc.
Thc cvc c cxLcrna ncsc.
Thc cvc c scund nsuaLcn dcsgncd nLc Lhc
surrcundng sLrucLurc.
Thc ancunL and Lypc c scund ahscrhng suraccs
wLhn Lhc rccn.

Thc ncsc gcncraLcd hy hudng scrvccs.
Whcrc ccnLrc c anhcnL ncsc s crLca, advcc
shcud hc scughL rcn an accusLc ccnsuLanL.
5ound insuIation - rating methods
Thc scund nsuaLcn raLng ncLhcds LhaL ccw arc
dchncd n.
8S LN SO 7l7. arL l. l997 (arhcrnc)
and
8S LN SO 7l7. arL 2. l997 (npacL)
k
W
Ths sngc hgurc raLng ncLhcd s Lhc raLng uscd cr
ahcraLcry arhcrnc scund nsuaLcn LcsLs. Thc hgurc
ndcaLcs Lhc ancunL c scund cncrgy hcng sLcppcd
hy a scparaLng hudng ccncnL whcn LcsLcd n
scaLcn n Lhc ahscncc c any fankng paLhs.
1abIe 3 - kecommended maximum noise rating for
various types of room function
5ituation Nk criteria (d8)
Scund sLudcs l5
CcnccrL has, argc LhcaLrcs, cpcra hcuscs 2u
Wcrkshcps, ccnncrca kLchcns, acLcry nLcrcrs 45
Largc audLcra, argc ccncrcncc rccns, Tv sLudcs,
hcspLa wards, prvaLc hcdrccns, nusc pracLcc rccns
25
2u
Cassrccns, sna ccncrcncc rccns, cpcnpan chccs,
rcsLauranLs, puhc rccns, cpcraLng LhcaLrcs, nghLcuhs
25
SpcrLs has, swnnng pccs, cacLcra, argc shcps,
crcuaLcn arcas
4u
Lhrarcs, hcLc rccns, ccunLrccns, cncnas,
ncdunszcd ccncrcncc rccns
D
n1w
Thc sngc hgurc raLng ncLhcd LhaL gvcs Lhc arhcrnc
scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc hcLwccn Lwc ad|accnL
rccns wLhn a hudng as ncasurcd cn sLc. Thc rcsuL
achcvcd s accLcd ncL cny hy Lhc scparaLng ccncnL
huL asc hy Lhc surrcundng sLrucLurc and |uncLcn
dcLas.
Ctr
Thc CLr adapLaLcn Lcrn s a ccrrccLcn LhaL can hc
addcd Lc cLhcr Lhc k
W
(ahcraLcry) cr D
nTw
(sLc)
arhcrnc raLng. Thc CLr Lcrn s uscd hccausc L LargcLs
Lhc cw rcqucncy pcrcrnancc c a hudng ccncnL
and n parLcuar Lhc pcrcrnancc achcvcd n Lhc luu 2l5
Hz rcqucncy rangc. Ths Lcrn was crgnay dcvccpcd
Lc dcscrhc hcw a hudng ccncnL wcud pcrcrn
suh|ccL Lc cxccssvc cw rcqucncy scund scurccs, such
as Lrahc and raway ncsc. Scnc c Lhc pcrcrnancc
Lahcs n Lhs hcck prcscnL rccvanL scund nsuaLcn
vaucs hcLh n k
W
Lcrns huL asc n Lhc CLr adapLcd
crn. Ths raLng s cxprcsscd as k
W
+ CLr and acws Lhc
accusLc dcsgncr Lc crLcay ccnparc pcrcrnanccs.
Thc raLng ncLhcd has ncL hccn unvcrsay wcccncd.
Scnc accusLcans hccvc LhaL Lhc ncLhcd s Lcc crudc
as L cny ccnsdcrs Lhc cw rcqucncy pcrcrnancc,
and hccausc sLc ncasurcncnLs aL cw rcqucnccs arc
prcnc Lc dhcuLcs, whch can cad Lc a ack c
ccnhdcncc n Lhc rcsuLs achcvcd.
CcnscqucnLy, wLhn scparaLng ccnsLrucLcns, Cyprcc
can ccr cnhanccd spcchcaLcns LhaL nccL Lhc cw
rcqucncy pcrcrnancc c Lhc CLr raLng whsL asc
ccrng gccd nd and hgh rcqucncy scund nsuaLcn.
L
nw
Ths sngc hgurc raLng ncLhcd s Lhc raLng uscd cr
ahcraLcry npacL scund nsuaLcn LcsLs cn scparaLng
fccrs. Thc hgurc ndcaLcs Lhc ancunL c scund cncrgy
hcng LransnLLcd Lhrcugh Lhc fccr LcsLcd n scaLcn,
n Lhc ahscncc c any fankng paLhs. WLh npacL
scund nsuaLcn, Lhc cwcr Lhc hgurc Lhc hcLLcr Lhc
pcrcrnancc.
L
nw
Thc sngc hgurc raLng ncLhcd LhaL s uscd cr npacL
scund nsuaLcn LcsLs cr fccrs. Thc hgurc ndcaLcs
Lhc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc hcLwccn Lwc
ad|accnL rccns wLhn a hudng as ncasurcd cn sLc.
Thc rcsuL achcvcd s accLcd ncL cny hy Lhc scparaLng
fccr huL asc hy Lhc surrcundng sLrucLurc, c.g.
fankng was and assccaLcd |uncLcn dcLas.
D
ncw
Thc sngc hgurc ahcraLcry raLng ncLhcd LhaL s uscd
cr cvauaLng Lhc arhcrnc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc
c suspcndcd ccngs. LahcraLcry LcsLs snuaLc Lhc
rccnLcrccn pcrcrnancc c Lhc suspcndcd ccng
whcn a parLLcn s huL up Lc Lhc undcrsdc c Lhc
ccng wLh scund LransnLLcd va Lhc pcnun.
2u
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8uiIding acoustics
Typcay Lhc avcragc scund nsuaLcn c a naLcra
crnng a scd parLLcn s gcvcrncd hy Ls nass. Thc
hcavcr Lhc naLcra, Lhc grcaLcr Ls rcssLancc Lc scund
Lransnsscn. Tc ncrcasc Lhc scund nsuaLcn c a
scd parLLcn hy ahcuL 4d8, Lhc nass nusL hc
dcuhcd. Ths s kncwn as Lhc cnprca nass aw. cr
cxanpc, a luunn scd hcck wa c avcragc nass
luukg/n` w havc an apprcxnaLc k
W
vauc c 4u d8,
whcrcas a 2uunn scd wa c Lhc sanc naLcra
wcud havc an k
W
vauc c 44 d8. ncrcasng nass s a
vcry nchccnL way c achcvng scund nsuaLcn and
cnc c Lhc advanLagcs c usng ghLwcghL cavLy
parLLcns and was s LhaL hcLLcr Lhan prcdcLcd
scund rcducLcn vaucs can hc achcvcd.
figure 7 - Lightweight systems versus the mass Iaw
shcws hcw ghLwcghL sysLcns ccnssLcnLy cxcccd
nass aw prcdcLcns. Ths dcncnsLraLcs LhaL addng
nass s ncL aways Lhc hcsL ncLhcd whcn saLsyng
accusLc dcsgn rcqurcncnLs and LhaL ghLwcghL
sysLcns, ccrrccLy dcsgncd, can prcvdc vcry
cccLvc accusLc scuLcns. ^ snpc sLud parLLcn, cr
cxanpc, can havc an k
W
raLng 5d8 hcLLcr Lhan
prcdcLcd hy Lhc nass aw. n Lhs casc, Lhc naxnun
scund nsuaLcn chLanahc w hc gcvcrncd hy
Lransnsscn cncrgy Lhrcugh Lhc sLud ranc. Thc usc
c cLhcr ranc Lypcs and/cr ccnhguraLcns can rcsuL
n cvcn hcLLcr nsuaLcn hy nnnsng Lhc ranc
cncrgy Lransnsscn Lc achcvc rcsuLs sgnhcanLy
hcLLcr Lhan Lhc nass aw prcdcLcn.
cr cxanpc, Lhc usc c Lwc ccnpcLcy scparaLc sLud
rancs can prcducc cvcn hcLLcr rcsuLs. n Lhs casc, Lhc
naxnun Lransnsscn c cncrgy s Lhrcugh Lhc cavLy
hcLwccn Lhc pasLcrhcard nngs. Thc ar n Lhc cavLy
can hc ccnsdcrcd as a sprng ccnnccLng Lhc nngs.
whch acws Lhc passagc c cncrgy. Thc sprng w
havc scnc nhcrcnL danpng, whch can hc sgnhcanLy
ncrcascd hy Lhc nLrcducLcn c a scund ahscrhng
naLcra, such as nncra wcc, pcsLcncd n Lhc cavLy.
Thc ncrcascd danpng c Lhc arsprng rcsuLs n a
rcduccd ccupng hcLwccn Lhc pasLcrhcard nngs
and a ccnscqucnL dccrcasc n scund Lransnsscn.
^rsprng ccupng hcccncs css sgnhcanL as Lhc
cavLy wdLh ncrcascs. n pracLcc, cavLcs shcud hc as
wdc as pcsshc Lc nsuaLc agansL cw rcqucncy
scunds.
Twc npcrLanL cccLs, rcscnancc and ccncdcncc,
cccur n parLLcns and was. Thcsc arc gcvcrncd hy
such physca prcpcrLcs as dcnsLy, Lhckncss and
hcndng sLncss, whcrchy a rcducLcn n scund nsuaLcn
cccurs aL ccrLan rcqucnccs. n ghLwcghL cavLy
Lightweight construction
ccnsLrucLcns Lhcsc cccLs can hc dccrcascd hy Lhc
usc c Lwc cr ncrc hcard aycrs. ^ snpc way c
ncrcasng Lhc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc c a
sngc aycr ncLa sLud parLLcn s, Lhcrccrc, Lc add an
addLcna aycr c pasLcrhcard Lc cnc cr hcLh sdcs.
Ths w ncrcasc Lhc scund nsuaLcn pcrcrnancc hy
apprcxnaLcy 5 d8 cr lu d8 rcspccLvcy.
Designing for on-site performance
D
n1w

and

Ctr
Thc CLr raLng ncLhcd puLs ncrcascd cnphass cn Lhc
cw rcqucncy rcgcn c Lhc spccLrun. cr ghLwcghL
ccnsLrucLcn Lhs ncans a sgnhcanL changc n scnc
c Lhc dcsgn prncpcs. cr parLLcns Lhc cavLy shcud
hc as argc as pcsshc and dcuhc aycrs c pasLcrhcard
shcud hc uscd.
cr nascnry was ncd wLh ghLwcghL pancs,
cavLcs wLh a dcpLh css Lhan 5unn shcud hc
avcdcd. ndcr nc crcunsLanccs shcud Lwc nngs
wLh naLchcd sna cavLcs cLhcr sdc c a ccnLra
panc hc spcchcd. Thcsc cavLcs can nLcracL and
causc a sgnhcanL dcwngradc n Lhc crLca cw
rcqucncy zcnc. a sna cavLy nccds Lc hc uscd, Lhcn
cnc sdc cny shcud hc ncd wLh a dcuhc aycr c
pasLcrhcard. OpLnun pcrcrnancc s achcvcd hy
nng cnc sdc cny and havng a cavLy dcpLh c aL
casL 85nn. Scc figure 8 - Dptimum design of paneI
Iinings for Ctr.
Tc ncrcasc Lhc scund nsuaLcn c ncw cr cxsLng
nascnry was, CypLyner sysLcns can hc uscd n
ccn|uncLcn wLh scvcr nsuaLcn and Lhc ncLa
ranng shcud hc ncd wLh pasLcrhcard. Thc cavLy
dcpLh cr Lhc CypLyner nng shcud hc as argc as
pcsshc, and sna naLchcd cavLcs cLhcr sdc c Lhc
wa shcud aways hc avcdcd.
cr ghLwcghL scparaLng fccrs L nay hc ncccssary Lc
havc an npcrcraLc pasLcrhcard ccng LhaL s
parLay dcccupcd rcn Lhc fccr sLrucLurc, c.g.
Cyproc Mf Ccng sysLcn.
napprcpraLc dcLang c fankng ccndLcns can
grcaLy rcducc Lhc cvc c pcrcrnancc c Lhc sysLcn
rcn LhaL achcvcd n Lhc ahcraLcry. cr scparaLng
wa and fccr ccnsLrucLcns Lc hc uy cccLvc, carc
nusL hc Lakcn Lc ccrrccLy dcLa Lhc |uncLcns
hcLwccn Lhc scparaLng wa cr fccr and assccaLcd
ccncnLs such as cxLcrna was, cLhcr scparaLng
ccncnLs and pcncLraLcns cr dccr cpcnngs, cLc.
|uncLcns arc nccrrccLy dcLacd Lhcn Lhc accusLc
pcrcrnancc w hc nLcd and Lhc rcqurcd pcrcrnancc
crLcra nay ncL hc achcvcd n pracLcc. cr gccd
pracLcc dcLang, pcasc rccr Lc Lhc ccnsLrucLcn
dcLas sccLcns rcn Lhc rccvanL sysLcn sccLcns
wLhn Lhs hcck, avaahc Lc dcwncad rcn
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8uiIding acoustics
On sLc LcsLng nay cxpcsc pccr fankng dcLas and
nadcquaLc scparaLng wa and fccr spcchcaLcns.
Thcrccrc gccd fankng dcLang and spcchcaLcns
LhaL prcvdc a rcascnahc nargn c sacLy cn sLc arc
csscnLa.
^ ncLhcd c prcdcLng Lhc sLc D
nTw
+ CLr pcrcrnancc
achcvahc rcn a sysLcn s Lc rccr Lc a ahcraLcry k
W
+
CLr raLng. Whcn cckng aL Lhc dcrcncc hcLwccn k
W

+ CLr and D
nTw
+ CLr, a nnnun drcp c 5 d8 s Lypca
dcpcndng cn Lhc wa spcchcaLcn, hcwcvcr Cyprcc
rcccnncnd LhaL a sacLy nargn c + 9 d8 shcud hc
huL n Lc rcducc Lhc rsk c aurc Lhrcugh cn sLc
wcrknanshp and/cr pccr dcLang.
D
n1w
Snar Lc D
nTw
+ CLr, a rcasLc sacLy nargn shcud hc
nccrpcraLcd Lc rcducc Lhc rsk c aurc. Cyprcc
rcccnncnd a sacLy nargn c + 7 d8 whcn ccnparng
sLc pcrcrnancc (D
nTw
) Lc ahcraLcry pcrcrnancc (k
W
).
cr cxanpc, Lc ccnpy wLh a rcqurcncnL c D
nTw
55
d8, a sysLcn capahc c achcvng k
W
52d8 undcr ahcraLcry
ccndLcns shcud hc spcchcd.
L
n1,w
^ nnnun drcp c 5 d8 s Lypca whcn ccnparng sLc
pcrcrnancc (L
nT,w
) Lc ahcraLcry pcrcrnancc (Lnw).
Whcn dcsgnng scparaLng fccrs, an nprcvcd pcrcrnancc
s achcvcd whcn dcccupng c Lhc wakng suracc
rcn Lhc sLrucLura fccr sah s npcncnLcd, whcn
ncrnay a rcscnL aycr c LLhacan/nccprcnc cr
snar gaskcL s ad hccw an uppcr sand and ccncnL
scrccd. n addLcn Lc a dcccupng c Lhc ccng, c.g.
Cyproc Mf ccng, a nuch rcduccd rsk c npacL scund
fankng Lransnsscn nLc and dcwn Lhc fankng was
and surrcundng sLrucLurc s ncw achcvcd.
CypWaII QUI1 and CypWaII AUDID
Thc ncsL accusLcay cccLvc wa dcsgns arc Lwn
ranc was. Mnna cr nc hrdgng hcLwccn Lhc
pasLcrhcard nngs and Lhc ncrcascd cavLy szc
acws cpLnun pcrcrnancc rcn Lhc wa. figure 9 -
Acoustic benets of twin stud framework shcws Lhc
dcrcncc achcvahc hy usng a Lwn rancd wa
apprcach, usng sysLcns such as CypWaII QUI1 cr
CypWaII AUDID as cppcscd Lc a sLandard sngc ranc
CypWaII CLA55IC 'C' sLud parLLcn. Thc pasLcrhcard
nngs and nsuaLcn arc Lhc sanc cr hcLh parLLcns
and Lhc kcy dcrcncc s Lhc cvcra parLLcn Lhckncss
Lypcay 2llnn cr Lhc sLandard parLLcn and
2uunn cr Lhc Lwn rancd cpLcn. WLh Lhs Lypc c
dcsgn, urLhcr nprcvcncnLs n pcrcrnancc can hc
achcvcd hy ncrcasng Lhc cavLy szc and/cr ncrcasng
Lhc hcard spcchcaLcn.
xampIes of practicaI soIutions
n dcsgnng cr scund nsuaLcn, carc shcud hc Lakcn
Lc cnsurc LhaL fankng Lransnsscn va Lhc assccaLcd
sLrucLurc dccs ncL dcwngradc Lhc pcrcrnancc c Lhc
parLLcn cr wa Lc a cvc hccw LhaL rcqurcd n usc.
Ths appcs cspccay whcn a Cyprcc parLLcn s
ccnsLrucLcd n a nascnry hudng. Carc shcud hc
Lakcn Lc cnsurc LhaL Lhc ahuLLng sLrucLurc s ahc Lc
achcvc Lhc cvc c scund nsuaLcn rcqurcd whcn
fankng ancLhcr wa cr parLLcn. Thc pcrcrnancc c
scund rcssLng ccncrcLc ccnsLrucLcn fccrs,
suppcrLcd cn cr fankcd hy ccnvcnLcnay hnshcd
nascnry was, can asc hc advcrscy accLcd. Thc
cccL c fankng Lransnsscn n Lhc was can hc
sgnhcanLy rcduccd hy Lhc appcaLcn c a CypLyncr
wa nng sysLcn Lc Lhcsc fankng was. Lnng
LrcaLncnLs can asc hc hcnchca n rcurhshncnL
wcrk whcn appcd Lc fankng was Lc a ncw cr
cxsLng scund rcssLng wa.
Scund ahscrpLcn s Lhc Lcrn gvcn Lc Lhc css c scund
cncrgy cn nLcracLcn wLh a suracc. Scund ahscrhcnL
suraccs arc uscd Lc prcvdc Lhc ccrrccL accusLc
cnvrcnncnL wLhn a rccn cr spacc. Thc chccc c
naLcra w hc nfucnccd hy Ls accusLc chccncy,
appcarancc and durahLy. 8y ccnvcrLng scnc c Lhc
scund cncrgy nLc hcaL, scund ahscrhng naLcras w
asc hcp scund nsuaLcn hccausc css ncsc w hc
LransnLLcd Lc cLhcr rccns. Hcwcvcr, Lhs rcducLcn n
ncsc s vcry sna whcn ccnparcd wLh Lhc pcLcnLa
rcducLcn duc Lc scund nsuaLcn. Scund ahscrpLcn s
Lhcrccrc ncvcr a suhsLLuLc cr adcquaLc scund nsuaLcn.
keverberant energy
kcvcrhcraLcn s Lhc pcrssLcncc c scund n a parLcuar
spacc aLcr Lhc crgna scund s rcncvcd. ^ rcvcrhcraLcn,
cr rcvcrh, s crcaLcd whcn a scund s prcduccd n an
cnccscd spacc causng a argc nunhcr c cchccs Lc
hud up and Lhcn scwy dccay as Lhc scund s
ahscrhcd hy Lhc was, ccngs, fccr and ar. Thc cngLh
c Lhs scund dccay s kncwn as rcvcrhcraLcn Lnc and
can hc ccnLrccd usng scund ahscrhng naLcras. Thc
apprcpraLc rcvcrhcraLcn Lnc cr a spacc w hc
dcpcndcnL cn Lhc szc and uncLcn c Lhc spacc. Scnc
Lypca rcvcrhcraLcn Lncs arc gvcn n 1abIe 4.
5ound absorption
5ound insuIating dry Iinings
22
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8uiIding acoustics
5peech cIarity
Spccch carLy (nLcghLy) s ncw rcccgnscd as
csscnLa n hcpng pups n an cducaLcna cnvrcnncnL Lc
achcvc Lhcr u pcLcnLa. cr urLhcr ncrnaLcn
pcasc ccnLacL Lhc Cyprcc Tcchnca Tcan.
kcscarch has shcwn LhaL pups whc canncL undcrsLand
ccary whaL Lhc Lcachcr s sayng havc a Lcndcncy Lc
'swLch c' nLng Lhcr cwn cducaLcna cppcrLunLcs
and crcaLng addLcna sLrcss cr Lcachcrs. n a Lypca
cassrccn wLh Lhc Lcachcr aL cnc cnd, scund rcachcs
Lhc pups hcLh drccLy rcn Lhc Lcachcr and va
rcfccLcns rcn Lhc ccng, was and fccr. kccr Lc
gurc lu Scund Lransnsscn n a Lypca cassrccn.
ups aL Lhc rcnL w gcncray hc ahc Lc undcrsLand
whaL Lhc Lcachcr s sayng, whsL pups aL Lhc hack
and sdcs c Lhc rccn rcccvc a nxLurc c hcLh drccL
spccch and rcfccLcd scund, nakng L dhcuL Lc
dcnLy Lhc Lcachcr's wcrds.
kcvcrhcraLcn Lnc acnc canncL hc rccd upcn Lc
dcvcr a suLahc cnvrcnncnL cr gccd spccch
nLc g h Ly. n any s LuaL cn whcrc spccch
ccnnuncaLcn s crLca, c.g. ccncrcncc rccn, ccLurc
LhcaLrc cr cassrccn, L s ncccssary Lc dcsgn Lhc spacc
apprcpraLcy usng a nxLurc c scund rcfccLvc and
scund ahscrhng suraccs.
5ound absorption rating methods
Thc ccwng raLngs arc cacuaLcd n acccrdancc wLh
8S LN SO ll554. l997.
5ound Absorption Coefcient,
s
ndvdua scund ahscrpLcn hgurcs qucLcd n Lhrd
ccLavc rcqucncy hands arc uscd wLhn advanccd
ncdcng Lcchnqucs Lc accuraLcy prcdcL Lhc accusLc
characLcrsLcs c a spacc. Thc ccchccnL rangcs rcn u
(LcLa rcfccLcn) Lhrcugh Lc l (LcLa ahscrpLcn).
PracticaI 5ound Absorption Coefcient,
p
^ ccnvcncnL ccLavchascd cxprcsscn c Lhc scund
ahscrpLcn ccchccnL, ccnncny uscd hy accusLc
ccnsuLanLs whcn pcrcrnng cacuaLcns c rcvcrhcraLcn
Lncs wLhn a hudng spacc.
1ype of room J activity keverberation time
(mid frequency)
Swnnng pcc <2.u scccnds
Dancc sLudc <l.2 scccnds
Largc ccLurc LhcaLrc <l.u scccnds
Sna ccLurc rccn <u.8 scccnds
rnary schcc payrccn <u.5 scccnds
Cassrccn cr hcarng nparcd <u.4 scccnds
1abIe 4 - 1ypicaI reverbertion times
5ound Absorption kating,
w
^ sngc hgurc raLng uscd Lc dcscrhc Lhc pcrcrnancc
c a naLcra. Thc sngc hgurc raLng can havc a
ncdhcr addcd Lc ndcaLc Lhc spccLra shapc s
dcnnaLcd hy a parLcuar rcqucncy rangc.
L ahscrpLcn s prcdcnnanLy n Lhc cw rcqucncy rcgcn.
M ahscrpLcn s prcdcnnanLy n Lhc nd rcqucncy rcgcn.
H ahscrpLcn s prcdcnnanLy n Lhc hgh rcqucncy rcgcn.
Thc ahscncc c a cLLcr ccwng Lhc raLng ndcaLcs
LhaL Lhc ahscrhcr has nc dsLncL arca c scund ahscrpLcn
and has an csscnLay faL spccLra shapc. Scc figure 11
- 1ypicaI test data sheet for a sound absorption test.
Scund ahscrpLcn LrcaLncnLs arc rccrcnccd wLhn scnc
nLcrnaLcna rcguaLcry dccuncnLs, such as ^pprcvcd
DccuncnL L and 8udng 8ucLn 92 Lc ccnLrc Lhc ncsc cvcs
gcncraLcd wLhn ccnncn arcas c rcsdcnLa and
cducaLcna hudngs, c.g. cnLrancc has, chhcs, ccrrdcrs,
sLars and andngs. ^D L spcccs scund ahscrpLcn n Lcrns c
a cass c ahscrhcr. Thc vaucs ascrhcd Lc Lhc dcrcnL casscs
arc gvcn n 1abIe 5.
Noise keduction Coefcient, NkC
WhsL Lhc scund ahscrpLcn pcrcrnancc c a ccng
sysLcn can hc cxprcsscd as an NkC, Lhs dccs ncL
aways accuraLcy rcfccL Lhc prcducL pcrcrnancc. ^n
NkC vauc s Lhc arLhncLc ncan c Lhc ahscrpLcn
ccchccnLs acrcss a nLcd rcqucncy rangc, Lhs
ncans LhaL L w hdc cxLrcncs n pcrcrnancc. cr
nsLancc, a ccng Lc nay hc a vcry chccnL ahscrhcr
aL hgh rcqucnccs huL vcry pccr aL cw rcqucnccs,
and Lhc NkC vauc w ncL rcfccL Lhs. Tc cpLnsc Lhc
rccn accusLcs Lhc ncrc accuraLc Scund ^hscrpLcn
kaLng
w
raLng shcud hc uscd.
1abIe 5 - Absorption cIasses
5ound absorption cIass
^ u.9u, u.95, l.uu
8 u.8u, u.85
C u.5u, u.55, u.7u, u.75
D u.2u, u.25, u.4u, u.45, u.5u, u.55
L u.l5, u.2u, u.25
ncasshcd u.uu, u.u5, u.lu

w
22
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8uiIding acoustics
5 CcnpcsLc cacuaLcn charL
9 ^ccusLc hcnchLs c Lwn sLud rancwcrk
7 LghLwcghL sysLcns vcrsus Lhc nass aw
5
l. luuuuuu
l.5uuuuu
l.25uuuu
l.l25uuu
l.54uuu
l.22uuu
l.l5uuu
l.8uuu
l.4uuu
l.2uuu
l.luuu
l.5uu
l.25u
l.l25
l.54
l.22
l.l5
l.8
l.4
l.2
l.l
2.l
4.l
8.l
lu l5 2u 25 2u 25 4u 45 5u 55 5u
Curvcd ncs arc cr varcus
nsuaLcn dcrcnccs (d8)
Hcw Lc cacuaLc Lhc cvcra scund nsuaLcn c
a parLLcn LhaL ncudcs a dccr cr wndcw
Lcss c nsuaLcn d8 (dcducL rcn hghcr nsuaLcn)
k
a
L

c

a
r
c
a
s

(

c
w
c
r

n
s
u

a
L

c
n

.

h

g
h
c
r

n
s
u

a
L

c
n
)
u l
7u
5u
5u
4u
2u
2u
lu
u
5
Lnprca nass aw
k
w
Mass c parLLcn (kg/n
2
)
75mm CypWaII CLA55IC
100mm CypWaII CLA55IC
200mm CypWaII CLA55IC
300mm CypWaII CLA55IC

lu 5u luu 5uu luuu


8 OpLnun dcsgn c panc nngs cr CLr
luu 2l5u rcqucncy Hz
S
c
u
n
d

r
c
d
u
c
L

c
n

n
d
c
x
2llnn CypWaII CLA55IC
2uunn CypWaII AUDID
Avoid Dk 8est
MaLchcd cavLcs css
Lhan 5unn
Lc hc avcdcd
Sngc cavLy as
argc as pcsshc
(prccrahy grcaLcr
Lhan 85nn), ncd
wLh a dcuhc aycr c
pasLcrhcard and
gass nncra wcc
ncudcd n Lhc cavLy
spacc rcsLrcLcns
nL Lhc cavLy
szc Lhcn nsLa cnc
sdc cny, cnsurc
gass nncra wcc s
uscd n Lhc cavLy
and usc a dcuhc
aycr c pasLcrhcard
24
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8uiIding acoustics
lu Scund Lransnsscn n a Lypca cassrccn
ll Typca LcsL daLa shccL cr a scund ahscrpLcn LcsL
l.2u
l.uu
u.8u
u.5u
u.4u
u.2u
u.uu
S
c
u
n
d

^
h
s
c
r
p
L

c
n

C
c
c

h
c

c
n
L
,

s
rcqucncy, Hz
52 l25 25u 5uu luuu 2uuu 4uuu
kccrcncc curvc
Spccncn
l.2u
l.uu
u.8u
u.5u
u.4u
u.2u
u.uu

r
a
c
L

c
a


S
c
u
n
d

^
h
s
c
r
p
L

c
n

C
c
c

h
c

c
n
L
,

p
l25 25u 5uu luuu 2uuu 4uuu
rcqucncy, Hz
rcq. Hz
s
5u u.lu
52 u.lu
8u u.l2
luu u.l5
l25 u.24
l5u u.25
2uu u.44
25u u.52
2l5 u.8u
4uu u.95
5uu l.l5
52u l.l2
8uu l.u4
l,uuu u.89
l,25u u.75
l,5uu u.52
2,uuu u.52
2,5uu u.45
2,l5u u.45
4,uuu u.5l
5,uuu u.5u
5,2uu
8,uuu
lu,uuu
TcsL ccdc. kl24u2^^
rcq. Hz kc. curvc Spccncn
5 2 . u 5 2 l
25u u.4u u.5u
5uu u.5u l.uu
luuu u.5u u.9u
2uuu u.5u u.55
4uuu u.5u u.5u
kaLng and Scund ahscrpLcn cass acccrdng Lc
LN SO ll554. l997
w
= u.5u (M) Cass = C
L s sLrcngy rcccnncndcd Lc usc Lhs sngc hgurc raLng
n ccnhnaLcn wLh Lhc ccnpcLc scund ahscrpLcn
ccchccnL curvc.
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www.gyprcc.ac gyprccnc@sanLgchan.ccn
8uiIding acoustics
8uiIding keguIations Approved Document (AD) -
kesidentiaI 8uiIdings
n Lhc K Lhc naLcna hudng rcguaLcns ccvcrng
rcssLancc Lc Lhc passagc c scund ^D L gvcs
gudancc cn prcvdng a rcascnahc cvc c scund
nsuaLcn hcLwccn dwcngs and ccrs suggcsLcd
crns c scparaLng ccnsLrucLcn. Thcsc crns c
ccnsLrucLcn dc ncL, hcwcvcr, guaranLcc LhaL Lhc
rcqurcd pcrcrnancc cvc w hc achcvcd n pracLcc.
LnaLcy Lhc dcvccpcr nccds Lc dcncnsLraLc LhaL
Lhc dwcng, whcn huL, nccLs Lhc pcrcrnancc cvcs
scL hy ncans c rcCcnpcLcn TcsLng.
^D L scLs pcrcrnancc cvcs cr Lhc ccwng arcas c
a rcsdcnLa hudng.
ScparaLng was hcLwccn rccns uscd cr rcsdcnLa
purpcscs c hcLc rccns, sLudcnL acccnncdaLcn cr
cLhcr Lcnpcrary acccnncdaLcn, and rccns crcaLcd
hy a naLcra changc c usc c rcurhshncnL cr
rcncvaLcn, nusL achcvc a nnnun D
nTw
+ CLr = 42 d8
ScparaLng was hcLwccn ncw dwcngs nusL
achcvc a nnnun D
nTw
+ CLr = 45 d8
ScparaLng fccrs hcLwccn rccns crncd hy a
naLcra changc c usc nusL achcvc a nnnun D
nTw
+
CLr = 42 d8 and a naxnun L
nTw
= 54 d8
ScparaLng fccrs hcLwccn ncw dwcngs and wLhn
rcsdcnLa hudngs nusL achcvc a nnnun D
nTw
+
CLr = 45 d8 and a naxnun L
nTw
= 52 d8
^n nLcrna wa cr fccr hcLwccn a haLhrccn cr
hcdrccn and any cLhcr rccn wLhn Lhc dwcng (wLh
Lhc cxccpLcn c was wLh dccrs) nusL achcvc k
W
= 4u d8
Thc ccnncn arca's c chhcs cr rcccpLcn arca's c
hudngs LhaL ccnLan aparLncnLs cr rccns cr rcsdcnLa
purpcscs shcud havc an arca cqua Lc cr grcaLcr Lhan
Lhc fccr arca ccvcrcd wLh a Cass C ahscrhcr cr hcLLcr.
^n aLcrnaLvc cacuaLcn ncLhcd s gvcn wLh ^D L.
cr sLarwcs cr a sLar cnccsurc n hudngs ccnLanng
aparLncnLs cr rccns cr rcsdcnLa purpcscs, an arca
cqua Lc Lhc suracc arca c Lhc sLar and andngs, pus
Lhc ccng arca c Lhc Lcp fccr, nusL hc ccvcrcd wLh
an cqua arca c Cass D ahscrhcr cr aLcrnaLvcy 5u
c Lhc arca nusL hc ccvcrcd wLh a Cass C ahscrhcr cr
hcLLcr.
UsefuI reference documents covering
internationaI IegisIation and guidance
kobust DetaiIs
Tc avcd rcCcnpcLcn TcsLng cr ncwhud hcuscs
and faLs, Lhc Hcnc 8udcrs cdcraLcn (H8) n Lhc K
dcvccpcd a scrcs c kchusL DcLas. Thcsc crns c
ccnsLrucLcn havc hccn dcsgncd and sLc LcsLcd Lc
cnsurc LhaL Lhcy dcvcr a sLandard c scund nsuaLcn
Lc nccL Lhc nnnun rcqurcncnLs c ^D L. kchusL
DcLas can hc uscd as an aLcrnaLvc Lc rcCcnpcLcn
TcsLng. urLhcr dcLas arc avaahc rcn Lhc Cyprcc
Tcchnca Tcan and asc rcn Lhc kchusL DcLas
wchsLc www.rchusLdcLas.ccn
85 8233 - 5ound insuIation and noise reduction for buiIdings
Ccdc c pracLcc scLLng cuL accusLc raLngs apprcpraLc
Lc a varcLy c dcrcnL hudng Lypcs.
8893 - 8uiIding 8uIIetin 93: Acoustic design of schooIs
8u d ng 8u cL n 92 ccnLa ns accusL c dcs gn
rcqurcncnLs cr scund nsuaLcn hcLwccn spaccs,
anhcnL ncsc cvcs and cpLnun rcvcrhcraLcn Lncs
cr varcus spaccs wLhn cducaLcna hudngs. cr
ncrc ncrnaLcn ccnLacL Lhc Cyprcc Tcchnca Tcan.
HeaIth and 1echnicaI Memorandum H1M 08-01 Acoustics
- HeaIthcare 8uiIdings
HTM u8ul ccnLans a ncLhcd c dcLcrnnng Lhc cvc
c scund nsuaLcn rcqurcd hcLwccn ad|accnL spaccs
n a hcaLhcarc cnvrcnncnL. Thc dccuncnL asc gvcs
rcccnncndcd rcvcrhcraLcn Lncs cr varcus Lypcs c
spacc. cr ncrc ncrnaLcn ccnLacL Lhc Cyprcc Tcchnca
Tcan.
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