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LIQUID LIQUID EXTRACTION EXPERIMENT

SUMMARY The main purpose of this experiment as to !ra the e"ui#i$rium %ur&e an! as extra%te!

stu!' the effe%t of num$er of sta(es for a (i&en #i"ui! #i"ui! extra%tion s'stem) In this experiment *en+oi% a%i! !isso#&e! in *en+ene $' usin( -ater it ater) Thou(h, *en+oi% a%i! as preferentia##' so#u$#e in as so#u$#e in $oth *en+ene an! ater) Moreo&er, *en+ene an! -ater

ere %omp#ete#' immis%i$#e) .o, the' forme! separate phases after mixin() -hen this mixer as sett#e! for sometimes, a portion of *en+oi% a%i! as ith NaO/ of 0)01 N %on%entrations for !ifferent mi(rate! from *en+ene to -ater phase) The amount of *en+oi% a%i! !etermine! $' titration

sta(es) In part A of this experiment, the amount of extra%te! *en+oi% a%i! in one, t o an! four sta(es ere 2)3456, 2)4576 an! 3)01876 respe%ti&e#') In this experiment the amount of extra%te! %onstitute in%rease! ith the ere in%reases of num$er of sta(es) In part * of this experiment sto%9 so#ution of !ifferent %on%entration %ontainin( :)2, 5)0, 1)2 an! 0)3 ( of *en+ene extra%te! $' usin( extra%te! phases ater as a so#&ent) In this part the %on%entration of ere 0)01:5, 0)0117, 0)0085 an! 0)00:8) The ere 0)527:1;, 0);532:;, as not exa%t#'

%orrespon!in( %on%entration of raffinate phases passe! throu(h the ori(in)

0)113511 an! 0)0:25:0) The p#otte! e"ui#i$rium %ur&e

OBSERVED DATA Part<A= .tu!' the Effe%t of Num$er of .ta(es Mass of *en+oi% a%i! >3(

?o#ume of *en+ene > 200 m# .tren(th of NaO/ > 0)01 N Ta$#e 1= O$ser&e! Data of Part<A for .in(#e .ta(e Extra%tion) Obs. No of no. Volume Volume of !ate" a##e# ,+ /+ /+ 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ solution (ml * 0a 0b .a .b .c .# / * 0 *++ *++ *++ *++ *++ *++ *++ Volume of e$t"act %&ase taken (ml *+ *+ *+ *+ *+ *+ *+ -.. */.. 01./ 0*.2 01.0 .2.2 .*.0 */.. 0*.1 .2./ 01.0 .2.2 /..1 .,.3 (nitial Bu"ette "ea#ing (ml )inal Volume of NaO' a##e# -.+ -.2 -.+ -.2 -./ -.. -.. stages of stock

Part<*= E"ui#i$rium Cur&e @eneration ?o#ume of *en+ene ta9en for ea%h sto%9 so#ution > 100 m# .tren(th of NaO/ > 0)01N

Ta$#e ;= O$ser&e! Data of Part<* for P#ottin( E"ui#i$rium Cur&e for .o#utions of Different Con%entrations) -ei(ht of *en+oi% A%i! ta9en in 100 m# *en+ene A(mB ?o#ume of ater a!!e! Am#B ?o#ume of extra%te! $en+oi% a%i! so#ution ta9en Am#B :)2 80 10 :)5 18)3 1:)5 Initia# *urette rea!in( Am#B Cina# ?o#ume of NaO/ a!!e! Am#B

5)0

80

10

18)3

50)5

11)7

1)2

80

10

50)5

58)3

8)5

0)3

80

10

;:)3

;4):

:)8

4A54U5ATED DATA Ea%h 100 m# sto%9 so#ution %ontains 1);( $en+oi% a%i!)

Ta$#e 5= Ca#%u#ate! !ata for per%ent extra%tion) O$s) No) No) of sta(es ?o#ume of NaO/ so#ution Am#B 1 ;a ;$ 5a 5$ 5% 5! : 1 ; 7)0 7)3 7)0 7)3 7): 7)5 7)5 7)0 7)3 7)0 7)3 7): 7)5 7)5 .tren(th of A"ueous #a'erD105 ANB Ea%h sta(e Tota# Amount of .o#ute in ater Amount of so#ute in $en+ene A(B Per%ent extra%te! A6B

0)0385;0 0)057088 0)05:130 0)0182:: 0)018023 0)01781; 0)01781;

0)0385;0 0)071;:8

1)151380 1)1;872;

2)345 2)457

0)07;;;:

1)1;7773

3)0187

TA*LE := Ca#%u#ate! !ata for fittin( e"ui#i$rium %ur&e) O$s) ?o#ume No) of NaO/ Am#B .tren(th of A"ueous ANB Amount of .o#ute in ater A(B Amount of so#ute in $en+ene A(B Con%entration of so#ute in ater A(<mo#ELB Con%entration of so#ute in $en+ene A(<mo#ELB

.o#ution #a'erD105

1 ; 5 :

1:)5 11)7 8)5 :)8

0)01:5 0)0117 0)0085 0)00:8

0)154238 0)11:14; 0)081008 0)0:38:8

:)530:5; ;)882808 1):1844; 0)22512;

0)01:5 0)0117 0)0085 0)00:8

0)527:1; 0);532:; 0)113511 0)0:25:0

SAM65E 4A54U5AT(ON

6ART A= Effe%t of sta(es .amp#e %a#%u#ation is (i&en for one<sta(e extra%tion pro%ess= .to%9 so#ution > 100 m# *en+ene F 1); ( *en+oi% a%i!) Amount of ater a!!e! > 80 m#) Thus stren(th of NaO/ so#ution, .1 > 0)01 ?o#ume of NaO/ so#ution, ?1 > 7)0 m# ?o#ume of the samp#e so#ution, ?; > 10)0 m# No e 9no , ?1.1>?;.;
VS 7)0 0)01 = 0)007 N 10)0

1 1 Thus the stren(th of the a"ueous #a'er, S ; = V = ;

@ram e"ui&a#ent ei(ht of *en+oi% a%i!, e > 1;; (Emo# Amount of *en+oi% a%i! in a"ueous #a'er,
m = Nev = 0)007 1;; 80 = 0)0385; g 1000
Amount of acid in aqueous layer AmB 1006 Total amount of acid A M B 0)0385; = 1006 1); =2)3456

Percentage of extraction =

6ART B7 E"ui#i$rium %ur&e (eneration) .amp#e %a#%u#ation for !ata set 5= .to%9 so#ution > 100 m# *en+ene F 1)2 ( *en+oi% a%i! ?o#ume of ater a!!e! to the sto%9 so#ution > 80 m# ?o#ume of NaO/ so#ution, ?1 > 8)5 m# .tren(th of NaO/ so#ution, .1 > 0)01N ?o#ume of a"ueous #a'er, ?; > 10 m# No e 9no , ?1.1>?;.;
VS 8)5 0)01 = 0)0085 N 10)0

1 1 Thus the stren(th of the a"ueous #a'er, S ; = V = ;

@ram e"ui&a#ent ei(ht of *en+oi% a%i!, e > 1;; (Emo# Amount of *en+oi% a%i! in a"ueous #a'er,
m = Nev = 0)0085 1;; 80 = 0)081008 g 1000

Amount of *en+oi% a%i! in *en+ene > A1)2 0)081008B ( > 1):1844; ( Con%entration of *en+oi% a%i! in ater, C1 Con%entration of *en+oi% a%i! in *en+ene, C;
= 1):1844; 1000 g mol = 0)113511 100 1;; L = 0)081008 1000 g mol = 0)0085 80 1;; L

Percent extraction Vs. Number of stages


6.05 6 5.95 5.9 5.85 5.8 5.75 5.7 5.65 0 1 2 3 4 Number of stages 5 Percent extraction (%)

Ci(ure := Chan(e in per%ent extra%tion ith %han(e in num$er of sta(es

Extract phase Vs. Raffinate phase concentration curve


0.016 0.014 0.012 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.004 0.002 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Concentration of Benzoic aci in Benzene (N) Concentration of Benzoic aci in !ater (N)

Ci(ure 2= @raphi%a# representation of extra%t phase a(ainst raffinate phase

RESU5T AND D(S4USS(ON Crom the experimenta# !ata the fo##o in( resu#ts ere o$taine! for 6ART A A1B The amount of *en+oi% a%i! extra%te! in sin(#e, t o an! four<sta(e extra%tion pro%ess ere 0)0385;(, 0)071;:8( an! 0)07;;;:( respe%ti&e#') A;B The per%ent of a%i! extra%tion in sin(#e, t o an! four<sta(e extra%tion ere 2)3456, 2)4576 an! 3)01876 respe%ti&e#')

Theoreti%a##' it is e&i!ent that in t o sta(e extra%tion pro%ess the &a#ue of per%ent of extra%tion i## ha&e to $e (reater than that in %ase of sin(#e sta(e ith as ere not perfe%t) It extra%tion pro%ess) The %a#%u#ate! !ata presente! in ta$#e 5 is ex%e##ent the theoreti%a# fa%t) *ut the per%ent extra%tions 1) A sma## amount of sto%9 so#ution ;) Error as a#so o%%urre! happene! !ue to some error o%%urre! !urin( the experiment) as #ost from the s'stem !ue to #ea9a(e throu(h the stopper of the separation funne#) hi#e titration) A!!ition of a &er' sma## amount of extra so!ium h'!roxi!e so#ution %an &ar' the resu#t effe%ti&e#') Cor more perfe%t resu#t titration shou#! $e performe! se&era# times in ea%h sta(e) 5) Cor attainin( the e"ui#i$rium more time ere nee!e!, $ut the time expan!e! for sett#in( ere not enou(h for attainin( e"ui#i$rium %omp#ete#')

The experimenta# !ata o$taine! from 6ART B Con%entration of a%i! in a"ueous #a'er &ersus Con%entration of a%i! in *en+ene #a'er %ur&e is p#otte! in fi(ure 2) A%%or!in( to the NernstGs !istri$ution #a the e"ui#i$rium %ur&e is passe! as not throu(h the ori(in) *ut from fi(ure 2 it is o$ser&e! that the %ur&e !istri$ution #a %omp#ete#') Distri$ution #a has some #imitations< Constant temperature .ame mo#e%u#ar state E"ui#i$rium %on%entrations Non<mis%i$i#it' of so#&ents *ut maintainin( a## these %on!itions a## throu(h the experiment is "uiet !iffi%u#t) Thou(h $en+ene an! ater are immis%i$#e $ut mi(ht $e s#i(ht#' mis%i$#e) Temperature &ariation pro$a$#' o%%urre!) Mo#e%u#ar state !oes not remain same in %ase of asso%iation or !isso%iation) *ut in the experiment it %annot $e sure#' sai! no asso%iation or !isso%iation o%%urre!) The errors, se%tion= 1) The time (i&en for the #a'ers to $e separate! enou(h for the remo&e them from the raffinate phase) as not suffi%ient ater to !isso#&e a## the so#u$#e amount of *en+oi% a%i! an! hi%h mi(ht ha&e intro!u%e! !e&iations in the resu#ts, ma' ha&e hi%h ha&e $een summari+e! in the fo##o in(

passe! throu(h the ori(in) Thus the experimenta# resu#t !oes not satisf' the

o%%urre! !ue to some fa%tors

;) Durin( titration, !ue to the #ea9a(e in the $urette 9no$ there some #osses an! the rea!in( of the &o#ume of the NaO/ one) RE)EREN4ES

ere

as not the a%tua#

1) Cou#son, H) M) an! Ri%har!son, H) C)= Chemi%a# En(ineerin(, &o# ;, ;n! e!), Per(amon Press, Oxfor!, A147;B) ;) Coust et a#= Prin%ip#es of Unit Operations, ;n! e!), Hohn -i#e' I .ons, .in(apore, A1480B 5) M%Ca$e, -) L), .mith, H) C), an! /arriot, P= Unit Operations of Chemi%a# En(ineerin(, 3th e!), M%@ra </i##, .in(apore, A;001B