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Welding of Ductile Iron with Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal

A new filler metal system can be used with several welding processes to produce joints in ductile iron that match or exceed base metal properties up to 80,000 psi (552 MPa)

BY T. J. KELLY, R. A. BISHEL AND R. K. WILSON

ABSTRACT. The results described in this paper show that unalloyed ductile iron with up to 80,000 psi (552 MPa) tensile strength can be arc welded without preheat if Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal is used. This recently developed filler metal system has several metallurgical characteristics that provide advantages over other systems for joining ductile iron (and other cast irons). The Ni-Fe-Mn system has been found to be useful with a variety of welding processes, offering the potential for increased utility and economy in welding of ductile iron. Evaluations of weldment structures and tensile properties are presented. Finally, the effects of heat-affected zone microstructural features are assessed. The results indicate that satisfactory weldment properties do not depend solely on HAZ microstructure. Introduction
Welding of Ductile Iron

Since the invention of ductile iron (Dl) in 1948, the weldability of ductile iron alloys has been studied and many papers on the subject have been published. Despite the extensive investigation of welding of Dl, there continues to be disagreement over whether the material is "weldable" or "unweldable." Much of the controversy can be eliminated by the
Paper presented at the 65th Annual AWS Convention held in Dallas, Texas, during April 8-13, 1984. T J. KELLY, formerly with the Inco Alloy Products Company Research Center, Sterling Forest, Suffern, New York, is with General Electric Co., R. A. BISHEL and R. K WILSON are with Inco Alloys International, Huntington, West Virginia.

recognition that Dl is not an alloy, but rather a generic term for an alloy class or an alloy family. Beyond this, it must be understood that ductile iron alloys can range in properties from relatively lowstrength, high-ductility structures to highstrength, low-ductility materials, and that the matrix phase in a given engineering Dl can be ferrite, pearlite, or austenite. Using the ASTM designations for cast irons, it is clear that the designation Dl covers a wide property and compositional range. Key mechanical properties of ductile irons range as follows: tensile strength - 60 to 120 ksi (414 to 827 MPa), yield strength-45 to 90 ksi (310 to 621 MPa), and elongation- 10 to 3% (Ref. 1). The composition can be an Fe-C-Si alloy heat treated to attain tensile properties or can be alloyed with Ni, Cr, M o , etc., to achieve properties as cast (Refs. 2-6). In general, most welding research to date has been restricted to the 60-45-10* grade (Refs. 3-10) of Dl, but some work has been done on higher strength grades such as 80-60-03* (Refs. 2,11,12). Welding electrodes used to weld Dl include low carbon steel, pure nickel, stainless steel and iron-nickel, with iron-nickel being generally recognized as the filler metal system capable of providing the highest strength weldments. Since joint efficiencies in cast iron welds rarely reach 100%, weldment strength is often expressed in terms of the fraction of base metal strength that is retained in the weld joint. A long-standing uncertainty in the welding of Dl is whether or not preheat is

necessary (Refs. 1-4). This is not a question of the "weldability" of Dl, because weldability refers to the ability of a material to be joined under the imposed fabrication conditions to form a structure that will perform satisfactorily in the intended application. Thus, a given grade of ductile iron might be weldable without preheat in one application, weldable only with preheat in another application, and unweldable in a third application where fabrication conditions prevent the application of preheat (or where the level of restraint imposed was excessive). More often, researchers and users are concerned primarily with attaining certain specific target properties, such as yield strength, impact resistance and heataffected zone hardness, rather than with weldability per se. Given the varying base metal compositions, structures, and properties combined with the diversity of filler metals, applications, and required properties, it is not surprising that there is controversy over the welding of ductile irons in engineering applications. When unalloyed (Fe-C-Si) Dl is welded, a preheat of about 425°C (800°F) is required to prevent the formation of martensite, but preheat increases the amount of iron carbide that forms in the HAZ (Ref. 4). The carbide phase can be more detrimental than martensite to mechanical properties, particularly as it becomes nearly continuous in the HAZ. Welding without preheat to produce a thin band of martensite is preferable to developing a continuous band of iron carbide in the HAZ of unalloyed Dl.
Background to the Development of Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metals

* Numbers used here and elsewhere in the paper are values for mechanical properties in the following order: tensile and yield strengths (ksi) and elongation (%).

One reason that cast irons, including Dl, are more economical than cast steels

WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 179-s

59 Ni 42. It therefore represents an area of base metal that undergoes fusion without any change in composition. The low solidus and liquidus temperatures are one cause of welding problems.15 2. In addition to the more compatible solidification temperatures. B .41 2. 13) the recent development of NI-ROD+ Filler Metal 44 and NI-RODf Welding Electrode 44 (see Table 1 for composition).7 4. a flux-cored continuous welding wire for use with flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) and submerged arc welding (SAW).38 Si 0. 2 —Schematic of ductile iron weld joint design used to evaluate the Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal 80-s|MARCH 1985 . The primary characteristic of the NiFe-Mn system leading to improved cast iron welding is a solidification range more compatible with the base metal.90 3. cracks form in the HAZ.8 • 100.7 79 95 *The term refers to a very narrow region at the edge of the fusion zone where melting and solidification of the base metal occurs without mixing with the weld metal. MPa ksi % 481 693 69. The t w o heats of cast iron used were unalloyed and achieved their properties from heat treatment.). while the 80-55-06 was pearlitic. have limited the welding of cast iron.25 2. and the solidus temperature is correspondingly lower. the Ni-Fe-Mn system has the advantage of matching closely the thermal expansion coefficient of Dl (or other cast irons). The combination of these characteristics results in welds that solidify over a temperature range much closer to that of the base metal and which undergo similar thermal contraction upon solidification. also shown in Fig. and oxyacetylene welding has been employed for some applications. The 65-45-12 was a ferritic iron as shown in Fig. Along With Base Metal Tensile Properties Composition wt-% Material Ni-Fe-Mn44 65-45-12 80-55-06 C 0. Process limitations. and subsequent solidification stresses are reduced. 7 .0 0. Exploration of the ternary Ni-Fe-Mn system has led to Table 1—Composition of Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal 44 and Ductile Iron Base Metals.078 in. 14).02 0. high solidification stresses are not placed on the partially melted heataffected zone of the Dl during solidification.80-55-06 pearlitic. shielded metal-arc welding (SMAW) has been used extensively with the ENi-CI and ENiFe-Cl grades of covered electrode (Ref.6 13 6 Reduction in area. which allows melting and pouring at lower temperatures. RB % 14.33 0. solidification stresses are concentrated in a narrow region of limited ductility. ( Ductile Iron Ductile Iron • Fig. the FC 55 filler metal is somewhat limited in that it cannot be produced in diameters smaller than 2 mm (0. While the FC 55 product produces weldments with properties that match or exceed those of the 65-45-12 grade of Dl. 1.8 59. Procedure Several different welders and heats of ductile iron were used to establish the $£• ® / Trademark of the Inco family of companies. Most welding of cast iron has been performed with relatively low deposition rate processes. The Fe-Ni-Mn system has a liquidus temperature about 100°C (180°F) lower than the Fe-Ni system. (Ref. For a complete explanation. When the weld metal solidifies before the "unmixed zone"* and high temperature HAZ. Materials All materials used in this work were of commercial quality. Therefore. the major advancement in filler metals for cast iron welding was NI-ROD FC 55. see Savage et al.0 0.03 Fe Bal Bal Bal Cast iron grade 65-45-12 80-55-06 Yield strength MPa 323 413 ksi 46. Prior to the development of Ni-Fe-Mn. since common filler metals for welding of cast iron —nearly pure Ni (AWS grade ENi-CI) and 55% Nibalance Fe (ENiFe-Cl and -Cl-A) — solidify at higher temperatures than the base metal.70 Mn 11. When the low-ductility area cannot accommodate the resulting strains. Hardness.Microstructures of the two ductile iron heats used in this work: A — 65-45-12 ferritic. X500 (reduced 50% on reproduction) Fig. combined with the metallurgical factors described above. 1.is that their solidification temperatures — solidus and liquidus —are lower.9 Base Metal Tensile Properties: Ultimate tensile strength Elongation.

J/in.) root face and root gap. Contact tip-to-workpiece distance was 25 m m (1 in. To evaluate the welding of both 65-45-12 and 80-55-06 Dl to steel. 0 4 5 in. Mechanical property evaluation was done using both cross-weld and all-weld tensile specimens. 2 was used to evaluate the Ni-Fe-Mn system with GMAW.) slices so that all beads were deposited on the same base metal.) to provide a 70 deg included angle for welding.0 . The gases used were pure argon. Results and Discussion Gas Metal-Arc Welding of Dl with Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal With G M A W a primary independent variable is the shielding gas. ipm Voltage. and GTAW processes. 75% argon-25% carbon dioxide. where no root face was required. each weldment was examined visually and radiographically prior to sectioning for metallographic and mechanical property evaluation. Table 3—Conditions Used For Gas Tungsten Arc Welding and Submerged Arc Welding With Filler Metal 44 and Shielded Metal Arc Welding With Welding Electrode 44 Submerged arc' b ' Gas tungsten arc Welding wire diameter. Fe core welding wire was developed to complement the bare wire product.) thick sections of 6545-12 and 80-55-06 ductile iron. The resulting overlay was tested by means of a longitudinal face bend.75 in. * Trademark of Union Carbide. and pure carbon dioxide.062 in. 3 m m (V& in. A study of joint penetration and HAZ microstructure was conducted using the process and five shielding gases described above. Joint Design The joint configuration shown in Fig. In order to control as many variables as possible. 2.400 4 98 A / 2 % 0 2 300 27 220 50 10 35. Metallographic evaluation consisted of optical metallography and microhardness testing.). Contact tip to workpiece in. 1 X 3 in. Gas metal-arc (GMA). Y60B3.) DC reverse polarity (electrode positive). Conditions for SMAW are listed in Table 3.4 mm (0.045 in.062 225 10 32 260 Surfacing deposit^' 0. A 35 deg bevel was machined into 19 mm (3/A in. thick. Argon 300 28 260-280 50 10 45. Evaluation Once welding was complete.6 mm (0.) diameter Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal to weld 65-45-12 ductile iron. Welding Process Details GMAW. Both the 65-45-12 and 8055-06 grades of Dl were used to evaluate the Filler Metal 44 system.093 in. the travel speed.360 7 3 75% A / 2 5 C 0 2 300 27 200 50 10 32. Because of the combination of high weld metal strength of the Ni-Fe-Mn and the low ductility of the 80-55-06 grade.) thick cast iron slabs 75 X 254 X 19 mm (3 X 10 X VA in. A ta) (b) to) (d) <e) (a) Butt joint 0. the Filler Metal 44 (Ni-Fe-Mn) system was used with Incofluxj 6 to weld 65-45-12 Dl.640 5 /s 5 Linde Stargon 300 29 220-230 50 10 39. To evaluate the SAW process. in. welding wire feed speed. A single slab of 65-45-12 Dl was cut into 25 X 75 X 19 mm (1 X 3 X VA in. Welding wire speed. semi-automatic G M A W was used with 1 mm (0. cfh Travel speed. the same process and filler metal was used with pure argon shielding gas. ipm Heat input.150 5 co2 300 27 200 50 10 32. the electrode was evaluated with both the 6545-12 and 80-55-06 grades of Dl. 1 Gas Wire feed. Heat Ho. and contact tip-to-workpiece distance (electrode extension) were held constant.) filler metal and the conditions listed in Table 3. SMAW. ipm Travel speed. gas tungsten-arc (GTA). SAW. as shown in Fig. Welds were deposited manually using 2. A Gas flow. SAW. Overlaying with the Ni-Fe-Mn system was assessed by using SAW to overlay a Dl plate that had been given a ferritizing anneal. which affects f Trademark of the Inco family of companies.D u c t i l e iron 65-45-12 (% in. The pieces were clamped into position for welding using a 1. WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 181-s .) tungsten electrode.093 Manual feed 7-10 (manual) 18-19 200 4.062 Shielded metal arc'e) 0. DC straight polarity (electrode negative).125 Manual Manual 24 90 0. Welding w i r e .5 33 290 Argon 20 cfh. diameter NI-ROD Filler Metal 44. Standard DC operation — reverse polarity. Linde Stargon*. utility of the Fe-Ni-Mn system in welding ductile iron. shielded metal-arc (SMA) and submerged arc (SA) welding processes were evaluated using Filler Metal 44 and Welding Electrode 44 with 19 mm (0. 98% argon-2% oxygen. V Current. A covered electrode using a nominal 42% Ni-11% Mn-Bal. To determine the effects on properties of changes in shielding gas. GTAW. Buttering of the joint eliminated the HAZ cracking that had been experienced in earlier trials. SMAW. ipm Voltage. V Current. the machined surfaces of the joint were buttered with welding electrode 44 prior to joining.400 % /8 Vs % ""Base m e i a l .Table 2—Gas Metal Arc Welding Variables Used With Filler Metal 44 and Five Different Commercial Shielding Gases<a> Weld no. The current and voltage were allowed to stabilize at whatever value was required to provide a stable arc —Table 2. The only exception to this joint design was for SMAW.

weldment mechanical properties are the most important evaluation criterion.3 5.5 72. it is desirable to minimize the amount of martensite and iron carbide present in the HAZ. ksi 53. A sixth weldment was made between Dl and steel to evaluate the Ni-Fe-Mn system as a filler metal for dissimilar metal Table 4—Average*3' Cross-Weld Tensile Properties*1" of Ductile Iron (65-45-12) Weldments Made by GMAW With NI Rod Filler Metal 44 and Five Different Commercial Shielding Gases Y.0 2. The data in Table 4 and the macrographs in Fig. El.) diameter welding wire at 240 A. E.5 14.4 kg/h (11. 1 Dl 1 HAZ/DI. The microstructures and mechanical behavior of these multipass welds were different from those of the single layer welds described above. The exception to this practice was the weld made with carbon dioxide shielding.0 71.5 69. The mechanical properties obtained with the five shielding gases are presented in Table 4.4 Ib/h) when argon is used. the argon-2% oxygen has about the same wetting angle as the 100% argon while operating at the same heat input as the other three shielding gases. U.S. RA.0 2.7 20. % 10. but current and voltage were allowed to stabilize at levels that provided a stable arc. The carbon dioxide gas produces the deepest penetrating bead. it is surprising that the lowest and highest heat input weldments have almost identical HAZ thicknesses and structures. 1 HAZ/DI 3 Dl HAZ 3 u u MPa Argon Argon —2% 0 2 Stargon 75%Ar-25%C0 2 Carbon dioxide (c) Argon (d) (a) (b. 3 indicate that all five gases can be used with the Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal system. 3—Macrostructures of GMA bead-onplate welds made using Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal with five shielding gases: A— 100% Ar. % 2.100% C02. the deposition rate for C 0 2 is 5.6 8.8 66.0 397. the latter appears to be the better choice on the basis of bead contour and low heat input. Figure 3 compares the weld penetration patterns of weld beads made with the five shielding gases.6 455.6 Failure location 2 HAZ/DI. This is probably why the wetting angle of the weld bead is better in this case. Also. Using this criterion. C-98% Ar-2% OzD-75% Ar-25% C02.S.1 ksi 64.T. the effective heat input (due to differences in heat transfer characteristics). L U.5 u r> u c Average of 3 tests. where the temperature between layers was controlled to decrease the amount of oxide on the bead surface in multi-layer welds.r e d u c t i o n in area. This is beneficial when complete penetration is required in groove or fillet welds. . However.. (c) 8 2 . some conditions were held constant. The evaluations to this point have been based on visual observation of the arc and examination of bead shape and microstructure.9 Ib/h) as compared to 4. Mechanical test specimens were removed from multipass welds made without preheat and without control of interpass temperature. X5 (reduced approximately 25% on reproduction) arc stability. when using 1 mm (0.3 3.i n particular.5 53.045 in. .Fig. The effective heat input to the weldment largely determines both the microstructure of the HAZ and the mechanical properties of the weldment. This weldment was cooled below 95°C (200°F) between layers.2 El. As noted earlier. either the 100% argon or the 100% carbon dioxide appear to be the shielding gases providing the best weldments.3 385. Figure 4 shows the HAZ microstructures below the point of deepest penetration of the five weld beads.8 57.4 493.1 55.7 3.7 RA. the heat input is approximately 30% greater than for the other four gases. the carbon dioxide produces the highest deposition rate at a given current level.ultimate tensile strength. however.9 367. 2 Dl 3 HAZ/DI 2 HAZ.6 477. The main difference among the five gases is the heat input and the wetting of the 65-45-12 Dl by the filler metal. (d) Dissimilar metal w e l d of ductile iron to steel.0 498.0 1. penetration. Y. When comparing these microstructures.1 481. B — Stargon. Comparing the pure argon and the argon-2% oxygen mixture.1 56.4 389. as noted in Table 2. From a microstructural viewpoint.3 kg/h (9. a t c > z 366.6 56.3 69. and heat i n p u t . For example. . — Yield strength.S | M A R C H 1985 .S. As a result the heat input varied as a function of the shielding gas used.5 5.3 MPa 445. In the case of 100% argon.elongation.S.2 387.T.

2 111. C-Ar-2% 02. and is very dependent on the location of failure (HAZ and fusion line failures are often low ductility fractures).Fig. tion) five GMA B-Stargon.8 496. The microstructures of the GTA welds appear quite different from the GMAW HAZ microstructures. and reduction in area data indicate that C 0 2 and argon2% oxygen provide the best weldment performance. but. filler metal.3 105. Cross-weld ductility is related to the differences in strength among the base metals. The measured ultimate tensile strength of this 80-55-06 grade material was 694 MPa (100.2 38. As shown in Table 5. To illustrate this point. All-weldmetal tensile properties for GTAW are presented for comparison in Table 7.4 Elongation. and hardnesses of the six GMA weldment specimens were essentially equal.0 % 34.0 31. Gas Tungsten-Arc Welding of Dl with Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal Argon was used for all GTA welds in this study.0 72.3 475.-All-Weld-Metal Tensile Properties of Ductile Iron 65-45-12 GMA Weldments Made with Filler Metal 44 and Five Different Shielding Gases Yield strength Gas Argon Argon (Dl to steel) Ar-2% 0 2 Stargon 75%Ar-25%C0 2 MPa 469.500 psi) to 498 MPa (72.4 497.6 co2 94 97 93 94 97 96 WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 183-s . RB % 24. strength varies from piece to piece.5 112.2 Tensile strength MPa 700. the cross-weld strengths.1 486.0 32.2 109. ranged from 445 MPa (64. tensile failure locations. In reviewing the cross-weld tensile properties given in Table 4. although differences were relatively minor. Highest cross-weld tensile strengths were achieved with carbon dioxide shielding.6 72. Hardness. but at a high ultimate tensile strength of 628 MPa (91. D-75% Ar-25% 100% C02.8 ksi 68. In comparison. As shown in Table 4. but helium could also have been used.9 768. X200 (reduced 54%. 4 —HAZ microstructures of welds made with: A.1 62. the values in Table 4 — especial- ly the reduction in area data —suggest that argon-2% oxygen also provides particularly good weldment properties.7 68. Carbon dioxide or inert gasoxygen gas mixtures should not be used to GTAW cast iron with the Fe-Ni-Mn system.200 psi).5% reduction in area. argon was used as the shielding gas for this weld.9 70. The specimen from the weldment made in grade 8055-06 failed in the HAZ.5 34.0 36. Eon reproduc- welding. Using the measured base metal strength results in a joint efficiency for GTAW of greater than 90%.100% Ar. cross-weld failures in the base metal. which represent the average value of three tests. it is worth noting that the tensile strengths of the 65-45-12 slabs vary from slab to slab.7 725.1 47. and HAZ's.2 40. Reduction in area.5 432.6 99. Mechanical properties presented in Table 6 show that over 100% of the rated ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the Dl are recovered. The data in Table 4 indicate that good weldments can be made with all five shielding gases.9 44.3 752. C02.8 775.600 psi). The cross-weld tensile specimen from the weldment in 65-45-12 Dl failed in the base metal with a 5% elongation and 19. changes in the G M A W shielding gases did not affect all-weldmetal properties. as noted earlier.0 ksi 101. the strengths.300 psi). which measure the tensile strength of the Dl. ductilities. This is probably due to the lower heat input of the welding process and the smaller size of the weld bead deposited by GTAW. While all five gases can provide satisfactory properties.1 40. While cross-weld ductility is only an indicator.5 684.0 32. Table 5.

2 73.8 U. T h e martensite is c o n t i n u o u s along t h e fusion z o n e . Reduction in area. these s u b m e r g e d arc w e l d s disp l a y e d c o m p l e t e r e t e n t i o n of base-metal tensile p r o p e r t i e s .0 57.0 MPa 497.0 1. w h i l e t h e i r o n carbide appears i n t e r m i t t e n t l y along t h e fusion line.Yield strength. A longitudinal face b e n d o f 2T — t w o times t h e s p e c i m e n thickness as t h e b e n d radius — w a s m a d e . ksi 72. B-80-55-06 grade.Table 6—Typical Cross-Weld Tensile Properties*"' of Ductile Iron (65-45-12) Weldments Made by SAW and GTAW Y. t h e r e f o r e .S. a 19 m m (3/A in. the H A Z in the s u b m e r g e d arc w e l d s is n a r r o w e r than that o b s e r v e d in w e l d m e n t s m a d e b y any o f t h e o t h e r w e l d i n g processes evaluated in this paper.) diameter Filler M e t a l 4 4 .2 El.4 104. and Incoflux 6 was used w i t h Filler M e t a l 44. T h e tensile test specimens b r o k e in the base metal w e l l a w a y f r o m the H A Z and b o t h yield a n d tensile strengths w e r e a b o v e t h e specified m i n i m u m (Table 6). and it d e m o n s t r a t e s that w e l d i n g o f D l w i t h o u t preheat or postheat is a viable a p p r o a c h .4 56. T o d e t e r m i n e if the Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal c o u l d b e used t o overlay ductile i r o n . % 8. <b 'CTA w e l d in grade 80-55-06 base metal.S. A l l .6 392.2 542. m o s t A ®.s | M A R C H 1985 . A .4 42.9 73.-Ultimate tensile strength. X200 (reduced 54% on reproduction) Fig. El. a distrib u t i o n o f bainite. R . o/ /o Hardness. Figure 6 is an e x a m p l e o f the H A Z m i c r o s t r u c t u r e .r e d u c t i o n in area. incoflux 6 w a s used w i t h the 1.9 788. a n d t h e finished o v e r l a y w a s m a c h i n e d t o a thickness o f 9. 7.8 ksi 91. .S.0 24.A. Table 7—Typical All-Weld-Metal Tensile Properties of Submerged Arc and Gas Tungsten-Arc Weldments Cast iron grade 65-45-12 65-45-12 80-55-06 Welding process SAW GTAW GTAW Yield strength MPa 399.8 719.0 33. T h r e e layers w e r e d e p o s i t e d o n the ferritized D l .2 90 94 96 V e r y little u n t e m p e r e d martensite is f o u n d in t h e H A Z of t h e G T A W . secondary i r o n carbide and secondary g r a p h i t e w a s f o u n d at t h e fusion line of t h e 8 0 a n d 65 ksi (552 a n d 448 MPa) Dl w e l d m e n t s . **: K Fig.0 5. % 6. but this has not resulted in an increase in ductility o f t h e w e l d m e n t .4 Elongation.062 in. Submerged Arc Welding of Dl with Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal T h e S A W w a s also d o n e w i t h o u t p r e heat or p o s t h e a t .7 70.2 Failure location Dl Dl HAZ O ' Y .5 91. •- i0» •» .0 43.elongation.9 78. as s h o w n in Fig. T h e l o w c r o s s . Shielded Metal-Arc Welding of Dl with Ni-Fe-Mn Filler Metal N u m e r o u s brands of Ni(ENi-CI) a n d NiFe(ENiFe-CI a n d -Cl-A) c o v e r e d elect r o d e s are commercially available.8 506.T.w e l d ductility s h o w n in t h e limited tests o f this non-martensitic m i c r o s t r u c t u r e c o n f i r m s the o b s e r v a t i o n o f others (Ref. 6 — Typical HAZ microstructure of a submerged arc weldment in ductile iron made with Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal.w e l d .4 ksi Tensile strength MPa 632. t h e H A Z in these w e l d s consists o f coarse martensite a n d p r i m a r y iron carbide. A s e c o n d difference is the absence o f s e c o n d a r y g r a p h ite in the H A Z .m e t a l p r o p e r t i e s are p r e sented in Table 7. A v o i d i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f martensite d o e s n o t necessarily result in b e t t e r w e l d m e n t mechanical p r o p e r t i e s .8 114. U.6 51.w e l d e d H A Z can h a v e mechanical p r o p e r t i e s equal t o o r better than o t h e r c o m b i n a t i o n s of phases f o u n d in s o m e D l w e l d m e n t HAZ's. RB % 26. X200 (reduced 50% on reproduction) Fig.8 628.5 3.3 ksi 49.% ..2 19.6 485.5 m m ( % i n ) . S .T. 7 —Outer surface of a tested bend specimen from a submerged arc overlay made on ductile iron with Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal 8 4 . 4) that the u n t e m p e r e d martensite of t h e a s . Welding process Submerged arc Gas tungsten arc Gas tungsten arc (b) MPa 340. In t h e place o f t h e martensite f o u n d in t h e G M A W .) slab w a s g i v e n a ferritizing anneal-900°C (1650°F)/3 h + furnace cool to 6 9 0 ° C (1275°F)/5 h + f u r n a c e c o o l t o 5 9 5 ° C (1100°F) + air c o o l .5 R. as illustrated b y Fig.3 503. 5 — Typical HAZ microstructures of ductile iron GTA weldments made with Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal: A-65-45-12 grade. T h e w e l d i n g p a r a m e ters u s e d f o r S A W a p p e a r in Table 3. 5.6 m m (0. n o defects w e r e seen o n t h e b e n t surface.

. These areas c o n tained s e c o n d a r y carbides a n d graphite. D.8 ksi 67. and Birer. and Szekeres. Medana. and Remodino. if these p r o p e r t i e s are i m p o r t a n t in a particular application.8 71. 6. Welding Journal 39(11):465-s to 472-s. A.6 490.. Mountainside. It has also b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d that Dl w e l d m e n t s containing i r o n carbide. This p a p e r has n o t a t t e m p t e d t o evaluate the fatigue o r i m p a c t p r o p e r t i e s o f w e l d m e n t s . 8. and Loper. t h e n e w l y d e v e l o p e d Ni-Fe-Mn covered e l e c t r o d e will p r o d u c e a 100% joint e f f i ciency in castings w i t h tensile strengths greater t h a n 483 MPa (70. C. M. Average of 5 tests. because o f the l o w ductility of the higher strength castings. G T A W . Additionally t h e Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal system has b e e n s h o w n t o b e suitable f o r use w i t h all of the fusion w e l d i n g p r o cesses normally applied t o cast irons.3 13. Bishel. t h e H A Z o f this t y p e o f w e l d is e x t r e m e l y h e t e r o g e neous. S M A W and S A W processes. Welding Journal 48(4):161-s to 166-s. 14.8 Tensile strength MPa 653. Ductile i r o n can b e w e l d e d w i t h o u t preheat o r postheat using t h e Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal. R. C. Savage. R. E. W. 1979. it is n o t the sole d e t e r m i n a n t of c r o s s . H A Z m i c r o structure alone c a n n o t b e used t o predict weldment performance.1 52.6 Failure location 94 93 — Dl HAZ - — - tcJ Test direction. 3. 9.Table 8—Cross-Weld and All-Weld-Metal Tensile Properties of Ductile Iron Weldments Made by SMAW With Welding Electrode 44 Reduction in area.. By c o m p a r i s o n . 1978. and Owczarski. R. M. 8—Typical HAZ microstructures from a SMA weldment made in ductile iron with Ni-Fe-Mn covered electrode.. 1960. 8. Welding Journal 52(6):372-381.0 % 15. R.5 94. Florida: American Welding Society. 1969. E. R„ )r. Davila. w h i l e similar positions in t h e H A Z at o t h e r locations in t h e w e l d c o n t a i n e d e x t r e m e l y coarse martensite.3 12. W. and Loper. F. AFS transactions.w e l d tensile strength o f 5 8 0 M P a (84. 79-86. T h e S M A W w a s d o n e w i t h o u t preheat or postheat. New lersey: Ductile Iron Society. W e l d joints w i t h strengths equal t o t h o s e of the 65-45-12 base metal w e r e m a d e w i t h t h e Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal using t h e G M A W . w h i c h is greater than the m i n i m u m ultimate tensile strength f o r the 80-55-06 g r a d e . E. A W M . Effects of the arc welding thermal cycle on the structural and mechanical properties of high strength irons. 611-615. Pease..5 84. Nippes.000 psi) w i t h elongation greater than 12%. C . RB % 13.9 69.7 477.1 446. R. 5. C. Olson.6 364. 1961.w e l d tensile properties in ductile i r o n w e l d s . Specification for welding rods and covered electrodes for welding cast iron (A5. 4.7 8. Natale. t h e n they must b e tested. Braton. A. 1971. showing two locations in the same cross section. Welding ductile iron — current practices and applications. Prepared joint surfaces buttered w i t h Ni-Fe-Mn before joining. Welding Journal 39(1): 15-95. Welding Journal 62(3):82-s to 88-s. G. 1982. T h e all-weld-metal tensile strength (Table 8) o f the Ni-Fe-Mn e l e c t r o d e is o v e r 6 2 0 MPa (90.. and Morley. ]r. and Vasil 'ev V...000 psi) a n d e l o n g a t i o n o f 16% f o r standard ENiFe-Cl grade. Gretskii. W i t h special p r e p a r a t i o n consisting o f b u t t e r i n g t h e joint surfaces. The heat-affected zone of arc-welded ductile iron. 4. Kotecki. This contrasts w i t h typical all w e l d metal ultimate tensile strength o f 483 M P a (70. | „ |r.. 1. Austenitic-bainitic ductile iron. |. Miami. R.2 Elongation. The welding of ductile iron. Welding Journal 40(9):417-s to 422-s. 1960. M e c h a n i c a l p r o p e r t y evaluation resulted in all transverse tensile specimens b r e a k i n g in t h e base metal w e l l a w a y f r o m the H A Z . High strength welding of ductile iron castings. 1981. pp. However. Submerged arc welding of ductile iron. of t h e latter t y p e are capable of p r o d u c ing 100% joint efficiency in w e l d s o f 65-45-12 g r a d e D l . Bates.. M. Svarka 6:9-12. R. Ya. Ductile iron grade 65-45-12<b» 65-45-12*' 80-55-06<c> 80-55-06<c> a) (b) Test(a) direction AWM CW AWM CW Yield strength MPa 462. X200 (reduced 50% on reproduction) e l e c t r o d e t o p r o d u c e a w e l d joint w i t h yield a n d tensile strengths a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m f o r high strength 80-55-06 d u c tile iron. 1960. 1973. References 1... Secondary graphite formation in tempered nodular cast iron weldments. Higher strength castings like t h e grade of 80-55-06 Dl can also b e w e l d e d w i t h the Ni-Fe-Mn electrode. N. 13. Korschina. A study of heat-affected zone structures in ductile cast iron. martensite in t h e H A Z can h a v e useful tensile p r o p e r t i e s .200 psi). M. 7. AFS Transactions. E. R.. Microstructurally. F. L. F. 2. Hardness. Savage.1582). as s h o w n in Fig. T. 12. T h e r e f o r e . Flux-cored electrode for cast iron welding. Avt. 1977. N. t h e r e w e r e areas of the H A Z that w e r e c o m p l e t e l y d e v o i d o f martensite. D u e t o the inherently intermittent heat input a n d s l o w travel speed of t h e S M A W process.1 90. Voigt. t h e joint surfaces must be b u t t e r e d prior t o joining.T a ble 8.Cross-Weld. F. and Freese. Preheat effects on gas metal-arc welded ductile cast iron. w h i l e H A Z m i c r o s t r u c t u r e is i m p o r t a n t . C W .2 1. S. G. pp.. Fig. pp. 2. Johansson. 10. 117-122. D. 11. These results s h o w that.000 psi). W . D. s e c o n d a r y g r a p h i t e . T h e r e f o r e . 3. a n d / o r WELDING RESEARCH SUPPLEMENT 185-s . A. but w i t h a m i n o r change in joint design that resulted in the r e m o v a l of the r o o t face f r o m the r o o t p o r t i o n of the w e l d joint.2 624. This p r o c e d u r e resulted in a c r o s s . S M A W w a s used w i t h the Ni-Fe-Mn c o v e r e d Summary and Conclusions T h e Ni-Fe-Mn filler metal system has b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d t o b e capable o f w e l d i n g D l w i t h o u t preheat or postheat and retaining 100% of t h e base metal tensile p r o p e r t i e s . AFS transactions. Welding nodular iron without post-weld annealing. 1983. F.2 15.0 3. Nippes.All-Weld-Metal.2 64. Welding Journal 55(9): 260-s to 268-s.0 580. A study of weld interface phenomena in a low alloy steel. Welding Journal 58(11):337-s to 342-s. 1976. A. S. C . Ya. this w a s the most n o n u n i f o r m specimen e x a m i n e d in this investigation. Askeland.