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Table of Contents

1 2 Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................................................3 Literature Review ....................................................................................................................................................................4 2.1 2.2 2.3 General: ...............................................................................................................................................................................4 Importance: ......................................................................................................................................................................4 Basic Design considerations ....................................................................................................................................4 Engineering Considerations ..........................................................................................................................4 Environmental Considerations ....................................................................................................................5 Process Considerations ....................................................................................................................................5 Cost Considerations ...........................................................................................................................................5

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.4 2.5

Pakistan Environmental Scenario.........................................................................................................................5 Design Considerations ................................................................................................................................................6 General Considerations ....................................................................................................................................6 Investigation on site: .........................................................................................................................................6 Design flow calculations ..................................................................................................................................8 Velocity at design Flow ....................................................................................................................................8 Septicity....................................................................................................................................................................9 Large Deep Sewer ...............................................................................................................................................9 Local Losses............................................................................................................................................................9 Corrosion Protection ......................................................................................................................................10 Joints in RCC Sewer .........................................................................................................................................11 Load on Pipes .....................................................................................................................................................12 Design Procedures for Rigid Pipes ..........................................................................................................13 Sanitary Sewer:..................................................................................................................................................13 Storm Sewer: ......................................................................................................................................................14 Combined Sewer:..............................................................................................................................................14 Partially combined system: .........................................................................................................................14

2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.7 2.8 2.7.1 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.9 2.9.1 2.9.2 2.9.3 2.9.4

Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System ..............................7

Choice of Pipe Material ............................................................................................................................................10 Structural Design of Gravity Pipelines.............................................................................................................10

Types of Sewers: .........................................................................................................................................................13

2.9.5 2.10 2.10.1 2.10.2 2.11 2.11.1 2.11.2 2.11.3 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.12.1

Components of sewer system ....................................................................................................................15 Manholes ...............................................................................................................................................................16 Backdrop Manholes.........................................................................................................................................17 Domestic: ..............................................................................................................................................................17 Industrial: .............................................................................................................................................................17 Storm water: .......................................................................................................................................................17 Load Factor: ........................................................................................................................................................18

Sewer Appurtenances: .............................................................................................................................................15

Sources of Wastewater:...........................................................................................................................................17

Sewer Beddings:..........................................................................................................................................................18 Invert Level: ..................................................................................................................................................................18 Pumping stations:.......................................................................................................................................................18 Components of Sewage Pumping Stations:.........................................................................................18 General Design Consideration: ..................................................................................................................18

2.14.1 2.14.2 3 3.1

Design Criteria .......................................................................................................................................................................20 Design equation ...........................................................................................................................................................21 Mannings equation .........................................................................................................................................21 Equation of continuity ...................................................................................................................................21 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.3

Design Procedure: ......................................................................................................................................................21 Design of pumping station .....................................................................................................................................23 OPERATING VOLUME OF WET WELL: ..................................................................................................24 Design of Pumping Station ..........................................................................................................................25

General Design Consideration .......................................................................................................................................23 3.3.1 3.3.2 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5 6 7

Longitudnal Profile ..............................................................................................................................................................26 Profile No: 1 ...................................................................................................................................................................26 Profile No: 2 ...................................................................................................................................................................27 Profile No:3 ....................................................................................................................................................................27

Comments .................................................................................................................................................................................28 Recommendations and Conclusion .............................................................................................................................28 Refrancess ................................................................................................................................................................................29

1 Introduction
The main Area of focus in this report is the design of sewerage system of NASHMAN IQBAL HOUSING SOCIETY, its design criteria, design calculations, conclusion and recommendations regarding the design. Topography Ground level of the housing society is FLAT, it is 252 m. Land Use: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Area = 15.3 acre No of plots = 937 Commercial plots = 4 Mosques = 2 Schools = 1 Open places = 6 Graveyard = 3 Unoccupied land = 1 Disposal station = 1

2 Literature Review
2.1 General:
We use a water supply system in order to provide easy availability of water for drinking , washing etc. when this water is used it becomes waste water called "sewage". A proper system is required for the collection of wastewater and conveying it to the point of disposal with or without treatment called as "sewerage system. A sewerage system, like a river system, consists of the main streams with many branches. Sewerage system appears on plan a number of small trees rooted to the natural drainage system. A sewerage system should be designed to collect all wastewater generated within a catchment area and to convey it to a sewage treatment works for treatment prior to discharge into the receiving watercourse or the sea via the outfall facilities.

2.2 Importance:
History reveal that the health of the people remained top priority. An efficient sewerage system helps to protect public health and the environment. Sewerage system conveys wastewater from homes, industries, hospitals and commercial institutes to treatment facilities for safe disposal. Any interruption of sewerage system can have dramatic consequences for public health and health of the environment. The state of the environment is a major concern to the people of the region. Improving the drainage and sewerage system to result in environmental protection, which has been identified as a matter of priority.

2.3 Basic Design considerations


In designing wastewater collection, treatment and disposal systems, planning generally begin from the final disposal point going backwards to give an integrated and optimized design Co suit the topography and the available hydraulic head, supplemented by pumping if essential. Once the disposal points are tentatively selected, further design is guided by the following basic design considerations: a. Engineering b. Environmental c. Process d. Cost These considerations are discussed below in detail:
2.3.1 Engineering Considerations

Topographical, engineering and other considerations, which figure prominently in project design, are noted below: Design period, stage wise population to be served and expected sewage flow and fluctuations Topography of general area to be served, its slope and terrain. Tentative sites available for the treatment plant, pumping stations and disposal works


2.3.2

Available hydraulic head in the system up to high flood level in case of disposal to a nearby river or high tide level in the case of coastal discharge or the level of the irrigation are to be commanded in case of land disposal Ground water depth and its seasonal fluctuation affecting construction, sewer Infiltration, structural design. Soil bearing capacity and type of strata expected to be met in construction On site disposal facilities, including the possibilities of segregating the sludge water and sewage and reuse or recycle sullage water within the households
Environmental Considerations

The environmental and socioeconomic impacts of a sewage treatment plant may prove adverse during the operation stage. Therefore, the following aspects should be considered during design. Surface water Hydrology and Quality Ground water quality Odour and Mosquito nuisance Public Health and Landscaping
2.3.3 Process Considerations

Process considerations involve factors which affect the choice of treatment method, itself Design criteria and related requirements such as the following: Waste water flow and characteristics Degree of treatment required Performance characteristics Other process requirements such as land, power operating equipments, Skilled staff, nature of maintenance problems, extent of sludge production And its disposal requirements, loss of heat through plant in relation to Available head etc.
2.3.4 Cost Considerations

The overall costs (Capital and operating) have to be determined in order to arrive at The optimum solution

2.4 Pakistan Environmental Scenario


The main water source in Pakistan is rivers, rainfall and ground water. Considering Pakistans environmental scenario it's become increasingly obvious that water issues are the most pressing. Human health, agriculture, forest, water bodies, and aquatic life, in fact the whole ecosystem is affected by problems associated with water. Not only is there a scarcity of drinking water but also polluting of water bodies by effluents from industries and the sewerage system have compounded the problems. The discharge of sewage and contaminated water in rivers and water bodies not only affected marine production, use of such water for agriculture, results in the contaminations of food chain. (Memon, 1998)

In Pakistan, sewage water is re-channeled to irrigate crops, which contaminates them with pathogens. As a result, 50% of the crops are contaminated by untreated sewage. Water borne diseases are the largest killers in the country and health problems from polluted water cost a large amount of money.

2.5 Design Considerations


In the ancient ages, sewers were constructed without considering any design criteria due to lack of technology and research. With the development of civilization and the tremendous increase in population, it becomes essential to formulate some logical basis for design of sewerage system, this led to evaluation of previous studies in the light of knowledge gained through experience. The modern research has formulated following design basis. (WASA, 1998)
2.5.1 General Considerations

Provide adequate sewerage for areas require careful engineering. The sewers must be adequate in size otherwise; they overflow will result in property damage and danger health. Adequacy in size calls for estimation of the amount of the sewage and use of hydraulics to determine proper size and grades of the sewers (WASA). Another important consideration is the velocity of the flow in the sewers. If not great enough, deposits of solids will occur with accompanying odors and stoppages. After the sewage is collected, it becomes a liability to the city because of its potential danger health and possible production of nuisances in streams. This necessitates a careful study of bodies of water that will receive the sewage; and evaluation of the need for any treatment needed before disposal. (WASA, 1998).
2.5.2 Investigation on site:

The first stage of investigation consists of a visitor visits to the site, examination of the terrain and collection of the existing data in the form of maps, drawing and statistics. The investigator, once on the site, might find that considerations other than those mentioned by the authority were worth.
2.5.2.1 Population

Particulars of the total population, a tendency to increase, seasonal variation, housing scheme, densities of buildings, town planning proposals and restrictions, type of house in different areas etc. must be taken into count.
2.5.2.2 Water supply

Quantity consumed per capita of population , type of supply and extend, trade consumption, name address and telephone number of the principal offices of the water authority, source of supply, positions of large mains liable to affected by the scheme.

2.5.2.3 Rivers and streams

Particulars of rivers and streams liable to be affected by daily scheme, a rough estimation of quantity flowing in them, information regarding any water supply taken from them, name, address and telephone number of river board, slandered of sewage effluent required by river board.
2.5.2.4 Site for works

Notes on suitable for pumping stations, outfall works etc., with particulars of subsoil, subsoil water level, normal water level in the stream for outfall.
2.5.2.5 Existing work:

Positions, levels and sizes of existing sewers, whether combined, separate or partially separate, dry weather flow, storm flow, infiltration, strength of sewage. Details of existing pumping machinery and sewage treatment works, particulars of overflows, their number, position and rate at which they commence to discharge, particulars of existing sea outfall, normal tide and maximum recorded tides (WASA,1998.)
2.5.2.6 Surveying and Mapping

The second part of the investigation is usually carried on paper with the aid of Ordinance maps, together with the information that has been collected. It may often be possible to frame a preliminary report obtained by his means prior to the prosecution of a detailed level survey of the ground. However, once the proposals have been made lines of sewer decided by a topographical survey of the site have to be made. The map may be on the scale of 1 inch to 200ft. Unless there are details to be shown, in which case 1 in 100ft., or even large scale may be used. Contours should be shown, with interval depending upon the topography. For a very flat area, the contour interval may be as small as 1 ft., usually five or 10ft., will satisfy. (E.W Steel, 1979).

2.6 Public Health Engineering department design criteria for Sewerage System
Following design criteria has been proposed by Punjab Public Health Engineering Department in 1998. Sewerage i. ii. iii. iv. The disposal station should be located at a place where from sewage system can be disposed of safely. The sewers must be designed as a partially combined system allowing a surcharging of the system for some time. By-pass arrangement at the disposal station must be planed where level permits. Outfall sewer in the village to be provided if otherwise economical and safer as compared to Punjab Standard Drain Type 1/11.(PHED, 1998)

v.

vi. vii.
2.6.1

Design Periods: Civil works 20 years Machinery 10 years Sufficient area for the disposal station should be acquired to accommodate further extension for next 40 years. Master plan for sewerage scheme should be prepared and phasing out to be done according to priority of work/area. (PHED, 1998).
Design flow calculations

i.

ii. iii. iv.


2.6.2

The sewage contribution of the water consumed will be as follows: For semi urban/town committee 70% to 80% For urban area 80% to 85% Infiltration rate should never be greater than 15 L/Km of the sewer / day/mm DIA. Multiply the average daily by the peak factor to calculate maximum dry weather flow. Add allowance for industrial waste as per actual assessment. On treated industrial waste as per National Environmental
Velocity at design Flow

2.6.2.1 Minimum Velocity

A minimum velocity enables the sewage flow to self-cleanse the nominal amount of silt carried through the sewers, and helps to minimize sewer chokage because of situations and grease accumulation. Subsequent maintenance costs and environmental nuisance are reduced. The self-cleansing can also relieve the problems of septicity due to siltation. As it is designed as a partially combined sewerage system, therefore the velocity has been kept as 0.7 m/s as per the criteria of WASA. It has been established that self-cleansing velocities vary with the particle sizes in sediments and sizes of sewers. It is not easy to determine the particle sizes of silt in the sewerage system because both the range of sizes and the variety of sizes are great.
2.6.2.2 Maximum Velocity

The maximum velocity of sewerage flow is not taken more than 2.4 m/sec as per the WASA criteria Very fast flow is not desirable because: Very fast flow is not stable and will give rise to scouring and cavitation especially when the pipe surface is not smooth, and if the sewer contains junctions, bends, and manholes. The usual hydraulic equations for flow prediction may not be applicable. More importantly, severe erosion causes damage to the sewerage system;

Very fast flow occurs when the sewer is laid at steep gradient and the flow becomes supercritical. When the gradient eventually flattens, the flow may become subcritical and a hydraulic jump will occur. The potential damage associated with the uncontrolled energy dissipation is substantial; and Inspection and maintenance of sewers with fast flowing sewage are unsafe, usually difficult and sometimes impossible.

2.6.2.3 Minimum Pipes Size

To facilitate inspection and cleaning, pipes of diameter less than 225mm (WASA, PHED) should normally not be used as sewers unless agreed by the operation and maintenance agents.
2.6.3 Septicity

Septicity occurs when the residence time of sewage is long, the temperature is high and there is a lack of air exchange. The deposition of sediments in the sewers also facilitates the formation of sulfide. This frequently occurs in gentle gravity sewers in which the flow is too slow. In addition, sulphide formation will be more serious with saline sewage as seawater contains a high level of sulphate. The adverse effects of septicity in gravity sewers can be mitigated by suitable design to shorten residence time, minimize sediments deposition and adopt corrosion resistant construction materials.
2.6.4 Large Deep Sewer

Difficulties are frequently encountered in the inspection, maintenance and repair of large deep gravity sewers, which is defined as gravity sewers of diameters not less than 675mm and invert levels exceeding 6m below ground level. Laying of large deep gravity sewers should be avoided as far as possible. However, if it cannot be avoided, the designer should consider the following: In the design of sewerage facilities, evaluation of various alternatives, including the adoption of shallower sewers by the provision of intermediate pumping stations and localized sewage treatment plants if necessary, should be carried out. To facilitate inspection and maintenance of surcharged large deep sewer, over pumping is usually required to draw down the sewage level in the sewer. If over pumping is not practically feasible, the designer should consider a twin line design. (DSD Practice Note no. 3/2010)
2.6.5 Local Losses

In order to minimize the head losses in pipe flow, the selection of the pipe materials and the joint details are very important. The resistance in pipes will be influenced by the pipe material but will be primarily dependent on the slime that grows on the pipe surface. Other

factors such as the discontinuities at the pipe joints, the number of manholes, the number of branch pipes at manholes and their directions of inflow will all affect the head losses. Proper benching with smooth curves should be provided to accommodate the changes in pipe direction.

2.7 Choice of Pipe Material


The following factors should be taken into account in selecting the type of pipe for a project:
2.7.1

Hydraulic design: gravity or pressure flows Structural design: crushing test strengths (and pressure ratings in the case of pressure pipelines) that are available The nature of the fluid to be conveyed Nature of ground water and external environment Cost considerations: capital and maintenance costs Pipe jointing system: ease of installation, past performance Durability: resistance to corrosion and abrasion Availability of pipe sizes, fittings and lengths in the market for construction and subsequent maintenance Ease of cutting and branch connections Length and weight of individual pipes in relation to transportation and handling Future operating procedure and system development
Corrosion Protection

In general, most of the pipes and fittings are susceptible to both internal and external attacks by corrosion unless appropriate protective measures are adopted. The degree of attack depends upon the nature of the soils, the characteristics of the fluid being conveyed and the type of pipe protection used. To protect the pipe from corrosion, pipes made of corrosion resistant material or coated with inert protective materials should be considered. For concrete pipes with protective liners, the pipe joints should also be covered by linings and the lining must be subsequently jointed after installation if the pipe diameter is large enough for man access. If the diameter is too small, the pipes should be supplied with joint surfaces already safeguarded with lining.

2.8 Structural Design of Gravity Pipelines


Pipes can be categorized into rigid, flexible and intermediate pipes as follows: a. Rigid pipes support loads in the ground by virtue of the resistance of the pipe wall as a ring in bending.

b. Flexible pipes rely on the horizontal thrust from the surrounding soil to enable them to resist vertical load without excessive deformation. c. Intermediate pipes are those pipes, which exhibit behavior between those in (a) and (b). They are also called semi-rigid pipes. Concrete pipes and vitrified clay pipes are examples of rigid pipes while steel, ductile iron, UPVC, MDPE and HDPE pipes may be classified as flexible or intermediate pipes, depending on their wall thickness and stiffness of pipe material. Types of Pipes based on material:
2.8.1

PVC AC PCC RCC Steel Clay RCC pipes are commonly used.
Joints in RCC Sewer

Bell and Spigot Joint Tongue and Groove Joint Sewer diameter 310-760mm >760 mm Type of joint Either joint Tongue and groove

2.8.2

Load on Pipes

The load on rigid pipes is concentrated at the top and bottom of the pipe, thus creating bending moments. Flexible pipes may change shape by deflection and transfer part of the vertical load into horizontal or radial thrusts, which are resisted by passive pressure of the surrounding soil. The load on flexible pipes is mainly compressive force, which is resisted by arch action rather than ring bending.
2.8.2.1 Load Estimation

The loads on buried gravity pipelines are as follows: The first type comprises loading due to the fill in which the pipeline is buried, static and moving traffic loads superimposed on the surface of the fill, and water load in the pipeline. The second type of load includes those loads due to the relative movements of pipes and soil caused by seasonal ground water variations, ground subsidence, temperature change and differential settlement along the pipeline.

Loads of the first type should be considered in the design of both the longitudinal section and cross section of the pipeline. Provided the longitudinal support is continuous and of uniform quality, and the pipes are properly laid and jointed, it is sufficient to design for the cross section of the pipeline. In general, loads of the second type are not readily calculated able and they only affect the longitudinal integrity of the pipeline. Differential settlement is of primary concern especially for pipelines to be laid in newly reclaimed areas. The effect of differential settlement can be catered for by using either flexible joints (which permit angular deflection and telescopic movement) or piled foundations (which are very expensive). If the pipeline is partly or wholly submerged, there is also a need to check the effect of flotation of the empty pipeline. The design criteria for the structural design of rigid pipes is the maximum load at which failure occurs while those for flexible pipes are the maximum acceptable deformation and/or the buckling load. The approach to designing rigid pipes as mentioned in this chapter is not applicable to flexible pipes, deeply laid pipes or pipes laid by tunneling methods. For the structural design of flexible pipes, deeply laid pipes or pipes laid by tunneling methods, it is necessary to refer to relevant literature such as manufacturers' catalogue and/or technical information on material properties and allowable deformations for different types of coatings, details of joints etc.

2.8.3

Design Procedures for Rigid Pipes

The design procedures for rigid pipes are outlined as follows: i. Determine the total design load due to: The full load, which is influenced by the conditions under which the pipe is installed, i.e. narrows trench or embankment conditions; The superimposed load which can be uniformly distributed or concentrated traffic loads; and The water load in the pipe. Choose the type of bedding (whether granular, plain or reinforced concrete) on which the pipe will rest. Apply the appropriate bedding factor and determine the minimum ultimate strength of the pipe to take the total design load. Select a pipe of appropriate grade or strength.

ii.

iii.

2.9 Types of Sewers:


Different types of the sewer are as follows;
2.9.1 Sanitary Sewer:

Sewer which carries sanitary sewage i.e. wastewater originating from a municipality including domestic and industrial wastewater.
2.9.1.1 Conditions of sanitary sewer

In flat areas If sufficient funds are not available currently If annual precipitations very small Nearness of a natural river or drain If pumping is a must If an existing sewerage system can be used only for sanitary sewage Is rocky areas The size of the sewers is small Sewage load on treatment units is small River or stream waters are not polluted Storm water can be discharged into streams or rivers without any treatment Economical for sewage pumping since the quantity is small Small sewer easily gets choked and are difficult to clean Laying two sets of sewer is costly Storm water sewers are only used during the rainy season

2.9.1.2 Advantages

2.9.1.3 Disadvantages

2.9.2

Storm Sewer:

It carries storm sewage including surface runoff and street washes.


2.9.3 Combined Sewer:

It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage.


2.9.3.1 Conditions for combine sewer


2.9.4

If sufficient annual rainfall is present If pumping is required for both If space is limited If diversion of excess flow can be provided If existing system can carry both sewages Large sewer size doesn't clog easily and are easy to clean Laying one set of sewer is economical The strength of sewage is reduced by dilution Maintenance cost is reasonable Large sewers are difficult for handling and transport Due to storm water load the treatment plant is high During heavy rains sewers may overflow causing nuisance Pumping is uneconomical Storm water is unnecessarily polluted
Partially combined system:

2.9.3.2 Advantages

2.9.3.3 Disadvantages

In this system, some portion of storm water or surface runoff is allowed to be carried along with sanitary sewage. It is the best economical option for our design of sewerage system.
2.9.4.1 Advantages

Small sewers sizes are required Has the advantages of both systems Silting problem is eliminated The problem of disposing off storm water from homes is eliminated The velocity of flow may be low during dry weather The storm water increases the load on pumps and treatment units

2.9.4.2 Disadvantages

Components of sewer system House sewer: Conveying an individual structure to a common sewer or other point of disposal. Lateral sewer: A common sewer collects flow from house sewers. Sub main sewer: Collects sewage from one or more laterals as well as house sewers. Main or trunk sewer: Collects flow from several sub-mains as well as laterals and house sewers. Force mains: Pressurized sewer lines, which convey sewage from a pumping station to another man or to a point of treatment or disposal. Interceptor sewer: Separates dry weather flow and conveys it to a wastewater treatment plant Relief sewer: Built to carry a portion of the flow in a system with inadequate capacity. Outfall sewer: Carries the collected waste to a point of treatment or disposal. Infiltration and Inflow: The water enters sewer through poor joints, cracked pipes and walls and covers of manholes. Infiltration and inflow are almost nonexistent in dry weather but it will increase during the rainy season. According to WASA criteria rate of infiltration w.r.t. Sewer diameter is given in the table. (This amount is to be taken by the sewer) Sewer diameter 225mm to 600mm >600mm Infiltration 5% of average sewage flow 10% of average sewage flow

Sewer Appurtenances: Sewer appurtenances are devices necessary in addition to pipes and conduits for the pipes functioning of any complete system of sanitary, storm or combined sewers. They include structures and devices such as various types of manholes, lamp holes, gully traps, intercepting chambers, flush tanks, ventilation shafts, catch basins, street inlets, regulators, siphons, grease traps, side float weir, leaping weir, venture-flumes and outfall structures.

Manholes A manhole is the top opening to an underground utility vault used for making connections or performing maintenance on underground and buried public utility and other services including sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains and gas. It is protected by a manhole cover. They are vertical openings provided in the sewerage system. Purpose of Manhole Cleaning. Inspection. House connection. Need of Manhole Manhole provided when we want to Change in sewer direction. Change in diameter. Change in slope. At the junction. Access Openings Access openings are generally of two types, one for man access and the other for desilting purposes. Desilting openings should not be smaller than 750 mm by 900 mm, and should be placed along the centerline of the sewer to facilitate desilting. Man access opening should not be smaller than 675 mm by 675 mm. If ladders are installed in the manhole, minimum clear opening should be 750 mm by 900 mm. Man access openings should be placed off the centerline of the sewer for deep manholes and along the centerline of the sewer for manholes shallower than 1.2 m. Access Shafts Access shafts should be sufficiently large for persons to be able to go down in comfort and yet small enough that one can reach the shaft walls by hand while climbing down for feeling a sense of security. Minimum size of access shaft should be 750 mm by 900 mm. The access shaft should be orientated such that the step irons are provided on the side with the smaller dimension. The access openings should be confined to one traffic lane. Covers Manhole covers should be sufficiently strong to take the live load of the heavy vehicle likely to pass over them, and should remain durable in a damp atmosphere. Heavy-duty manhole covers

should be used when traffic or heavy loading is anticipated; otherwise medium duty covers can be used. Manhole covers should not rock when initially placed in position, or develop a rock with wear. Split triangular manhole covers supported at three corners are commonly used to reduce rocking. The two pieces of triangular cover should be bolted together to avoid a single piece of the cover being accidentally dropped into a manhole. Step-irons and Ladders Step-irons should be securely fixed in position in manholes, and should be equally spaced and staggered about a vertical line at 300 mm centers. Ladders should be used in manholes deeper than 4.25 m or which are entered frequently. It is safer and easier to go down a ladder when carrying tools or equipment. Step-irons and ladders should start within 600 mm of the cover level and continue to the platform or benching. . Backdrop Manholes Backdrop manholes are used to connect sewers at significantly different levels, and should be used where the level difference is greater than 600 mm. The backdrop can be provided by means of: A vertical drop in the form of a downpipe constructed inside/outside the wall of a manhole A gradual drop in the form of cascade. Flushing Tank: Located at the head of a sewer. They are designed for 10 minutes flow as a self-cleansing velocity of 0.6 m/sec. The capacity of these tanks is usually 1/10 of the cubic capacity of sewer length to be flushed.

2.10 Sources of Wastewater:


2.10.1 Domestic:

It is wastewater from residential buildings, offices, other buildings etc.


2.10.2 Industrial:

It is liquid waste from industrial processes like dying, papermaking, fertilizers, chemicals, leather etc.
2.10.3 Storm water:

It includes surface runoff generated by rainfalls and street wash.

2.11 Sewer Beddings:


Provision of proper bedding is very important; In developing the strength of the pipe Assuring it is laid to the proper grade Preventing subsequent settlement
2.11.1 Load Factor:

Load factor expresses the increase in strength of sewer by provision of proper bedding.

2.12 Invert Level:


The lowest inside level at any cross section of a sewer section pipe is known as the invert level at that cross section. Sewer must be designed and laid at a specific slope to attain selfcleansing velocities. The required slopes are achieved through calculation of invert levels of the sewer at various manholes

2.13 Pumping stations:


A pumping station is, by definition, an integral part of a Pumped-storage hydroelectricity installation. Pumping stations are facilities including pumps and equipment for pumping fluids from one place to another. They are used to elevate and transport wastewater when: Continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible. Basements are deeper. Any obstacle lies in the path of sewer. Receiving stream is higher than the sewer. Sewage is to be delivered to an above ground treatment plant.

2.13.1 Components of Sewage Pumping Stations:

Screens: used to screen out large floating matter that can damage the pump Wet Well: to receive wastewater Dry Well: Used to house the pump

2.13.2 General Design Consideration:

a. More than 1 pump should be provided to cope with available discharge, two pumps for small pumping stations and more than two for large pumping stations should be used out of which one is for min. flow, one is for avg. flow and one for max. Flow. b. Total pumping capacity of pumping station must be equal to the peak sewage flow.

c. Stand by pump must be provided at the pumping station. Its capacity should be at least 50% of peak sewage flow. d. Alternate sources of power must be there at pumping station. (Either power from two different feeders or a diesel operated pumps). e. Pumps should be of self-priming type, should be of self-priming type, and should operate under positive suction head. f. Each pump should have individual intake. g. Screens with 50mm opening should be provided at pump station to avoid entrance of big particles in pumps. h. Size of a dry well should be sufficient to house pumping machinery and for working. i. Dry wells are provided with sump pump, which are usually reciprocating pumps to pump out sewage leaks in dry wells. j. Sluice valve must be provided at suction and delivery side of pump and non-return valve at the delivery side (to reduce back hammer effect) k. Detention time in the wet well should not be more than 30min to avoid septic conditions.

3 Design Criteria
Serial No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Component
Sewerage System Design Area Total Plots Population Density Design Population Peak Factor Average Flow Infiltration Peak Sewage Flow Storm Flow Design Flow Minimum Dia Of Sewer Minimum Velocity Maximum Velocity Minimum Cover Elevation Of Ground Pipe Material Type Of Joint Ground Surface Maximum Dia Of Sewer Design Period For Collection Work Design Period For Treatment Work Design Period For Pumping Station Load Factor Of Sewers Type Of Sewers Type Of Pump Minimum Trench Size Maximum Trench Size

Value/Specification
Partially Separated Nasheman-Iqbal Housing Scheme 937 10 person per plot 9370 people 3 254.25 lpcd 10% of avg flow 762.75 lpcd equal to peak flow 0.1681 m3/sec 225 mm 0.7 m/sec 2.4 m/sec 1m 252 m RCC Bell and Spigot Joint Flat 610 mm 75 years 15 years 15 years 1.5 Class B Centrifugal,non-clogging 650mm 1250 mm

3.1 Design equation


3.1.1 Mannings equation

Manning's formula is used for finding the slope of sewer flowing under gravity.

V=R2/3S1/2/n
Where; V = Velocity of flow, m/sec R = Hydraulic mean depth = D/4 (When pipe is flowing or half full) S = Slope of the sewer n = coefficient of roughness for pipes. (n=0.013 for RCC pipes)
3.1.2 Equation of continuity

Q= AV Where; A= Cross-section area of pipe V = Velocity of flow

Steps for Design of Sewer Preliminary Investigations Design consideration/Formulation of design criteria Actual Design Preparation of drawings and BOQ Subsequent modifications

3.2 Design Procedure:


It includes following things; Preparation of Hydraulic Statement: 1. To find the present population of the project area. Then find the design population for the given design period. Afterwards find average sewage flow for the design population, a select peak factor for your project area from WASA PEAK FACTOR TABLE.

PEAK FACTOR: 1+

M = peak factor P = population in 1000 Avg. flow in sewer m3/d 2500 2500-5000 5000-10,000 10,000-25000 25000-50,000 50,000100,000 100,000250,000 250,000500,00 > 500,000 Peak Factor to obtain Qmax. 4.0 3.4 3.1 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.15 2.08 2.0

2. Draw the layout of the sewer system keeping in view the layout of the roads and streets (represent each sewer with a line and manhole with a dot) and assign a particular direction to sewer towards the disposal area with an arrow sign. 3. Number the manholes and identify each sewer line. 4. Allocate plots or area to each sewer line. 5. Measure the length of each sewer line as per scale of map 6. By considering per capita sewage flow as 80% of water consumption, calculate average sewage flow and infiltration for each sewer line. For this design, take infiltration as 10% of average sewage flow. 7. Calculate peak sewage flow and finally the design flow of the sewer lines. 8. Using the Continuity equation and Mannings formula, find appropriate dia. And slope for the sewer assuming that the sewer is flowing full. Take a self-cleansing velocity as 0.7 m/Sec. 9. If actual velocity and depth of flow are satisfactory then the dia. And the slope of the pipe is considered as final. If the velocity is less than self-cleansing velocity then increases the slope of the sewer.

10. At the end find the invert levels for the all the sewers and complete the table of calculations called hydraulic statement. 11. Draw the longitudinal profile of the main sewer.

3.3 Design of pumping station


Centrifugal, single suction non-clogging type pumps are normally used. These have impeller, having 2 vanes. Pump suction pipe is usually larger than the discharge pipe by about 25%. Smallest discharge pipe=75mm (3) Smallest suction pipe =100mm (4)

General Design Consideration

Total pumping capacity of pumping station must be equal to the peak sewage flow. Standby pump must be provided at the pumping station. Its capacity should be at least 50% of peak sewage flow. Alternate sources of power must be there at pumping station. (Either power from two different feeders or a diesel operated pumps). Pumps should be of self-priming type and should operate under the positive suction head. Each pump should have individual intake. Screens with 50mm opening should be provided at pump station to avoid the entrance of big particles in pumps. Size of a dry well should be sufficient to house pumping machinery for working. Dry wells are provided with sump pump, which are usually reciprocating pumps to pump out sewage leaks in dry wells. Sluice valve must be provided at suction and delivery side of pump and non-return valve at the delivery side (to reduce back hammer effect) Detention time in the wet well should not be more than 30min to avoid septic conditions. Size of a dry well should be adequate to accommodate all pumps. Pumps should not be started and stopped frequently. A minimum cycle time should be as given below. o For small pump = 10 min. o For large pump = 20-30 min. In addition, the pump should run at least 2min. Cycle time is defined, as the time required filling up and emptying the well. o Cycle time = to empty +time to fill. The minimum level of sewage in wet well should always be above the casing of the pump, so that there is always a positive suction head.

3.3.1

OPERATING VOLUME OF WET WELL:

Two important considerations for sizing of wet well. a. Pumps should not be stopped and started frequently i-e; size of wet well should be large enough. Pumps should run at least for 2 minutes. The time b/w successive starts called the cycle time, should be more than minimum time specified by the manufacturers. Generally, for small and large pimps cycle time is 10 minutes and 20-30 min respectively.

b. Sewage should not stay in the wet well for larger time, otherwise it is putrefied. Therefore, detention time should be less than 30 min. Formula 24derivation The formula to find out the operating volume of the wet well. Cycle time = Time to empty + Time to fill Where Time to empty = V/(P-Q) Time to fill= V/Q V = Operating Volume of Wet Wells. P= Pumping rate (pumping capacity) = Peak sewage flow Q= Waste water flow

Cycle Time = T= V/ (P Q) + V/Q. (A) Differentiating W.R.T Q dt/dQ =V/ (P Q)2 V/Q2 Equating dt/dQ = 0 V/(P Q)2 V/Q2 = 0 V/(P Q)2 = V/Q2 (P Q)2 Q2 = 0 P2 Q2 2PQ Q2 = 0

P2 = 2PQ Q = P/2 Therefore, cycle time will be minimum when wastewater flow is half of pumping rate. Put Q = P/2 in equation (A) tmin = V/ (P-P/2) + V/P/2 =V/P/2 + V/P/2 =2V/P/2

tmin = 4V/P
There are two extreme conditions. For Q=0, t 0 It implies that for Q = 0, the well is not filled and we do not need to start the pump. For Q=P, t In this Case, the level of sewage in the well remains constant and hence the pump cannot be stopped.
3.3.2 Design of Pumping Station

Component
Q avg Q avg Q min Peak Factor Q max P Cycle Time Volume of wet well Time On Time off Depth of Wet Wells Diameter of wet well

Value
0.027573177 m3/sec 1.654390625 m3/sec 0.827195313 m3/min 3 4.963171875 m3/min 4.963171875 m3/min 20 min 14 m3 3.4 min 16.6 min 2m 2.96 m

4 Longitudnal Profile
4.1 Profile No: 1

Longitudnal Profile 1
251 250.8 250.6 250.4 250.2 250 249.8 249.6 249.4 249.2 249 0 5 10 15 20 Invert Level

4.2 Profile No: 2


251 250.8 250.6 250.4 250.2 250 249.8 249.6 249.4 249.2 249 0 2

Longitudnal Profile 2

Series1

10

12

4.3 Profile No:3

Longitudnal Profile 3
251 250.8 250.6 250.4 250.2 250 249.8 249.6 249.4 249.2 249 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

5 Comments
Designed sewerage system is partially separated sewerage system, which is designed on the bases of maximum flow that includes peak sewage flow, infiltration and storm flow. Topography of the whole scheme is highly flat. The system is designed to flow under gravity therefore it is difficult to maintain minimum self-clearance velocity. All the joints are bell and spigot because the diameter of sewer pipes less than 760mm. In some sewer pipes, actual velocity in the system is less than designing minimum self-clearing velocity because the actual calculated diameter was small. Sewer type is class B. The Ratio d/D and V/Vfull is calculated by using graph so there may be chances of less accuracy.

6 Recommendations and Conclusion


The land slope, potential for flooding and surface water concentration, amount of suitable area must be evaluated. Soil texture and structure, stabilized percolation rate, groundwater and bedrock conditions must be evaluated. All liquid waste and wash water shall discharge into the septic tank. The septic tank should be located where it is readily accessible for inspection and maintenance. A septic tank should be divided into two parts A) For sludge B) For waste water Self-cleaning velocity must be achieved to avoid the settlement of suspended particles. Install flashing tank where the velocity of sewage is less than 0.5 m/Sec. There is no need to install flash tank at every point where the velocity is low because a flashing tank can cover at least three or four points where velocity is low. Slope of bad checks before installing the sewer. This will be helpful if the slope is not according to design criteria. Minimum sewer size should be 225 mm Where lateral sewers are to be laid at deeper slopes, it may be more economical to lay them shallow and installing a Flushing tank there to achieve self-cleansing velocity.

Drawings of the sewerage system should be made and kept carefully, because it helps in future for its inspecting and maintenance. Prior to design, the positions of all existing services should be ascertained as accurately as possible. Pipes must be joined crown to crown to avoid back flow. No connection pipe should enter the manhole at an angle of greater than 90 in the direction of the flow. To avoid odour nuisance, ventilation of the manholes shall be considered. Proper bedding must be provided to improve the load carrying capacity of the sewer. House or building sewers shall be of a sound, durable material of watertight construction, have minimum diameter of four inches (10 cm). There is only one pump available at disposal station but according to PHED recommendation, there should be additional pump of 50% standby capacity. Therefore, my report suggests that one more pump should be installed, so both the pumps can work alternately. The maintenance of the system should be carried out at regular intervals. To carry out the job effectively there should be sufficient sewer men. During heavy rainfalls, water accumulates around the manholes. Therefore, it is t suggests that inlets should be provided at the corners of major streets and walkways and at the midpoints of blocks so that crosswalks are not flooded.

7 References
1. Steel E.W. and Terence.J.McGhee; "WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE" (5TH EDITION) 2. Babbit, Harold.E and E. Robert Bavmann; "SEWAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT" (8TH EDITION). 3. Fair,G.M.,J.C.Geyer and D.A.OKUN; "WATER AND WASTE WATER ENGG" VOL.1 & VOL .2 4. Bartlett, Ronald E; "PUMPING STATIONS FOR WATER AND SEWAGE" 5. " SUBMERSIBLE SEWAGE PUMPING SYSTEMS HAND BOOK" Lewis Publishers 6. DRAINAGE SERVICES DEPARTMENT Hong Kong; SEWERAGE MANUAL Key Planning Issues and Gravity Collection System (Third Edition, May 2013). 7. HANDBOOK ON SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE TREATMENT Office of the Principal Accountant General (Civil Audit) Chennai.