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Name: Ericka Vanessa Morn Abstract

A serious problem of breathing and sleep in children and adolescents: The sleep apnea syndrome. To review and give information about the clinical symptoms, etiology, treatment and the sleep research on sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in children and adolescents that is not a rare disorder at these ages, with the purpose to increase the knowledge of people who works in health care systems. Advance: The symptoms that characteri ed SAS in these ages are among others: breathing suffocations, stop and reduction of respiratory functions, snoring during sleep and daily somnolence. !atients and parents claim memory" learning and school and home behavior problems and so on. #oth se$es are affected, and this sleep disorder is an important risk factor to the abnormal development of mental and cardiovascular diseases. %ifferent factors seem to be related with the etiology of SAS: respiratory center functions disorders, alveolar hypoventilation, obstructions and anatomical abnormalities of upper airways obesity, snoring and some heredity factors. &linical e$amine and polisomnographic study with the multiple latency tests are important for the diagnosis. The most effective treatment is the continuous positive air ventilation through the nose using a special device to do it. Surgical procedures of pharyngeal anatomical problems can be useful. &onclusions: The SAS is not a rare a sleep disorder in children and adolescents and can induce them severe mental, behavioral and organic health problems at these ages.

General Information

What is sleep apnea?


Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which the person suffering makes one or more pauses in breathing or shallow breaths during sleep. The pauses can last from a few seconds to several minutes. They often occur '( times or more an hour. )sually, breathing returns to normal, sometimes with a loud snort or a similar sound that a person makes when choking. Almost always sleep apnea is a chronic (ongoing) health problem that disrupts sleep. The person goes from deep sleep to light sleep when there is a pause in breathing or if breathing becomes shallow. *or this reason, sleep is of poor +uality and feels tired during the day. Sleep apnea is one of the main reasons why a person may feel very sleepy during the day.

General review
A sleep apnea often goes undiagnosed. )sually, doctors can not detect during routine consultations. Also, no blood tests for this problem. ,ost people who have sleep apnea do not know they have it because it only occurs during sleep. The first to notice the signs of sleep apnea can be a relative or who sleeps in the same bed with the affected person. The most common type of sleep apnea is obstructive sleep apnea. -t airways are narrowed or blocked during sleep. This causes shallow breathing or pauses in breathing. .hen the person tries to breathe, the air breaks through the blockage can cause loud snoring. /bstructive sleep apnea is more common in overweight people, but it can affect anyone. *or e$ample, young children who have swollen tonsils may have obstructive sleep apnea.

Perspectives
Sleep apnea untreated can: -ncrease the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke (stroke) e$ternal link icon, obesity and diabetes -ncrease the risk of cardiac failure occurs -ncrease the chances that have arrhythmias or irregular heartbeats -ncrease the chance of car accidents or work

Sleep apnea is a chronic health problem that re+uires long"term treatment. &hanges in lifestyle, oral devices, and surgery or breathing devices can successfully treat sleep apnea in many people. a!ses All the body muscles rela$ during sleep, including those that help keep the airway open and allow air to flow into the lungs. Typically, the upper part of the throat still remains open enough during sleep to allow the passage of air. 0owever, some people have an area narrower throat. .hen muscles in the upper part of the throat rela$ during sleep, breathing can stop for a while (often more than 1( seconds). This is called apnea. The snoring in people with obstructive sleep apnea is caused by the air that is drained through the respiratory route narrowed or blocked. 0owever, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea. /ther factors may increase your risk: A lower 2aw which is short compared to the ma$illa (retrognatism). Some forms of the palate or the airway causing the latter are narrower and more easily collapse. 3arge tonsils and adenoids in children that can block the airway. 3arge neck or collar (14 inches or more in men and 15 inches or more for women)

3arge tongue that can be retracted and block the airway. /besity.

Sleeping on your back also increases sleep apnea episodes. "#mptoms A person who has obstructive sleep apnea often is not aware of the episodes during the night. /ften, family members witness the periods of apnea. A person with obstructive sleep apnea usually begins snoring very strong soon after falling asleep. /ften the snoring gets louder and then interrupted by a long silent period during which no breathing. This is followed by a loud snort and gasp, as the person tries to breathe. This pattern repeats. ,any people wake up tired in the morning and feel sleepy and drowsy throughout the day. This is called e$cessive daytime sleepiness (6%S). !eople with sleep apnea can: Act grumpy, impatient or irritable #eing forgetful *alling asleep while working, reading or watching T7 *eeling sleepy while driving or even falling asleep while driving 0aving headaches difficult to treat

!roblems that can occur with this condition: %epression worsens 0yperactive behavior, especially in children 3eg swelling (if severe)

$reatment The goal of treatment is to keep the airway open so that breathing does not stop during sleep.

The following changes in lifestyle can relieve the symptoms of sleep apnea in some people: Avoid alcohol and sedatives at bedtime, which can worsen symptoms. Avoid sleeping on your back can help relieve mild apnea. 3osing weight can reduce the number of episodes of apnea during the night. The continuous positive pressure airway (&!A!, for its acronym in 6nglish) is now considered the first treatment for obstructive sleep apnea for most people. The &!A! is administered by a machine fitted with a face mask. ,any patients have trouble sleeping with &!A! therapy. 8ood control and support of a speciali ed medical center sleep can often help overcome any problems with the use of &!A!. *or information on this treatment, see the article on &!A!. Some patients may need dental devices inserted into the mouth at night to keep the 2aw forward. "!r%er# ma# be an option in some cases ma# involve: )vulopalatopharyngoplasty ()!!!) to remove the e$cess tissue in the back of the throat. -t has not been shown that this surgery completely eliminates sleep apnea and it is e+ually possible that long"term side effects occur. ,ore invasive surgeries: to correct problems with facial structures in rare instances when patients have severe sleep apnea and the treatment has not worked. Tracheotomy: to create an opening in the windpipe to bypass the blocked airway if there are physical problems (rarely done). Surgery to remove the tonsils and adenoids often cures the condition in children and does not seem to help most adults.

&#pothesis

The sleep apnea is a common disorder that provokes pauses or swallows in the breathing of a person while dreaming. -t cannot be detected by routine consults but if it is not treated at time it could cause other serious disorders. The most common type of sleep apnea is when the person tries to breathe9 the air breaks through the blockage can cause loud snoring. 0owever there are other issues that this disorder could provoke in critical stages like cardiac failures9 heart attacks, depression and others. There are a lot of treatments in order not only to avoid this disorder or to cure it. 0owever9 the most effectives one are avoiding alcohol9 not to sleeping on your back and reducing the weight of the affected person in order to reduce the apnea episodes. The surgery is considered an option too9 however9 there is not a 1((: of effectiveness in order to cure this disorder. #etween the most famous surgeries is the Tracheotomy9 which consists in making a hole in the throat in order to form a bypass of the air coming from the lungs. As everybody knows9 this operation is irreversible and could not cure this disorder completely. Therefore9 the best treatment are the mentioned above and trying to discover the disorder in the children and teenager ages.