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LAB REPORT WWE

Abstract
Access to a safe, reliable and efficient municipal water and wastewater servicing system is an integral component of a strong local economy. The communities may be faced with problems of failing systems, including saturated leaching beds, foul odours, and ponding of effluent. In order to develop a solution the governing municipality may consider the design and installation of a local municipal wastewater collection and treatment system. Designing and constructing a new wastewater collection and treatment system in an existing community has its challenges from the initial design to the final connection. It is evident that a municipality can be successful when faced with the construction and operation of a new municipally owned wastewater system to fulfill Ministry, population growth and economic development requirements.

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Table of Contents
1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 4 1.1 STUDY AREA: ............................................................................................................................ 4 GEOGRAPHY OF LAHORE .................................................................................................. 4 Land area: ........................................................................................................................ 4 Land use: .......................................................................................................................... 4

1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 2

Related Theory ................................................................................................................................ 5 2.1 Sewerage system: .................................................................................................................... 5 Sewage:............................................................................................................................ 5 Sources of Wastewater: .................................................................................................... 5 Principles of Sanitation: .................................................................................................... 6 Components of Sewerage System:.................................................................................... 6

2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2

Sewer System:.......................................................................................................................... 8 Sewer: .............................................................................................................................. 8 Types of Sewers: .............................................................................................................. 8 Sanitary Sewer: ................................................................................................................ 8 Storm Sewer: .................................................................................................................... 9 Combined Sewer: ............................................................................................................. 9 Conditions for combine sewer .......................................................................................... 9 Partially combined system: ............................................................................................. 10

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.3 2.4

Components of sewer system ................................................................................................. 10 Sewer testing.......................................................................................................................... 11 Water Test ...................................................................................................................... 11 Air Test .......................................................................................................................... 13 Smoke Test .................................................................................................................... 13 Test for Obstruction: ....................................................................................................... 14

2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.5

Sewer Appurtenances: ............................................................................................................ 14 Manholes ....................................................................................................................... 15 Backdrop Manholes ........................................................................................................ 16 Flushing Tank: ................................................................................................................ 17 Sewer Beddings: ............................................................................................................. 17 Load Factor: ................................................................................................................... 17 Hira Iqbal | Lab Report WWE 2

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5

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2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.7.1 2.5.8 2.6 2.7 Invert Level:.................................................................................................................... 17 Pumping stations: ........................................................................................................... 17 Components of Sewage Pumping Stations ...................................................................... 18 General Design Consideration: ....................................................................................... 18

Constraints and assumptions ................................................................................................... 18 Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System ........................... 19 Sewerage ........................................................................................................................ 19 Design flow calculations ................................................................................................. 19 Velocity at design Flow .................................................................................................. 20 Large Deep Sewer .......................................................................................................... 21 Local Losses................................................................................................................... 21

2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.7.5 2.8

Choice of Pipe Material .......................................................................................................... 21 Corrosion Protection ....................................................................................................... 22

2.8.1 3

Design Criteria ............................................................................................................................... 23 3.1 Design equation ..................................................................................................................... 24 Mannings equation ........................................................................................................ 24 Equation of continuity .................................................................................................... 24

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.3

Design Procedure: .................................................................................................................. 24 Design of pumping station...................................................................................................... 26

General Design Consideration ........................................................................................................ 26 3.3.1 3.3.2 4 5 6 7 OPERATING VOLUME OF WET WELL: .................................................................... 26 Design of Pumping Station ............................................................................................. 27

Calculations ................................................................................................................................... 28 4.1 Sewer line 17 to 16 ................................................................................................................. 28 Comments ................................................................................................................................... 31 Recommendations and Conclusion ......................................................................................... 31 References..................................................................................................................................... 32

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1 Introduction
The main Area of focus in this report is the design of sewerage system of Nashman Iqbal Housing Society, its design criteria, design calculations, conclusion and recommendations regarding the design. 1.1 STUDY AREA: Nasheman Iqbal is our study area. Ground level of the housing society is FLAT, it is 252 m.
1.1.1 GEOGRAPHY OF LAHORE

Lying between 31153145 N and 74017439 E, Lahore is bounded on the north and west by the Sheikhupura District, on the east by Wagah, and on the south by Kasur District. The Ravi River flows on the northern side of Lahore. Lahore city covers a total land area of 404 km and is still growing. Lahore features a hot semi-arid climate with rainy, long and extremely hot summers, dry and warm winters, a monsoon and dust storms. The weather of Lahore is extreme during the months of May, June and July, when the temperatures soar to 40 48 C (104118 F). From late June till August, the monsoon seasons starts, with heavy rainfall throughout the province.
1.1.2 Land area:

Estimated area of scheme is 15.32 acres.


1.1.3 Land use:

No. of plots = 936 Commercial plots = 4 Mosques = 2 Schools = 1 Open places = 6 Grave yards = 3 Unoccupied land = 1 Disposal station = 1

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2 Related Theory
2.1 Sewerage system:
A sewerage system is a network of pipes used to convey storm runoff and/or wastewater in an area.
2.1.1 Sewage: It is mainly a liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consist of - washing water - faeces - urine - laundry waste - industrial / commercial waste 2.1.2 2.1.2.1 Sources of Wastewater: Domestic:

It is wastewater from residential buildings, offices, other buildings etc.


2.1.2.2 Industrial:

It is liquid waste from industrial processes like dying, papermaking, fertilizers, chemicals, leather etc.
2.1.2.3 Storm water:

It includes surface runoff generated by rainfalls and street wash.


2.1.2.4 Infiltration and Inflow:

The water enters sewer through poor joints, cracked pipes and walls and covers of manholes. Infiltration and inflow are almost nonexistent in dry weather but it will increase during the rainy season. According to WASA criteria rate of infiltration w.r.t. Sewer diameter is given in the table. (This amount is to be taken by the sewer) Sewer diameter 225mm to 600mm >600mm Infiltration 5% of average sewage flow 10% of average sewage flow

2.1.2.5 NECESSITY OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM To transport water or waste water from one location to another by means of connecting pipes through gravity. To provide a hygienic and healthy environment.

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Increases the aesthesis and property value.

2.1.3 Principles of Sanitation: Following are the principles for better living condition:
2.1.4

Waste materials like sewage should be removed as early as possible Sewage after collection should be treated within four hours. Effluent should be disposed of immediately Building should be damp proof Water supply should be regular & sufficient so that the lavatories may be done properly
Components of Sewerage System:

Main features of sewerage system are: A. Collection B. Conveyance C. Treatment D. Disposal A. Collection & Conveyance : Sewage is collected & conveyed through the system of pipe lines or sewers The system of sewers is called sewerage or sewerage system Where sewerage system is not provided, sewage is collected in septic or imhoff tank

C. Sewage Treatment: Is a process of removing contaminants from sewage Objective is to produce an environmentally safe treated effluent and sludge suitable for disposal or reuse Discharge to the environment must be accomplished without transmitting diseases or endangering aquatic organisms,

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D. Sewage Disposal : Is an action or a process of throwing away or getting rid of sewage.

Purpose of Sewage disposal: To conserve water resources. To prevent contamination of drinking supplies. To help promote health & comfortable living To prevent the contamination of surface water use for bathing and other resourceful uses.

Various way of disposing sewage are: Dumping of treated effluent into underground Incineration: Dumping of effluent into seas. Agriculture: Using treated sludge as manure Reuse of reclaimed water

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2.2 Sewer System:
2.2.1 Sewer: Sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage and to provide drainage. In the 20th century developed world, - Sewer are usually pipelines that begin with connecting pipes from buildings to one or more levels of larger underground horizontal mains, which terminate at sewage treatment plant. - Vertical pipes, called manholes, connect the main to the surface. - Sewers are generally gravity powered, though pump may be used if necessary. 2.2.2 Types of Sewers:

Different types of the sewer are as follows;


2.2.3 Sanitary Sewer:

Sewer which carries sanitary sewage i.e. wastewater originating from a municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater. Advantages The size of the sewers is small Sewage load on treatment units is small River or stream waters are not polluted Storm water can be discharged into streams or rivers without any treatment Economical for sewage pumping since the quantity is small

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Disadvantages - Small sewer easily gets choked and are difficult to clean - Laying two sets of sewer is costly - Storm water sewers are only used during the rainy season
2.2.4 Storm Sewer:

It carries storm sewage including surface runoff and street washes.


2.2.5 Combined Sewer:

It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.


2.2.6 Conditions for combine sewer

If sufficient annual rainfall is present If pumping is required for both If space is limited If diversion of excess flow can be provided If existing system can carry both sewages

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Advantages Large sewer size doesn't clog easily and are easy to clean Laying one set of sewer is economical The strength of sewage is reduced by dilution Maintenance cost is reasonable Disadvantages Large sewers are difficult for handling and transport Due to storm water load the treatment plant is high During heavy rains sewers may overflow causing nuisance Pumping is uneconomical Storm water is unnecessarily polluted
Partially combined system:

2.2.7

In this system, some portion of storm water or surface runoff is allowed to be carried along with sanitary sewage. It is the best economical option for our design of sewerage system. Advantages Small sewers sizes are required Has the advantages of both systems Silting problem is eliminated The problem of disposing off storm water from homes is eliminated

Disadvantages - The velocity of flow may be low during dry weather - The storm water increases the load on pumps and treatment units

2.3 Components of sewer system


House sewer: Conveying an individual structure to a common sewer or other point of disposal. Lateral sewer: A common sewer collects flow from house sewers. Sub main sewer: Collects sewage from one or more laterals as well as house sewers. Main or trunk sewer: Collects flow from several sub-mains as well as laterals and house sewers. Force mains: Pressurized sewer lines, which convey sewage from a pumping station to another man or to a point of treatment or disposal.
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Interceptor sewer: Separates dry weather flow and conveys it to a wastewater treatment plant Relief sewer: Built to carry a portion of the flow in a system with inadequate capacity. Outfall sewer:
Carries the collected waste to a point of treatment or disposal.

2.4

Sewer testing The testing of sewers is necessary as any leakage, improper joints, straightness or obstruction of sewers may occur during lying of sewers. These defects may be removed or repaired after detection. So there are various tests by which these defects may be detected. These tests are:(i) Water Test. (ii) Air Test. (iii)Smoke Test. (iv) Test for Obstruction.

2.4.1

Water Test This test is carried out for sewer lines between two manholes. Plugging is done by rubber plug at its lower end. Rubber plug is connected with air blown. The upper end of sewer is plugged with a connection to the funnel. The sewer is filled with water and to maintain the required head, water level in the funnel is kept 2 m above the upper end. This head varies with the material of sewer. In case of cast iron sewer, the head should be at 9m. The acceptable loss or head loss should not exceed 2 litres/cm of length of the sewer. To perform this test sufficient amount of water should be available.

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2.4.2 Air Test When sufficient amount of water is not available, then air test is to be carried out. Air is pumped into the pipeline, usually via a hand-pump with a control valve, until the reading on the manometer is around 125-150mm. The set-up is then left for 5-10 minutes to allow for temperature stabilisation within the pipe before the pressure is reduced to exactly 100mm on the manometer scale. The manometer is then monitored for a period of 5 minutes; the level of water in the manometer should not fall below the 75mm mark during this period. This is deemed to be a 'pass' and the pipeline is declared satisfactory and can be backfilled. However, if the level in the manometer does fall below the 75mm mark, then the equipment should be checked and cleaned and the pipeline examined for leaks or defects. If any problems are identified, they should be rectified before re-testing.

2.4.3 Smoke Test


The purpose of smoke testing is to find potential points of inflow and infiltration in the sanitary sewer system that could lead to high flows during a storm. Smoke testing forces smoke-filled air through a sanitary sewer line.

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The smoke under pressure will fill the main line plus any connections and then follow the path of any leak to the ground surface, quickly revealing the source of the problem. Only enough force to overcome atmospheric pressure is required.

2.4.4 Test for Obstruction:


For straightness or obstruction of pipe, this test can be used. There are many methods for obstruction or straightness : 1. To check the obstruction of sewer pipe, a ball of suitable diameter is rolled down from upstream side. The diameter of ball should be less than the diameter sewer. If there is no obstruction, the ball can be taken out at downstream side. 2. The straightness can also be checked by placing a lamp at one end and a mirror at the other end. If the full circle of light is visible at other end, then the sewer is straight and there is no obstruction. If there is any obstruction within the sewer line, it can also be traced out.

2.5 Sewer Appurtenances:


Sewer appurtenances are devices necessary in addition to pipes and conduits for the pipes functioning of any complete system of sanitary, storm or combined sewers. They include structures and devices such as various types of manholes, lamp holes, gully traps,

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intercepting chambers, flush tanks, ventilation shafts, catch basins, street inlets, regulators, siphons, grease traps, side float weir, leaping weir, venture-flumes and outfall structures.
2.5.1 Manholes

A manhole is the top opening to an underground utility vault used for making connections or performing maintenance on underground and buried public utility and other services including sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains and gas. It is protected by a manhole cover. They are vertical openings provided in the sewerage system.

Purpose of Manhole

(i) (ii) (iii) -

Cleaning. Inspection. House connection.

Need of Manhole Manhole provided when we want to (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Change in sewer direction. Change in diameter. Change in slope. At the junction.
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Access Openings Access openings are generally of two types, one for man access and the other for desilting purposes. Delisting openings should not be smaller than 750 mm by 900 mm, and should be placed along the centerline of the sewer to facilitate desilting. Man access opening should not be smaller than 675 mm by 675 mm. If ladders are installed in the manhole, minimum clear opening should be 750 mm by 900 mm. Man access openings should be placed off the centerline of the sewer for deep manholes and along the centerline of the sewer for manholes shallower than 1.2 m. Access Shafts Access shafts should be sufficiently large for persons to be able to go down in comfort and yet small enough that one can reach the shaft walls by hand while climbing down for feeling a sense of security. Minimum size of access shaft should be 750 mm by 900 mm. The access shaft should be orientated such that the step irons are provided on the side with the smaller dimension. The access openings should be confined to one traffic lane. Covers Manhole covers should be sufficiently strong to take the live load of the heavy vehicle likely to pass over them, and should remain durable in a damp atmosphere. Heavy-duty manhole covers should be used when traffic or heavy loading is anticipated; otherwise medium duty covers can be used. Manhole covers should not rock when initially placed in position, or develop a rock with wear. Split triangular manhole covers supported at three corners are commonly used to reduce rocking. The two pieces of triangular cover should be bolted together to avoid a single piece of the cover being accidentally dropped into a manhole. Step-irons and Ladders Step-irons should be securely fixed in position in manholes, and should be equally spaced and staggered about a vertical line at 300 mm centers. Ladders should be used in manholes deeper than 4.25 m or which are entered frequently. It is safer and easier to go down a ladder when carrying tools or equipment. Step-irons and ladders should start within 600 mm of the cover level and continue to the platform or benching.
Backdrop Manholes

2.5.2

Backdrop manholes are used to connect sewers at significantly different levels, and should be used where the level difference is greater than 600 mm. The backdrop can be provided by means of: (i) A vertical drop in the form of a downpipe constructed inside/outside the wall of a manhole

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(ii)
2.5.3

A gradual drop in the form of cascade.

Flushing Tank:

It is located at the head of a sewer. They are designed for 10 minutes flow as a selfcleansing velocity of 0.6 m/sec. The capacity of these tanks is usually 1/10 of the cubic capacity of sewer length to be flushed.
2.5.4 Sewer Beddings:

Provision of proper bedding is very important; In developing the strength of the pipe Assuring it is laid to the proper grade Preventing subsequent settlement 2.5.5 Load Factor: Load factor expresses the increase in strength of sewer by provision of proper bedding.
2.5.6 Invert Level:

The lowest inside level at any cross section of a sewer section pipe is known as the invert level at that cross section. Sewer must be designed and laid at a specific slope to attain self-cleansing velocities. The required slopes are achieved through calculation of invert levels of the sewer at various manholes.

2.5.7

Pumping stations:

A pumping station is, by definition, an integral part of a Pumped-storage hydroelectricity installation. Pumping stations are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used to elevate and transport wastewater when: Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible. Basements are deeper.
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Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer. Receiving stream is higher than the sewer. Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment plant.

2.5.7.1 Components of Sewage Pumping Stations: Screens: used to screen out large floating matter that can damage the pump Wet Well: to receive wastewater Dry Well: Used to house the pump 2.5.8 General Design Consideration: a. More than 1 pump should be provided to cope with available discharge, two pumps for small pumping stations and more than two for large pumping stations should be used out of which one is for min. flow, one is for avg. flow and one for max. Flow. b. Total pumping capacity of pumping station must be equal to the peak sewage flow. c. Stand by pump must be provided at the pumping station. Its capacity should be at least 50% of peak sewage flow. d. Alternate sources of power must be there at pumping station. (Either power from two different feeders or a diesel operated pumps). e. Pumps should be of self-priming type, should be of self-priming type, and should operate under positive suction head. f. Each pump should have individual intake. g. Screens with 50mm opening should be provided at pump station to avoid entrance of big particles in pumps. h. Size of a dry well should be sufficient to house pumping machinery and for working. i. Dry wells are provided with sump pump, which are usually reciprocating pumps to pump out sewage leaks in dry wells. j. Sluice valve must be provided at suction and delivery side of pump and non-return valve at the delivery side (to reduce back hammer effect) k. Detention time in the wet well should not be more than 30min to avoid septic conditions. 2.6 Constraints and assumptions (i) Free surface flow exits for the design discharges; that is, the sewer system is designed for gravity flow; pumping stations and pressurized sewers should be avoided as much as possible (are not considered here) (ii) The sewers are of commercially available circular sizes. (iii) The design diameter is the smallest commercially available pipe having flow capacity equal to or greater than the design discharge and satisfying all the appropriate constraints. (iv) Sewers must be placed at a depth such that they

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will not be susceptible to frost, will be able to drain basements, and Will have sufficient cushioning to prevent breakage due to ground surface loading. (v) To these ends, minimum cover depths must be specified. (vi) The sewers are joined at junctions such that the crown elevation of the upstream sewer is no lower that of the downstream sewer. (vii) To prevent or reduce excessive deposition of solid material in the sewers, a minimum permissible flow velocity at design discharge or at barely full-pipe gravity flow is specified. (viii) To prevent scour and other undesirable effects of high-velocity flow, a maximum permissible flow velocity is also specified. (ix) At any junction or manhole, the downstream sewer cannot be smaller than any of the upstream sewers at that junction. (x) The sewer system is a dendritic, or branching, network converging in the downstream direction without closed loops.

2.7 Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System
Following design criteria has been proposed by Punjab Public Health Engineering Department in 1998. 2.7.1 Sewerage i. The disposal station should be located at a place where from sewage system can be disposed of safely. ii. The sewers must be designed as a partially combined system allowing a surcharging of the system for some time. iii. By-pass arrangement at the disposal station must be planed where level permits. iv. Outfall sewer in the village to be provided if otherwise economical and safer as compared to Punjab Standard Drain Type 1/11.(PHED, 1998) v. Design Periods: Civil works 20 years Machinery 10 years vi. Sufficient area for the disposal station should be acquired to accommodate further extension for next 40 years. vii. Master plan for sewerage scheme should be prepared and phasing out to be done according to priority of work/area. (PHED, 1998). 2.7.2 Design flow calculations i. The sewage contribution of the water consumed will be as follows: For semi urban/town committee 70% to 80%
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ii. iii. iv. For urban area 80% to 85% Infiltration rate should never be greater than 15 L/Km of the sewer / day/mm DIA. Multiply the average daily by the peak factor to calculate maximum dry weather flow. Add allowance for industrial waste as per actual assessment. On treated industrial waste as per National Environmental

2.7.3 Velocity at design Flow 2.7.3.1 Minimum Velocity A minimum velocity enables the sewage flow to self-cleanse the nominal amount of silt carried through the sewers, and helps to minimize sewer chokage because of situations and grease accumulation. Subsequent maintenance costs and environmental nuisance are reduced. The selfcleansing can also relieve the problems of septicity due to siltation. As it is designed as a partially combined sewerage system, therefore the velocity has been kept as 0.7 m/s as per the criteria of WASA. It has been established that self-cleansing velocities vary with the particle sizes in sediments and sizes of sewers. It is not easy to determine the particle sizes of silt in the sewerage system because both the range of sizes and the variety of sizes are great. 2.7.3.2 Maximum Velocity The maximum velocity of sewerage flow is not taken more than 2.4 m/sec as per the WASA criteria Very fast flow is not desirable because: Very fast flow is not stable and will give rise to scouring and cavitation especially when the pipe surface is not smooth, and if the sewer contains junctions, bends, and manholes. The usual hydraulic equations for flow prediction may not be applicable. More importantly, severe erosion causes damage to the sewerage system; Very fast flow occurs when the sewer is laid at steep gradient and the flow becomes supercritical. When the gradient eventually flattens, the flow may become subcritical and a hydraulic jump will occur. The potential damage associated with the uncontrolled energy dissipation is substantial; and Inspection and maintenance of sewers with fast flowing sewage are unsafe, usually difficult and sometimes impossible.

2.7.3.3 Minimum Pipes Size To facilitate inspection and cleaning, pipes of diameter less than 225mm (WASA, PHED) should normally not be used as sewers unless agreed by the operation and maintenance agents.

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2.7.4 Large Deep Sewer Difficulties are frequently encountered in the inspection, maintenance and repair of large deep gravity sewers, which is defined as gravity sewers of diameters not less than 675mm and invert levels exceeding 6m below ground level. Laying of large deep gravity sewers should be avoided as far as possible. However, if it cannot be avoided, the designer should consider the following: In the design of sewerage facilities, evaluation of various alternatives, including the adoption of shallower sewers by the provision of intermediate pumping stations and localized sewage treatment plants if necessary, should be carried out. To facilitate inspection and maintenance of surcharged large deep sewer, over pumping is usually required to draw down the sewage level in the sewer. If over pumping is not practically feasible, the designer should consider a twin line design. (DSD Practice Note no. 3/2010) 2.7.5 Local Losses In order to minimize the head losses in pipe flow, the selection of the pipe materials and the joint details are very important. The resistance in pipes will be influenced by the pipe material but will be primarily dependent on the slime that grows on the pipe surface. Other factors such as the discontinuities at the pipe joints, the number of manholes, the number of branch pipes at manholes and their directions of inflow will all affect the head losses. Proper benching with smooth curves should be provided to accommodate the changes in pipe direction. 2.8 Choice of Pipe Material The following factors should be taken into account in selecting the type of pipe for a project: Hydraulic design: gravity or pressure flows Structural design: crushing test strengths (and pressure ratings in the case of pressure pipelines) that are available The nature of the fluid to be conveyed Nature of ground water and external environment Cost considerations: capital and maintenance costs Pipe jointing system: ease of installation, past performance Durability: resistance to corrosion and abrasion Availability of pipe sizes, fittings and lengths in the market for construction and subsequent maintenance Ease of cutting and branch connections Length and weight of individual pipes in relation to transportation and handling Future operating procedure and system development

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2.8.1 Corrosion Protection In general, most of the pipes and fittings are susceptible to both internal and external attacks by corrosion unless appropriate protective measures are adopted. The degree of attack depends upon the nature of the soils, the characteristics of the fluid being conveyed and the type of pipe protection used. To protect the pipe from corrosion, pipes made of corrosion resistant material or coated with inert protective materials should be considered. For concrete pipes with protective liners, the pipe joints should also be covered by linings and the lining must be subsequently jointed after installation if the pipe diameter is large enough for man access. If the diameter is too small, the pipes should be supplied with joint surfaces already safeguarded with lining.

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3 Design Criteria
Serial No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Component Sewerage System Design Area Total Plots Population Density Design Population Peak Factor Per capita flow Avg. sewage flow Infiltration Peak Sewage Flow Storm Flow Design Flow Minimum Dia Of Sewer Minimum Velocity Maximum Velocity Minimum Cover Elevation Of Ground Pipe Material Type Of Joint Ground Surface Maximum Dia Of Sewer Design Period For Collection Work Design Period For Treatment Work Design Period For Pumping Station Load Factor Of Sewers Type Of Sewers Minimum Trench Size Maximum Trench Size Value/Specification Partially Separated Nasheman-Iqbal Housing Scheme 936 9 person per plot 8424 people 3.02 256.5 lpcd 2160.756 m3/d 10% of avg flow 6525.483 m3/d equal to peak flow 0.153 m3/sec 225 mm 0.7 m/sec 2.4 m/sec 1m 252 m RCC Bell and Spigot Joint Flat 530 mm 70 years 15 years 15 years 1.5 Class B 650mm 1250 mm

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3.1 Design equation

3.1.1 Mannings equation Manning's formula is used for finding the slope of sewer flowing under gravity. V=R2/3S1/2/n Where; V = Velocity of flow, m/sec R = Hydraulic mean depth = D/4 (When pipe is flowing or half full) S = Slope of the sewer n = coefficient of roughness for pipes. (n=0.013 for RCC pipes) 3.1.2 Equation of continuity Q= AV Where; A= Cross-section area of pipe V = Velocity of flow Steps for Design of Sewer Preliminary Investigations Design consideration/Formulation of design criteria Actual Design Preparation of drawings and BOQ Subsequent modifications

3.2

Design Procedure: It includes following things;

Preparation of Hydraulic Statement: To find the present population of the project area. Then find the design population for the given design period. Afterwards find average sewage flow for the design population, a select peak factor for your project area from WASA PEAK FACTOR TABLE.

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PEAK FACTOR:

1+

M = peak factor P = population in 1000 Avg. flow in sewer m3/d 2500 2500-5000 5000-10,000 10,000-25000 25000-50,000 50,000-100,000 100,000-250,000 250,000-500,00 > 500,000 Peak Factor to obtain Q max. 4.0 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.15 2.08 2.0

Draw the layout of the sewer system keeping in view the layout of the roads and streets (represent each sewer with a line and manhole with a dot) and assign a particular direction to sewer towards the disposal area with an arrow sign. Number the manholes and identify each sewer line. Allocate plots or area to each sewer line. Measure the length of each sewer line as per scale of map By considering per capita sewage flow as 80% of water consumption, calculate average sewage flow and infiltration for each sewer line. For this design, take infiltration as 10% of average sewage flow. Calculate peak sewage flow and finally the design flow of the sewer lines. Using the Continuity equation and Mannings formula, find appropriate dia. And slope for the sewer assuming that the sewer is flowing full. Take a self-cleansing velocity as 0.7 m/Sec. If actual velocity and depth of flow are satisfactory then the dia. And the slope of the pipe is considered as final. If the velocity is less than self-cleansing velocity then increases the slope of the sewer. At the end find the invert levels for the all the sewers and complete the table of calculations called hydraulic statement. Draw the longitudinal profile of the main sewer.

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3.3 Design of pumping station Centrifugal, single suction non-clogging type pumps are normally used. These have impeller, having 2 vanes. Pump suction pipe is usually larger than the discharge pipe by about 25%. Smallest discharge pipe=75mm (3) Smallest suction pipe =100mm (4)

General Design Consideration Total pumping capacity of pumping station must be equal to the peak sewage flow. Standby pump must be provided at the pumping station. Its capacity should be at least 50% of peak sewage flow. Alternate sources of power must be there at pumping station. (Either power from two different feeders or a diesel operated pumps). Pumps should be of self-priming type and should operate under the positive suction head. Each pump should have individual intake. Screens with 50mm opening should be provided at pump station to avoid the entrance of big particles in pumps. Size of a dry well should be sufficient to house pumping machinery for working. Dry wells are provided with sump pump, which are usually reciprocating pumps to pump out sewage leaks in dry wells. Sluice valve must be provided at suction and delivery side of pump and non-return valve at the delivery side (to reduce back hammer effect) Detention time in the wet well should not be more than 30min to avoid septic conditions. Size of a dry well should be adequate to accommodate all pumps. Pumps should not be started and stopped frequently. A minimum cycle time should be as given below. o For small pump = 10 min. o For large pump = 20-30 min. In addition, the pump should run at least 2min. Cycle time is defined, as the time required filling up and emptying the well. o Cycle time = to empty +time to fill. The minimum level of sewage in wet well should always be above the casing of the pump, so that there is always a positive suction head.

3.3.1 OPERATING VOLUME OF WET WELL: Two important considerations for sizing of wet well are a. Pumps should not be stopped and started frequently i-e; size of wet well should be large enough. Pumps should run at least for 2 minutes.
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The time b/w successive starts called the cycle time, should be more than minimum time specified by the manufacturers. Generally, for small and large pimps cycle time is 10 minutes and 20-30 min respectively.

b. Sewage should not stay in the wet well for larger time, otherwise it is putrefied. Therefore, detention time should be less than 30 min. Formula 27derivation The formula to find out the operating volume of the wet well is Cycle time = Time to empty + Time to fill Where Time to empty = V/(P-Q) Time to fill= V/Q V = Operating Volume of Wet Wells. P= Pumping rate (pumping capacity) = Peak sewage flow Q= Waste water flow Cycle Time = T= V/ (P Q) + V/Q. (A) 3.3.2 Design of Pumping Station Component
Q avg Q avg Peak Factor Q max P Cycle Time Volume of wet well Running Time Depth of Wet Wells Diameter of wet well

Value
0.02500875 m3/sec 1.500525 m3/min 3.02 4.5315855 m3/min 4.5315855 m3/min 30 min 19.91 m3 2.34 min 2m 3.49 m

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4 Calculations
4.1 Sewer line 17 to 16
Population per plot = 9 Population served = 117 Per capita sewage = {(300 + 42) * 0.75} / 1000 = 0.256 m3/d Average flow = 0.256 * 117 = 30.01 m3/d Infiltration = 30.01 * 0.1 = 3.001 m3/d Peak sewage = 30.01 * 3.02 = 90.63 m3/d Storm sewage = peak sewage Design flow = 90.63 + 3.001 + 90.63 = 184.26 m3/d Design flow = 184.26 / 86400 Qa = 0.002134 m3/s Velocity = 0.7 m/s Area = design flow / velocity A= 0.002134 / 0.7 =0.003047 m2 Diameter = (area * 4 * 0.318) ^ 0.5 = (0.003047 * 4 * 0.318) ^ 0.5 =0.06229 m = 62.29 mm Commercially diameter available = 225 mm d= 0.225 m Slope = {(velocity *0.013*(4/d) ^ 0.667)} ^ 2 = {(0.7*0.013*(4/0.225) ^0.667)} ^2 =0.00385 m Area from commercial diameter = (3.14*0.225*0.224)/4
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Acom =0.0397 m Qfull = Acom * velocity = 0.0397 * 0.7 =0.027818 m3/s Upper invert level = ground level cover of pipe pipe thickness internal diameter = 252 1 0.05 0.225 = 250.725 m Lower invert level = upper invert level (slope * length) = 250.725 (23 * 0.00385) = 250.6364 m Adjustment of va and diameter by graph

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5 Comments We designed sewerage system as partially separated sewerage system, on the bases of a design flow that includes peak sewage flow, infiltration and storm flow. The system is designed to flow under gravity. In some sewer pipes, actual velocity in the system is less than designing minimum selfclearing velocity because the actual calculated diameter was small. Sewer type is class B. The Ratio d/D and Va / Vfull is calculated by using graph so there may be chances of less accuracy.

6 Recommendations and Conclusion


Systematically evaluate all options available to resolve the challenge facing a municipality; Screen and select the most appropriate solution based on solving the environmental and safety concerns, long term service life, financial sustainability, and the ability to service both the current and future populations. Consider all existing conditions, including the existing structures to be serviced as part of the design solution. Design a sound sanitary system capable of handling the current and future wastewater and infiltration flows. Select the appropriate pipe material and installation method for the construction situation; Execute diligent inspection practices to ensure proper techniques are used; Insure tender and contract documentation is precise, specific and include a precondition survey of all existing private and public structures. Slope of bad checks before installing the sewer. This will be helpful if the slope is not according to design criteria. Minimum sewer size should be 225 mm Where lateral sewers are to be laid at deeper slopes, it may be more economical to lay them shallow and installing a Flushing tank there to achieve self-cleansing velocity. Pipes must be joined crown to crown to avoid back flow. No connection pipe should enter the manhole at an angle of greater than 90 in the direction of the flow. To avoid odour nuisance, ventilation of the manholes shall be considered. The maintenance of the system should be carried out at regular intervals. To carry out the job effectively there should be sufficient sewer men.

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7 References

1. "WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE" Steel E.W. and Terence.J.McGhee; (5TH EDITION) 2. DRAINAGE SERVICES DEPARTMENT Hong Kong; SEWERAGE MANUAL Key Planning Issues and Gravity Collection System (Third Edition, May 2013). 3. Ontario Ministry of Labour, Queens Printer for Ontario, 2011, Occupational Health and Safety Act, Ontario Regulation 213191, s. 234(2)- Excavations and soil types, Toronto. 4. Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Queens Printer for Ontario, 2008, Ontario Provincial Standard Specifications, OPSS 410, Toronto. 5. Manual on sewerage and sewage treatment (Second edition-1993) 6. Sewer Processes and Design Bimlesh Kumar 7. Sewer Design Solomon Seyoum

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