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Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

Senior Design Reports (CBE)


University of Pennsylvania

Year 2002

Production of Acetaldehyde from Acetic


Acid
Calvin daRosa

Aurindam Ghatak

University of Pennsylvania

University of Pennsylvania

Claire Pinto
University of Pennsylvania

This paper is posted at ScholarlyCommons.


http://repository.upenn.edu/cbe sdr/45

PRODUCTION OF ACETALDEHYDE FROM ACETIC ACID

Authors:

Calvin daRosa

Aurindam Ghatak

Claire Pinto

Faculty Advisor

Dr. John V ohs

April 9, 2002

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

/,.,

0rJ~11

6(
I

/1

,::;'1./

6:.r/ J} - ~
Cl

09 April 2002
Dr. John Vohs
Prof. Leonard Fabiano
Department of Chemical Engineering
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, P A 19104

Dear Dr. Vohs and Prof. Fabiano:

Enclosed in this report is the completed economic analysis of our proposed process. The
process is designed to produce and recover acetaldehyde at high purity from acetic acid.
This process design recovers 12,818 lblhr of acetaldehyde by extractive distillation at
99.6 % weight purity. A second commodity chemical, ethyl acetate, is produced as a
byproduct in this process and is purified by a series of distillation columns. Ethyl acetate
is produced at a rate of 1,139 lblhr and purity of 99.6 weight percent.

Capital cost estimations and profitability analysis have been completed for our process.
Financial modeling of our process assuming the price of acetic acid to be 0.16/lb yielded
an Investors Rate of Return (IRR) of 11.4 % and a Total Capital Investment (TCI) of
$47,242,990. This scenario is not economically feasible. However, when the price of
acetic acid is taken to be $0.12/lb, the IRR and TCI are 18.5 % and $47,224,990
respectively. In the light of that fact that the possible legislation ofMTBE out of gasoline
might make this process more economically attractive, the group recommends further
research into the feasibility of such a plant and the possible future construction of the
facility given the realization of the second scenario.

Sincerely,

~0?d4--Calvin P. daRosa

Aurindam K. Ghatak

{)jJaU~~

CO'

Claire L. Pinto

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract. ................... .......... . .................................. .. ........ ..... 5

Introduction.... . , .... . .................. .. ................................... , ........ 7

Process Flowsheet. .................. . ................................................ 13

Material Balance ...... ................... . ................................... . ....... 16

Process Description ................... . ......................................... . .... 23

Energy Balance and Utility Requirements ..... ............................ . ...... 35

Unit Descriptions ............ ..... . .................. . ................................ 39

Absorber . . .................... . .... ........ ................ 39

Compressor. .. . .............................. . ... .. . ....... 40

Condensers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Decanter... . ... . .. ...... . ........ . ......................... . 44

Distillation Columns ..... . ......... ...................... 44

Fired Heater. ...... . ................. . .............. . .. . ... 49

Flash VesseL ......... . .................................... 50

Heat Exchangers ......... . ........... . .................... 50

Mixers ....... ............................................... 53

Pumps .. .. . ..... . .......................................... . 54

Reactor. ...... .. ............... ... .... . .. .. ............. . ... 59

Reboilers .. ....... . .................. . .... . .... .. ....... ... . 61

Reflux Accumulators ........... .. ......... . .............. 63

Refrigeration System .. . ..... .................. ...... .. ... 65

Splitters . . .. .... .. ..... .. ... ....... ........ .. ......... . ...... 65

Stripper ............ .. .... .. ... ............ " . ... .. .. .... . .. 66

Tanks . . .. . .................................................. 67

Valve ................. ...... ........... ... . ....... .......... .. 70

Unit Specification Sheets .................. ...... . ...... . ........... . ..... . .......... 71

Equipment Cost Summary......... . ..... . ..... ...... . .. . .. . ...... . .... . ... . ........ 135

Fixed-Capital Investment Summary.................... ...... . ..... ... ... .... . .... 137

Important Considerations ...... , .... . ... . .. . .... .. ... '" .... .. ..... . ..... . .. ........ .141

Operating Cost and Economic Analysis ................. ...... . ..... .......... .. . 145

Conclusions and Recommendations ........... . .......... . ....... .. ........... . ... 159

Acknowledgements ........... ...... ................... . ..... . ... . .. ................. 161

Bibliography.... ........ , .. .. ..... . ....... . .......... . , ...... . .... .. ... ....... . ....... 162

Appendix A: Unit Cost Calculations . . ........ ... ..... .. .... . ..... . ..... ...... . .. .163

Appendix B: Utility Cost Calculations ... .. .................... . ... .... .......... .201

Appendix C: Aspen Plus Results ... . ... . .... . . .. ........ .. ... . ... . ........ . ..... ...207

Appendix D: Problem Statement. ... . .......... . ........... .. ........... ....... .... 269

Appendix E: Patent. .... . ....................... .. ... . ..... . , ..... ............. , ..... .273

Abstract
Our group has designed a process to manufacture 101,520,000 lb/yr of
acetaldehyde by hydrogenation ofacetic acid over a 20% wt. palladium on iron oxide
catalyst. The reaction conditions used are the optimum according to a patent filed by
Eastman Chemical (Tustin, et.al., U.S . Patent No. 6,121,498): temperature is range is
from 557-599 of at a pressure of254 psi. The conversion of acetic acid in the reactor is
46 %, with selectivity of 86% to acetaldehyde. Major by-products are ethanol, acetone,
carbon dioxide, and the light hydrocarbons methane, ethane, and ethylene. Acetaldehyde
is purified in a series of steps: it is first absorbed with an acetic-acid rich solvent, then
distilled to separate acetaldehyde from heavier components. A refrigerated condenser is
then used to recover additional acetaldehyde from the vapor distillate of the main
separation. Acetic acid is purified and recycled to the reactor to limit the amount of
feedstock required. Ethyl acetate is produced as a by-product in the acetaldehyde
distillation column and is purified and sold.
The economics of the process is strongly dependent on the price of acetic acid,
and we examined scenarios under which acetic acid was available at either $0.16/Ib or
$0.12/Ib. The total capital investment in either situation is approximately $47,000,000.
If acetic acid is available at $0. 16/1b, we estimate an IRR of 11.3 %, but if acetic acid can
be purchased for $0.12/Ib the IRR is 18.5% after 20 years. It is our recommendation to
pursue more research into projecting both the cost of acetic acid and the market for
acetaldehyde. If acetic acid will be available at the lower price, the company should
pursue production of acetaldehyde.

Introduction
The main product manufactured in this process is acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde
was chosen as the primary product because of its wide use in industry and the
profitability of its sale as a chemical of given purity. In addition to acetaldehyde, ethyl
acetate is produced as a side product. Table 1 below shows basic chemical information
concerning the products.

Table 1: P

Synonym
Molecular Formula
Molecular Weight
CAS No.
Melting point
Boiling point
Density

f
f
duct
Acetaldehyde
(grimary product)
Ethanal
C 2H 4O
44.05
75-07-0
-190.3 OF
69.6 OF
0.6149 g/cm J
-

Ethyl Acetate
{side product)
Acetic acid ethyl ester
CH 3COOC 2H s
88.0
141-78-6
-117 OF
171F
1.108 g/cm J

I. Uses
Acetaldehyde is primarily used in industry as a chemical intermediate, principally for
the production of pyridine and pyridine bases, peracetic acid, pentaerithritol, butylene
glycol and chloral. It is used in the production of esters, particularly ethyl acetate and
isobutyl acetate (lARC V.36 1985; Chern. Prod. Synopsis, 1985). It is also used in the
synthesis of crotonaldehyde as well as flavor and fragrance acetals, acetaldehyde 1,1
dimethylhydrazone, acetaldehyde cyanohydrin, acetaldehyde oxime and various acetic
esters, paraldehyde halogenated derivatives (lARC V.36, 1985). Acetaldehyde has been
used in the manufacture of aniline dyes and synthetic rubber, to silver mirrors and to
harden gelatin fibers (Merck, 1989). It has been used in the production of polyvinyl acetal

resins, in fuel compositions and to inhibit mold growth on leather (lARC V.36, 1985).
Acetaldehyde is also used in the manufacture of disinfectants, drugs, perfumes,
explosives, lacquers and varnishes, photographic chemicals, phenolic and urea resins,
rubber accelerators and antioxidants, and room air deodorizers; acetaldehyde is a
pesticide intermediate (Sittig, 1985; Gosselin, 1984).
Acetaldehyde, an alcohol denaturant, is a GRAS (generally recognized as safe)
compound for the intended use as a flavoring agent (Furia and Bellanca, 1975; HSDB,
1997). It is an important component of food flavorings added to milk products, baked
goods, fruit juices, candy, desserts, and soft drinks. In 1976, approximately 19,000 Ib of
acetaldehyde were used as food additives, primarily as fruit and fish preservatives and as
a synthetic flavoring agent to impart orange, apple and butter flavors.
Ethyl acetate, the side product of this process, is widely used in printing inks, paints
and coatings, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, laminations and flexible packaging.

II. Production
i.

Reasons for entering the market

Acetaldehyde was first produced commercially in the United States in 1916. U.S.
Production of acetaldehyde reached its peak in 1969 at approximately 1.65 billion lb
(lARC V.36, 1985). There has been an overall decline in the demand for acetaldehyde
due to the use of more economical starting materials for principal derivatives and a lower
demand for some acetal derivatives (Chern. Prod., 1985). However, in recent times due to
a decline in the number of suppliers and an increase in potential U.S. acetaldehyde
exports, there is a vast potential for profitability in manufacturing acetaldehyde. In 1985,

estimated U.S. exports of acetaldehyde were 1.2 billion lb (Chemical Products Synopsis,
1985).

ii.

Alternative processes and their disadvantages

Acetaldehyde can be made commercially via the Wacker process, the partial
oxidation of ethylene. The major disadvantage of that process is that it is very corrosive
requiring very expensive materials of construction. Another major disadvantage is that
the reaction is prone to over-oxidation of the ingredient, the products of which are
thermodynamically more stable than acetaldehyde which is the partial oxidation product.
This over oxidation of the ingredient reduces the yield of acetaldehyde produced and
converts expensive ethylene into carbon oxides (Tustin, et al.).
Acetaldehyde is also manufactured by oxidizing ethanol using air. A mixture of
air and ethanol vapor is fed into a multi-tubular reactor. Temperature is maintained
between 750-932 of (400-500 C), and the pressure at 29.4 psi. The catalyst used is
chromium activated copper. Vapor coming out of the reactor is passed through a scrubber
and unreacted ethanol is separated and recycled. However, this process gives a relatively
poor yield of acetaldehyde
The process investigated in this report converts acetic acid into acetaldehyde.
Acetic acid is relatively inexpensive and is available at $0.12-$0.16/lb. It can be
generated from inexpensive methanol. Due to the possible legislation ofMTBE out of
gasoline, there may be a worldwide glut of methanol, so any chemicals that use methanol
may become much more economically attractive. That is why acetic acid is our starting
material of choice.

The catalyst used in this process is 20% palladium on an iron oxide support. This
catalyst gives a selectivity of 86% to the desired reaction at 46% acetic acid conversion.
Though this process can also be effectively catalyzed by mercury compounds, the toxic
nature of mercury makes it unfeasible.

iii.

Discussion of Production Method

The reaction is carried out in a packed bed reactor at a temperature range between
557 and 599 of. The following reactions occur in the reactor:
CH)COOH + H2 -> CH)CHO + H 20 (main reaction)

(1)

CH)COOH + 2H2 -> CH)CH 20H + H 20

(2)

2CH)COOH -> CH)COCH) + CO2 + H 20

(3)

3CH)COOH + 9H 2 -> 2CH4 + C 2H 6 + C2~ + 6H20

(4)

Under reaction conditions, the selectivity to reaction (1) is 86%. This facilitates a good
yield of acetaldehyde and further justifies the cost of the reactor conditions. The product
is then passed through an absorber and then separated as the distillate using a fractional
distillation column. The following reaction occurs in the distillation column to produce
ethyl acetate:
CH)COOH + CH 3CH20H -> CH3COOCH2CH3 + H 20

(5)

This generation of ethyl acetate in situ is beneficial as it facilitates an ethyl acetate-water


azeotrope in the acetic acid separation column, which makes it easier to separate the
acetic acid. This acetic acid is then recycled back to the reactor. After being separated
from the water, first in a decanter and then by distillation, the ethyl acetate is purified to
99.6 % wt, and can be sold.

10

The Gulf Coast is the location of choice for this plant. This is primarily due the region
being an industrial belt. As a consequence, storage facilities as well as raw materials are
readily available and cheap. As mentioned in the problem statement, due to this choice of
location, it is assumed that hydrogen can be purchased over the plant fence for $0.50Ilb at
200 psig. Additionally, the prices of utilities are relatively inexpensive. Natural gas is
available at $2.30IMMBTU, cooling water is purchased at $0.33IMGal and steam at 35
psi at $2.46IMLbs.

III. Environmental issues and potential safety problems


EP A regulates acetaldehyde under several Acts such as the Clean Air Act (CAA) and
the Clean Water Act (CWA). EPA has established water quality criteria, effluent
guidelines, rules for regulating hazardous spills, general threshold amounts and
requirements for the handling and disposal of acetaldehyde wastes. Process enclosures,
local exhaust ventilation and other engineering controls must be used to maintain
airborne levels below maximum exposure limits.
Acetaldehyde is an extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Its vapor may cause flash
fires. It forms explosive peroxides and polymerizes, resulting in hazardous conditions.
Acetaldehyde is therefore sold in stainless steel tanks with a refrigerating system to
ensure that the temperature of the product does not rise above 15C.
Acetaldehyde is also a potential cancer hazard. High vapor concentration may cause
drowsiness or irritation of the eye and respiratory tract. For eye protection, safety glasses
with side shields and a face shield need to be worn by people with risk of exposure.
Additionally, chemical resistant gloves, boots and protective clothing appropriate for the

11

risk of exposure need to be worn. Decontamination facilities such as eye bath, washing
facilities and safety shower must be provided.
Ethyl acetate, on the other hand, is not subject to EPA emergency planning
requirements under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) (Title
III) in 42 USC 11022. However, ethyl acetate is an irritant of the eyes and upper
respiratory tract at concentrations above 400 ppm [NLM 1992]. Ethyl acetate
occasionally causes sensitization, with inflammation of the mucous membranes and
eczema of the skin [Hathaway et al. 1991]. As a consequence, ethyl acetate is stored in a
cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers. Splash-proof chemical safety
goggles or face shields and coveralls should be worn during any operation involving
potential exposure to ethyl acetate.

12

PURGE2

TO

TO

~
:s::
:p

~
:s::

.....

JJ

SOLVENT FROM P-540

LEGENDS

9
Y

Temperature

Pressure

;, FEED TODC-SOO)
F-230

LEGENDS

OFFGAS

Temperature

Pressure

COOLANT

"
iY2
GJ

SPLIT FROM DE-720

HAC PRODUCT2

DC-10

HAC PRODUCT1

...l-

SOLVENT FOR
AB-320

ACETALDEHYDE FROM ACETIC ACID PROCESS (PART 3 OF 3)

40

TO P-620

28

STEAM __

DE 720

._~ .

cw

~
~

~
u.

y
y

LEGENDS

STEAM
-~

Temperature

Pressure

~WASTEWATER

MATERIAL BALANCE

<f

Item Number:

S-101

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr):
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

77
14.7
21,447.80

S-102
263.2
20.1
438.03

S-103
369.9
98 .6
20,743.76
trace
trace

21,447.80

trace
trace
1.47
< 0.001
0.001
436.55

trace
0.006
0.016
< 0.001
366.13
20,377 .61

S-103b

S-104

369.9
238
98 .6
14.7
20,686 .08 42,571.91
trace
trace

trace
trace

trace
trace
0.006
0.006
0.016
1.49
< 0.001
0.001
365.11
365.11
20,320.95 42,205.31

S-201
241 .9
263 .0
42,571 .91
trace
trace

trace
0.006
1.49
0.001
365.11
42,205.31

*** VAPOR PHASE ***


Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
*** LIQUID PHASE ***
Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
Surface Ten dyne/cm

S-202

930.46
0.36
16.94

835.12
0.23
14.09

835 .12
0.23
14.09

947.66
0.40
19.33

960 .79
0.43
20.47

S-204

S-205

280.10
464.7
477.6
599
245 .9
255.0
254.8
252.0
20,783.29 42,571.91 20,402.42 62,974.33
2,339 .05
trace
1,790.54
trace
516.52
302.49
303 .96
4,445.69
trace
219.70
0.006
299.41
1.49
254 .71
0.001
2,376.36
365 .11
7,934.87 42,205 .31

6.35
0.02

1,073.48
1.12
27 .04

S-203

28.80
0.016

7,781.47 7,781.47
5,137.53 5,137 .53
1,495.12 1,495.12
855.34
855.34
855.42
855.42
621.46
621.46
285.40
285.40
906.51
908 .00
17.25
17.25
933.97 1,299.08
1,512.96 43,718 .26

2.10
0.015

726.98
0.17
6.81
-

Item Number:

..J

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr):
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC
*** VAPOR PHA5E ***
Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
*** LIQUID PHA5E ***
Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
5urface Ten dyne/cm

5206

5206a

5206b

5207

5208

5301

5302

5303

5304

5305

556.8
556.8
250.9
250.9
62,977.88 42,195.18

556.8
250 .9
20,782 .70

202.6
268
262 .8
245.92
20,402.42 42,195.18

280.1
245.7
62,979.67

113
113
159.2
126.4
244.7
244.7
235.0
234 .9
62,979 .67 23,469.70 62,277.91 65,870.50

7,088 .04 4,748.99


5,425.89 3,635.35
1,565.20 1,048.68
916.61
614.13
921.10
617.13
13,468.60 9,023.96
665.97
446.20
908.03
608.38
771 .86
517 .15
7,201.54 4,825.03
24,045.05 16,110.18

2,339.05
1,790.54
516.52
302.48
303 .96
4,444.64
219.77
299.65
254.71
2,376.51
7,934 .86

7,781.47 4,748.99
5,137.53 3,635.35
1,495.12 1,048.68
855 .34
614.13
855.42
617.13
621.46 9,023.96
285.40
446 .20
906.51
608 .38
17.25
517.15
933.97 4,825.03
1,512.96 16,110.18

7,088.04
5,425.88
1,565.20
916.63
921.10
13,471 .78
665.76
907.31
771 .84
7,201 .08
24,045.05

7,088.04
5,425.88
1,565.20
916.63
921.10
13,471.78
665.76
907.31
771.84
7,201.08
24,045.05

6.34
0.015

6.34
0.015

4.69
0.02

4,685.00
0.02

4.69
0.02

2.83
0.012

5.90
0.015

869.51
0.28
26 .59

7,088.02
trace
0.02
5,328.15
trace
122.96
1,543.27
trace
28.45
893.76
trace
27.13
898.61
trace
31 .92
6,792.88
6.47 6,167.54
119.04
785.89
615.79
126.56 2,775.68 1,983.88
33.52
110.70
126.75
266.36 13,552.93 12,873.06
379.53 45,046.25 43,892.99

3.74
0.012

944.18
941.97
0.49
0.55
42.46 L...... 42.39

Item Number:

.g

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr):
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

5-306

5-401

159.4
113
244 .7
233.5
39,509.77 19,877.11
0.02
97.73
21.93
22.87
22.49
6,677.43
546.90
781 .38
738.33
6,935.17
23,665.52

*** VAPOR PHASE ***


Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP

7,088.00
5,205.19
1,514.82
866 .63
866.69
631.81 .
289.14
918 .35
17.47
946.23
1,532.78

2.85
0.012

5-401a

5-402

5-501

5-501 a

5-502

5-503

5-504

121 .8
101.8
77
152.3
120.9
214.7
43 .5
212.7
229.9
32.0
785.61 20,404.31 105,380.47 105,379.58 10,354.66

98.3
30.1
2,463.56

101.81
32 .0,
2,885.40

6,995.85
5,137 .53
1,495.13
855 .36
855.42
623.59
285.38
906.41
17.24
933 .93
1,512 .85

785.61

trace
1.30
0.54
1.88
1.09
2,455.29
trace

0.04
215.16
47 .99
41 .93
49 .63
2,527.19
trace
trace
trace
3.46
trace

2.85
0.012

1.19
0.009

159.4
233.0
19,618.71

5-403

7,781.46
5,137.53
1,495.13
855.36
855.42
623 .59
285.38
906.41
17.24
933.93
1,512.85

0.04
220.69
50.38
50 .01
54.41
12,846.44
1,162.51
2,764.63
865.07
19,807.78
67,558 .51

0.04
trace
220.69
5.53
50.38
2.39
50.00
8.07
54.41
4.78
12,843.29 10,306.52
1,162.71
trace
2,765.36
trace
865.08
trace
19,808.00
27.372
67,559.63
trace

2.48
0.012

3.48
0.012

2.48
0.013

936.37
0.56
41 .92

935.77
0.55
41.85

3.456

3.71
0.0098

**- LIQUID PHASE --

Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
Surface Ten dyne/cm

926.34
0.56
41 .01

747.63
0.19
18.96

750.34
0.19
19.10

Item Number:

::0

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr):
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC
*** VAPOR PHASE ***
Density
kg/cum
Viscosity cP
*** LIQUID PHASE ***
Density
kg/cum
Viscosity cP
Surface Ten dyne/cm

5-505

5-506

10
262 .7
28.0
37.8
421 .84 92,139.53
0.041
213.86
47.45
40.05
48.54
71.90
trace

< 0.001

5 -506a

5 -507

5-601

5-602

5-603

5 -604

5 -701

5-702

262 .6
37 .8
62,277 .57

158
262 .7
31.8
37 .8
62,277 .91 29,861 .62

263.2
100.0
29,861.62

117.5
118.1
275.2
35.0
98 .0
95.0
22,326 .31 22,326.31 31,444 .17

182.5
40 .0
5,111 .13

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
9.57
1,162.71
4,106.58
163.78
20,051.42
66,645.46

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
4.87
785.95
2,775.97
110.71
13,553.36
45,046.71

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
6.47
3.10
785.89
376.83
2,775.68
1,330.91
110.70
53 .08
13,552 .93
6,498.49
45,046.25 21,599 .21

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
3.10
376.83
1,330.91
53.08
6,498.49
21,599.21

< 0.001
trace

< 0.001
trace

868.23
0.27
34.14

868 .12
0 .27
34 .23

< 0.001
. trace

< 0.001
trace

17.83
17.83
20.93
1,598.79 1,598.79 1,975.61
17,200.99 17,200.99 18,531 .88
110.58
110.58
163.66
1,746.22 1,746.22 7,878.58
1,651.91
1,651.91
2,873 .51

4.82
487.45
4,044 .88
31.88
540 .20
1.90

3.05
0.011

945 .04
0.49
42 .56

868.23
0.27
34.14

867.80
0.27
34 .10

895.15
0.41
34 .16

894.70
0.41
34 .11

784 .92

834 .37
0.27
32.29

Item Number:

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr):
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

5-703

5-704

214 .1
113
36 .0
39 .0
36,555.16 36,555.16
< 0.001
trace

< 0.001
trace

5-705

5-706

182.3
24 .7
5,111.13

181.9
25.0
4,356.10

< 0.001
trace

< 0.001
trace

5-707

184.3
24 .9
755 .20
trace

5-801

5-802

5-803

5-804

117.5
35.5
8,295.16

259.4
35 .0
2,161 .83

234.1
27.4
9,262 .68

182.1
25.0
1,194.31

trace

trace

5-805

167.6
22 .0
439 .28
trace
I

25.83
25.83
2,463 .10 2,463.10
22,576.48 22,576.48
195.55
195.55
8,418 .79 8,418.79
2,875.41 2,875.41

*** VAPOR PHASE ***


Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP

5.02
0.011

*** LIQUID PHASE ***


Density kg/cum
Viscosity cP
Surface Tenjyne/cm_

834 .76
0.25
40.45

4.82
487.45
4,044.88
31.88
540.20
1.90

4.66
424 .01
3,434.98
29 .15
462.28
1.02

0.17
63 .50
610 .00
2.74
77.92
0.88

3.63
439 .38
803 .75
55 .58
6,208 .52
784 .29

2,161.83

0.32
145.94
19.51
50.45
8,263 .04
783.42

1.33
0.014

910 .22
0.50
48.51

834 .57
0.27
32 .31

834.49
0.27
32 .37

835.00
0.26
31 .98

943 .08
0.57
64 .57

891 .97
0.25
54.45

3.31
293.44
784 .24
5.13
107.31
0.88

3.16
229 .99
174.35
2.39
29.39
trace

3.56
0.01

3.08
0.0096

Item Number:

t:

Temperature (oF)
Pressure (psia)
Total Mass Flow (Ib/hr)
Components (Ib/hr) :
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC
*** VAPOR PHASE ***
Density
kg/cum
Viscosity cP
*** LIQUID PHASE ***
Density
kg/cum
Viscosity cP
Surface Ten dyne/cm

5-901

5-901a

5-902

117.5
35.0
5,933.43

221
28 .0
1,577.33

trace

< 0.001
trace

trace
trace

3.16
229.99
174.35
2.39
29.39
trace

4.66
424.90
4,571.37
29.39
464.07
439.05

< 0.001
0.89
1,136.39
0.24
1.79
438.03

< 0.001
0 .89
1,134.92
0.24
1.79
1.48

895.16
0.41
34.16

853.48
0.26
16.21

838.96
0 .25
17.39

167.6
22 .0
439.28

5-903
175
16.0
1,139.31

3.08
0.0096

22

Process Description
1. Reaction Section

The feedstocks for the reaction of interest are acetic acid and hydrogen.
Hydrogen gas is available at 200 psig, and the acetic is available as a liquid. We assumed
both starting materials to be at 77 OF. These starting materials are each mixed with
recycle streams composed primarily of the respective reactant before proceeding to the
reactor. The pure acetic acid feed stream S-101 is combined with recycle streams S-102
and S-1 03, which originated at the ethyl acetate distillation column DC-91 0 and the
acetic acid distillation column DC-61 0, respectively. In preparation for the high
pressures required for reaction, the acetic acid feed is pumped to 263 psi by the acetic
acid feed pump, P-110 (see Unit Description on p. 54). The pure hydrogen feed, S-402,
is mixed with the mostly-hydrogen recycle stream S-40 1, and this combined stream is
compressed from 213 psi to 263 psi in the compressor CP-410 (see Unit Description on p.
40). This is a very expensive part of the process because of the price of both the
. compressor itself and the high electricity requirement.
The combined acetic acid stream S-201 is passed through heat exchanger HX-200
(see Unit Description on p. 50), where hot reactor effluent in stream S-206b, heats the
acetic acid from a liquid at 242 OF to a partial vapor at 465 OF. In the process, the reactor
effluent is cooled to its dew point of280 OF. A different portion of the reactor effluent,
stream S-206a, is used to heat the hydrogen feed S-207 from 203 OF to 478 OF in the heat
exchanger HX-21 0 (see Unit Description on p. 51). The cooled reactor effluent S-208
exiting HX-21O is also at its dew point of280 OF and 246 psi, this was done for ease of
mixing when two reactor effluent streams are reunited. The hot acetic acid and hydrogen

23

streams, S-203 and S-204 respectively, are both fed to the fired heater F-230 (see Unit
Description on p. 49), which raises their temperature to 599F. Optimal reaction
conditions occur at approximately 570 of, but the reaction is endothermic, so heat would
have to be supplied in order to maintain a constant temperature. Instead, we decided to
heat the reactants to a higher temperature rather than attempt to insulate the reactor. The
feed temperature of 599 of is well within the range of suggested temperatures for this
reaction (Testin, et al.). F-230 is designed to operate on natural gas, but waste material
streams OFFGAS and ACETONE WASTE are rich in hydrogen and hydrocarbons and
are also burned in F-230. These streams are used to furnish 8,547,300 Btu/hr of the
15,291,600 Btu/hr required to operate the furnace . More energy could be taken from
these streams as well as the purge streams, but limiting the amount of energy derived
from waste streams to approximately 55% makes controlling the heating rate of the
furnace more reliable. Any portion ofthese streams that is not used in the furnace is sent
to the flare stack to be burned.
The reactor RX-240 (see Unit Description on p. 59) is a cylindrical vessel
containing a packed bed of20% wt. Pd- Fe203 catalyst pellets. In order to ensure the
proper oxidation state for the desired conversion, the hydrogen and acetic acid are fed in
a 5/1 molar ratio. Conversion of acetic acid is only 46 %; this is in order to improve the
selectivity to acetaldehyde, which is 86 % under the given conditions. Side products
formed in the reactor include ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide, and light hydrocarbons.
The reactor effluent S-206 is at 557F, and contains, by mass, 11 % hydrogen, 21 %
acetaldehyde, and 38 % acetic acid.

24

2. Acetaldehyde Purification

The reactor effluent S-206 is then split into two streams and used to preheat the
acetic acid and hydrogen feeds. It is split instead of passing sequentially into the heat
exchangers so that both the hydrogen and acetic acid feeds can be heated to higher
temperatures. After passing through the heat exchangers, the temperature of the
combined stream is 280 of, its dew point. This is hot enough to supply energy
sequentially to the reboilers of the azeotropic distillation column (DC-900) and the
acetone waste column (DC-81 0), but the amount of steam and cooling water utilities
saved would not counteract the need to move the hot fluid over long distances and the
associated control complications.
After passing through the acetic acid heat exchanger HX-200 and the hydrogen
heat exchanger HX -210, the separate reactor effluent streams are mixed together, forming
stream S-301. This stream must be cooled further in order to achieve high recovery in the
absorber column; cooling water is used to cool the stream to 113 of in HX-300 (see Unit
Description on p. 51). This partially condenses the stream, and the cool effluent, S-302 is
fed to the flash vessel FV -310 (see Unit Description on p. 50) to separate the liquid and
vapor phases. Only the vapor stream S-303 exiting the flash vessel is sent to the absorber
AB-320 (see Unit Description on p. 39), which it enters on the bottom stage. The solvent
fed to the top stage of the absorber is the acetic acid-rich bottoms product from
acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500 (see Unit Description on p. 44). Under the
conditions of high pressure (the top stage operates at 233.5 psi), this solvent
preferentially absorbs the acetaldehyde, allowing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and other

25

light materials to escape: 85 % of the acetaldehyde is recovered, but only 3.5% of the
ethane (the next-heaviest component) is recovered.
The amount of material recycled to the absorber is an important variable in the
economics of the process. As the recycle amount increases, the recovery of acetaldehyde
increases, but at the expense of larger diameters for both the absorber and the distillation
column, as well as a more difficult separation of the acetaldehyde from the water and
acetic acid. The selected solvent recycle allows recovery of 95% of the acetaldehyde,
while also leaving a feasible separation and relatively low column costs. The pressure of
the absorber is also as high as possible in order to improve acetaldehyde recover and limit
the amount of work the compressor CP-410 must do. The mainly-hydrogen vapor exiting
AB-320 is recycled to the reactor, with a 1.3% purge taken to prevent excessive buildup
of light components. This purge stream PURGE2 is burned in the flare stack. The
bottoms product from the absorber, S-305, is combined with S-306, the liquid exiting the
flash vessel FV-310. S-305 and S-306 contain 10% and 17% acetaldehyde by mass,
respectively. At the time of mixing, the pressure is still high, 230 psi. The combined
stream S-50 1 is passed through a valve to reduce the pressure to 43 psi before being fed
to the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500.
Design of the distillation column to recover acetaldehyde was complicated by
several factors. The boiling point of acetaldehyde at atmospheric pressure is 70 OF, so it
is preferred to keep the pressure elevated to reduce the need for refrigerants to condense
the vapor. However, acetaldehyde fonns an azeotrope with water at pressures higher
than 30 psi, and this becomes more water-rich with increasing pressure. In addition, the
presence oflight components such as carbon dioxide and methane require adjustments to

26

be made in the distillation. First, they lower the boiling point ofthe mixture further,
making it more difficult to use cooling water to condense the distillate. Second, their
concentration is high enough that even if the acetaldehyde is completely separated from
the heavier components, its purity will still be only 97.2% wt., which is not high enough
to be sold. Thus, this column requires a partial condenser with both liquid and vapor
distillate: the liquid is taken as the acetaldehyde product, while the vapor distillate is fed
to another column where additional acetaldehyde can be removed from the lighter
components. Several alternatives were considered before choosing to operate the
condenser at 32 psi. Since the liquid-liquid separation of acetaldehyde and water actually
increases with temperature, one alternative examined carrying the high pressure from the
absorber into the distillation column, then allowing the two liquid phases to separate in a
decanter. This method did not produce acetaldehyde at the required purity, was difficult
to control, and required very high reboiler temperatures. A second alternative involved
using the main column as selected, but also adding an absorbing column, in which the
acetic acid-rich bottoms product would be used to absorb acetaldehyde. This did not
produce sufficient separation, and the added flow into the distillation column increased
the column's cost.
The selected design involves operating the condenser of the acetaldehyde
distillation column at 32 psi. The distillate vapor fraction was varied to keep the
temperature of the distillate at 102 OF, which can be cooled using cooling water. The
liquid product, HAC PRODUCT, contains 10,355 Iblhr (82,012,000 Ib/yr) of99.5% wt
acetaldehyde. The vapor distillate S-504 is 22 % by mole of the total distillate and
contains 2,527 Iblhr of acetaldehyde. Since this is a significant portion of the product, it

27

was necessary to recover as much of this stream as possible. The vapor distillate is then
sent to the bottom stage of a small secondary column, DC-51 0 (see Unit Description on
p. 46), which has a refrigerated condenser at 10 of. A second product stream, HAC
PRODUCT, exits the bottom stage ofDC-510 and contains 24641blhr (19,515,000 lb/yr)
of99.7 wt% acetaldehyde. Sixty tons of refrigeration is required at the condenser, and
because of the temperature of 10F is fairly moderate, this can be provided by an
ammonia absorption system RF-520 (see Unit Description on p. 64). Decreasing the
temperature further would increase the yield of acetaldehyde, but at the expense of more
expensive equipment and a larger heat duty. In this design, 71.9 Iblhr (569,000 lb/yr) of
acetaldehyde is lost to the stream OFFGAS . This stream, with its high levels of methane,
ethane, and ethylene is burned in the fired heater, F-230, to reduce natural gas costs.
The acetaldehyde distillation column is also the location of an esterification
reaction between ethanol and acetic acid, which forms ethyl acetate and water.
Equilibrium for this reaction is achieved wherever acetic acid and ethanol are present
together, but for the purposes of this design, it was assumed this reaction occurs only in
the bottom stage ofDC-500, where the high temperatures and the presence of acetic acid
and ethanol in the liquid phase especially favor this reaction. When equilibrium is
reached, over 80% of the ethanol has been reacted. The presence of ethyl acetate is very
important in the acetic acid separations section of the process, where ethyl-acetate forms
an azeotrope with water, easing the separation of water from acetic acid. The bottoms
product S-506 from the acetaldehyde distillation column is split, with part proceeding to
the acetic acid separation sequence, and the remainder being cooled by cooling water in
the heat exchanger HX-530 (see Unit Description on p. 52) and then recycled to the top

28

stage of the absorber AB-320, where it acts as the solvent to preferentially absorb
acetaldehyde.

3.

Acetic Acid separation

The main goal of the acetic acid separation column DC-610 (see Unit Description on
p. 46) is to obtain a pure stream of acetic acid, which can be recycled to the reactor feed.
The reasons for this are twofold. The primary reason is that the high cost of acetic acid
makes it economically feasible for us to reuse the unreacted acetic acid rather than
dispose of it. This is particularly relevant because of the low conversion in the reactor,
which results in a significant amount of unreacted acetic acid in the system. The second
reason is that acetic acid is an impurity in water and its substantial presence in the
wasteYv'ater stream will increase costs of wastewater treatment.
There are two streams entering the acetic acid distillation column. The feed stream, S
602, is the bottoms from the acetaldehyde separation columns and enters DC-61 0 at the
1i

of 30 actual trays. It primarily consists of the unreacted acetic acid and the products

of side reactions such as water, ethyl acetate, acetone, and ethanol. The recycle stream S
603 fed to the second stage is rich in ethyl acetate and is used to facilitate the low boiling
water - ethyl acetate azeotrope, which makes the separation of acetic acid in the bottoms
easier. The feeds S-602 and S-603 are pumped to 100 psi and 98 psi, respectively, before
entering the column. The condenser is operated at 95 psi because as pressure increases,
the water-ethyl acetate azeotrope becomes more water-rich, easing the separation from
acetic acid. This significantly increases the purity of acetic acid that is collected at the
bottoms. lfthe same process were operated at 37.8 psi (the pressure of the feed stream),
then the mass fraction is only .92-.93 as opposed to .982 at this pressure. Though the

29

higher pressure increases the cost, it is a cost that is well incurred since the acetic acid
increase in the bottoms is critical as it lowers the acetic acid that is lost in the wastewater
stream. Further increases in pressure beyond 95 psi cause very marginal increases in the
acetic acid mole fraction and do not justify the additional costs.
The nwnber of equilibrium stages calculated is 18. The increased separation with
additional stages is minimal after 18 stages and does not justify the increasing cost. The
calculated tray efficiency is 61 %, meaning 30 actual trays are required. We use a kettle
reboiler in this process and a total condenser. A total condenser is used because the
distillate must be fed to the decanter DE-720 (see Unit Description on p. 44) as a liquid.
Before the distillate enters the decanter, it goes into a mixer, M-700. The mixer
incorporates the distillate stream of the acetic acid separation colwnn with the distillate
stream of the DC-900 col umn, whiCh primarily consists of ethyl acetate and water, and
the bottoms of the acetone separation column, DC-81 0, which contains ethyl acetate that
was contained in the water-rich stream coming out of the decanter and water and acetone
impurities. The pressure across the mixer drops to 39 psi. This is done because operating
the remaining distillation columns in the separation sequence at higher pressure does not
produce results that are significantly favorable enough to account for incurring the higher
cost when the separating columns were operated at a higher pressure. In addition, this
places less of a load on the pump P-730 (see Unit Description on p. 56), which must
increase the pressure of recycle stream S-705 to only 40 psi before sending it to the
mIxer.
The exit stream from the mixer has a temperature of214 of and is cooled to 113 of
by passing it through the heat exchanger HX-71 0 (see Unit Description on p. 52). The

30

exit stream from this heat exchanger is fed to the decanter DE-720, which is used to
separate the water from the ethyl acetate in the feed stream. The water rich stream S-801
contains 74.8% by mass of water and S-901 contains 77.0% ethyl acetate.

4. Ethyl Acetate Separation

The ethyl acetate-rich organic layer exiting the decanter in stream S-90 1 is sent to the
ethyl acetate splitter, which recycles 78.9% of the stream to the acetic acid distillation
column where it enhances the separation of water from acetic acid. The rest of the stream
is fed into the distillation column DC-900 (see Unit Description on p. 48).
Column DC-900 is used to separate water from the acetic acid and ethyl acetate in
S-90 1. The low-boiling azeotrope of water and ethyl acetate is taken in the distillate
along with acetone and acetaldehyde, leaving a bottoms product that is primarily ethyl
acetate and acetic acid. The acetic acid is purified and recycled to the reactor, and the
ethyl acetate is sold as a product. The distillate stream of this distillation, S-706, is
recycled to the decanter DE-720. This is to separate the water from the ethyl acetate,
which is then either recycled to the acetic acid distillation column, or purified for sale.
The separation in DC-900 was achieved by using a condenser pressure of 30 psi and 12
equilibrium stages (20 actual trays). A total condenser and kettle reboiler are used in this
process.
The bottoms product of DC-900, S-902, is 72% ethyl acetate by mass, with acetic
acid composing most of the balance. This stream enters the ethyl acetate distillation
column, DC-91 0 (see Unit Description on p. 48), at stage 13 of23 (tray 25 of 43). The
main purpose of this column is to separate the ethyl acetate from the acetic acid at a level

31

of purity whereby the ethyl acetate can be sold. This column is operated at a condenser
pressure of 16 psi and the distillate contains 99.6% mass of ethyl acetate. The bottoms
product contains 99.7% by mass of acetic acid and is recycled back to the reactor via the
stream S-1 02. Ethyl acetate is stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area with a holding
capacity of 7300 ft3 (enough capacity to hold 14 days worth of ethyl acetate production)
in tightly sealed containers.

5. Acetone and Wastewater Disposal


The water-rich stream S-SO 1 exiting the decanter is then sent to the stripper ST -SOO
(see Unit Description on p. 66). The condenser is operated at a pressure of25 psi. The
bottoms stream of this column is sent to a waste treatment plant for purification before it
is disposed off. The distillate, S-S04, primarily contains acetone and ethyl acetate and is
fed to the acetone separation column, DC-Sl 0 (see Unit Description on p. 47), at stage S
of 11 (13 th of IS actual trays). A partial condenser is used for the stripper because utility
costs are decreased by not condensing the vapor and feeding a dew point vapor to the
acetone distillation column.
The acetone distillation column, DC-S1 0, aims to remove all of the acetone from the
feed stream as the distillate and remove it from the system. The acetone in the distillate
cannot be made pure enough to be sold as a side product, unlike ethyl acetate. This
column has IS actual trays and operates at a condenser pressure of 22 psi. The bottoms
product S-707 mainly contains ethyl acetate and is mixed with S-706, the distillate stream
of the DC-900 column, via the mixer M-740. The combined stream, S-705, is at 24 psi

32

and is pumped to 40 psi before being fed to the mixer M-700 where it is mixed with the
acetic acid separator distillate to be fed into the decanter.

33

34

Energy Balance and UtiJity Requirements


Because of the high temperatures required for the reactor and the many dis61lation
columns, supplying energy for heating and cooling process streams is of paramount
concern for the economics of the process. The largest heating and cooling requirements
are found in the acetic acid distillation column, which requires 39,534,800 Btu/hr for the
reboiler at 370 of and 36,586,600 Btulhr for the condenser. These requirements are
satisfied with 300 psia stearn (dropped from its source at 600 psig) and cooling water,
respectively. The reboilers and condensers for each of the other columns are handled
similarly (using steam at the appropriate pressure), except for the low-temperature
acetaldehyde condenser in DC-51 O. The refrigeration unit RF-520 utilizes ammonia
absorption to cool a 40% ethylene glycol in water solution that circulates in the
condenser. The glycol removes 612,900 Btulhr of heat by partially condensing the
distillate ofDC-5IO at 10 OF. Because of heat leak to the surroundings and inefficiencies
in heat transfer, we assumed that the ammonia absorption system must supply 900,000
Btu/hr of refrigeration. Assuming the ammonia system operates at -10 OF, 507
Btu/min/ton are required for steam in the generator and 5.4 gpm/ton of water are required
for the conditioner (McKetta). The refrigeration load is 75 tons, requiring 2,497,500
Btulhr of steam at 300 OF (68 psi) and 24,000 gpm of cooling water.
The acetic acid and hydrogen streams, S-20I and S-207 respectively, which are
the reaction starting materials must be heated from 242 OF and 203 OF to 599 OF before
entering the reactor. This is above the optimal reaction temperature of 572 OF, but still
within the range of recommended temperatures (Tustin, et.a!.). It was heated to this
temperature because the primary reaction is endothermic, and by heating above the

35

optimal temperature we allow the temperature in the reactor to decrease as the reaction
progresses. This method was used because it was suggested that this would be more
efficient than attempting to insulate the reactor at the high temperature required. The
reaction consumes 2,677,000 Btu/hr, and the effluent is a total vapor at 557 OF. The hot
reactor effluent is split and sent to separate heat exchangers to heat the hydrogen and
acetic acid feed streams. The rate of energy transferred to the acetic acid in HX-200 is
4,305,300 Btu/hr, and 8,741,000 Btulhr is transferred to the hydrogen stream in HX-21 O.
Following this, the hydrogen and acetic acid feed streams still require 12,692,000 Btu/hr
to reach 599 OF; this is accomplished in the fired heater, F-230. Waste streams OFFGAS
and ACETONE WASTE are burned to produce 8,547,300 Btulhr, and natural gas is
required for the rest of the duty, which because of inefficient heat transfer is 15,291,600
Btulhr total. After being cooled to its dew point by the reactor feeds, the reaction product
S-401 is cooled further, to 113 OF by transferring 20,300,000 Btulhr to cooling water in
HX-300.
The option of using heat from the reactor effluent stream S-401 at 280 OF to heat
the reboilers ofDC-900 and DC-810 was examined, but ultimately rejected. There is
sufficient energy in S-401 to maintain a 45 OF driving force with the bottoms, but
substituting this method for steam heating did not justify the need to pump the hot fluid
over long distances and the more complicated control aspects. Heat integration among
the condensers and reboilers in the separation section was not attempted because the
operating pressures needed to optimize product composition and column costs does not
allow for productive stream matching.

36

The utility requirements are summarized in the table below.

Table 2: Heat Transfer Among Process Streams


Cold Stream

S-201
S-207

Cold Stream
Temperature
Change
242F to 465F
203F to 478F

Hot Stream

Hot Stream
Temperature
Change
557F to 280F
557F to 280F

S-206b
S-206a

Energy
Transferred
(BtU/hr)
4,305 ,300
8,741,000

Table 3: Cooling Water Requirements


Process Stream
or Condenser

Temperature

C-500
102 of
C-610
275.2 of
C-800
182F
C-810
184 of
C-900
182F
C-910
175F
RF-520
S-301
280 of to 113 of
S-506a
263F to 158F
S-703
259 of to 113 of
TOTAL REQUIREMENTS

Amount of
Cost
Cooling
Water Duty Cooling Water
($/ru:)
(Btu/hr)
Required (Gallhr)
10,559,800
85,332
36,586,600
147,824
994,200
4,020
428,700
1,732
2,911,400
11,763
2,059
509,600
24,300
1,503,600
20,300,000
82,020
2,736,000
11,050
3,689,100
14,906
80,219,000
385 ,006
$127.06

28.16
48.78
1.33
0.57
3.88
0.68
8.02
27.07
3.65
4.92

Table 4: Steam Utility Requirements


Reboiler

Temperature
of Stream

R-500
262.7 of
R-610
369.9 of
R-810
184.2 of
R-900
221.2 of
R-910
262.9 of
RF-520
300 of
TOT AL REQUIREMENTS

Pressure of
Purchased
Steam (psig)

Steam Heat
Duty
(Btulhr)

75
16,892,000
600
39,534,800
35
252,312
3,150,280
35
75
486,919
75
2,497,500
\62,813,911

37

Amount
of Steam
Required
(lblhr)
14,195
29,636
215
2,683
409
2,099
~238

Cost
($Ihr)

35.49
82.98
0.53
6.60
1.02
5.25
$132.00

Table 5: Natural Gas Requirements


TotaJD uty 0 fF Ire dB eater (BtU/hr)

15,291,600

Energy from Waste Streams (Btu/hr)


OFFGAS

3,604,800

WASTE ACETONE

4,942,500

Natural Gas Required (Btulhr)

6,744,300

Table 6: Electricity Requi.ements


Process Unit
CP-410
P-110
P-540
P-600
P-620
P-730
PB-500
PB-610
PB-810
PB-900
PB-910

Electrici ty
Required (kW)
459.6
18.7
20.5
3.8
3.1
0.3

Cost
($/hr)
16.086
0.654
0.718
0.134
0.109
0.010
0.262
0.392
0.003
0.013
0.010

7.S

1l.2
0.1
0.4
0.3
l.5
0.2
5.6
0.3
0.1
1.1
0.1

PR-SOO

PR-SlO
PR-610
PR-800
PR-810
PR-900
PR-9l0
Total Requirements

534.1

0.OS2

0.008
0.196
0.011
0.003
0.039
0.003
$18.69

The costs listed are what would be paid if these utilities were purchased from an
outside source. This was not done for steam and cooling water, because it was
determined that building allocated facilities would be more profitable (see Appendix, p.).

38

Unit Descriptions
Absorber

AB-320 (see spec. sheet p. 72)

The absorber unit AB-320 is a trayed tower used to separate the acetaldehyde
from light hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and the unreacted hydrogen that results from
feeding that material in large excess. The primary objective of this unit is to recover as
much acetaldehyde as possible because 1.3 % of the material leaving through the top of
the column leaves the system as PURGE. 23,470 Iblhr of the vapor stream S-303 is fed
to the bottom stage of the column, and 62,278 lb/hr of S-304, the solvent recycled from
the bottoms of the acetaldehyde distillation column, is introduced on the top stage. This
solvent level was chosen to balance the amount of acetaldehyde recovered in the absorber
with the ease of separation of the acetaldehyde from the remaining liquid, which contains
a lower fraction of acetaldehyde as solvent flow increases. The recovery stream S-305
exits as a liquid from the bottom stage, and has a total flow of 65,871 lb/hr with an
acetaldehyde mass fraction of 0.094. S-401 exits the top of the column and contains
mostly unreacted hydrogen and light gas side products; 98.7% of this stream is recycled
to the reactor, the remainder is purged and burned in the flare stack.
The top stage pressure in the absorber is 233.5 psi, with the intention of keeping
the pressure as high as possible without resorting to compressing the reactor effluent.
The absorber was designed to recover over 85 % of acetaldehyde fed to it, so that the
resulting loss to purge would be only approximately 0.15 % of acetaldehyde. This design
led to a column containing 15 theoretical trays; the O'Connell correlation was used to
calculate the stage efficiency (Seader). This was found to be 51 %, requiring 30 actual

39

trays. Using equations and tables found in Seider, the calculated dimensions were 2.5 ft
diameter and a height of 74 ft; the associated bare module cost of the tower and trays is
$117,300. IPE calculated a 3 ft diameter, 76 ft. height, and an equipment cost of
$120,000. The material used for both the column and the trays is stainless steel because
of the concern of corrosion caused by acetic acid.

Compressor

CP-41O (see spec. sheet p. 73)

Compressor CP-41O is a major piece of equipment because of the large expense


associated with compressing gases, especially hydrogen. A reciprocal compressor is used
to compress 20,404 felhr of the mixed hydrogen stream S-207 from 212.7 psi to 262.8
psi. The temperature of the stream also increases, from 152.3 OF to 202.6 oF. The load
required was limited as much as possible by maintaining high pressures throughout the
reactor section of the process, while still ensuring that the feed to the compressor was
above its dew point. The power is 330.9 kW, and the efficiency is estimated by Aspen to
be 72%. This leads to an electricity requirement of 459.6 kW. The material used was
stainless steel, and the bare module cost was calculated to be $2,628,000.

Condensers

C-500 (see spec. sheet p. 74)

Condenser C-SOO is a partial condenser that is used for the acetaldehyde


distillation column, DC-500. A partial condenser with both liquid and vapor distillate is
employed for two reasons. First, the significant concentration of light compounds such
as carbon dioxide would cause the acetaldehyde purity in the product to be too low if a

40

single disti llate stream was taken. Second, condensing those light gases and all of the
acetaldehyde would require very low temperatures and a large amount of refrigeration.
Instead, the fraction of vapor distillate was set in order to have a distillate temperature of
102 of, which can be achieved with cooling water. To accomplish this, 22% of the
distillate remains vapor; this stream (S-504) contains approximately 20% of the
acetaldehyde produced, and this is recovered in the DC-51 0 column. The condenser is
made of stainless steel, and has a heat duty of 10,559,800 Btulhr. Using a heat transfer
coefficient of97.6 BtU/(hr-ft2-0F), B-JAC estimates a surface area of 13,109 ft2; because
of this large size and the temperature crossover of the hot and cold stream temperatures,
B-JAC split this exchanger into two in series. A 1-8 shell-and-tube heat exchanger was
designed, with a length of 8 ft., and shell size of 70 in. The estimated installed cost from
B-JAC is $209,960.

C-520 (see spec. sheet p. 75)


C-520, a partial condenser with all vapor distillate, is used for DC-51 0, the
refrigerated acetaldehyde recovery column. If a liquid distillate were condensed, the
temperature requirement would be unreasonably low, and there is little processing benefit
from having a liquid distillate. The heat duty of the condenser is only 612,900 Btu/hr at
10F, making refrigerant cooling a practical solution for this process. A 40%-ethylene
glycol in water solution is circulated in the condenser to cool the distillate. The heat
transfer coefficient estimated by B-JAC is only 32 .2 Btu/(hr-ft2-0F), and the required
surface area is 403.2 ft2. In order to limit the amount of glycol solution needed to cool
the condenser, the solution is heated from -5 OF to 30 OF; because of the temperature

41

crossover, two condensers, both 1-2, are required in series. The length ofthe tube is 14
ft., and the shel1 width is 10.75 in. The material used was stainless steel. The estimated
installed cost reported by B-JAC was $16,600.

C-610 (see spec. sheet p. 76)


The condenser used for the acetic acid distillation column is a total condenser,
because in the next step in the process the liquid distillate is fed to the decanter DE-720.
Cooling water is used, and the exiting distillate has a temperature of275 of. The heat
duty is 36,586,600 Btu/hr, and using an estimated heat transfer coefficient of 129 BtU/(hr
ft 2 _OF), the required surface area is 2,494 ft2. A single 1-4 shell-and-tube heat exchanger
is used for this process. The tube length is 10ft., and the shell diameter is 38 in. Using
stainless steel as the material, B-JAC estimated the installed cost of this item to be
$64,710.

C-800 (see spec. sheet p. 77)


For the stripper, a partial condenser was used because sending S-804 to the
acetone distillation column DC-81 0 as a vapor reduced the overall utility requirements
without significantly altering the separation. The condenser C-800 is a 1-4 shell-and-tube
heat exchanger, made of stainless steel. The required heat duty is 994,200 Btu/hr, and
using a heat transfer coefficient of 112 Btu/(hr-ft2 -OF), the required surface area is 112.2
ft2. The shell diameter is 8.6 inches and the tube length is 16 ft. The installed cost is
$7,570.

42

C-810 (see spec. sheet p. 78)


The condenser for the acetone distillation column DC-81 0 is a 1-4 shell-and-tube
heat exchanger made of stainless steel. The heat duty is 428,700 Btu/hr, with a distillate
temperature of 168 of. A partial condenser with all vapor distillate was used because the
distillate stream WASTE ACETONE is being burned in the fired furnace, so it is
unnecessary to condense the stream. The heat transfer coefficient is 95 Btu/(hr-ft2 _OF),
and the resulting area is 78 ft2. The tube length is 10ft., and the shell diameter is 8.6 in.
The installed cost is $6,700.

C-900 (see spec. sheet p. 79)


A total condenser is used for the near azeotrope distillation column DC-900. The
heat exchanger is a 1-2 shell-and-tube heat exchanger made of stainless steel. This
condenser subcools the product to 2 of below the saturation temperature so that when the
disti llate is mixed and fed to the pump P-730, the feed stream is a total liquid. The
distillate temperature is 18l.9 of, and the heat duty is 2,911,400 Btu/hr. Using a heat
transfer coefficient of 105 Btu/(hr-ft2 _OF), B-JAC estimated the required surface area to
be 275 ft2. The tube length is 14 ft., and the shell thickness of 12.75 in. The installed
cost is $9,250.

C-910 (see spec. sheet p. 80)


A total condenser is used for the ethyl acetate distillation column so that the liquid
ethyl acetate can be recovered and stored. C-910 is a 1-8 shell-and-tube heat exchanger
made of stainless steel. The distillate temperature is 175 of, and the heat duty is 509,600

43

Btulhr. The effective surface area based on an estimated heat transfer coefficient of72.6
Btul(hr-ft 2_OF) is 473 ft2. The tube length is 6 ft., and the shell diameter is 24 in. The
installed cost is $18,470.

Decanter

DE-720 (see spec. sheet p. 81)

The purpose of the decanter is to separate water from the ethyl acetate in the inlet
stream

S ~ 704.

It achieves this to an extent of getting a water-rich stream, S-80 1 with

74.8% by mass of water and an ethyl acetate rich stream, S-901 with 77 .0% by mass of
ethyl acetate. The outlet temperature of the decanter is 117 .5F and its outlet pressure is
35.5 psi . The capacity of the decanter is based on a 10 minute residence time at half full
and equals 214 ft3. The decanter is a horizontal, stainless steel vessel, with a diameter of
4.5 ft. and length of 13.5 ft; using cost charts, we determined its bare module cost to be
$63,000.

Distillation Columns

DC-500 (see spec. sheet p. 82)

DC-500 is the major unit for separating acetaldehyde from the heavier
components in the reactor effluent: acetic acid, water, acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol.
Even though acetone's boiling point is closest to acetaldehyde's, the key heavy
component in this separation is water because of its high concentration. At pressures as
low as 30 psi, water forms an azeotrope with acetaldehyde, which becomes richer in
water as pressure increases. As a result of this, the pressure of the condenser was set at
32 psi to limit the recovery ofthis azeotrope. Acetaldehyde's relatively low boiling point

44

(10F) makes this low pressure undesirable because of difficulties in condensing the
material, but attempted higher pressure methods such as liquid-liquid separation from
water could not produce acetaldehyde in the needed purity. Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland
calculations provided the minimum number of stages as 20 and the minimum reflux ratio
as 1.61. At 1.3 times the minimum reflux (LID = 2.09), the Gilliland correlation yields
the estimated number of stages as 40. This actual conditions used in the simulation were
a reflux ratio of 2.40, and 40 equilibrium stages. The tray efficiency is 56%, necessitating
71 actual trays. Stream S-501 enters above the 50 th stage to provide a larger rectifying
section, allowing better purification of the acetaldehyde distillate. Using cost charts
available in Seider, the distillation column dimensions are 4.5 ft in diameter, and 157 ft.
taB; the estimated cost of the column and trays was $1,013,500. IPE estimated the
column dimensions as a 4 ft. diameter and 171 ft. height. The material and labor cost
using lPE was estimated as $1,087,000. The height was determined by taking a 2-f1. tray
spacing, a 4-ft. disengagement height for the condenser, and a 10-ft. bottoms sump.
DC-500 also has the esterification reaction in which acetic acid and ethanol react
to form water and ethyl acetate (Reaction 5, p. 10). This reaction is very important to the
process, and the patent describes adding sulfuric acid to catalyze this reaction if it does
not occur in sufficient yield. Under the conditions of this column, that step was not
necessary. This reaction is important because ethyl acetate is needed in the acetic acid
separation section to form a low-boiling azeotrope with water in order to facilitate the
separation of water from acetic acid. The ethyl acetate-water product is favored
thermodynamically, and under the reaction conditions over 80% of the ethanol reacts.

45

The ethyl acetate can then be purified, and we are able to purify and sell 1,139 Ib/hr of
ethyl acetate.
HAC PRODUCT, the liquid distillate, contains 99.5 % acetaldehyde by mass at a
flow of 10,355 Ib/hr. The bottoms product, S-506, contains 92,140 Iblhr of 72.4 %wt
acetic acid, with water being the other major component. Only 9.6 Ib/hr of acetaldehyde
is in this stream. S-506 is split, with part returning to the absorber AB-320 as the solvent,
and the remainder proceeding to the acetic acid separations section, where pure acetic
acid is recycled to the reactor and ethyl acetate is purified for sale.

DC-510 (see spec. sheet p. 83)


The column DC-51 0 contains only a rectifying section and is intended to
condense acetaldehyde from the vapor distillate of the main acetaldehyde distillation
column. S-504 enters the column on the bottom stage, from which the second
acetaldehyde product HAC PRODUCT is also taken. The temperature of the condenser
is 10F, and indirect refrigeration is provided via an ammonia absorption-ethylene glycol
system. Theoretically, the number of stages required to recover pure acetaldehyde in
good yield is only three, but low tray efficiency (26 %) caused by the large relative
volatility of ethane to acetaldehyde leads to the need to for eight actual trays. The height
of the column is 30 ft, and its diameter is 1.5 ft. Stainless steel is used for the tower and
trays. The bare module cost of the column, using cost charts, is $62,500.

DC-610 (see spec. sheet p. 84)


The acetic acid separation column was designed for 18 equilibrium stages. The
efficiency is 61 %, and the actual number of trays is 30. Assuming a 2-ft. tray spacing, as

46

well as the sump and disengagement heights, the height ofthe column is 74 ft., and the
diameter is 10.5 ft. The acetic acid-rich stream recovered as the bottoms of the
acetaldehyde distillation column enters DC-610 at tray 17. The ethyl acetate-rich recycle
stream S-603 enters the colurrm on the second tray and is used to form the ethyl acetate
water azeotrope, which makes the separation of acetic acid from water simpler. The
bottoms rate is 20,744 lblhr, the molar reflux ratio is 2.5 and the condenser pressure is 95
psi. On the recommendation of the industrial consultants, stainless steel was the material
chosen for the tower and the trays. This is because acetic acid has a corrosive effect on
carbon steel and stainless steel is sufficiently corrosion resistant. The bare module cost of
this column with trays is calculated to be $1,491,200.

DC-810 (see spec. sheet p. 85)


This acetone distillation colurrm is designed to remove the acetone from the system in the
distillate to be used as fuel in the fumace. The distillate stream, ACETONE WASTE,
primarily contains acetone, ethyl acetate and water with very small quantities of
acetaldehyde and ethanol. The bottoms stream, S-707, contains 80.8 % ethyl acetate and
10.3 % water. Eleven equilibrium stages were designed for the column; the tray
efficiency of 60.8 % implies the need for 19 actual trays. Using 2-ft. tray spacing, and 14

ft. total for the sump and disengagement heights, the column is 52 ft. tall, with a 1.5 ft.

diameter. Based on the flow rates a smaller diameter is necessary to avoid flooding, but
the 1.5-ft. diameter produces an aspect ratio of 35, which is much more reasonable. The
stripper distillate stream S-804 enters the column at tray 13. The distillate rate is 439
lblhr, the molar reflux ratio is 4 and the condenser pressure is 22 psi. Stainless steel was
also the material of choice for this column. Its bare module cost is $103,600.

47

....

DC-900 (see spec. sheet p. 86)


Th.is column is designed to remove the acetone, ethanol and the ethyl acetate-water
azeotrope as the distillate and isolate the acetic acid and the remaining ethyl acetate in the
bottoms. The ethyl-acetate rich stream S-901 from the decanter is fed at the 10th tray.
Twelve equilibrium stages are needed for the separation, and the efficiency is 60%,
requiring 20 actual trays. To that end, this separation column is 54 ft in height and has a
diameter of 2 ft. The distillate rate is 4356 lblhr, the reflux ratio is 1.8 and the condenser
pressure is 30 psi. Stainless steel was also the materiaJ of choice for this column. Its bare
module cost is $150,532.

DC-910 (see spec. sheet p. 87)


This ethyl acetate distillation column is designed to purify ethyl acetate as the distillate to
a level at which it can be sold. The bottoms product is acetic acid, which is recycled to
the reactor. Twenty-three equilibrium stages are needed for this separation; the tray
efficiency is 41.5 %, and the actual number of trays is 45. This separation column is 104
ft in height and has a diameter of 3 ft. Stream S-S-804 enters the column at tray 25. The
distillate rate is 1139 lblhr, the reflux ratio is 1.8 and the condenser pressure is 16 psi.
Stainless steel was also the material of choice for this column. Its bare module cost is
$433,400.

48

Fired Heater

F-230 (see spec. sheet p. 88)


In order to completely heat the hydrogen and acetic acid feed streams, S-204 and
S-203, to the desired reaction temperature, energy must be supplied by burning fuel in the
fired heater F-230. F-230 is a vertical cylindrical fired heater. 20,402Ib/hr of the
gaseous hydrogen feed S-204 at 478 of and 42,571 lblhr of the partial vapor S-203 at 465
OF are fed to F-230 separately because they are different phases. The heat duty required
to raise the temperature of the streams to 599 OF to prepare for the reactor is 12,692,000
Btulhr. Assuming a stack temperature of 650 of, according to McKetta the efficiency is
83% and thus the required total heat duty is 15,291,600 Btulhr. This is furnished by
burning natural gas, along with waste streams from the process: OFFGAS and ACTONE
WASTE. The cost for this unit was estimated based on a design heat duty of 20,000,000
Btu/hr. This leads to an installed cost of $609,400 (Walas). The material used is
stainless steel because it is able to handle the high temperatures and also will not corrode
in the presence of acetic acid. Of the 15,291,600 Btulhr required to heat the process
streams, 8,547,300 Btulhr (56 %) is supplied from burning the process streams. This
amount was chosen in order to balance the cost of natural gas that must be bought with
the control and safety concerns that would be associated with using waste streams for
nearly all of the energy in the heater.

49

Flash Vessel

FV -310 (see spec. sheet p. 89)

The flash vessel FY -310 is used to separate the liquid and vapor portions of the
reactor effluent leaving the heat exchanger HX-300. The volumetric flow rate into the
flash vessel is 101,146 ft 3lhr. The required volume, determined by considering a 5
minute holdup time at half full, is 16,860 ft3. This is a large process vessel, and the
diameter was set at 17 ft., so that it would not have to be fabricated on the site. The
length height is 76.5 ft. This is made of stainless steel because of the corrosion caused by
acetaldehyde and acetic acid. The bare module cost for the flash vessel is $1,832,000.

Heat Exchangers
HX-200 (see spec. sheet p. 90)
HX-200 is used to increase the temperature of the acetic acid feed stream S-20 1
from 242 OF to 465 OF, where it is a partial vapor. To do this, 20,783 lb/hr of reactor
effluent S-206b is cooled from 557F to 280F, its dew point. The amount of heat
transferred is 4,305,300 Btulhr, and the estimated heat transfer coefficient between the
vapor and liquid was 10.8 BtU/(hr_ft2 _OF). This is relatively low for what is primarily
liquid-vapor heat exchange. It is a 1-1 shell-and-tube heat exchanger made of stainless
steel. The surface area is 8,343 fe, the tube length is 20 ft., and the shell diameter is 48
in. The cost estimated by B-JAC was $194,840.

so

HX-210 (see spec. sheet p. 91)


In HX-210, 20,840 lb/hr of the hydrogen feed stream S-201 at 202.6 of 1S heated
to 477.6 of by cooling 42,1961b/hr of the reactor effluent S-206a from 557 of to 280F.
This temperature is chosen because it is the dew point of S-206a at the operating
pressure, and having only vapor will ease mixing with S-206b, which is also cooled to its
dew point. This is a 1-1 shell-and-tube heat exchanger, which requires three exchangers
in series because of the large surface area required . The amount of heat transferred is
8,741,000, and using B-JAC the heat transfer coefficient was estimated to be 16.7
Btu/(hr-ft2_OF). The total required surface area is 8920 ft2, and the dimensions are a 10ft.
tube length and 60 in . shell diameter. HX-210 is composed of stainless steel to prevent
corrosion. The installed cost estimated by B-JAC was $630,750 for the three in series.

HX-300 (s ee spec. sheet p . 92)


HX-300 is used to decrease the temperature of 62,979 Iblhr of the cooled reactor
effluent S-301 from 280F to 113F in order to increase the recovery of acetaldehyde in
the absorber AB-320 . S-301 enters as a dew point vapor, and is partially condensed in
the heat exchanger. Cooling water is used to transfer 20,300,000 Btulhr from S-301. The
heat exchanger is a 1-8 shell-and-tube heat exchanger made of stainless steel. The
estimated heat transfer coefficient used was 70.9 Btul(hr-fe-OF), requiring a size of6687
ft2. The tube length is 12 ft ., and shell diameter is 58 in. The estimated installed cost for
HX-300 is $163,820.

51

HX-530 (see spec. sheet p. 93)


Stream S-506a, the solvent for the absorber, flows at a rate of 62,278 Ib/hr and a
temperature of 263 of into the heat exchanger HX-530. Cooling water is used to lower
the temperature to 157 of because more acetaldehyde is absorbed when the feeds to the
absorber are at lower temperatures. The required heat transfer rate is 2,736,000 Btulhr.
The estimated heat transfer coefficient in B-JAC is 105 Btu/(hr-fe_OF), which appears to
be reasonable for liquid-liquid heat transfer. The required area is 320 ft2, and the
estimated price is $10,750. The material used for the heat exchanger is stainless steel,
and it is a 1-2 shell-and-tube exchanger. The tube length is 20 ft., and the shell diameter
is 10.8 in.

HX-710 (see spec. sheet p. 94)


HX-710 employs cooling water to reduce the temperature ofthe S-703 from 260.3 OF
to 113.0F before it is fed to the decanter DE-720. The exchanger has a heat duty of
3,689,100 Btu/hr. A heat transfer area of 921 ft2 is calculated for HC-71 0 in B-JAC based
on an overall heat transfer coefficient of95.4 Btu/(hr-ft2-0F). It is a 1-6 shell-and-tube
heat exchanger with the following dimensions: tube length is 20 ft., shell diameter is 18
in. Stainless steel is the material of construction, and the installed cost is $15,940.

52

Mixers

M-220, M-310
Both M -220 and M-31 0 are used to mix reactor effluent, and a small pressure
drop is assumed across each. M-220 mixes 20,783 lb/lrr ofS-202 and 42,196 lb/hr ofS
208, both at 280 OF and 246 psi, the dew point of the vapors. These streams had been
used to heat the acetic acid and hydrogen feeds . These streams are mixed to allow a
single heat exchanger, HX-300, to cool the streams before feeding the resulting vapor
stream to the absorber AB-320. M-310 mixes 65,871 lblhr of the recovered absorber
bottoms S-305 and 39,510 lblhr of the liquid stream S-306 exiting the flash vessel. There
is a pressure drop of 5 psi across the mixer; this pressure drop can be almost arbitrarily
large, because the mixed stream is then passed into the valve V-50 1 to decrease its
pressure to 45 psi before entering the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500.

M-400
Mixer M-400 combines the pure hydrogen gas feed at 215 psi a and 77 OF with the
hydrogen-rich stream S-402a at 159 OF and 233 psi. The pressure of the combined
stream is decreased to 213 psia. This pressure is low enough to ensure that the vapor is
above its dew point and no liquid will be fed to the compressor. The outlet temperature is
152 OF.

M-700
M-700 combines the 31,444 Iblhr liquid distillate from the ace6c acid distillation
column at 275.2F and 95 psi with the recycle stream S-702 which is at 182.5 F and 40

53

psi and has a flow rate of 5, 111 Ib/hr. It integrates the two streams to liquid stream S-703
and lowers the pressure to 39 psi, with the corresponding temperature of214.1 of.

M-740
M-740 combines the 43561blhr liquid stream S-706 (distillate from the near
azeotrope distillation column) at 181.9 of and 25 psi with liquid stream S-707 (the
bottoms from the acetone distillation column) which is at 184.3F and 24.9 psi and has a
flow rate of755 lb/hr. The combined stream is a liquid with a flow rate of 5,111 Ib/hr at
182.3 OF and 24.7 psi.

Pumps

P-I10(seespec. sheetp. 95)

Pump P-ll 0 is used to increase the pressure of the combined acetic acid feed
stream S-1 04 to 263 psi, so that it will be at the proper pressure for reaction. The
entering stream is at ambient pressure because it includes the pure acetic acid feedstock
S-101, assumed to be at 14.7 psi. The net required power is 9.7 kW, but since the
efficiency is only 0.52 the total power supplied is 18.6 kW. This result from the
simulation agrees well with the hand-calculation for required power included in the
appendix. This is a centrifugal pump made of stainless steel. The purchase cost,
determined from cost charts, is $11,570 and the bare module cost is $57,860.

54

P-540 (see spec. sheet p . 96)


Pump P-540 is used to increase the pressure of the absorber solvent stream S-507
from 31.8 psi to 235 psi so that it can be fed to the top stage of the absorber AB-320,
which is at high pressure to maximize acetaldehyde recovery. The volumetric flow rate
is 1149 ft3/hr. The power requirement is 9.7 kW, but the efficiency is 0.52, so the total
power is 18.6 kW. This is a stainless steel centrifugal pump, and the bare module cost is
$57,860.

P-600 (see spec. sheet p. 97)


Pump P-600 is used to increase the pressure of the acetic acid distillation column
feed from 37.8 psi to 100 psi. The power requirement is 1.86 kW, but because of the
efficiency of only 0.485, 3.83 kW of electricity is necessary. This is a stainless steel
centrifugal pump, and the bare module cost is $30,860.

P-620 (see spec. sheet p. 98)


P-620 pumps the S-901 recycle stream from the stream splitter to the second stage
of the acetic acid distillation column DC-61 O. It increases the pressure ofthe stream from
85 psi to 98 psi . The temperature of the stream is virtual1y unaffected by this change in
pressure. An efficiency of 0.44 is used for the centrifugal pump. The electricity
3

requirement is 3.1 kW. The volumetric flow rate is 400 ft 1hr. The estimated bare
module cost is $28,930.

55

P-730 (see spec. sheet p. 99)


P-730 pumps the recycle stream S-705 from the mixer M-740 to the mixer M-700. It
increases the pressure of the stream from 24.7 psi to 40 psi. The temperature of the
stream is increased from 182.3F to 183.4F by this change in pressure. An efficiency of
0.27 is used for the centrifugal pump. The electricity requirement is 0.27 kW. This is a
stainless steel centrifugal pump, and the flow rate is 98 ft 3l1rr. The estimated bare module
cost is $12,860.

PB-500 (see spec. sheet p. 100)


The reboiler pump for the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500 is a
centrifugal pump made of stainless steel, and used to pump the bottoms of DC-500. The
capacity is 289 gpm, and its power requirement is 7.46 kW. The estimated bare module
cost of the pump is $18,000.

PB-610 (see spec. sheetp. 101)


The reboiler pump for the acetic acid distillation column is constructed from
SS304. It has a design pressure of 93.65 psig, a design temperature of 408.30F and a
driver power of 11.2 kW. It is a centrifugal pump. The bare module cost is estimated to
be $45,000.

56

PB-SI0 (see spec. sheet p. 102)


The reboiler pump for the acetone distillation column DC-Sl 0 is constructed from
SS304. It has a design pressure of 15.00 psig, a design temperature of215.97F and a
driver power of 0.1 kW. Based on cost charts for centrifugal pumps, the bare module
cost is $10,930.

PB-900 (see spec. sheet p. 103)


The reboiler pump for the near azeotrope column DC-900 is constructed from SS304.

It has a design pressure of 15.00 psig, a design temperature of 231.94F and a driver
power of 0.37 kW. It is a centrifugal pump, and the bare module cost for this pump is
$14,410.

PB-910 (see spec. sheet p. 104)


The reboiler pump for the ethyl acetate distillation column DC-91 0 is constructed
from SS304. It has a design pressure of 15.00 psig, a design temperature of 312.94F and
a driver power of 0.3 kW. The bare module cost for this centrifugal pump is $13,540.

PR-500 (see spec. sheet p. 105)


The reflux pump for the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500 is a stainless
steel centrifugal pump with a capacity of67.6 gpm. The work output is 1.49 kW, and the
bare module cost is $21,210.

57

PR-510 (see spec. sheet p. 106)


PR-510, the reflux pump for the refrigerated acetaldehyde recovery column, is a
centrifugal pump made of stainless steel. Its capacity is 3.5 gpm at a driver power of 0.25
kW. The estimated bare module cost is $12,860.

PR-610 (see spec. sheet p. 107)


PR-610 is the reflux pump for the acetic acid distillation column. The required
power is 5.6 kW. It is a stainless steel centrifugal pump. The bare module cost is
$35,360.

PR-800 (see spec. sheet p. 108)


The reflux pump for the stripper S-800 is made of stainless steel. It is a
centrifugal pump with required power of 0.25 kW. The bare module cost is $12,860.

PR-810 (see spec. sheet p. 109)


The reflux pump for the acetone distillation column is a centrifugal pump and
made of stainless steel. The power required is 0.1 kW, and the bare module cost is
$10,290.

PR-900 (see spec. sheet p. 110)


The power for the reflux pump for DC-900 is 1.1 kW. It is a centrifugal pump,
and the material is stainless steel. The bare module cost is $19,930.

58

PR-910 (see spec. sheet p. 111)


The reflux pump for the ethyl acetate distillation column is made of stainless
steel. It is a centrifugal pump with driver power of 0.1 kW. The bare module cost is
$10,290.

Since the purchase cost for each of the pumps listed above is relatively small compared to
the total capital investment of this process, a spare for each pump was purchased to avoid
long delays if a pump goes out of service.

Reactor

RX-240 (see spec. sheet p. 112)

The process unit RX-240 is a packed-bed reactor filled withPd-Fe203 catalyst


pellets. The design ofthe reactor was limited somewhat by the reaction information
available in the Eastman Chemicals patent regarding this process (Tustin et aL, U.S Pat.
No.6, 121,498). The desired reaction (1) is the reduction of acetic acid to form
acetaldehyde.
CH 3 COOH + H2 -) CH 3CHO + H 20

(1)

In the hydrogen-rich environment of the reactor, acetaldehyde can be further reduced to


ethanol (2).
CH 3CHO + H2 -) CH J CH20H + H 2 0

(2)

In process simulations, reaction (2) was not modeled as a sequential reaction, but instead
the following direct hydrogenation of acetic acid was used:

59

(2a)
A major factor in the design of the catalyst for this process was to promote (1), while
suppressing (2). This can also be accomplished by lowering the acetic acid conversion:
at higher space velocity (low conversion) the selectivity to acetaldehyde is enhanced.
Other side reactions that were considered in designing the reactor were the production of
acetone from acetic acid (3), as well as the formation of light hydrocarbons (4).

Reaction (4) is used merely as a material balance to account for side products listed in the
patent. Selectivity to methane and C2 hydrocarbons (ethylene and ethane) was presented
as 2% total, so we assumed 1 % to methane and 0.5% for each ethylene and ethane.
The reaction conditions allow 46% conversion of acetic with reaction selectivities listed
in Table 7.

Table 7: Reaction Selectivity


Reaction
Number
1
2a
3
4

Reaction

CH 3 COOH + H2 ~ CH 3CHO + H 2O
CH 3COOH + 2 H2 ~ CH 3 CH 20H + 2 H 2O
2 CH 3COOH ~ CH 3 COCH 3 + CO 2 + H 2O
3 CH 3 COOH + 9 Hz ~ 2 CH 4 + C2~ + C 2H 6 + 6 H 2O

Selectivity
(Acetic Acid
Conversion)
89%
5%
4%
2%

The gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) for volumes of gas per volume of catalyst was
reported as 2600 hr- 1 under the reaction conditions. The catalyst consists of 20%
palladium on iron oxide pellets. Based on a feed gas flow rate into the reactor of
224,307 ft 3/hr, this implies a catalyst bed volume 0[86.3 ft 3 (see Appendix for
Calculations). The reactor diameter is 4 ft., and the height of the catalyst bed is 6.9 ft. In

60

addition, the reactor has a 6 ft. footer, O.S ft. distributor, O.S ft. catalyst support, and a 3 ft.
header. The total height of the reactor is 17 ft. The bare module cost ofthe reactor, a
vertical vessel, is $267,400. A catalyst density of 42 lb/ ft3 was assumed, producing 3623
lb of catalyst in the reactor. At a price of $1 ,6S0/lb (Dr. Rob Becker), the cost for a
charge of catalyst is $S,979,000.
The operating conditions for the reactor are based on the optimal conditions
described in the patent: the feed enters at S99 of and 2S2 psia, with a hydrogen to acetic
acid ratio of SI1 by mole. Under the conditions of the patent, the catalyst does not show
significant degradation in perfonnance with time on stream, and because coking is not
considered a risk, we assumed a catalyst replacement of20 % per year (Vrana), or
complete replacement once every five years. The material of construction for the reactor
is stainless steel. One benefit of the catalyst described in the patent for the process is the
ability to use relatively inexpensive materials of construction compared to more corrosive
methods employed earlier. It was suggested that carbon steel may be satisfactory for the
material, since gaseous acetic acid is not expected to be corrosive. However, on the
suggestion of Bruce Vrana to limit possible sources of corrosion throughout the process,
we decided to use stainless steel for this vessel. Stainless steel is also stable at the
reaction temperature; it is classified as suitable up to SOO C (932 OF) (Perry).

Reboilers
R-SOO (see spec. sheet p. 113)
The reboiler for the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-SOO is a kettle reboiler
constructed from stainless steel. The heat duty is 16,892,000 BtU/hr at a bottoms

61

temperature of262.7 of. Steam purchased at 75 psig is used to provide the energy. Two
reboilers in parallel are used, and the effective heat transfer area is 8,108 ft2. The
estimated heat transfer coefficient is 105 Btu/(hr-ft 2_OF). The installed cost calculated by
B-JAC is $153,460.

R-610 (see spec. sheet p. 114)


The reboiler for the acetic acid distillation column, constructed of stainless steel,
employs 600 psig steam for the 39,534,800 BTUlhr heat duty. The process fluid is at a
pressure of 98 .6 psi. The heat transfer area required is calculated to be 7,200 ft2 assuming
a heat transfer coefficient of 112.5 BtU/(hr-ft2_OF). Its installed cost is $126,330.

R-8J 0 (see spec. sheet p. 115)

The reboiler for the acetone distillation column, constructed of stainless steel,
employs 35 psig steam for the 252,310 Btu/hr heat duty. It is a kettle reboiler. The
process fluid is at a pressure of 22 psi. The heat transfer area required is calculated to be
120.2 ft2 assuming a heat transfer coefficient ofl 02 BtU/(hr_ft2 _OF) . Its installed cost is
$10,620.

R-900 (see spec. sheet p. 116)


The reboiler for the distillation column DC-900, constructed of stainless steel,
employs 35 psig steam for the 3,150,280 Btulhr heat duty. The process fluid is at a
pressure of 30 psi. The heat transfer area required is calculated to be 626

62

ft? assuming a

heat transfer coefficient ofl 0 l.5 Btu/(hr-ft2 _OF). The installed cost for this kettle reboiler
is $15,520.

R-910 (see spec. sheet p . J J 7)


The reboiler for the ethyl acetate distillation column, constructed of stainless
steel, employs 75 psig steam for the 486,920 Btu/hY heat duty. The process fluid is at a
pressure of 20.1 psi . The heat transfer area required is calculated to be 109 ft2, based on
an estimated heat transfer coefficient of 100 Btul(hr-ft2_OF). Its installed cost is $8,740.

Reflux Accumulators

D-500 (see spec. sheet p . J 18)

Liquid reflux from the top stage of the acetaldehyde distillation column DC-500 is
returned to the reflux accumulator D-500. The vessel is stainless steel to prevent
corrosion from acetic acid or acetaldehyde. It is a horizontal vessel with diameter equal
to 3.5 ft. and a height of 10ft. The capacity of the accumulator is 852 gallons, and the
estimated bare module cost is $41,600.

D-510 (see spec. sheet p. J J 9)


The reflux accumulator for the refrigerated acetaldehyde recovery column DC
510 is made of stainless steel and has a capacity of 53 gal. Its diameter is 1.5 ft, and it's
length is 5.5 ft. The material is stainless steel and the estimated bare module cost is
$16,624.

63

D-61O (see spec. sheet p. 120)


This reflux accumulator for the acetic acid distillation column is constructed of SS304
and has a capacity of 3000 gallons. The dimensions of the vessel are 5.0 ft in diameter
and 20.0 ft in length. Its bare module cost is $93,510.

D-SOO (see spec. sheet p. 121)

This reflux accumulator for the stripper, constructed of SS304, has a capacity of
66 gallons. The dimensions of the vessel are 1.5 ft in diameter and 6.0 ft in length. Its
bare module cost is $17,350.

D-810 (see spec. sheet p. 122)


The reflux accumulator for the acetone distillation column has a capacity of 50
gal. It is a horizontal vessel with 1.5 ft diameter and 5.5 ft length. The material is
stainless steel, and the bare module cost is $17,660.

D-900 (see spec. sheet p. 123)


This reflux accumulator for this distillation column is constructed of SS304 and has a
capacity of 187 gallons. The dimensions of the vessel are 2 ft in diameter and 8 ft in
length. Its bare module cost is $21,820.

D-910 (see spec. sheet p. 124)


This reflux accumulator for the ethyl acetate distillation column, constructed of
SS304, has a capacity of 48 gallons. The dimensions of the vessel are 1.5 ft in diameter
and 5.5 ft in length. Its bare module cost is $17,663.

64

Refrigeration System
RF-520 (see spec. sheet p. 125)
The refrigeration unit was not rigorously designed, but the estimated costs of
purchasing and operating a packaged unit were analyzed. This refrigeration unit cools an
ethylene glycol solution, which in turn is used to provide a heat duty of 612,900 Btu/hr to
the condenser C-520 at 10F. Assuming "heat leak" of 30% of refrigeration produced,
the refrigeration unit was designed to operate at 900,000 Btu/hr (75 tons). Since heat
would be transferred indirectly through a glycol solution, the refrigeration unit itself was
designed to operate at -10F. Lower temperature refrigeration could be achieved to
recover a larger fraction of acetaldehyde, but at lower temperatures refrigeration becomes
considerably more expensive and more heat loss is expected. According to costing
estimates, a refrigeration unit this size costs $356,800 installed (Walas). Because of
uncertainties regarding how complete this quoted system is, and factoring in costs for the
glycol solution and holding tanks, we set the installed cost at $500,000 for this unit.
Operating costs were estimated based on the amount of steam and cooling water required
to generate and condense ammonia vapor (McKetta) .

Splitters
SPLIT, SPLIT2, PRODSPL
PRODSPL is used to split the reactor product S-206 into two separate streams to
heat the acetic acid and hydrogen feeds. This is done rather than introduce S-206 to the
heat exchangers sequentially because it allows the temperature of both S-201 and S-207

65

iIii

to be raised to nearly the same value. Because of the difference in the calculated heat
duties in HX-210 and HX-200, one third of the S-206 is sent to HX-200, with the
remainder passing to HX-21 O.
SPLIT splits the hydrogen rich gas stream exiting the absorber AB-320 into a
recycle to the reactor, and PURGE, which is flared. The flow rate into SPLIT is 19,877
Ib/hr, and 98.7 % is recycled to the reactor. This split fraction is as high as could be
practically designed without causing excessive buildup of light components in the
process. SPLIT2 splits 92,140 lblhr of S-506 into the solvent for the absorber AB-320 at
62,277 lb/hr and the balance to the acetic acid distillation column. SPLIT2's role is to
recycle acetic-acid rich solvent back to AB-320 where it absorbs acetaldehyde. The split
fraction was set by the interest of maximizing recover of acetaldehyde without causing
undue difficulty in the resultant distillation.

Stream Splitter (ETACSPLIT)


ETACSPLIT splits the 28181.37Ib/hr liquid stream S-901 at 117.5F and 35.5 psi
into two separate streams. 79.17% by mass gets diverted to the liquid stream that is
returned to pump P-620; the remainder is fed to DC-900.

Stripper

ST -800 (see spec. sheet p . 126)


This stripping is designed to remove the water from the system in the bottoms to be sent
to a wastewater treatment plant with the objective of purifying it enough to be able to
dispose of it. The bottoms stream, WASTE WATER, contains 89.2% by mass of water.

66

The main impurities in this stream are acetic acid (8.5%) and acetone (1.6%). The
distillate stream, S-804, primarily contains ethyl acetate and acetone. The stripper was
designed using 4 equilibrium stages; the tray efficiency is 34.8%, so the actual number of
trays is 12. Since there is no reboiler in this column, there is not a bottoms sump, but
there is a 4-ft. disengagement height for the condenser. To that end, this separation
column is 28 ft. in height and has a diameter of 1 ft.; both the trays and the column itself
are constructed out of stainless steel. The water-rich decanter product stream S-80 1
enters the column at tray 2. Steam is introduced into the stripper at 2161 lb/hr at the
bottom tray. The distillate rate is 1194 lb/hr and the operating pressure is 22 psi. The
bare module cost of this column is $287,800.

Tanks

T-1 (see spec. sheet p. J 2 7)

Storage tank T -1 is used to hold a one-day supply of acetic acid feed. It holds
only this much because our facility is on the site of a major chemical company, so there is
no need for us to maintain a large inventory. At steady state, the volumetric flow rate of
pure acetic acid feed is 320 ft 31hr, which would imply the need for a 7,680 ft3 holding
tank for the reactant. The tank is made from stainless steel to resist corrosion. The bare
module cost estimate, from Ulrich, is $115,700.

T-2 (see spec. sheet p. 128)


Tank T -2 holds a 12-hour supply of the bottoms product from the acetic acid
distillation column, stream S-103. The volumettic flow rate is 402 ft31hr, and the

67

necessary volume for the holding tank is 4824 ft3. The material of construction is
stainless steel, and the bare module cost is $52,100.

T-3 (see spec. sheet p. J29)


Tank T -3 holds a 12-hour supply of the acetic acid bottoms product from the ethyl
acetate distillation column. The volumetric flow rate of this stream is 7.5 ft 31hr, so the
required tank volume is 90 ft3. This vessel is made of stainless steel and has a bare
module cost of $6,940. Both T -3 and T -2 can be used to store additional acetic acid that
will be necessary at start-up, when there are no recycle streams to augment the fresh feed.

T -4 (see spec. sheet p. J3 0)

Tank T -4 is used to hold a fourteen day supply of ethyl acetate product. The
volumetric flowrate of the product stream is 21.8 ft3 1hr, so a tank with a volume of7,309
ft3

(207 m 3) is required. This is a stainless steel vessel, and the bare module cost is

$115,700.

T -5 (see spec. s heel p. J31)


Holding tank T-5 holds the combined acetaldehyde product from the HAC
PRODUCT streams. A fourteen-day inventory of acetaldehyde is required for T -5 . The
combined volumetric flow rate is 275 felhr, and the required volume is 92,400 [e. The
material of construction is stainless steel because high levels of acetaldehyde can corrode
carbon steel. Because of acetaldehyde's low boiling point, there must be cooling
facilities to keep the temperature below 60 OF, this is considered when calculating the

68

bare module cost, as the purchase cost was multiphed by a factor of two (in addition to
the bare module factor) to account for refrigeration. The purchase cost is $66,860, and
the bare module cost of the tank is $601)700.

T-6 (see spec. sheet p. 132)


Storage tank T-6 is used to hold the intermediate S-501, before entering the
acetaldehyde distillation column HC-500. It would be preferred to have a tank storing
the reactor effluent S-206, but its high temperature and large volumetric flow rate
because of the large presence of hydrogen and carbon dioxide gas make this impractical.
In case of plant stoppages that stream must be flared. The volumetric flow rate of the
distillation column feed is 1810 fe!hr, so a tank that can hold a 12-hour supply of this
material must have a volume of 21,720 ft3 (615 m 3). This tank must be made out of
stainless steel because of the corrosion risk from acetic acid. The bare module cost is
$127,300.

T-7 (see spec. sheet p. 133)


Tank T -7 holds the bottoms product S-506 from the acetaldehyde distillation
column DC-500; this location is chosen because if there is a shutdown in the acetic acid
separations section, the acetaldehyde reaction/purification section can still operate. The
volumetric flow rate ofS-506 is 1700 ft3/hr, so a 12-hour hold of it will occupy 20,400
fe . This must be made of stainless steel because of the high acetic acid level, and its cost
is $115,700.

69

Valve

V-SOl (see spec. sheet p. 134)

The valve V-SOl is used to decrease the pressure of the feed to the acetaldehyde
distillation column from 230 psi to 43.5 psi. The flow rate of the stream is l05,380 lblhr.
The pressure of this liquid stream is decreased because the acetaldehyde distillation
column operates using a condenser pressure of 32 psi.

70

lL

Sl.33HS NOll.VJlilIJ3dS l.INn

ABSORBER
Identification Item
Item #

Absorber
AB-320

Date:

4/9/02
cp

By:

No. Required
Principal Function: To separate acetaldehyde from the side products and
unreacted acetic acid.
Operation: Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblbr)
Composition (lblbr)
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

OUTLET STREAMS
INLET STREAMS
S-305
S-401
S-303
S-304
62,277.9165,870.5019,877 .11
23,469.70
trace
0.02
trace
122.96
trace
28.45
trace
27.13
trace
3l.92
6.47 6,167.54
615 .79
785.89
2,775.68 1,983.88
110.70
126.75
13,552.9312,873.06
45,046.2543,892.99

7,088.02
5,328.15
1,543.27
893.76
898.61
6,792.88
119.04
126.56
33.52
266.36
379.53

159.2
235.0

113
244.7

126.4
234.9

7,088.00
5,205.19
1,514.82
866.63
866.69
63l.81
289.14
918 .35
] 7.47
946.23
1,532.78
159.4
233.5

Tray Spacing (ft):

34 Average
Pressure
2 (psia):

Diameter (ft):
Height (ft):

3 Material of Stainless Steel


76 Construction:

Design Data: No. of Trays:

233.5

Comments & Drawings: See process flowsheet pg. 13 and Appendix A p. 177.

72

Compressor
Identification

Item

Item #

Compressor
CP-410

No. Required

4/8/02
akg

Date:

By:

Principal Function: To increase the pressure of the hydrogen feed into the furnace

Operation: Continuous

Materials
handled:

Inlet Stream

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Net work reqd


(hp)
Volume (ft\

Utilities:

S-403
20,404.31

Outlet Stream

S-207
20,402.42

7,781.46
5,137.53
1,495.13
855.36
855.42
623 .59
285 .38
906.41
17.24
933.93
1,512.85

7,781.47
5,137 .53
1,495.12
855.34
855.42
621.46
285.40
906.51
17.25
933 .97
1,512.96

152.3
212.7

202.6
262.8

385.06 Compressor Speed (rpm)


9335
Material of
Stainless
2100 Construction:
Steel

Motor driver

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg . 13 and Appendix A p. 165.

73

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


-

1 ~c.>rT1P?E1Y:.
2 Location :

---

_._-'"
Our Reference:

3 Service of Unit:
C-500

4 Item No.:
5 Date:

6 Size
7 Surf/unitteff.)

Your Reference:

Rev No.:

4/3/02

Job No.:
ir:J.._. _.~.!lor
Shells/unit 2
ft2

69--96
13109.2

8
9 Fluid allocation

-_....._.._

f!~.i.s!.guantitY-,-Jotal

..

Vapor Un/Out)

13

Liquid

14

Noncondensable

Ib/h

15

__._-

21 Molecular wt , NC

749473
6897
42286

749473

749473

101.8

90

105

~
Latent
........_...heat
_-....
~ _._
JElI~. ~. pre~sLJ.rE:!.(abs~l,!,~)
~

26 Velocity
27 Pressure dro p, allow./calc.
29 Heat exchanged

10530000

30 Transfer rate, Service

86.34

31

46.676 -_ ..

0 .009
43.84

0.186
43.83

0.783

. ..

44.01
0.9302

0.9432

BTU/{Wh~F)

0.008

0 .101

0.356

0.362

BTUllb

187.8

192.7

~i

32

80

ftls

9.8

2.96

1.412

[ '

20

0.003
97.6

9.3

psi

Sketch

Sizelrating

._-

Out
Intermediate

39
in /
40 Tube No. 4378

00 0.75

41 Tube type
42 Shell

10

CS

Tubesheet-stationa~

46 Baffle-crossing

! i

oX=n=;.tl
i

12/ 150 ANSI


12/ 150 AN~I
6 / 150 ANSI .......
12/ 150 ANSI
4 / 150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI
..
Tks-avg 0.065
in Leng!b.. .. ...
Material CS
---..

-- . ~- .

Shell cover

in

Pitch 0.9375

ft

I Tube !2attem

in

3..0

-- _._-

_-

Channel cover

...........

_ _ ..I!:!~~?_~.eet-floating
..

Type

_
single seg

J.m!2ingen:l~l p.~<?tection

Cut(%~1_4?

Seal'!y..Q~.

Tl:!2 e
Bundle .entrance
440
- _.

52 -Gaske
. ls - Shell side ._... _
53
... Floating head

Plate on bundle .... _.".


S!2acing: dc
1

Inlet

p.?? ".".__ .. ._- in


23

.-.................

T~Re

-ILJ.be-tubesheet joint
1319

vert

--

U-bend

.. _

49 Bypass seal

55 WeighUShell
56 Remarks

0.0625

..

CS

48 Supports-tube

54 ...<:'9.ge requirements

0 .0625

0070

47 Baffle-long

50 Expansion ioint
51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle

CS

45 Floating head cover

I Code
170

-.

C$

43 Channel or bonnet

751

180

in

In

37 Connections

Tube Side

- .- ! Code

75/

F
BTu/(h*ft2*F)

Clean 276.49

.._-_. Shell Side

34 J)~..slg~ temperature
r-
35 Numb_~e?!>?es per shell
Corrosion allowance

4.987

0.003

MTD corrected

J3TU/h
Dirty

.-

.-.

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

~ ~2.gnfTesl pressure

0.664

0.6173

..

32

61 . 07~_ _

61.587

44.01

Q.~i
ft2*h*F/BTU

. ..

28 Fouling resist. (min)

.- -

0.235

0.3206

BTUI(lb*F)

I~_~. f!11.?l.~.!:1.c:!lJctivity__

58

-r

115

Ib/ft3
cp

22 Specific heat

57

CW

..

110.55 --.-

20 Molecular wt, Vap

44

Tube Side

__

584

Dew / Bubble point

18 Density
19 Viscosity

---

ft2

..

16 Temperature (In/Out)

38

2series

6554.6

49767

_._. Ib/h
Ib/h ._. 49183
Ib/h _...... -....

17

Surf/shell (eft.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


.. Shell Side

10 Fluid name

r11
12

1 ~arallel

Connected in

Tube Side

9!oove/ex!2and
-.- .-
Bundle exit 22

in
- - .- - -

-
..-..

.-

- -
~,.- -

- -- m

lg!(!t*s2)

.....

..

..

ASME Code Sec VIII


Div 1
.-... .32791
Filled with water 56885.6

TEMA class
Bundle

..

-
B -- _-

...

23728.2

Ib

-..
.- -

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Com an
2 Location : ::-:-:---::-_ _ _ _ _ _ _-=----::::-:_ ___________ _ _ __ __ _________

3 _~ic~.Qf. Unit:
4 Item No .:
C-520
51 Date:

Our Reference:

Your Reference:

Rev No.:

61 Size

Job No.:

10--168

in
ft2

403.2

71 Surf/unit(eft.)

Type BEM
Shells/unit 2

hor

1 parallel

Connected in
Surf/shell (eft.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT

Shell Side

8
91 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name
!..!.~quantity. Total
12
Vapor (In/Out)
113
liquid____
Noncondensa_~__.__ ___
14

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

2607

Ib/h

54

2series

201.6

ft2

Tube Side

_ '10 c/~ [i/, y/itl( ~ " ""

21775

2661
342
__ 2265

__ _ ___.l1?75,

21775

___ __ ______ _ _

303
0.108

0.8165
0.258

.....l06.6
ftls
psi I

261 Velocity
27 Pressure drop, allow./calc.
281 Fouling resist. (min)
291 Heat exchanged
301 Transfer rate, Service

8
9.98

ft2*h*F/BTU
BTu/h
Dirty

612890
31.43

- -0.89
-

20

0.003
MTD corrected

32.18

1.156
0.003

48.37

Clean 40 .9

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

Shell Side
33 OesignlTest pressure
psi
751
I Code
34 Design temperature
F
160

311

Sketch

.;g

35 Number passes per shell


36 Corrosion allowance .______ _i!!

I In

37 Connections
38
Size/rating ___
in!
39
40 Tube No. 74

__ _
lOut
I Intermediate
OD 0.75

41 Tube !}:pe
42 Shell __ ~_S3Q~

ID

43 Channel or bonnet

~ TUb~~h~~t:;~uonarv

__ _

Tube Side
751
I Code
_
90

O.Q?'?~

3/ 150 ANSI _ ___?!:1.~.Q_~!'J_~1.


2/ 150 ANSI
2/1 50 ANSI
1/150ANSI I
/ 150 ANSI
Tks-avg 0.065
in Leng~14_ __ _
Material CS
in
Shell cover
Tubesheet-fioating

Baffle-=-crossiniL- SS304

Impingement j)rotection
Type

47 Baffle:long

single seg

Seal !}:pe
U-bend

Cut(%d)

_______

in
_ _ __

SS304

4~

ft Pitch 0.9375

J_ Tube pattern 30

._

Channel cover

Floating head cover

1 !

____ . .

CS

5?

o!t~

_ _ _ ___

OD 10.75

F
BTu/(h*ft2*F)

42

vert

Plate on bundle
Spacing : dc 21 .25

in

1 Inlet 9.625
in
__TYRe,_ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __

_ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _________Il,l!J~:t!::l!:>~_s~ ~~_tj()i,rJl. _ _..gr.()'O'':!.~!~.>:P.<:l. ~ .d. _ _ _ __ _


_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _Typ_~___
,_ _____
.:...:.:.:::..:..:..:=::..::...._ _1
.:...1:..:5:..::5_

52 1Gas~ets - Shell side


53
Floating head

Bundle en_t.r~ nce ..JJL


Tube Side

Filled with water

IE
__A
M _c_I~S~s~~~
B _

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1


1037.4

Buncj!~_~_)(it

1542.7

~~l Remarks

57
58

,,=

Bundle

591.7

Ib/(ft*s2) 1

_ __ _ __
Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


~~Q~~a~ny~:

_____________________________________________________________ _____________

2 Location:....
-- --------- -------------------- -------------- - - - - - -
3 Service_. _......_
of Unit:
_-=-=c.....:...:=.::::.:...::..:.:..=-'--________________._
Our Reference:
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .__ _ _ _ _ __
4 Item No.:

C-610

Your Reference :

~~~~~----~~-..----~~~~~~--------------------------------

5 Date:

Rev No.:

Job No.:

1--=+ -==_ _ _-.-:3:..;7_-_-1:..:2:..:0'_ _ _ ___..:.:in-'--____...:T../..yp"'e=--=B:...:V..:.:M"----"h""o'-r---'CO:.=n"-'n.:;.ec;:.;t=-ed::....:.:.in' --_ __1.:...,~araliel


ft2
Shells/unit 1
Surf/shell (eff.)
2494.3
2494.3

1series
ft2

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side
Side
1--=+-=:...=:.::..::.=-="-'- - -- - --------- --+--------=0:.:..:::..:....::=-=-----1-._ __ _Tube
:"':::'::-=-':0=;=-_. _

, je;
CW
... ----------+-----~--'-'=-'---------+-------=-.:..::....--.- . -

46,3=-4:...::9.-:.4__ __..__
_......_________._-=-=-=-+_ ____1:....:1..:,7.:...79::.;8=--______t -______.-:.1....:.

308.23
270
88
f-'1-=6+-T;:.;emc..:1J::.p~e;:.;r-=a.:.:tu:.:r.e::....>.:
(I'-"
n/-=O:...::u"'t)'___ _ _._ ______ - ----=-+---=-=-=-=---1--=-'-~.-~--=-"---_+_-:....:
17
Dew / Bubble ~oint
308.23
235.31
18 Density
0.421
51.55
62.241
..... _...
0.014
0.213
0.781
:~ Yiscosity
37.88
._._ - 55.12
20 Molecular wt.!. ~,<.lc:..
~ - - - - - --------.-----+-- ::.:..:.=-=----1
,

21 Molecul?l:.~.!_'_N.:..;C"____________ __ _-+_ ______+


22 Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivity

BTUI{lb*F)
BTUI(ft*h*F)

0.4139
0.015

-~

____._________+_- - - - - 0.781_L
__..:.:1.c: .O. : .OO:. ;_
7 _-+____-'--____
0.091

0.352 _ --+_--=--'=c-::_ _

24 Latent he
::::a::..:t_ _ _ ____________--....!B:::..T!..!U~/.!!lb~__-'-4"_84-'--__-"-__....:4!.>5!-"8"_.1'____+-- -_... ___-L-_ __ ___
25 Inle~pressure _(absolute)
psi
87 .023
26 Velocity

._ __

8.7

ftls

27 Pressure drop ~o_w_.I_ca


_
lc_
. _ __ _ ____ --'psc.=iit-_ ----C4_ _-'-____Q}-=8_-i_ __-=2::.::0' --__
28 Foulinq resist. (min)
ft2*h*F/BTU
0.0005
0.003
2c9-::F H.:::;
ea:::t-=e:.:.,:xc"'hc.::;a:.:,:
n""ge::.:d=--____-=3:.:;:6598300
30 Transfer rate , Service
76.98
31
32

BTU/h
Dirty

129.13

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL


Shell Side

MTD corrected
Clean 263.63

190.6 2 - - - - - . . . .
BTUI{h*ft2*F)
Sketch

Tube Side

Pls.,.i_ -=
80;:.;/_ _--'-I-=C..::o.:;.de=--f-----'7..::5-'-.1_ _-'I-=C:...:o..::d..::.e-l
33 Desi9nlT~3.!..~u=r..::.e___ _ .__ _ -=
_-'F-+-_ _ __3=_7:...:0'--___-t-_ _ _ _....:.1.:;.80-'---_____
35 Number passes per shell
1
4

li~esign tem~erature

I
rr

L!

Q .. ~' :".:........o

(P
ut :::
t

\..

h,
J~jlnh
~I)J

~3~6~C:.:::o::.:.rr-=
os::::i.::::
on~
al:.:.:lo~w.:.::a::.;n:.:::
c"e _r---------i.!l.-------------_I_------------1
37 Connections
_I ,,
n _____.._. _____..,;"18=1_1,;"":5:..:;0..,;"A..c..N,;,,,,:S'-I_t_-----'1-=.8:....
1 -'-'15'-'0.-:.A..c.N,;,,,,:S'--1 1
Size/rating
8/'---'...15:...:0:...:A...::N..:.,:S=-I-t-___ _1""8:.<...
F38-f-...o::.:::=-::=-"'--___
+-"O'-"u~t______-t--_...__ .......:::.
/ ...:.,;
15
=.,:0:...,:A
...::N,.:.:S"-'I-j
in/
39
Intermed:::ia::,:t"'-.
e -'-____-"6'-'.1....:1""5_0:....:A...::Nc:.S"-'-1-'--____-"-1150 AN St
40
Tube
No.
1296
1 ~+_'_~~~~~---0
==
D'-=0~
.7~5'-- ~T~k~
s~
..::c::.
vg~-=0~.0~4~9----~i~n~L~e~n~gt~h~
10
~____-,rft~P~i ~
tc~
h~0~.9
~3~7~5'--___ in
1-'-'-t--'-~:....:J..c.:::.
M=aterial SS304
Tube pattern 30
41 Tube type __ _ _ _________ _ ________.:..:
SS304
10
42 Shell
00 3c_8c'--__--'-in:..:.....___I_..::S"-'h~
e:.:..
l1 ..::.
co=-v:...:e:.:..r-----------------..--. - - - - - - --

43 Channel or bonnet
SS304
Channel cover
44 Tubesheet-stationarv S..::
F~==:=.:=~:::..L--=
S.=.
30=-4:.-...------.------_t_T
-'-'uo..::bc=e=sh-'-=e.e.~~.~ .g?!!.0.fl-. ___._______ ______ _ _ _
_____________
Impingement protection
None
45 Floating head cover
TYDe
single seg
Cut(%d) 46
vert_~~acing: clcl..Q._ _ _ _ __
in
46 Baffle-crossin ~ .. SS304
Inlet
11
in
47 Baffle-Ion
_
Seal ty~e _____________________.
48 Supports-tube _ ___ ~________=
U_=b:;,,;:e:.:..n;.:;;d_ _ _ ________________'Ty2e
_ ______..._ ____ _

1________ ......._ __ _ _ _ _______T.:..:u::.:b~e:...;-t~u"_b::::es"'-h:.::e:.:::e-'Jtj'o.::.


-" in:.:..
t ___
_groovefe."x,~""a:.::nc::
d _______ _
49 .E3YP?::::ss'-'s""e""a::...
... _ ___________ _ _ -'-T:i2.=..e_____________..____ _......._. ___._______ _ __ _
50 . ~~!1sion joint

__

51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle
967
Bundle entrance -_._- - - - - - - _._.._.Bundle.. --
exit ..--
Ib/(ft*s2)
Gaskets .. Shell side
Tube Side .____ _______ ._._ .._............_ _ ______
53
Floatin.9.he.a:::,:d"--_ __ _ ______________ _ _ ___.____ _______ ________ ...._ __

54 Code requireme!!ts
_ _

~. ~E

55 WeighVShell

8955.7

TEMA class

Code Sec VIII Div 1


Filled with water

13282.5

Bundle

B -...... --- ....- -

6385.1

-Ib

56 Remarks
57 f--- -- -- -- - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - ------- ------------------- - ____________ ...... _____
58

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


11 Companl:
LocatiOn :

3 _~ervice of Unit:

4 Item No.:

Our Reference:
Your Reference:

C-800

5 1Date:

Job No. :

Rev No.:
8--192

61 Size

TY2.e BEM

in
112.2

71 Surf/unit(elf.)

hor

~I' Fluid allocation

Shell Side

10 Fluid name
11 1Fluid quantity, Total

ft2

.. . _ .. !~'-I!
Ib/h

_.
Noncondensable
- - - - ---.

C. W

10586

32660

4160
6427

. j

.1

184.8

0.01

cp

~. _~olecular wt, Vap

BTU/(lb*F~
BTU/(ft*h*F

22 Specific heat
23 Therma.Lconductivity
24 Latent heat

psi I

26. Velocity
27 Pressure drop. ,?lIow.lcalc.

ftls_1

50~~~8 __ J.__~~;:24

--

29 I Heat exchanged

97 9980
111.78

397.7
27
38 42

2.855

0 .(
~

ft2*h*F/BTU

30 I Transfer rate , Service

MTD cc: .rrecled

BTU/h
Dirty

112.22

Clean 438.22

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

31

Sketch

Shell Side

32
331 OesignlTest
,,,on pressur~
'''J J U'~

si

34 Design temperature

Tube Side

7?i ___ LQ{)de

75/

250

~~ ~~~~~~:

I'"
lin

Size/rating

lOut

in/

~~

_ __.9,Q..?;,.:".5

in

..

37 Connections

/ Code
180

35 Number passes per shell


36 Corrosion allowance

--1

. t~~~-~~~:

Ilntermediale.J__ _ _/_1.5.QAr:i?:.;.I-L
I _ _ _ _/'--.:..:
15"-'0:...:Ac..:N
:...:.:::c
S'-1L..._ _ __

~.9 Tube No. 36

._ 00 0.75 _

41 Tube t y p e .

Tks-avg
_ ____ _...._

61 .864
0.561

60.93

391.5

psi

28 Fouling resist. (min)

120

0.36.----.-- 0.6136
-
0.01
0.076

BTUllb

25 Inlet pressure (absolute)

90

183.65

62.27

211'0<?Lecular wt, NC

32660

181.7

1QA Q
FI
Ib/ft3 1__ --
0.238
- -""-_._

19 Viscosity

32660

'

17
~~J3_ubble point
______ ..____ __._ _ _
18 Densi

10586

Ib/h

16 Tem . erature (In/Out)

Tube Side

S- ~a.t
Ib/h

f-=--I----,-",,,-=->.:.n/Out)

381
] ~.

1 series

112.2

Surflshell (elf.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT

14
1
15

1 garallel

Connected in

Shell s/unit 1

ft2

0 .065_

.!!!Length 16

ft

Male..r:ial .C:? __..

_ _ __

Pitch 0.9375

in

1 Tube pattern 30

E~ll_

SS304

10

~ g,~Cl.Qnel

or bonnet

CS

+-C,-,h-,-,acc..nC'ncoe.;".1c.=..o'
-
--v...:e"-r_ _ _ __ __ _ _ ________

SS304

+-T_u-'-b"'e'-'s'-hco
e-=
e-'
t-f1_0o.:a;;.:u;.c.
n""_ _ __ __ __ __ _ ___ 1

00 8.625

..:cin
'-!.-_+--'S:o:h-'-'e'-"II--'c~
o:..:
v::::.er:...._ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

_ __
1

~ .I.ubesheet-stationary
-4-~

.Floating head cover

.-4-6..l?alfle-crossing

.__

__ ~? 3 04

.....
Typ.~ 2i.Qgle seg

47.Cl!f!~-lon g

vert

Plate on bundle
Spacing: d c 5. 5
11.5

in
in

Type
Tube-tll~_e~~E'::.~tj<?i!:l.t ___ _ .._gr{){)y~L~ ~PClIl9. _ _
T~

1672 . ..

Bundle entran ce __ .2J].

152 Gaskets Shell side

_ _ __. _~l:!...1l9.!~!.~t_J..2_ _ _ _Jb/(ft*s2)

Tube Side

Floating head

54 1Code requirements
551 WeighUShell

ASME Code Sec VIII Oiv 1


777.9

Filled with water

156 1 Remarks
57
58

1 '1

41

[Inlet

U-bend

49 By~ass seal
50 Expansion joint

153

Cut(%d)

Seal type

~? Supports-tube

51 RhoV2lnlet nozzle

IIl]J2ingemenl protection

TEMA class
1147.6

Bundle

366.2

B
Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet

__.._._ ---_

1 Company:
2 Location:
r
............. __ .. __ .of Unit:
---3.. Service
4 Item No.:

--_.

- - - -

5 Date:
6 Size
7 Surf/unit(eff.)

-----

C-810

Our Reference:
Your Reference:
Job No.:

----

Rev No.:
8 --120

Type BEM
Shells/unit 1

in
ft2

77.6

Connected in

hor

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

1714

F
F
Ib/ft3
cp

174 .5
170.2
0.185
0.042

BTU/(lb"F)
BTU/(ft*h"F)
BTU/lb
psi
ftls
psi
ft2*h*F/BTU
BTu/h
Dirty

0.3426
0.01
246.2

Liquid
Noncondensable

15
16 Temperature (In/Out)
17
Dew / Bubble Q.oint
18 Density
19 Viscosity
20 MQIEi..~!ar wt, Va ~
~J Molecular wt, NC
22 Specific heat
._ - - - --_.._._ .. _..
23 Thermal conductivity

~ ~~ ntheat

25 Inlet pressure (absolute)


26 ~~L~
--_.
27 Pressure drop, allow./calc.
1 - - -
28 Fouling resist. (min)
428730
29 Heat exchang~_d
88.15
30 Transfer rate, Service

in /
Tube No. 40
Tube type

14289

1714

14289

14289

-- - 167.6

49.348
- _ .". 0.261

0.567 1
0.099
22
9.66

._.....

90

120

62.224
0.762

61.864
0.561

1.0006

0.9998

247.9

~Q~~~~ I ~~~:==

...._--_.. _--_ ... _


-- --_._-- _......._--_80

2.76
0.363

15

0.003
MTD corrected
._-_._-_
.. _... _....
Clean 245.66

95.04
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
31
SheIlSid~ __ '--__ I'=!Q~..lcli!__ _
32
psi
751
I Code
75i
! Code .
~~. ~g nlTest pressure
180
240
34 Design temperature
F
4
1
35 Number ~ assesp_er shell
Corrosion allowance
Connections
Size/ratinq

ft2

CW

r--

1714
- - - ---

Ib/h

1series

77.6
Tube Side

S-!/ll';

J1. 1-- VapQlj.ln/Outl.

36
37
38
39
40
41

~arallel

Surf/shell (eff.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

8
9 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name
11 Fluid quantiY. Total
13
14

.... _ - - - --

1.206

_.

0.003
62.71

F
BTu/(h*ft2*F)

Sketch

-;==t]D
.
.

,
I

in
In
Out
Intermediate
0.75
....... ,-_. __aD
... _-_.._

2/150 ANSI
2/150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI
0.049
in Length 10
Material SS304
Shell cover
in
Channel cover
Tubesheet-floating

3/ 150 ANSI
1/ 150ANSI
Tks-avg

-- -

ft Pitch 0.9375
30

in

I Tube pattem

10
OD 8.625
.~ ~~~_$_3.94
or
bonnet
43 .Channel
SS304
..... .. .. _._ ....... _..
---..
44 _::Ll! \) ~~~.~.t-stationary SS304
---- -------_...._-_...
Impingement protection
Plate on bundle
45 Floating head CO,(.!'!f -.
..
Type
vert
single seg
S~acing: C/C 25.625
in
Cut(%d) 41
46 Baffle-crossin ~ ~ }.94
in
Inlet
9.5
47 Baffle-long
Seal
ty~e
..
.
I
-. _____.____. ________ ..Type
48 Supports-tube
.. ._U-bend
....... _..... ......... ._._ .. _... .. ....
49 Bypass sei!.!._
__._..____._____..._._ _ Iy\)E!::tLJtJE!.~.tl.E!.E:)_tj.~
_ gr9<?v~Ce~and
50 Expansiq.0j<2ln..t
TypE:)
, ......-. __ .__._-_ ...RhoV2-lnlet nozzle - - 509
Bundle
entrance 81
Bundle exit 1
Ib/(ft*s2)
.....
....... - .....................................
~!. f-'--"-"----..--...-
- Gaskets
Shell
side
Tube
Side
52 --_
..
_
._---_._
..
_.
_- - - .. .....
. .......
-'- -"-'-" - 53 ___ Eloating head
-_.
ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1
TEMA class ._B 54 <::()cjE:)_~E!..quirements
.- .. ...- -.519.7
Filled with water 761 .8
Bundle 212
55 WeiqhVShell
Ib
56 Remarks
..... __ .
- -_..
57
._-
58
_

.~-.------. --. -

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:
2 Location:
--.3 Service of Unit:
C-900
Item No.:
c---
Rev No.:
5 Date:

Size ....--
-~ ----_

"'''" . _,.

__ .___

Our Reference:
Your Reference:
Job No.:

12--168

in
275.2

7 Surf/unit(eff.)

8
9 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name
11 Fluidquantitv, Total
~ _Vapor (In/Out)
13
Liquid
Noncondensable
14

ft2

__ _____ ___M_.____ __

. ----.-.- - - ~ . - -. - -.---

_._-_.-

- "- _ ....

__

Type BEM
hor Connected in
1 parallel
1series
-.
.. _.,------
Surf/shell (eff.)
Shells/unit 1
275.2
ft2
PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
Shell Side
Tube Side
.. _ .-._-----
Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

15
16 Temperature (In~Out)
Dew / Bubble point
17

F
F
Iblft3

,.:L~ ~J2Q~!Y.

:) - 7<,.\

cw

24205

97030

_... _-

11501
12704

24205

97030

97030

215
215
0.225
0.071
56.19

183.9
210.56
51.137
0.266
60.08

90

120

62.224
0.762

61.862
0.561

cQ
..1~ '{iscosity
20 Molecular wi, Va~ ______
...
21 Molecular wi, NC_.
0.3434
0.5658
22 p.ecific heat
1.0096
0.9998
BTlJ{lb*F)
1
0.352
BTUt(ft*h*F)
0.364
23 Thermal conductivity ._. _
..
OL.
24 Latent heat
BTUflb
25 Inlet pressure (absolutel.
psi
80
--_ .. _" - - - , ,25
43.03
26 Velocity
4.1
ftls
_.
-'1 . ~~8___ ._ _15
27 Pressure drop, allow./calc.
psi
2
._---._ I 1.634
0.003
28 Fouling resist. (mini
ft2*h*F/BTU
0.003
2911400
MTD corrected
103.64
29 Heat exchanged
BTUth
.___ ..L
102.09
Clean 347.79
Dirty 105.21
30 Transfer rate , Service
BTUl{h*ft2*F)
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
31
Sketch
Shell Side
Tube Side
32 --_ ..
psi
751
I Code
33 ~gnlTestpressure
75L_ _ ~Qg~ .
t
!
280
180
34 Design temperature
F
rr
11
1
-2 - -.
f !
~ ~_mber passes per shell
in
0.0625
36 Corrosion allowance
In
6/ 150ANSI
6/150 ANSI
37 Connections
3/150 ANSI
6 / 150 ANSI
38
Size/ratinL - - ._ ' Out
Intermediate .
/150 ANSI
/ 150ANSI
39
in!
00 0.75
ft Pitch 0.9375
in Length 14
40 Tube No. 101
Tks~ 0.065
in
Material
CS
I
Tube
pattern
30
~ _T_~_t?~_!Y.P.~.
10
00 12.75
Shell cover
42 Shell
SS304
in
Channel cover
43 Channel or bonn..L__ Q____ _.
-- - " - ' -"""
44 Tubesheet-statio~ _.~_~.2.~,.
Tubesheet-floatin~L _
Impinqement protection
Plate on bundle
.. _ .__._ .
.. _r~ rE~Q.9~n.R)l~Cl~ _c;over
SS304
vert
inl
Cut(%d) 43
S29cin.9: clc 13
. __IY~__ _?l~gle seg
-'. !3affle-c~~~?ing

_~~~1.~

"'

--C
I

tI;
4J---aL-~

__

~ ~Cl.!f~:!<?_n.9
48 ~PP()r:t.? : tu. .g.e. .
49 ~Y.R?~s?E'!?1

50 _~.~p.Clrl~~()rl19i nt
51 ._RhoV2-lnlet
........._...
..-.... _
-_nozzle
.. -
52 Gaskets - Shell sig.e.

____ .m. ".

~~Uype

U-bend

Type

--.- Tube-tubesheet joint

Ilnle!_ 14

groove/e~_~_

._._l)~

2596

Bundle entrance 640


Tube Side

.TI. r---._

_ ._JQ.a_t:.rlg head
54 Code requi!~f'!:I.~!1Js______~ME Code Sec VIII Div 1
1434.1
Filled with water 2197.3
55 WeiqhVShel1
Remarks
56 -_._
.. __ .... _._
.
57
58

1'1

__

Bundle exit 32
......

-- -

inl

..

TEMA class B
Bundle 827.7

Ib/(ft*s2) I

'--1
Ib
I

- ...---

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:

-.-

2 Location:
3 Service of Unit:

...

C-910

4 Item No.:

Rev No.:

5 Date:
6 Size
7 Surf/unit(eff.)

Type BEM

in
473

14

F
F
Ib/ft3
cp

-- ...

Tube Side
........

BTU/(lb*F)

16983

16983

181.6
175.4

175

90

120

0.203
0.091

51.497

62.224

0.255

0.762

61.864
0.561

0.3126
0.009

BTUJ(ft*h*F)

28 Fouling resist. (min)


29 Heat exchanged
30 Transfer rate, Service

15.59

157.1
16

ftls

9.9

35 Number passes per shell


36 Corrosion allowance
In
37 Connections
Out
Size/rating
38
--- ._-_._
in/
.... _.. _. __ .
Tube No. 410
40 -.------_._-
41 Tube type
SS304
42 Shell

ID

50 Expansion joint
51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle
52 Gaskets - Shell side

751

ICode
1

8
0.0625

BTUJ(h*ft2*F)

..

'

2/150 ANSI
2/150ANSI
/150 ANSI
ft Pitch 0.9375
Tube pattern 30

in

I
.. -

--- -

Channel cover
Tub~~heet-floating
Impinqem~PE()t~ction

_single seg
Seal type

Cut(%d}

43

-~ - .

vert

Plate on bundle
Spacing: dc 30

U-bend

Inlet

__. _ -in

in

20.25

--

lYJ:>e__.
_.gr()ove/~_x"pand

Tube-tubesheet joint
Type
Bundle entrance 99
Tube Side

----.. _-,...... _.

.~
.
-- - .

Bundle exit 36
.. - .. _--_ ...... ...

Floating head

54 Code requirements
55 Weight/Shell

_....E...

69.13

0.065
in Length 6
Material CS
Shell cover
in

Type

757

0.22

0.003

ICode
180

CS
1--
44 Tubesheet-.~tational.. SS304 __.
1-._.
45 Floating head cover _

48 Supports-tube
49 Bypass seal

..___J

Sketch

250

Channel
43 -_.. _--or bonnet

SS304

15

Tube Side

1/150 ANSI

OD 24

----

80
0.71

Clean 139.86

72.57

6/150 ANSI
6/150 ANSI
Tks-avg

_._-_ ... _

0.315

in

Intermediate
OD 0.75

~~

751

0.9998
0.364

-----_.... _-_.

0.003
MTD corrected

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL


Shell Side
psi

..
..

psi

1.0006
.__ .. 0.352

0.074

psi

ft2*h*F/BTU
BTu/h
Dirty

509570

0.505

..

156

BTUlib

26 Velocity
27 Pressure drop, allow.lcalc.

31

5634
3129

..

24 Latent heat
25 Inlet pressure (absolute)

32
33 DesiqnlTestEessure
34 Design temp_erature

8763

- - -

21 Molecular wt, NC
22 Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivity

58

ft2

16983

Ib/h
Ib/h

15

57

1series
._--_._
--

473

8763

Ib/h

16 Temperature (In~Q.l!!)
17
Dew / Bubble J!9J.rlL
Density
18
._--.-
. . - - .
19 Viscosity
20 Molecular wt, Vap

56 Remarks

1 parallel

C. W

Noncondensable

53

Connected in
Surf/shell (eff.)

Ib/h

Vapor (In/OutL-.._..
Liquid

46 Baffle-crossing
47 Baffle-long

hor

Shells/unit 1

ft2

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

11 Fluid quanti!!', To!?1


13
-_.

.. .....

Job No.:

23--72

8
9 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name
12

Our Reference: ---_..


Your Reference:

Ib/(ft*s21

_-_.
.".-,--- _ ..

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1


2571.3
.

_----.

Filled with water

TEMA class
4020.3

Bundle
..

-~,, -

..-

1640.9

Ib

__ .. _

-- ..

---"

DECANTER
Identification

Item

Decanter

Date:

Item #

DE-nO

By:

No. Required

4/9/02
akg

Principal Function: Separating out all of the water from the ethyl acetate

Operation: Continuous
Materials
handled:

Inlet Stream

Quantity (lbmollhr):
Composition (lbmollhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Outlet Streams

S-704
36,555.16

S-801
8,295.16

S-901
439.28

< 0.001
trace

trace
0
3.63
439.38
803.75
55.58
6,208 .52
784.29

trace
0
3.16
229.99
174.35
2.39
29.39
trace

25.83
2,463.10
22,576.48
195.55
8,418.79
2,875.41

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

113
36.0

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft\
Heat Duty (MMBtulhr):

Design Data:

117.5
35.5

167.6
22.0

Stainless Steel
14.5 Material of
12165.78 Constmction:
0.00288

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg . 15 and Appendix A p. 179.


-

81

Distillation Column

Identification Item
Item #

Distillation Column
DC-500

No. Required

4/1/02
cp

Date:
By:

Principal Function: Separating the Acetaldehyde


Operation: Continuous

Materials handled:
S-501a
Quantity (lb/hr): 105,379.58
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
0.04
220.69
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
50.38
Ethylene
50.00
Ethane
54.41
Acetaldehyde
12,843.29
Acetone
1,162.71
Ethyl Acetate
2,765.36
Ethanol
865.08
Water
19,808.00
Acetic Acid
67,559.63

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psi):
Design Data: No. of Trays:
Feed Tray:

Tray Spacing (ft):


Diameter (ft):
Height eft):
UtiJities:

S-504
2,885.40

S-506
92,139.53

trace

0.04
215.16
47.99
41.93
49.63
2,527.19
trace
trace
trace
0.19
trace

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
9.57
1,162.71
4,106.58
163.78
20,051.42
66,645.46

101.8
32

262.7
37.8

5.53
2.39
8.07
4.78
10,306.52
trace
trace
trace
27.372
trace

121.8
43.5
71
28
2
4.5
156

S-502
10,354.66

101.8
32

Average Pressure (psia): 32


Molar Reflux Ratio:
2.4
Material of Construction: Stainless Steel

Condenser (C-500) and Reboiler (R-500)

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg. 14 and Appendix A p. 165

82

Identification

CONDENSER COLUMN
Item
Condenser column
Item #
DC-510
No. Required
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function:

Separates the Acetaldehyde from the offgas outlet stream from


the main acetaldehyde column

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:

Outlet Streams
S-503

Inlet Stream

S-504
Quantity (lbmol/hr):
Composition (Ibmol/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

62,277.57

Design Data:

Utilities:
~

1.30
0.54
1.88
1.09
2,455.29
trace

3.456

0.041
213.86
47.45
40.05
48.54
71.90
trace

< 0.001

98.3
30.1

8 Average Pressure (psia):


8 Material of Construction : Stainless
2
Steel
1.5 Molar Reflux Ratio:
53.1

Condenser (C-520) with a Refrigeration unit (RF-520)


-

421.84

trace

101.80
32

No. of Trays:
Feed Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft3):

S-505

2,463.56

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
4.87
785 .95
2,775.97
110.71
13,553.36
45,046 .71

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

83

10
28

28

3.79

Distillation Column
Identification

Item

Distillation Column

Date:

Item #
No. Required

DC-610

By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function:

Purifying acetic acid by utilizing ethyl acetate-water azeotrope

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:

S-602

Quantity (Ib/hr):
Composition (Ib/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

S-603

29,861.62

22,326.31

20,743.76

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
3.10
376.83
1,330.91
53.08
6,498.49
21,599.21

< 0.001
trace
0
0
0
17.83
1,598.79
17,200.99
110.58
1,746.22
1,651.91

trace
trace
0
0
0
trace
0.006
0.016
< 0.001
366.13
20,377.61

117.9
98

263.2
100

Design Data:

No. of Trays :
Feed Tray:
Ethyl Acetate Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Height (ft):

Utilities:

Condenser (C-610) and Reboiler (R-610)

30
17
2
2
10.5
74

84

S-103

369.9
98.6

Average Pressure (psia):


Molar Reflux Ratio:
Material of Construction:

S-801
8,295.16
trace
0
0
0
0
3.63
439 .38
803 .75
55 .58
6,208.52
784.29
117.5
35.5

95
2.5
Stainless Steel

DISTILLA TION COLUMN


Identification

Item
Item #
No . Required

Principal Function:

Waste Acetone separation column

Operation:

Continuous

Distillation Column
DC-8l0
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

S-804

S-805

S-707

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

1,194.31

439.28

755.2

trace

trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

18l.7
25

Materials handled:

trace
3.31

3.16

0.17

293.44

229.99

63 .50

784.24

174.35

610.00

5.13

2.39

2.74

29 .39

77 .92

107.31
0.88

trace

167.6
22

Design Data:

No. of Trays:
Feed Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Height (ft):

Utilities:

Condenser (C-810) and Reboiler (R-810)

19
14
2
1.5
52

0.88

18l.9
25

A verage Pressure (psia): 22


Molar Reflux Ratio:
4
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

85

--"

DISTILLATION COLUMN
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Principal Function:

Water 1 Acetic Acid - Ethyl Acetate separation column

Operation:

Continuous

Distillation Column
DC-900
1

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

S-901

S-902

5,933.43

1,577.33

< 0.001

trace
trace

trace
4 .66

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

< 0.001

4/1/02
cp

S-706
4,356.10
< 0.001

trace
4.66

424.90

0.89

424.01

4,571.37

1,136.39

3,434.98

29.39

0.24

29.15

464.07

1.79

462.28

439 .05

438.03

1.02

117.5
35

221
28

Design Data:

No. of Trays:
Feed Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Height (ft):

Utilities:

Condenser (C-900) and Reboiler (R-900)

20
10
2
2
54.5

86

Date:
By:

181.9
25

Average Pressure (psia): 25


Molar Reflux Ratio:
1.8
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

DISTILLATION COLUMN
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Distillation Column
DC-910
1

Principal Function:

Ethyl Acetate separation column

411102
cp

Date:
By:

Continuous

Operation:

Materials handled:

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

S-902

S-903

S-102

1,577.33

1,139.31

438.03

trace
trace

0
0

0
0

< 0.001

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

< 0.001

trace

0.89

1,136.39

1,134.92

0.24

0.24

1.79

1.79

0.001

438.03

1.48

436.55

221
28

175
16

No. of Trays:
Feed Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Height (ft):

Utilities:

Condenser (C-91 0) and Reboiler (R-91 0)

I
I

0.89

Design Data:

trace

1.47
< 0.001

263.2
20.1

45 Average Pressure (psia): 16


26 Molar Reflux Ratio:
1.8
2 Material of Construction Stainless Steel
3
104

- - -

87

- -

.......

FIRED HEATER
Identification Item

Item #

Furnace
F-230

No. Required
Principal Function:
conditions

4/8/02

Date:

akg

By:

To increase the temperature of the reactant streams to optimum reaction

Operation: Continuous

Materials handled:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):
Design Data:

Heat Duty (MMBTU/hr)

Inlet Streams

S-203
42,57l.91

trace
trace

Outlet Stream

S-204
20,402.42

S-205
62,974.33

trace
0.006
1.49
0.001
365.11
42,205.31

7,781.47
5,137.53
1,495.12
855.34
855.42
621.46
285.40
906.51
17.25
933.97
1,512.96

7,781.47
5,137.53
1,495.12
855.34
855.42
621.46
285.40
908.00
17.25
1,299.08
43,718.26

464.7
255 .0

477.6
254.8

599
252

15.29 Average Pressure (psia):


253
Material of Construction: Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg. 13 and Appendix A p. 180.

88

FLASH VESSEL
Identification Item

Item #

4/9102
cp

Flash Vessel Date:


FV-310
By:

No. Required

Principal Function: Separates the S-302 stream into a vapor and liquid
Operation: Continuous

Materials handled:

Inlet Stream

S-302
Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (Iblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Outlet Streams
S-303

S-306
39,509.77
23,469.70

62,979.67

7,088.04

7,088 .02

5,425.88

5,328 .15

1,565.20

1,543.27

916 .63

893.76

921.10

898.61

13,471 .78

6,792 .88

665.76

119.04

907.31

126.56

771 .84

33.52

7,201 .08

266.36

24,045.05

379.53

0.02
97.73
21.93
22.87
22.49
6,677.43
546.90
78l.38
738.33
6,935.17
23,665.52

113

113
244.7

113
244.7

244.7

Design Data:

Vapor Fraction:
Diameter (ft):
Volume([t'"'3):

0.8 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


17 Heat Duty (MMBtulhr):
20.3
16,860

Drawings and Comments: See flowsheet p. 13 and Appendix A p. 182.


-

89

~ - ----.-

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1~9rnJl~an:.o.Y,-,-:_ __

2 Locauon :

_ _ _ _ __ __ __._ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ ______ ____ ___._

- --

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _._ - - - -
Our Reference:
- - -=-=::.....:...
= .::.:.=.="---- - - - - - - - - - - - - -._._ - - -

3 Service of Unit:

HX-200

4 Item No .:

Your Reference:

Rev No.:

5 Date:

Job No.:

47 --240

6 Size

Type BEM

in

7 Surf/unit{eff.)

8343.1

vert

Connected in

Shells/unit 1

ft2

1 parallel

Surf/shell (eff.)

1 series

8343.1

tt2

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT

Fluid allocation
9 --==-=:.::..::;::..::..::.:..:.....f-=+

_
10 Fluid name
1--'

---

Shell Side
- + - ----=.:..;.::.:c....::;=.::;-

---

_ __ __ _ _ ___--+-_ _ _. . . .:<:...;) -_20 b

=-_ _ __
11 Fluid quantity. Total

12

Tube Side
-..----'--'=-=-==-=--

_+

_______._--=I.=.b/'-'..h+-_ _ _--=:c2Q; g L_____l -_

-"-_ __ _ _ __ __ _-"I b/h


Vapo~_ln/Qut)

20322

- -

,, - .261

-=27:..r6:..::5:.::2e-_

-.-

20322

3733
--27652
23919
-,~----+-~~~-~-~~~

Liquid

13
~+-~~~--------------~I~b/~h
_ _ _ __

14
Noncondensable _ __ _ ___ __ ---'-''lb''''/h'_'+_-.--- - -_ t _ - - --_t_
l--"-'-i_--'-'-'''-====~
.- -
15

241.9
16 Temperature (In/Out)
~+__'_'=:J"--e.:.;=c:::..l"-"-'::.=L---------------'-F+_-~55"-'6"".9~--I- -~~-+--..::..:....:..:=
-
17
Dew / Bubble point
F
~

0.406=--__+
Density_ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _~lb~/~tt=_3~-~~-_+-~~
0.294

19 Viscosity

0.017

cp

~2c:c0-t-'-'-Mc:cO-,-,le",c.=.
ul:.::
a.;....
r "'-'-".
wt.-'-'V a-'p_ ___.. .___ _ _ __

_ _ _ _--t_ _ _ _ ___t_-

~2c.:.
1-t-'-'-Mc:co-'-'le'-=c.=.
ul:.::
a.;...."'-'-".
r wt . _--=~
N C __ _._..__
. _ __ ____

22 Specific heat

0.013

+-_ _____t_.I

_ _

BTUI(lb'F)

0.7755

........

-.-

...

463.45

58_042

1.925

0.375

0.015

---

--

464.7

~-.

0.7328

0.5679

0.4608

0 .073
0.085 _-+_ - -0'.02
0.089
23 I~ermal conductivity_ _ _ _ _ _---=B=-T:....:U""/->.:(tt.=....:..:h'-'FC..l=)+ -_ -===_-+_
-=-:..::..:.-=---_+_
_ -=-:"::=
= .... _--
182.3
141 .5 .....
24 Latent heat
_.... _ __ __ _ _ _ --=B=-T-'--U::.:/c.:..:lb=-t-_ _ _ _--<~----+---"-==~-----'-_'_"_'-'-"

25 ~~p!essure (absolute)

2si

250.915

263

_.. _._--

___ ._ _ _ _ _--'.ftI=-s=-t-_ __ _ _9.::..:.r0..:..8_ _ __ _I_ _ _ _ _....:..;...~


0.14 __ __ _

26 Velocity

27 Pressure drop . allow.lcal<;:..... _.... __ _

_ _ __

28 Fouling resist. (min)

_ _<=_
p~si=-t __ _ =--_--'_--=2"-'
5
.0:..::83
"'_ _ t--

ft2'h'F/BTU

31

10.11

Dirty

10.8

BTU/(hft2'FJ
Sketch

Shell Side

33 DesignlTest pressure ..

psi

260/

. _ _T:....:u:.::b..::.e...=S:..:.:id:..:e:...-._

/ Code

280/

/ Code

-+-___-=5~Q. __ _ _

62..:..0_ __

34 ..!?esign temperature

._-----L

51.03

Clean 11.61

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

32

0.138

0.003

=2.:::.9FH
:..:.e"-'a::..:t-"e:.:.:xcha:.:.n=qled
"'.:::
:::..-_ __-"3
4 ::..:0~o5:..:1.=.2...:..4_ _ __.__ .J~I:::c/h,-U,-,_ _ _ _.:.:.
MTD corrected
30 Transfer rate . Service

8
-=-

0 .003

35.!':J.LJmber passes per s~'_=_


eII _ __ ___t_----L---+_-----'
1. -~
36 Corrosion allowance
--'i"'nt----------... _._.-t-_ _ _ _ _ _ _-1
8/300 ANL.t---_

f-"'-"'+-...::=:.::::..:.:=-"'-_ _ ~=..:..---+----=.:8/
-'3--'0:...:0-AN---'S"-I-t- .
f-"'-"'-l-_ _""-"-___ _ _--'-.:..:..:..:c="'-==........L_ ._ _....:/_ 3
::.;;0.0 ANSI

--'3::..:,/....::3::::.0-"-0.:...:A::...:N=-S,-I
3 / 300 ANSI
/ 30Q1\NSI. . __

_ _ _.._

~:.t_:_=~~~'-.:.....---=~.:.:....:::--T.!...!k.!::s:..::
-a::..!v;;L.
g ....:0::.;..0~-~='----i:!.Cn~L~e::!.n~g~th:....=.2c~0
49
__ ..__.._ _ . _ tt

OD 48

,~=

_
in

Material SS304
..
Tube pattern. ..:::.=-30 _ _ _ 1
Shell co'-"v.:;::
er:..........._ __ _ __ .._... .... _ _ __ ____
in

_ _ ________+_-"C'"'-h::::nn
a.:..::..::e::..:I=cov.e:.:...
.c: r - --

- -- - --

- - - - -- - -.. .
____ _ __.. ___

.= ==-'--..:....:.-"-_ __ _ _ _ __ _-j----'Tu
:::.:b::..:e~s::..:
h=-ee=..:t=~_<:J.Cl!i!1g
r---:-o:+--=~L:..:.:='-'=...:..::.:

_ __

Pitch 0 .9375

_ _ _________ __...L.:I.:..:m.:r:..:.:piin"g;<=e.:..:m.:.::e::..:n.:..tr::pr-=o..:ote~cc=tio!1

None

._______

_ _~t..=
Type'___=s::..:.ln:.;;gc..:
le:...:s::..:e:;;g'___...::C:..:u'""t(...:.od
i<::..::.L)_.::.25
=___ J:!.()f__pacing: clc 9, ? ._ _

f-'-'--r=.::.:..::.:::....::= '--_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _---'S:..:e:.::a::..1:.l.ty.r:.pe=___ _ .._ __ _ __ _._


1-'4-=8+-"'S~
up
r::.=::.:..
p,0 rt;.::
s-'ub
-t=::..:e"--_ __

49 ..~..1'P.ilss seal

_ ._ _ _ ---=::....::.en
U -b= c.:.:d=___ _ _____ __

891

_ _ .. .._._ __

F'loati!1_9...b.~_~...._.______

54 Code !eqlJ!!~'I!.~~._ .__


55 WeiqhUShell

- - - - -- - _
_

_ __

__ __ __ _.-=B~~d.le_. e
.>.<it 601

Tube Side

......;..:;;..;;;..::.-.::..:.=__
_ _

Filled with water


..

- ......

_ __ ._ _ __ _

46721.4

Ib/(ft*s2)
_ __

.._

_....____

Ib

23819.6

_ - - - - - - ----- - - - -- _._-

_ _._____ .............- - - -- --

..__

_ _ _ __ T
:_:E"'M"'-'-'A:....:c:.:.:
la:::s::;:s_.::
B_ _.._ ___ __
Bundle

_ __

_ __ __ _ _ __ ._ _ _ _ __ ____ __ _ __ _ __

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1._ _ __

32081.7

. _.________._

Bundle entrance 830

52 Gaskets
- Shell side
......................
.........._...... ......::c.=;.;...=.---'-'_
_ __ _ __ _ _ _._....._

571-._ ____
58

___--"T.LJy~~__ _._

Type

r?.1 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle

~r-Remarks

in

_ llnlet_..11:l:Q~ _ _Ln

_ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ ~Tu
=::..;:....tuc=
b e -;.:: b.=.
es=hc.;:..::
e e:.:..tL:joint
"'""'_ _---'g<.:....::roQy.!'!le~p~
.
__ . __

50 Expansion jOint

53

- _

...

_---

- -- - - - -- -- --- - -- ... "_

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


.:L
2
3
4

_Company:
Location:
Our Reference:
Service of Unit:
HX-210
Your Reference:
Item No.:
Job No.:
Rev No.:
51 Date:
58--120
in
Type BEM
hor Connected in
6 Size
19261.5
ft2
Shells/unit 3
Surflshell (eft.)
7 Surf/unit eft.
PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT
8
9 Fluid allocatio~
"'v~..v"
Shell Side
)-1~u.
10
Ib/h
41237
11
Ib/h
41237
41237
12
13
Nonconde~c~hlo
14
V' 'VV'

.~

VV'.~__

1"
16 TemR~@_~re (In/Out)
17 _Dew I By'p_ble point
18 Densi
_ ____
!Q. Viscosi

556.8

280.1

.___ __._.___... _.___.__._._ _ _!2!~-0.293


_ _ .._ _ _ ____ .c;p..
0.017

0.405
0.013

BTU/(lbF~
BTU/(ft*h*F
BTUllb

24 Latent heat

- -

Tube Side

:)-107
20402
20402

20402

202.6

475.51

--._-=
E-

20 Molecular w1, Vap


211 Molecular w1. NC
22 S ecific heat

ft2

b:-; /h~I===='1----~---==+===~~=
F
F

f}_ Thermal co.Q.ductivity

3series

==I~:h!1===il
------t--=-==~==
-+1- - - - +------+-----+-----

._ _ _ _ _ _

- - - - -.

1 parallel
6420.5

0.7339
0.073

0.7766
0.09

I
I

25
8.

f2ll!,-et pressure (absolute)


26 Veloci
27 Pressure drop. allow.lcalc.

0.386
psi
5
3.16
8
281 Fouling resist. (min)
ft2*h*F/BTU
0.003
0.003
29 Heat exchanged
8740987
BTu/h
MTD
- cc-Irrected
-
30 Transfer rate , Service
5.72
Dirty 16.7
Clean 18.72
31 1
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
Sketch
32
Shell Side
Tube Side
331 DesignlTest pressure
psi
260/
! Code
280/
/ Code
620
34 Design temperature
F
540
35 Number passes per shell
I I
36 1Corrosion allowance
.____.. _i.~!. ____.__
37 Connections
In
10 / 300 ANSI
81300 ANSI .I
~_~_J3ize/rating
Out
10 / 300 A_~SI
10 / 300 ANSI I
39
inl
Intermediate
/ 300 ANSI
___
1 300 ANSI I
40 Tube No. 3427
_
00 0.75
Tks-avg 0.049
in LenRth 10 _ ______ ft Pitch 0.9375
41 Tube type
__._...________
Material SS304
[ Tube pattern 30
42 Shell
SS304
10
00 60
in . ._ Shell cover
.-.:::.
-'

w-~

~ 'yJl_<l.r1IlE!L.Qr bonnet

~l.l!~E!he.E!!:~tationary

45
46
47
48
49
50
51

Impingeme..f!!J~ rotec!Q_
n _ . _~one

Type
single seg
Seal type
_ _ .. _

1506

-:~~.. _~~s_k_e_ts-~:~~,-,d;.:.::e",a""d__
~ 9.o.cJ!'!J.equirements

55 WeiqhUShell
561 Remarks
57
1
1
58

.. ~hannel cover
___ _Iu_be.sheet-f1oating

SS304
SS304

Floating head cover


Baffle-crossing
SS304
Baftle-Iong
Supports-tube
_.__
B ass seal
Expansion jOint
RhoV2-lnlet nozzle

in

Cut(%d) ~_'2.<?I.

Spacing: clc 24.75


. 1 Inlet 20.125

in
in

U-bend
.... ._ _._....

__.._.--.!YP.e
_ _ __
Tube-tubesheet joint
groove/expand_
Type
__ _._.___._.____...__
Bundle entrance
1732
Bundle
exit
b/tf!':~~
..-- . ...... _
._-_._-..........
__ . 1256 .._ _I_
Tube Side

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1


32687
Filled with water 49210.8

TEMA class B
Bundle 22316.9

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


Company: - - -- - -- - - - - - - -- - -1---'1-t-=:.::::.:.:=:c.:.L'
-- - -. -- - - - - - - -.."...- - - - - - - -
2 Loca tion:
f--=+-===;;.;.:,..- - - - - -- - - - - - - -- - . - - -- --"--.-- - - - - - - -".- - - - - - - -
Our Reference:
3 Service of Unit: - - - - - _::::..::.:....:....:.::..:..::.:..=.:-=-=.:'--------_._- - - -- _.. _ - -- --
HX-300
Item
No.:
.
:
='__--'-..c..:....::.::.=-_
__
_
_
....:....::=-:c..:.::.;c::.:...::=.::..:....
Your Reference: _ __ _ __ _ _ __ _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___________
--~
Rev No.:
Job No.:
5 Date:
57 --144
1 series
Type 8EM
hor Connected in
1 parallel
6 Size
in
Shells/unit 1
Surf/shell (eff.)
6687.1
7 Surf/unit(eff.)
ft2
6687.1
ft2
8
9 Fluid allocation _____
f~+-'-=::"'O:::==~
10 Fluid name

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT

________I ----'--S7h..:.:e:::,":_:S::.::ide
"'=---- -_j-------'Tc.::u:.:::bc::e_S,,,,,id,,,,,eoC-.__ .____
.

S -301

C Wo.

11 Fluid quantity. Total


~~~~~~~~---------~
lb~/h~----~6-=3r03~1'-----+_----~71~7r3~7~7____._.
Vapor (in/Out)
12
~_j__~='-'-'-'.::.==-<----------.---'I.::cb/"-'h+_---'5::.:.7..:::6""05"--_+--1.:.::8:.:::0~78
"---I_---- ____j__---
~_ _'=i.9.':l.lL. ____ _ ____._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-'-'lb<,/"'h 1_ _ _ _ _ _ _!_'--3:::.:9::.::5:.::2~7-_t_-7
'-1-'-'-"
7 3"-7
7'---_!_--'-7-'-1.:..:73:::.:7-'-7-~j_____ _
"'!Qn_~!!__
de n?a
__
bl ~.
Ibtl! __ . 5427
- .--t. -- - -

1~ - - - - -- - -- , - . - -- -- - - - +- -16 Temperature (In/Out)


17

Dew / Bubble point

~ Q~..!l~_

---1--- - - - - 1 - --

- ,,

r---_-'-"-"___ +-_---=90=--_-+_ _ 1..?Q.__._

. -...- - - - - - - - ' - t--=-'-'- "'-"-- - 1 -- - -- + _ - - -- -1-- - - - -


61.587
60.566

_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.__'~,.

19 Vis~~l'_ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _...::=.I-----":.:.=...=--

+_-...::.:.::.='---t- _ ::.:
0 ."-.::::
78 3 =----1_---"..:.:
.5::.:.7...:.1_ _
1

!-"2:.-:0_f-'-'
Mo:.:,::.:
.:.:: lec:..::""
ula:.;,.r..:.;"".
wt ' -V:...:a:;<
IP'___ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ -t-_....:.::..:.:::.:._ __._f-- .:.=.:.:...::...--t----- - -t----.- -
I-c2:. :1--1-'-'
M.:.::o:.:,:le:..:c:..::u.:..:
la:.;,.r..:.;
wt
c;J.""N
.;:..C
=--_ _ __ _ _ _____ _-+_--..:4c.:4..:.:.0::.:1_.._ _".._..:.44..:.;.'-=-0..:...1_-+_ ____ --1_ _ _ __ _ 1
1-"'2=2+-=,-pe
S",::.;c""ifi.:.:;
lc:..oh.:.::ec=t
a.:..._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-=B::.:T:..::U:..;./(>.::lb::-_*r:l_-=-0.'-'..7..:..::..
184-=----1-_-=0.c=.91
5.::..-=-----1f-_=_0:.::
.9..::.30=-:2=----1-_ __ 0.9567
~2~3+"T::.:.~~~~-=~n
he rma l co c:.:d::.::u:..::c:::.-'-'
tiv i~tty_ _ _ _ _ _____'B::<.T.:..:U~""'(1ft"--'-h'-*F'__":)4-_...:0
:::.:.-=7
0'__ _+-.......::0:.:.:
.0::.::9::.::9'--_+-_.0.0.:._30.5.::..6=--_ 1--_0..::..::..8

::.:36 =--_1
~2:.::'4+=-~te-,-,
La ~ n.:..:
th
c:.:e::.::::,_
at
__ __ _ _ _ _ _ _.......::B""'Tc.::U<'-/"'
lb'-l____ _---+_ _ _ _ _+_- -""".----"'-- -____ I

25 Inlet pressure (absolute)


psi
245.4
80
~-J-!.:..=~=~~==:::eL.--------......J::O~-------'=-~-'-----_+--,,-----'=------1
~2~6~V-=lo
e::.::-=iity
c~L -_ __

_ __ _ _ __

_ _ _--'-'W:..::s'-l-_

~2~7+_re:::=-u
P:...: ss=-:r-=e-=d::..=-'
ro p~.-=a-'.:..
"0w-'.-/ca
':..:...;lc:.:.. --------=psii'-l-_
28 Foulinq resist (min)

ft2*h*F/BTU

29 Heat exchan9..ed
30 Transfer rate. Service

_ _ _.:.::~:::.:
9 . 6 7----_+------~
4 .2~7------ 1
J
0.837
20 ___-'1_ ........;6:..;..1-'-'9c.::2=--_1

0.003
0.003

_ 2
==--_

203072=-9:eoO'___ ---'B:e..T:..:U:e.,:/"""h=--_ _ _ _....:Mc:..:.:.T""D.:.::::::.:..:e::::


co rr_=ct""'d
e"'_ __..._ _.:::.6-'.1:.: .2.: :.6_ _______._ F
49.57
Dirty 70.92
Clean 133.83
BTUI(h*ft2*F)

31
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
32
Shell Side
33 DesiqnlTest pressure
psi
2601
ICode
34 Desiqn temperature
35 Number passes per shell

Sketch

Tube Side

751
I Code

.._....::.34-'-'0= --_ _ _ +___...:1:.::8:.::0_ _ --1


1
S

.
.

~
;

36 ,forrosion allo~ance .,--_ _ _.....:.:


in-'j-_______ .__.__-I-_ __ O::.:.""0.::.62=.:5:::....._--I
37 Conne~!ions _ _ _ -1--'-'ln
12 / 300 ANSI
12 / 150 ANSI
f.'3.._8+-_ :::.;.:
Siz.:::;"'::..:
e/ra tc:.:.
inO>Z..g _ _ -+-=0'-"u:..:.t__ .._....,,_ I - ------=""
SI -3-0_0_A_N_S_I_ ____..;.;~_
12f/1:..=5'-"0'-'...:;
A N..;.;S
::.;'-I
I
f.'3___9+-_ _-'i.:..:n.:...I_ _ _ __'_""ln.;..:te::..:r..:..;me-=.:;dc..:ia:..:,te=--'---_. ___41 300 ANSI
.. 1 150 ANSI
f.=4~0~T.:::
u:::be~N~o"-=:29
. ~1:...4:-_ __-.-;::
0:.:0:........::0:..:.:'--'~_-'.75
T!.:;"ks-a~v'-'g,_::::
Oc.Q65

41
42
--43
44

Tube type
Shell
SS304
Channel or bonnet
Tubesheet-stationary

in Length 12 ._ _ _ _.,..:-:ftc.......:.P""'it:.::.ch:.:....::O..:..;.9c.::3'-'..7..::.5_ __ ..:.:..:.1


in
Material CS
I Tube pattern 30
0058
10
Shell cover
in
- - - - - - _..
CS___ _ ___________-t--=C""'h.=nnel
a=
coy~'_'_r_ __ _ ___.________._ _ _ _
floalic-."'--_ __ _ _______ _ _ __
SS304
Tubesheet.: .c..""""ng

f.=4":'5~F-~
lo::.::a:.::ti:.:J
ng:L:.:.
he~a""'d::....c
:::;o:o.:vc:::
e'-r_ _ _ _ __ __

46 8affle-crossino

SS304

Type

Impingem~.n!.pr();~ction

___ __
single=-~se-"'g"--_

_C
=_u=-t"-'-(o/~d)

44

vert

Plate on b.LJQ_d_le__ __ __

Spacing: clc 30

in

4:::7:...~B~aff
~c:.:le:.-::.::
. lo~n.:;z.g----------.-;::S-=al
e"-'-~Q.e=--_._ _ ___._ _ _......"..... _ _ ___'_I""lnc:.:leL_?B.125
4.~8~S.:::
u ~~"'
pP(O rts:..:
-t:.::
u.:::::::_..
be _ _ _ __ __

,~~)'P.ass

____'U
::<.-_"b_=
e::.:.:::_.._
nd
... _

_. _ _i_n

__ _ _ ______T.Y~_._ ____. ___"._._..._ ._ _


_

__ Iu.Q.~..::!.':l.besheet joint_.. .. . __grQ.ove/expand


_ _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __T:.ry,pEe_
'-= _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ ____ .......".......__
51 RhoV2-I nlet nozzle
1257
Bu nd Ie en tran ce
"-354
=-=--_ _ _ __ _~-=
B u'_'_=~
nd l e..::e..:..;
x'_'_it......:..11,-1_
.
_ _ Ig/m:'l@
5~2~G
:::;a~s::.:
k_=ts_'
e =_ -.:.::::.:.
S h::.::
e::.:.
II .:::.id_=
s:.:: e_ __ _ _ _______ _......:.
T_=be
u.::."---"""___
Side'--_ __ __ ,, __ ._. "_____
.
__ _ _ _ ._ _

seal

5~0_+=-~~~~
Ex p a n s::.::
io::.:
n..J;joi
:::;::.:.
nt:..-_

. ~5::!..3j---......:.F..:.:=o
lo a'-"ti.:..:
n-"g--'-'h-=ad
e=:::.....-.-------- . - - - . - _._...........__.__ _ __ ___. . _-- -- - - -
54 Code reg uiremen~.._ ._ _-'A..:cS=M~E....:C""'od=e....:S""'e::.::c:...V:..:I.:.:".:::.D~iv:....:...1_ ___ ._ _ .
TEMA class .=B_ _ _ _ _ _ __
55 WeighVSheil
33610.4
Filled with water 52103.5
Bundle 24991 .7
Ib

56 Remarks

~5~7+------------ ..- - - - - -- - - --- -- - - -58

-,,---- - -- -- .-.._""..""___.......... _.

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:
2 Location:
4 Item No.:

Reference:
_._--_._-----_._..__Your
... .._---.-.-----
_ - --- - _

HX-530
... _--_..

..

Job No.:

19--=~5.9______

8
9 Fluid allocation

..

"

Rev No.:

5 Date:
6 Size
7 Surf/unit(eft.)

320

_ ~D .._ _ __J:xRe BEM


tt2
Shells/unit 1

Connected in
1 Rarallel
Surf/shell (eft.)
320

hor

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

_._-----_._---_._.

---

10 Fluid name
11 Fluid guanti~, Total
E . VaRor (In/Out)
13
14

._---_._ ---_._--_.._ - -...__.._ -_._ - - --


-_._-----------_._ ._ ._-_ ..
-- -

Our Reference:

3 Service of Unit:

Li9.lJi.cL......

Ib/h
Ib/h

Noncondensable

Ib/h

tt2

Tube Side

)-5Ob~

Ib/h

1series

CW

44655

100948

44655

44655

100948

100948

262.7

158

90

120

56.556
0.273

60.619
0.498

62.224
0.762

61 .861

0.6681
0.149

0.6283
0.15

1.0006
0.352

0.9998
0.364

15

~ ~mRerature (In/Out)
~ Dew / Bubble point

F
F
Iblft3
cp

18 Density

19 Viscosi~
20 Molecular wt, VaR
21 Molecular wt, NC
22 Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivity

BTUI(lb~F)
BTUI(ft*h~F)

24 Latent heat
25 Inlet pressure (absolute)

BTUllb

26 Velocity
27 Pressure drop, allowJcalc.
28 Fouling resist. (min)

psi

37 .8

ftls

1.45
---.--- -

psi

34 Design temRerature
35 Number Rasses per shell

36 Corrosion allowance
37 Connections

in
In

~ _Si?e/rating
in /
;39
40 Tube No. 82

Out
Intermediate
00 0.75
ID

OD 10.75

44 Tubesheet-statio~'~Q~
.5~ Floating head cover
46 Baffle-crossing_ SS304
47 Baffle-Ionq
48 Supports-tube

F
BTUI(htt2~F)

Sketch
Tube Side

751

I Code
180

2
0.0625

~
.

6/ 150 ANSI
6/ 150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI

/ 150 ANSI
0.065

in Length 20
Material CS
Shell cover
in

tt Pitch 0.9375

I Tube Rattern

Channel cover

in

30

._.

Impinqement protection
T~e

single seg
Seal type

Cut(%d)

27

Tube-tubesheet joint
Type

58
-

C'1.

10.5625

Bundle exit 120

Tube Side

2- f--.

Inlet

in
in

qroove/expand

Bundle entrance 129

~ rB~f!1arks

SRacing: dc 4.625

Type

U-bend

-'-

None

hor

54 Code reQl!irements___. ... _._._~SME_~.Q1?_9~.c;.Y"1 Div 1


1538.1
Filled with water 2250.1
55 WeiqhUShell

95.18

Tubesheet-floating

49 Bypass seal
50 Expansion joint
1130
51 RhoV2lnlet nozzle
52 Gaskets - Shell side
Floating h~l.g_ .._
53

3.453

0.003

Clean 344.11

330

CS

20

0.003
MTD corrected

3/ 150 ANSI
3/ 150 ANSI
Tks-avg

80
5.25

- - _._----_...

4.707
._- -

tt2*h*F/BTU
BTUlh
Dirty

3029000
29 Heat exchanged
99.44
104.88
30 Transfer rate, Service
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
31
Shell Side
32
psi
751
ICode
33 Desiqn/Test pressure

41 Tube type .
SS304
42 Shell
43 Channel or bonnet

0.561

Ib/(ft*s2)

__

._.. _...._... _- - -----_._-- ---_.


B ... _--_.-.-_.. _..._
----------_._..TEMAciass
"--- _.... __...__ ._-_..... _-_
- ._ .._-_.

-_...._--- - _.

Bundle

935

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Comf2 an t
Location:
Service of Unit:
Item No.:
Date:

2
3
4
5

6 Size
7 Surf/unit(eft.)

. .. .

-_._.-- .
.....HX-710

Rev No.:

Our Reference:
Your Reference:
--, .. _---_.__._-_..
Job No.:

17 --240
921

in
ft2

Typ-e BEM
Shells/unit 1

hor

Connected in
Surf/shell (eft.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

8
9 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

ft2

Tube Side

S-70;

Cw

11 Fluid Quanl!.!Y, Total


E _._Yi3.por (In/Out)
Liquid
13
Noncondensable
14

1 series

1 f2arallel
921

122949

40674
122949

40674

40674

120

257

113

62.224
0.762

61 .862
0.561

49.737
0.212

55.839
0.49

1.0006
0.352

0.9998
0.364

0.6598
0.141

0.6038
0.146

122949

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Temperature (In/Out)

F
F
Iblft3
cp

Dew / ~ubble point


Density
Viscosity
Molecular wt, Vap
Molecular wt, NC
Specific heat
Thermal conduclivi!):'
~
24. Latent heat
.---
r1-~let f2ressure (abs.olute)
26 Velocity
27 Pressure drop, allow.lcalc.

BTu/llb*F)
BTUI(ft*h*Fl.
BTUllb
psi

_.

90

._-

80
2.57

ftls
psi
ft2*h*F/BTU
BTU/h
Dirty

20
...
28 Foulinq resist. (min)
3689136
29 Heat ex~hanged
86.31
95.47
30 Transfer rate, Service
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
31
Shell Side
32
-_.
psi
751
ICode
33 g~~gnfTest ~ressure
180
F
r-!2-~_~lgn
temf2erature
~
1
~~ ~.r:nber f2asses f2er shell
0.0625
in
36 Corrosion allowance
In
6/ 150 ANSI
37 Connections
6/ 150 ANSI
Out
Size/raUnq
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

in /
Tube No. 236
Tube type
Shell
CS
Channel or bo~net
Tubesheet-stational}'

45 Fl oa lin~Lh.~ad cover
CS
46 Baftle-c!ossing
47 Baffle- lo.r:!9

..

19.818
0.003
MTD corrected
Clean 260.06
Tube Side
I Code
320
6
-.- ...------.- -.

751

- . - ~ -.-----

3 / 150 ANSI
3/ 150ANSI
Intermediate
/ 150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI
00 0.75
Tks-avg 0.065
in Length 20
Material CS
10._.
0018
Shell cover
in
Channel cover
SS304
SS304
Tubesheet-floatinq
Type

single seg
Seal type
U-bend

..

39
2.6

'_.

.lD:lJ>.irJ.gement f2rotection
hor
Cut(%d) 27

2.503
0.003
BTu/(h*ft2*F)
Sketch

~
,
,

ft Pitch 0.9375

I Tube f2attern

57
58

.... ........

Ot

in

30

None

-
in
in

Sf2acing: dc 3.625
15.9375
Iiniet

_....._-_.

._ --_.

._.._.....J.Y2e
.._--_..
~ ~u.QQorts-tube
Tube-tubesheet
joint
49 Bypass seal
groovelexf2and
._.. __ .
e
50 Exf2ansion joint
T:tf2
.---_.
487
Bundle entrance 403 -_._-_._-_._-
51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle
-Bundle
--_._- exit 405
Tube Side
52 Gaskets - Shell side
--_.._
F!oating head
53
ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1
TEMA class B
54 Code reQuir~r:nen\s
4306
Filled with water 6250.3
Bundle 2730.5
55 WeiqhUShell
2. Remarks

_----.L

46.41

Ib/(ft*s2)

Ib
. -

_---

._---

-..-

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No . Required

Date:
By:

Pump
P-110
1

4/1/02

akg

Principal Function: Increase the pressure of the S-104 Stream from M-100

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream (S-l 04)


42571.91

Outlet Stream (S-20l)


42571.91

trace
trace

trace
trace

trace
0.006
1.49
0.001
365.11
42,205.31

trace
0.006
1.49
0.001
365.11
42,205.31

238
14.7

241.9
263

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal Efficiency:
Pressure Change (psia):
248.3 Electricity Required (KW)
Volumetric Flow Rate (ft31hr):
720.2 Material of Construction:
Net Work (hp):
24.9

0.52
18.6
Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flow sheet pg.13 and pricing info on Appendix A pg.184

95

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
P-540
1

4/1/02
akg

Date:
By:

Principal Function: To increase the pressure of the S-507 stream from HX-530

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

Inlet Stream (S-507}


62,277.91

Outlet Stream (S-304}


62,277.91

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
6.47
785.89
2,775.68
110.70
13,552.93
45,046.25

trace

6.47
785.89
2,775.68
110.70
13,552.93
45,046.25

158
31.8

159.2
235

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal Efficiency:
Pressure Change (psia):
203.2 Electricity Required (KW~
Volumetric Flow Rate (ft3Ihr):
95307 Material of Construction:
Net Work (hp):
25 .3

trace
trace
.trace
trace

0.56
18.6
Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg.14 and pricing info on Appendix A pg.185

96

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
P-600
1

4/1/02

Date:
By:

akg

Principal Function: Increase the pressure of the S-601 Stream

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream (S-60l)


29,861.62

Outlet Stream (S-602)


29,861.62

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
3.10
376.83
1,330.91
53.08
6,498.49
21,599.21

trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
3.10
376.83
1,330.91
53.08
6,498.49
21,599.21

262.7
37.8

263.2
100

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal Efficiency:
Pressure Change (psia):
62.2
Electricity Required (KW~
Volumetric Flow Rate (ft31hr):
551.7 Material of Construction:
Net Work (hp):
5.14

0.49
3.83
Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg.14 and pricing info on Appendix A pg.186

97

PUMP

Iden tification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
P-620

4/1/02

Date:
By:

akg

Principal Function: Increase the pressure of the S-604 stream from DE-720

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

I
I
I

Inlet Stream (S-604}


22,326.31

Outlet Stream (S-603}

22,326.31

< 0.001

< 0.001

trace

trace

17.83
1,598.79
17,200.99
110.58
1,746.22
1,651.91

17.83
1,598.79
17,200.99
110.58
1,746.22
1,651.91

Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

117.9
35

Design Data:
Centrifugal Efficiency:
Type:
Pressure Change (psia):
Electricity Required (KW~
9
Volumetric Flow Rate (ft3 /hr):
399.2 Material of Construction:
Net Work (hp):
0.6

118.1

98

0.44
0.44
Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg.14 and pricing info on Appendix A pg.187

98

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
P-730
1

Date:
By:

4/1/02
akg

Principal Function: Increase the pressure of the S-705 stream

Continuous

Operation:

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream (S-705}


5,111.13

Outlet Stream (S-702}


5,111.13

< 0.001
trace

< 0.001
trace

4.82
487.45
4,044.88
31.88
540.20
1.90

4.82
487.45
4,044.88
31.88
540.20
1.90

182.3
24.7

182.5
40

Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal Efficiency:
Pressure Change (psia):
703
Electricity Required (KW;
Volumetric Flow Rate (ft3/hr):
97
Material of Construction :
Net Work (hp):
1.68

0.3
1.25
Stainless Steel

Comments and Drawings: See process flowsheet pg.15 and pricing info on Appendix A pg.187
-

99

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
PB-500

Date:
By:

411102

akg

Principal Function:

Increase pressure at the reboiler

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream
92130.05

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Outlet Stream
92130.05

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen

trace

trace

Carbon Dioxide

trace

trace

Methane

trace

trace

Ethylene

trace

trace

Ethane

trace

trace

Acetaldehyde

7.21

7.21

Acetone

1,162.69

1,162.69

Ethyl Acetate

4,106.62

4,106.62

163.78

163.78

Water

20,050.10

20,050.10

Acetic Acid

66,639.65

66,639.65

114.97
34

262.7
37.8

Ethanol

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
2
289.23
Volumetric Flow Rate
4.18
Net Work (hp):
I

100

Efficiency:
0.56
7.46
Electricity Required (K"
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
PB-6l0
1

Date:
By:

Principal Function:

Pump bottoms of acetic acid distilIation column

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream
20738.2

4/ 1/02

akg

Outlet Stream
20738.20

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen

trace

trace

Carbon Dioxide

trace

trace

Methane

O.OOE+OO

O.OOE+OO

Ethylene

O.OOE+OO

O.OOE+OO

Ethane

O.OOE+OO

O.OOE+OO

Acetaldehyde

0.00

0.00

Acetone

0.01

0.01

Ethyl Acetate

0.02

0.02

Ethanol

0.00

0.00

366.31

366 .31

20,371.87

20,371 .87

297 .32
98.5

272.5
98.6

Water
Acetic Acid

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia) :

Design Data:
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
Volumetric Flow Rate
Net Work (hp):

Centrifugal

0.1
493.46
4.68

101

Efficiency:
0.56
Electricity Required (KVI
11.2
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
PB-810
1

Date: ,
By:

Principal Function:

Increase pressure of bottoms of acetone distillation column.

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream
755.20

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

4/1/02

akg

Outlet Stream
755.20

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen

220E-27

2.20E-27

Carbon Dioxide

0,00

0.00

Methane

0.00

0.00

Ethylene

0.00

0,00

Ethane

0,00

0.00

Acetaldehyde

0.17

0,17

63.50

63.50

610.00

610.00

2.74

2.74

77.92

77.92

0.88

0,88

183.14
24.8

184.33

Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
0.1
Pressure Change (psia)
Flow Rate (gpm):
4.24
0.04
Net Work (hp):

102

24.9

Efficiency:
0.56
Electricity Required (KVI
0.097
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP
I

Date:
By:

4/ 1/02 1
akg

Iden tifica tion

Item
Item #
No. Required

Principal Function:

Increase pressure of bottoms of near azeotrope distillation column

Operation:

Continuous

Pump
PB-900
1

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream
1577.98

Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

trace
trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal
Pressure Change (psia)
0.1
Flow Rate (gpm):
44.5 9
Net Work (hp):
0.17

103

Outlet Stream
1577.98

trace
trace
0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.89

0.89

1,137.03

1,137.03

0.24

0.24

1.78

1.78

438.03

438 .03

212.64
27.9

221.03
28

0.6
Efficiency:
Electricity Required (K\\
0.37
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP
4/1/02
akg

Date:
By:

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Pump
PB-910
1

Principal Function:

Increase pressure of bottoms of ethyl aceteate distillation column.

Operation:

Continuous

Materials bandied:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream
438.03

Outlet Stream
438.03

Composition (1blhr):
Hydrogen

0.00

0.00

Carbon Dioxide

0.00

0.00
0.00

Methane

0.00

Ethylene

0.00

0.00

Ethane

0.00

0.00

Acetaldehyde

0.00

0.00

Acetone

0.00

0.00

Ethyl Acetate

1.48

1.48

Ethanol

0.00

0.00

Water

0.00

0.00

436 .56

436.56

261 .71
20

262.93
20.1

Acetic Acid

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia) :

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
0.1
Flow Rate (gpm):
2200.93
Net Work (hp):
0.125

104

Efficiency:
0.56
Electricity Required (K~
0.3
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Principal Function:

Return reflux to acetaldehyde distillation column.

Operation:

Continuous

Date:
By:

Pump
PR-500
1

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

Inlet Stream
13240.12

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

4/1/02
akg

Outlet Stream
13240.12

0.041

0.041

220.678

220.678

50.39

50.39

49.998

49.998

54.4

54.4

12,833.82

12,833.82

trace
trace
trace

trace
trace
trace
30.79

trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

114.97
34

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
2
Pressure Change (psia)
Flow rate (gpm)
67.57
Net Work (hp):
0.62
-

105

30.79

trace
101.8

32

Efficiency:
0.6
Electricity Required (K'VI
1.49
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Date:
By:

Pump
PR-510
1

4/1/02
akg

Principal Function:

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream
2070

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

Outlet Stream
2070

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide

37.26

37.26

Methane

2.836
13.04

2.836

9.23

9.23
2,007 .65

Ethylene
Ethane

13.04

2,007.65

Acetaldehyde
Acetone

trace

trace

Ethyl Acetate

trace

trace

Ethanol

trace

trace

Water

trace

trace

Acetic Acid

trace

trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

94
30

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
2
Flow Rate (gpm)
3.5
0.2
Net Work (hp):

106

10
28

Efficiency:
0.6
0.25
Electricity Required (K'"
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Date:
By:

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Principal Function:

Return reflux to acetic acid distillation column.

Operation:

Continuous

Pump
PR-610
1

4/1/02 1
akg

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

Inlet Stream
31437.96

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
2
Pressure Change (psia)
Flow Rate (gpm):
241.8
Net Work (hp):
2.34

107

Outlet Stream
31437.96

8.00E-05
1.71 E-08
0.00
0.00
0.00
22 .03
1,974.66
18,527.79
163.64
7,876 .99
2,872.85

8.00E-05
1.71 E-08
0.00
0.00
0.00
22.03
1,974.66
18,527.79
163.64
7,876.99
2,872.85

297 .32
95

272.5
97

Efficiency:
0.6
Electricity Required (K~
5.6
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

'Identification

Item
Item #
No . Required

Principal Function:

Return reflux to stripper column

Operation:

Continuous

Date:
By:

Pump
PR-800
1

Inlet Stream
1194.27

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):

4/ 1102
akg

Outlet Stream
1194.27

Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen

trace

trace

Carbon Dioxide

0.00

0.00

Methane

0.00

0.00

Ethylene

0.00

0.00

Ethane

0.00

0.00

Acetaldehyde

3.52

3.52

Acetone

293.40

293.40

Ethyl Acetate

784 .07

784.07

Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia) :

Design Data:
Type:
Centrifugal
Pressure Change (psia)
2
Flow Rate (gpm):
9.46
Net Work (hp):
0.11

108

5.13

5.13

107.27

107.27

0.88

0.88

181.81
25

182.04
27

Efficiency:
0.6
0.25
Electricity Required (K'-'
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Date:
By:

Principal Function:

Return reflux to acetone distillation column

Operation:

Continuous

Pump
PR-810
1

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

Inlet Stream
439.06

4/1102
akg

Outlet Stream
439.06

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen

2.00E-08

2.00E-08

Carbon Dioxide

0.00

0.00

Methane

0.00

0.00

Ethylene

0.00

0.00

Ethane

0.00

0.00

Acetaldehyde

3.35

3.35

Acetone

229.90

229.90

Ethyl Acetate

174.07

174.07

2.39

2.39

29.35

29.35

0.00

0.00

167.98
22

174.97
24

Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia) :

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
2
Flow Rate (gpm):
4.09
0.043
Net Work (hp):

Efficiency:
0.6
0.097
Electricity Required (K'"
Material of Construction Stainless Steel
I

109

PUMP
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Date:
By:

Pump
PR-900
1

Principal Function:

Return reflux to near azeotrope column.

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:

Inlet Stream
4356.637

Quantity (lblhr):

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF) :
Pressure (psia) :

4/1 /02
akg

Outlet Stream
4356.64

2.13E-05
4.48E-09
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
4.95
423 .97
3,435.12
29.16
462.42
1.02

2.13E-05
4.48E-09
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
O.OOE+OO
4.95
423.97
3,435.12
29 .16
462.42
1.02

181.9
25

189.94
27

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type :
2
Pressure Change (psia)
Flow Rate (gpm):
10.425
Net Work (hp) :
0.5

110

Efficiency:
0.6
1.12
Electricity Required (K"
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

PUMP

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Principal Function:

Return reflux to ethyl acetate distillation column.

Operation:

Continuous

Pump
PR-910
1

Date:
By:

Inlet Stream
1139.948

Materials handled:
Quantity (lb/hr):

4/1/02
akg

Outlet Stream
1139.95

Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen

0.00

0.00

Carbon Dioxide

0.00

0.00

Methane

0.00

0.00

Ethylene

0.00

0.00

Ethane

0.00

0.00

Acetaldehyde

0.00

0.00

Acetone

0.89

0.89

1,135.56

1,135.56

Ethanol

0.24

0.24

Water

1.78

1.78

Acetic Acid

1.48

1.48

174.96
16

182.05
18

Ethyl Acetate

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:
Centrifugal
Type:
Pressure Change (psia)
2
Flow Rate (gpm):
4.43
Net Work (hp):
0.043

111

Efficiency:
0.6
Electricity Required (KVI
0.097
Material of Construction Stainless Steel

REACTOR

Reactor
RX-240
1

Item
Item No.
No. Required

Function:

Hydrogenation of Acetic Acid to produce Acetaldehyde

Operation:

Continuous

Feed (S-205)

Materials handled:
Quantity (Ib/hr):
Composition (lb/hr):

Product CS-206)

62,974.33

62,977 .88

Hydrogen

7,781.47

7,088.04

Carbon Dioxide

5,137 .53

5,425.89

Methane

1,495.12

1,565.20

Ethylene

855.34

916.61

Ethane

855.42

921 .10

Acetaldehyde

621.46

13,468.60

Acetone

285.40

665.97

Ethyl Acetate

908 .00

908 .03

17.25

771.86

1,299.08

7,201 .54

43,718.26

24,045 .05

599

556.8

252 .0

250 .9

Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia) :

Design Data:

4/9/02
cp

Date:
Bye:

Identification:

Height (ft):
Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft3):

17 Pressure (psia):
250 .92
4 Catalyst:
86 .27ft3 of Pd on iron-oxide
213 .63 Material of Construction : Stainless Steel

112

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1
2
3
4
r--
5

Company:
-'
Location:
......
Service of Unit:
R-500
Item No.:
-- - ,.
Rev No.:
Date:
~

Our Reference:
Your Reference:
--._----
Job No.:

55 / 7.?_ ____:.:tj6
~ Size
8107.7
7 Surf/unit(eft.)
8
..J!. Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name
11 Fluid quantity, Total
Vapor (In/Out)
12
13
Liqu.!Q._
Noncondensable
14

in
ft2

Ty~e BKU
Shells/unit 2

hor

Connected in
Surf/shell (eft.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side
-

-~ .- -

----- -

:>TEAn

126836

18288
41530
85307

126836

18288
18288
...

1..:'2 ---
16
17
18
19
20
21

ft2

Tube Side

:, -"fe'

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

1series

212arallel
4053.8

r- -

Tem~rature

(In/Out)
Dew / Bubble ~oint
Density
Viscosity_
Molecular W!, Vap

- ..--.--... -----.

F
F
Ib/ft3
cp

255.5

262.66
255.5

53.886
0.268
38.49

0.18
0_013

280.95
280.95
0.115
0_014

__ .

- -
280.95
280.95
57 .874
0.212

-~ .-- . -

36.06

Molecular w1._NC
_.. _ __ ____....I FUf.(lb*Ft ---.'_._-_.
0.3781
j?pecific heat
0.5292
__...
~
23 Thermal condu(~.tivity
BTU/(ft*h*F)
0.089
0.013
24 Latent heat
BTUlib
574
536.2
.
25 Inlet pressure (absolute)
psi
37.7
26 Veloci!y .
ftls
27 Pre ssur~_9.~c:>p_, . allow./calc.
psi
28 Fouling resist. (min)
ft2*h*F/BTU
0.003
16837400
29 Heat exchanged
BTUth
MTD corrected
97.8
Dirty 105.34
Clean 349.16
30 Transfer rate, Service
31
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
._ _ _~hell Side
32
Tube Side
.. _-_
.. ..
33 DesignfTest Pt~ssure
751
ICode
ICode
751
P~!
330
34 Design teml2er~_ture
F
350
35 Number passes_per shell
1
2
-
0.0625
0.0625
in
~~~()sion allowance
~
In
4/ 150 ANSI
37 Connections
10/ 150 ANSI
8/ 150 ANSI
38
Size/rating
Out
2/ 150 ANSI
Intermediate
4/150 ANSI
/ 150 ANSI
39
in !
00 0.75
40 Tube No. 11 04Us
Tks..avg . 0.065
in Leflg!h 8
41 Tube type
Material CS
-10
42 Shell
CS
0056
in
Shell cover
CS
43 Channel or bonnet
Channel coveL . _ _.._._
CS
44 Tubesheet-stationary CS
Tubesheet-f1~'l..~ .flg.._ __

_-

0.5457
0.016
920.7

1.0099
0.3~

920.7
50
9.51

- -
0.097

5
0.003
21.23

F
BTU/(h*ft2*F)
Sketch

1n.:!P.l!!g!,!_rrJ~_Q..~~rotection

rBCJ?t!flQ head cover


CS
~Ie- c::!:..()ssing

Ty~e

.iL ~Ie-Iong ..
48
- - ~Pl2orts-tube
49
50
51
52
53
54

Bypass seal
Expansion jOint
....
..
.".
757 . . .. . .-
...
-RhoV2-lnlet nozzle
Gaskets - Shell side

__

single seg

Cut('Z'o.d.)

Seal tYl2e
U-bend
_ .......................

45

vert

ft Pitch 1

I Tube ~attem

in
90
.-

None
S~acing:

dc 22.875

I Inlet

22.875

in
in

_--

Type
.. _
Tube-tubesheet joint
_g!()olJ~!~)(P?n.P _ ...
_lype
_ .
..
.. _'- ---_.-.Bundle exit
IbLltr.!@
_.. ....Bundle
_ - entrance
-_.- ----_...._----
Tube Side

. Floating head

Code r~ql:'~em~nts
55 WeighVShell
56 Remarks
57
58

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1


21266.1
Filled with water 46399.7
._._

;; "t

TEMAciass B
Bundle 12624.8

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:
2 Location:
3 Service of Unit:
4 Item No.:
R-610

Our Reference:

Rev No.:

5 Date:
49/63
6 Size
7 Surf/unit(eff.)

7200

in

TY12e BKU
Shells/unit 1

ft2

13

Liquid
Noncondensable

15
16
17

t--

Tem~erature

Connected in
Surf/shell (eff.)

1 [!arallel
7200

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

ft2

STEAfI?

210358

48604
191005

210358

1 series

Tube Side

S -iO)

r1-! !!!.lQ_guantity, Total


14

hor

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

9 Fluid allocation
- ' . . __ ..name
c-!Q. - Fluid
Vapor (In/Out)

---

Job No.:

--240

12

Your Reference:

48604

19353

48604

Ib/h

(In/Out)

Dew / Bubble point

18 Densi!Y
19 Viscosity
20 Molecular wt, Vap

Iblft3
cp

358.3

369.9

415.6
415.6

415.6

53.128
0.174

358.35
0.647
0.014

415.6

0.606
0.017

53.281
0.137

0.7365

1.0511
0.375

54 - r-___54
---.-

21 Molecular wt, NC
22 Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivity
24 Latent heat

~_TUl(lb*F)

BTU/(ft*h*F)

0.6376

0.3969
0.015

0.09

BTUlib

25 Inlet pressure (absolute)


26 Velocity
-
27 Pressure drop, allow.lcalc.

0.022
813.4

193.3

psi

98.6

_ _ 1i13.4_
293

12.18
ftls
2
0.262
psi
28 Fouling resist. ' (min)
ft2*h*F/BTU
0.003
0.003
MTD corrected
39535070
29 Jieat exchanged
BTu/h
50.33
F
Dirty 112.49
109.1
Clean 442.42
BTu/(h*ft2*F)
30 Transfer rate, Service
31
CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL
Sketch
Shell
Side
Tube
Side
~ ' -_.
i 9 9
t
100/
ICode
33 DesiqnlTest pressure
310/
/ Code
---p'si
430
480
F
34 Design temperature
1
2
35 Number passes per shell
!
i
9
9
9
in
0.0625
36 Corrosion allowance
37 Connections
In
4 / 150ANSI
10/ 300 ANSI
10/ 150ANSI
Out
Size/rating
3/ 300 ANSI
38
Intermediate
3/ 150ANSI
/ 300 ANSI
39
in/
0.75
Tks-ilvg
0.065
Tube
No.
872Us
OD
in
Length
20
ft Pitch 1
in
~.o
Material CS
41 Tube type
I Tube pattern 90
10
0050
Shell cover
42 Shell
SS304
in
SS304 - - - _ .__._---_..
----------43 Channel or bonnet
Channel cover
CS
.--
44 Tubesheet-slationary SS304
Tubesheet-floating
_._--- _.
r-
Impingement protection
Floating head cover
None
_._- ' -_.
~
single seg
44
SS304
Cut(%d)
vert
S[!acing : dc 23.375
Baffle-crossing
in
IY[!e
~
in
_Baffle-long
I Inlet 23.375
. ---_ .....
._--_._ .._ ..... Seal type

r1Z Supports-tube

__

48
49 Bypass seal ... -.
50 ExPansion ioiQ~
51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle

U-bend
TY12e
Bundle entrance

528

55 WeighVShell

56 J~emarks
57
58

groove/ex[!and

._--

-- ---.
Ib/(ft*s~

Bundle exit

Tube Side

52 Gaskets - Shell side


Floating head
53

~ ~c:!.ereguirements

T.YQe
Tube-tubeshe~~j!Jint

ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1


31395.9

Filled with water

TEMA class
64245.4

Bundle

21981 .2

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


2 Location:
'~.

"'~"

----_._--_._--

----

1---3. .~e-",ice of Unit:


4 Item No.:

Our Reference:

R-810

51 Date:
6 Size

_ .

Your Reference:
Job No.:

Rev No.:
15 I 20

-48

7 Surf/unit(eff.)

in

120.2

Type BKU

hor

Connected in

Shells/unit 1

ft2

81
9 Fluid allocation

1 parallel

Surflshell (eff.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

11 Fluid Q.U?Cl.!!.!Y., Total


~ __'{9.~Out)
113
Liquid
14
Noncondensable

Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h
Ib/h

1764
1

~1GArn

1039
755._

1764

ft2

Tube Side

S- iDj

10 Fluid name

1series

120.2

265
1

265

265

___

- -_+1- -- - - - j f - -

15

10., -11:;;
1 AA ~.1
____~
F,I---~~~--+---~~--_+

16 Temperature (In/Ol'''
~I
Dew I Bubble
pn;n.
171
uuvv, .... e,",,11 n
18 Oensi
19 Viscosi
20 Molecular wt, Vap__
,.~.!.

235
235
183.37
235
235
F+I--------t---'-=-=~-__j---.-::='----'I_--'='---51.07
0.211
0.056
Ib/ft3
59.228
_.....__ ...__ .... ..
- --- r-~
cp
0.266
0.063
0.013
0.256

--..

Molecular wt, NC

22 S ecific heat
u, "'I'U , ' I
-:=n:.::d:.::u:.::
c.::.'_'i_"''-tiv ty _
__ _ _ _ ___=~
23 l}:1~Lf!lal .co
24 Latent hea:..;:t_ _ __

25 !il!~tprt3.~sure (absolute 1
26 Velocity

"'~' I

?7..l!:ressure drop, allow./calc.


281 Fouling resist. (min)
29 Heat exctJaflged
252310
30 Transfer rate, Service
41.04
31 I

ft2*h*F/BTU
BTUlh
Dirty

102.16

0.003
MTO corrected
Clean 299.63

l.3.p~~JgnlTest pressure

psi

li.~?igl).

temperature
l...~r:T.l~er passes per shell
35 Corrosion allowance
37 Connections
In
38
Size/rating
Out
39
in l
40 Tube No. 70Us

75/

75/

Tks-avg

1 150 ANSI

1/ 150 ANSI
0.049

00 16

44 Tubesheet-station?_ry__ ~~30':..
45 Floating. head C()ver
47 Baffle-long

single seg

Cut(%d)

46

8 ~P2orts-tuQe ..

"

I
in

None

ve.~Spacing :

dc 15

I Inlet

Seal type

in

15

in

Typ~

U-bend

49 ~~?EO.aL
50 rE-X2~!l.~!On jOint
51 RhoV2-lnletn()zzle

'f 0 -'-

... f!._~itch_ 1

in Length 4

Impingement protection
Type

Material SS304
...... __ ._. J.IlJ~ep.a..~~~rn 90
._~I)__._ ......b.f:3.ll..~v~r
SS304
Channel cover
Tubesheet-floating

...9 hannel or bOI)~~S ..


SS304

~
~

/ Code
2
0.0.51? .. ,,___ .

2/-_.1_50ANSI
..................... - _ .

1/ 150 ANSI 1

1/ 150ANSI
2/ 150 ANSI

41 Tube type

10

/ Code

in

Intermediate
00 0.75

42 ~ . SS304

Tube Side

250~0

F
BTU/(h*ft2*F)

Sketch

Shell Side

46 Baffle-crossing .

0.003
51.14

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

32

~:3

_____ _ _

Tub.~::!lJ!>~ sheetjoil1t. ___g~.<2.ove~!.p'!:l.d

158

Tipe
Bundle entrance

.._

Bundle....._exit
..... _.. _--_.-

Shell side
. Tube. ~id_e___._ _ _.
53 _...
Floating head
54 ..Code reql,lirernel!~ _ _... ASME_<;:ode ~ec VIII Oiv 1
TEMA class
B
55 Weight/Shell
847
Filled with water 2000.5
Bundle 318.9

Iblm=!i.~)

~? _Q?~~t~:

56 1 Remarks._ __ _
57
1

58

, 'C

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:
2 Location :

3 Service of Unit:
4 Item No.:

Our Reference :
Your Reference:

R-900

Rev No.:
Job No.:
5 Date:
17/ 22
--192
in
6 Size -...
7 Surf/unit(eff.)
626.3
ft2
9 Fluid allocation
r!-0_ Fluid name
f luid quantity, Tolal

rlj
12
13
14

--.

Type BKU

hor

Connected in

Shells/unit 1

1 parallel

Surf/shell (eff.)

Ib/h

Liquid

Ib/h
Ib/h

Noncondensable

Ib/h

.<.rC'A m

211522

3393
14872
196650

211522

3393

- -
--- -- - - .3393
... _._

15

".

16 Temperature (In/Out)
Dew / Bubble point
17

BTu/{lb*F)
BTU/(Wh*Fl
BTUllb

0.5362
0.016

1.0082
0.398

149.2

928.4

Out
Intermediate
00 0.75
10 _.... ...

101 .53

50.38

Sketch

751

I Code

oX1n~::n

330
2
0.0625

4/150 ANSI
1/ 150-------_
ANSI
..
/ 150ANSI

0.065
__ ~~_Jen9Ih 16
Material CS

ft Pitch 1

I J-)Jbe pattern

Shell cover

in
90

SS304

Channel cover

CS
SS304

_~~~b.eet-floating

Impingement protection
Ty~Single

seg

Cut(%d)

44

None
Spacing: dc 23 .625
Inlet 23 .625

vert

Seal type
U-bend

in
in

Ty'pe
Tube-tubesheet joint

groove/expand

Ty'pe
Bundle entrance

995

F
BTu/(h*ft2*Fl

Tube Side

8/ 150 ANSI

in

0.28

0.003

Clean 310 .51

4 / 150ANSI
4 / 150 ANSI

0018

290
1

Tks-avg

928.4
42
47.99

0.003
MTD corrected

in

48 Supports-tube
49 Bypass seal ". __ __

Bundle exit

----
Ib/{Ws2)

Tube Side

52 Gaskets - Shell sige


Floating head
53

57

0.3262
0.01

I Code

_Ba ffle-Iong

50 Expansion iQii}t
51 RhoV2-lnlet nozzle

751

psi

45 Floating head cover


SS304
.46
Baffle-crossing

58

0.5242
0.069

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL


Shell Side

41 Tubejype
SS304
42 Shell
Channel
or
~ - - -- bonnet
44 Tubesh~et-stationa!:y

55 Weight/Shell
Remarks
56.. .. _.

58.206
0.221

28

ft2*h*F/BTU
BTU/h
Dirty

3150000
99.82

54 Code requirements

0.097
0.013

86.57

0.331
0.093
86.48

tUs
psi

35 Number passes per shell


36 Corrosion allowance
In
37 Connections
Size/rating
38
39
in /
40 Tube No. 97Us

269.99
269.99

psi

26 Velocity
27 Pressure d_rop, allow.lcalc.

31

269 .99
269.99

50.663
0.242

CD

24 Latent heat
25 Inlet pressure -<absolute)

32
33 DesiqnfTest pressure
34 Desiqn temperature

221
220.61

Iblft3

22 Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivi!,y

28 Fouling resisl (min)


29 Heatexchanqed
30 Transfer rate . Service

212.6

--, .. __..

18 Density
19 Viscosity
20 Molecular wt, Vap __ __ __
21 Molecular wt, NC ._-_... _--.- - ..

ft2

Tube Side

<;-~1

Vapor (In/Oul)

1 series

626.3

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Sheil Side

..__.. _._ - -----

..
ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1
2748.9

Filled with water

TEMA class
6062

Bundle

.
...

1733.6

Ib

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet


1 Company:
2 Location:
3 Service of Unit:
Item
No.:
4 .. _-_
.._---
5 Date:

-_._--.-- ---

.__...

Our Reference:
Your Reference:

R-910
Rev No.:

12 / 17
~ Size
7 Surf/uniteeff.)

--_._."- _. __ ._._-_._ .. _------_._--_._ ..

Job No.:
in_~lJeBKU

--72

108.7

hor

Connected in

Shells/unit 1

ft2

--- ,

11 Fluid quantity, Total


12
Vapor (In/Out)

108.7

Liquid
Noncondensable

C;TE"Ah'J

3899

. ..

Iblh
Ib/h

ft2

Tube Side

5 - 162

--
Iblh

-- --_.

1 series

1 (2arallel

Surf/shell (eff.)

PERFORMANCE OF ONE UNIT


Shell Side

8
9 Fluid allocation
10 Fluid name

13
14

- _.....

541
3378

3899

521

F
F

261 .7

262.9

Ib/ft3

48.051
0.1 88

0.218
0 .092

0.5501

0.3407
0.011

541
541

Ib/h

15
16 TemRerature (In/Out)
17
Dew / Bubble point
18 Density
19 Viscosity
20 Molecular wt, Vap
21 Molecular wt, NC
22 . Specific heat
23 Thermal conductivity
24 Latent heat
.. - - --_..
25 Inlet pressure (absolut~L.
26 Veloci!X
27 Pressure drop,allow.lcalc.
28 Foulinq resist. (min)
486920
29 Heat exchanqed
93.11
30 Transfer rate, Service
31

~. .

BTU/(ft*h*F)
BTU/lb

100.36

Out
Intermediate

",

43 Channel or bonnet
44 Tubesheet-stationary

SS304
SS304

48.09

__ ._--- ---

__
..._
-_..

380

...

_ - 2---- - 2 / 150 ANSI


1/ 150 ANSI

1/ 150 ANSI

/ 150 ANSI
in Length 6

0.065

ft Pitch 1

-_ .. _--
None

Im(2ingement (2rotection
vert
Cut(%d) 45

S(2acing: dc 23

I Inlet

in
in
..

23

T:tee

.--

Ty~e-tubesheet

.
TYQe
.-.. -..
Bundle entrance
51 _RhoV2-lnlet nozzl~._..... ~22. __ ... _.
Tube Side
52 Gaskets - Shell .side
53
_.. ~()ating head
..__ ..
ASME Code Sec VIII Div 1
54 Code re ~ments
Filled with water 1818.9
803 .9
55 Weight/Shell

._---'.

in

Tube pattem 90

SS304

-- -~ -

Material CS
in
._hell cover
Channel cover

Single seg
T:te e
Seal t}I(2e
_ U-bend

F
BTUI(h*ft2*F)

S.L. .__/~()<:l..~

Tubesheet-floati~

._._

1/150ANSI
4 / 150ANSI

00 12.75

45 Floating..head cover
SS304
46 Baffle-crossing

56 Remarks
57

0.023

0.003

Tube Side

330

Tks-avg

__.

0.398
....

_.899.3 - ..-...
7_L _~ __ . _
9.34

Sketch

in

Size/ratinq
38
39
in /
40 Tube No. 44Us
41 Tube type
42 Shell
SS304

1.0157

10

0.19

0.018
899.3

0.003
MTD corrected
Clean 299.8

_ She~l<:!~ .
751
( Code

00 0 .75

56.952

0.5746

0.063
--"- -"--. -.......
1 4~., ? __._ .. H~.. 4.
20.1
...... _..... _
-_._

psi
ftls
psi
ft2*h*F/BTU
BTU/h
Dirty

psi

35 Number passes_2er shell


Corrosion allowance
lQ. r--
In
E. Connections

310.54
310.54

I
~JJJillb*F)

CONSTRUCTION OF ONE SHELL

32
33 DesignlTest pressure
34 Design temperature

47 Baffle~.lg.f1g
48 .!3.l!P(2orts-tube
49 B:t(2ass seal
50 Expa,:,sion joint

310 .54
310.54
0 .175
0.014

262

joint

groove/exeand
Bundle exit

__

........

- -...- ..

-- --- ~

Ibl(ft*s2)
...

~.

"-"

..

TEMA
--_... _... _class
.. _---_
._.......B....
Bundle

323.4

Ib

58

I II

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-500
1

Date:

By:

Principal Function: Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-500

Continuous

Operation:

DC-500 Stage 1 flow

Materials handled:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

13,679.77
0.41
220.68
50.38
50.00
54.40
12,833.82
trace
trace
trace
30.79
trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft"'3):
Length (ft)

101.8
32.0

3.5 Material of Construction:


12,165.78
Stainless Steel
10

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 171

118

4/9/02
akg

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item

Item #
No. Required
Principal Function:

Operation:

Reflux Ac Date:
RA-5l0 By:
1

4/9/02
akg

Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-51 0

Continuous

DC-510 Stage 1 flow

Materials handled:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

861.13
0.04
213.85
47.45
40.05
48.53
71.92
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):
Design Data:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft"' 3):
Length (ft)

10.0
28.0
1.5 Material of
7.07 Construction:
5.5

Stainless
Steel

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A page 171


-

- - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -

119

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-61O
1

Principal Function:

Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-61 0

Operation :

Continuous

By:

DC-610 Stage 1 flow

Materials handled:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

31 ,877 .24
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
22.03
1,974.66
18,527.79
163.64
7,876.99
2,872.85

Temperature (oF) :
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Date:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft/\3):
Length (ft)

275 .2
95 .0

5 Material of Construction:
373.83
Stainless Steel
20

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg . 172

120

4/9/02
akg

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-800
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
akg

Principal Function: Accumulate condensed liquid from ST-800

Continuous

Operation:

Materials handled:

ST -800 Stage 1 flow

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

1,633.55
trace
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.52
293.40
784.07
5.13
107.27
0.88

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft"3) :
Length (ft)

182.0
25.0

1.5 Material of Construction:


8.83
Stainless Steel
6
I

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg . 176

121

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-810

Date:
By:

Principal Function: Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-810

Continuous

Operation:

DC-810 Stage 1 flow

Materials handled:

878.35

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

trace
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
3.35
229.90
174.07
2.39
29.35
0.00
167.6
22.0

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft A 3):
Length (ft)

1.5 Material of Construction:


6.66
Stainless Steel
5.5

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 173

122

4/9/02
akg

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-900
1

Date:

By:

4/9/02
akg

Principal Function: Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-900

Continuous

Operation:

Materials handled:

DC900 Stage 1 flow

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

4,795.92
,

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.95
423.97
3,435.12
29.16
462.42
1.02

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

181.9
25.0

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ftA 3):
Length (ft)

2 Material of Construction:
25
Stainless Steel
8

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 174


-

123

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Reflux Accumulator
D-910
1

Date:

By:

Principal Function: Accumulate condensed liquid from DC-910

Continuous

Operation:

DC-910 Stage 1 flow

Materials handled:

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

1,579.23
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.89
1,135.56
0.24
1.78
1.48

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Diameter (ft):
Volume (ftI\3):
Length (ft)

182.0
25.0

1.5 Material of Construction:


6.33
Stainless Steel
5.5

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 175

124

4/9/02
akg

Refrigeration Unit
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Refrigeration unit
RF-520
1

Date:
By:

Principal Function:

Cool offgas using glycol-ammonia absorption system

Operation:

Continuous

4/8/02 1
akg

Materials handled:

Quantity (Ib/hr):
Composition (Ib/hr):
Ethylene Glycol

Temperature (oF):

Design Data:

21,775.00
21775

-10

Heat Duty: 900,000 Btu/hr


I
I

Utilities:

I
I

125

STRIPPER
Identification

Stripper
ST-800

Item
Item #
No. Required

4/9/02
cp

Date:
By:
1

Principal Function:

Separate out the wastewater from the aqueous outlet stream of the decanter

Operation:

Continuous

I
I
I

Inlet Streams

Materials handled:

S-801

2,161.83

9,262 .68

1,194.31

0.32
145.94
19.51
50.45
8,263 .04
783.42

3.31
293.44
784 .24
5.13
107.31
0.88

234.1
27.4

182.1
25.0

trace
3.63
439 .38
803.75
55.58
6,208.52
784.29
117.5
35.5

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

S-802

8,295.16

Quantity (Ib/hr):
Composition (Ib/hr):
Hydrogen
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Outlet streams
S-804
S-803

No. of Trays :
Feed Tray:
Tray Spacing (ft) :
Diameter (ft) :
Volume (ft3):

2,161.83

259.4
35.0

12 Average Pressure (psia):


25
2 Material of Construction : Stainless Steel
2 Molar Reflux Ratio:
3.5
1
28

126

STORAGE TANKS

Item
Item #
No. Required

Identification

Storage Tank
T-1
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank for Acetic Acid feed

Continuous

Operation:

Inlet Stream (S-l 0 1)

Materials handled:

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

21,447.80

21,447.80
I

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

77
14.7

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

Design Data:

357,450.29 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


1 day

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 196


-

127

STORAGE TANKS

Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Storage Tank:
T-2

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank: for Acetic Acid recycle stream (S-l 03)

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream (S-103)

Materials handled:
Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lb/hr):

Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

20,743.76
trace

trace

trace

0.006

0.016

< 0.001

366.13
20,377.61

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

369 .9

98.6

36,032.28 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


0.5 days

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 196

128

STORAGE TANKS
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Date:
By:

Storage Tank
T-3
I

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank for Acetic Acid recycle stream (S-1 02)

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream (S-l 02)

Materials handled:

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lblhr):
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

438.03
trace
trace
1.47
< 0.001

0.001
436.55

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

263.2
20.1

677.07 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


0.5 days

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 197

129

STORAGE TANKS
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Storage Tank
T-4
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank for Ethyl Acetate distillate (S-903)

Operation:

Continuous

Materials handled:

Inlet Stream (S-903)

Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lblhr):
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

1.139.31
< 0.001

0.89
1.134.92
0.24
1.79
1.48

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

175
16.0

54,675.16 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


14 days

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 197

130

STORAGE TANKS
Identification

Item
Item #
No . Required

Date:
By:

Storage Tank
T-5
1

4/9/02
cp
I
I

Principal Function: Holding tank for both Acetaldehyde product streams

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Streams

Materials bandied:
Quantity (lblhr):
Composition (lb/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

S-503

10,354.66

2,463.56

trace

trace

5.53

1.30

2.39

0.54

8.07

1.88

4.78

1.09

10,306.52

2,455.29

trace
trace
trace
27.372

trace

3.456

trace

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

S-502

101.8

98.3

32.0

30.1

689,753.23 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


14 days

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 198


-

131

STORAGE TANKS
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Storage Tank
T-6
1

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank for feed to the Acetaldehyde distillation column (DC-500)

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream (S-501 a)

Materials bandied:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

105,379.58
0.04
220.69
50 .38
50.00
54.41
12,843.29
1,162.71
2,765.36
865.08
19,808.00
67,559.63

Temperature (oF) :
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

121.8
43.5

162,514.68 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


0.5 day

Comments: Pricing and sizing info on Appendix A pg. 198

132

STORAGE TANKS
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Storage Tank
T-7

Date:
By:

4/9/02
cp

Principal Function: Holding tank for bottoms stream of distillation column (DC-500)

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Stream (S-506)

Materials bandIed:

Quantity (lb/hr):
Composition (lblhr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid

92,139.53
trace
trace
trace
trace
trace
9.57
1,162.71
4,106.58
163.78
20,051.42
66,645.46

Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Volume (gal):
Retention Time:

262.7
37.8

152,598.99 Material of Construction: Stainless Steel


0.5 day

Comments: Pricing info on Appendix pg. 199

..

133

Pressure valve
Identification

Item
Item #
No. Required

Valve
V-501

Date:
By:

4/8/02
akg

Principal Function:

To decrease the pressure of the feed stream to the acetaldehyde separation


column

Operation:

Continuous

Inlet Streams

Materials handled:

S-501
Quantity (Ibmol/hr):
Composition (Ibmol/hr):
Hydrogen
Carbon Dioxide
Methane
Ethylene
Ethane
Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Ethyl Acetate
Ethanol
Water
Acetic Acid
Temperature (oF):
Pressure (psia):

Design Data:

Tray Spacing (ft):


Diameter (ft):
Volume (ft3):

Outlet Stream

S-501a

105,380.47

105,379.59

0.04
220.69
50 .38
50.01
54.41
12,846.44
1,162.51
2,764.63
865.07
19,807.78
67,558.51

0.04
220.69
50.38
50.00
54.41
12,843.29
1,162.71
2,765 .36
865.08
19,808.00
67,559 .63

120.9
229.9

121.8
43.9

Average Pressure (psia):


Material of Construction: Stainless Steel
Molar Reflux Ratio:

Utilities:

134

EQUIPMENT COST SUMMARY

EguiQment
name

Purchase
Cost

DescriQtion

Source

AB-320

Absorber

CP-410

Compressor

C-500
C-520
C-610
C-800
C-810
C-900
C-910

Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser
Condenser

DE-720

Decanter

DC-500
DC-510
DC-610
DC-810
DC-900
DC-910

Acetaldehyde Distillation Column


Acetaldehyde Recovery Column
Acetic Acid Distillation Column
Acetone Distillation Column
Azeotropic Distillation Column
Ethyl Acetate Distillation Column

$986,529
$6,331
$146,510
$10,050
$14,670
$42,210

Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost

F-230

Fired Heater

$260,897

Walas

FV-310

Flash Vessel

$192,900

Cost Charts

HX-200
HX-210
HX-300
HX-530
HX-710

Heat
Heat
Heat
Heat
Heat

$83,265
$269,551
$70,009
$4,594
$6,812

BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC

P-110
P-540
P-600
P-620
P-730

Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump

$11,570
$11,570
$6 ,171
$5,786
$2,571

Ulrich
Ulrich
Ulrich
Ulrich
Ulrich

PB-500
PB-610
PB-810
PB-900
PB-910

Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler

$3,600
$9,000
$2,186
$2,829
$2,700

Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost

$26,740

Cost Charts

$386,000

Cost Charts

$89,726
$7,094
$27,654
$3,235
$2,863
$3,953
$7,893
$9,000

Exchanger
Exchanger
Exchanger
Exchanger
Exchanger

Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump

135

BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
Cost Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts

Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts

EguiQment
name

Purchase
Cost

Description

$4,243
$2,571
$7,071
$2,571
$2,057
$3,986
$2,057

Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump
Pump

Source
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost

Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts

PR-500
PR-510
PR-610
PR-800
PR-810
PR-900
PR-910

Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux

RX-240

Reactor

$16,710

Cost Charts

R-500
R-610
R-810
R-900
R-910

Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler
Reboiler

$65,581
$53,987
$4,538
$6,632
$3 ,735

BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC
BJAC

0-500
0-510
0-610
0-800
0-810
0-900
0-910

Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux
Reflux

$5,190
$2,080
$11,680
$2,340
$2,210
$2,725
$2,210

Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost

RF-520

Refrigeration System

ST-800

Stripper

T-1
T-2
T-3
T-4
T-5
T-6
T-7

Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage
Storage

Accumulator
Accumulator
Accumulator
Accumulator
Accumulator
Accumulator
Accumulator

$213,675

Tank
Tank
Tank
Tank
Tank
Tank
Tank

136

Walas

$11,670

Cost Charts

$25,710
$11,570
$1,543
$25,710
$66,860
$28,290
$25,710

Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost
Cost

$3,331,384

Total Purchase Cost

Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts

Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts
Charts

Fixed Capital Investment Summary


The bare module cost of equipment was determined using cost charts that can be found in
Ulrich. The purchased cost of each piece of equipment was determined by the charts. Then,
each piece of equipment was multiplied by the appropriate bare module factor based on
operating pressure and materials of construction to find the bare module cost for each piece of
equipment individually. The total bare module cost was determined by summing the individual
bare module costs. Nearly all of the equipment was available in charts from which the purchase
cost could be read, and then mUltiplied by the appropriate factor to find the bare module cost.
The exceptions to this were the heat exchangers, the fired heater, and the refrigeration unit. We
used B-lAC to design the heat exchangers, including the condensers and reboi1ers . B-lAC
rigorously designed the heat exchangers and also returned an estimated cost of material and
labor. For heat exchangers, Ulrich estimates that this cost is 2.34C p , and the bare module cost is
3.18 Cpo Assuming similar escalation in prices for our equipment, the ratio of bare module cost
to installed cost equals 3.1812.34 = 1.36. The cost of the heat exchangers designed using B-lAC
was multiplied by 1.36 to estimate the bare module cost.
The costs for the refrigeration unit and fired heater were estimated using equations found
in Walas. These equations calculated the installed costs for these pieces of equipment.
Assuming similar ratios for the installed costs of these pieces of equipment as Ulrich provides
for heat exchangers, the ratio of bare module cost to installed cost for this equipment is also 1.36.
Estimates for pump costs were determined from cost charts provided by Ulrich. The
pump power was taken from the Aspen Plus output for stand-alone pumps, and from IPE
equipment sizing for reflux and reboiler pumps. The output this program provides for individual
equipment is its installed cost. The large storage tanks were also cos ted llsing cost charts

137

available in Ulrich. Using the factors provided, the bare module cost could be determined
directly.
By using this method to determine the equipment bare module costs, and adding
$5,979,000 for the catalyst (see Appendix for calculations), the total bare module cost, CTBM ,
was calculated to be $20,047,306. Table 8 on p. 139 summarizes the calculations involved in
determining the total permanent investment. It was estimated that 5% of the total bare module
cost should be set aside for each site preparation and service facilities. Allocated utility faci lities
for cooling water and steam were build, at a total cost of$4,387,000 (see Appendix B, p. 203).
These additional costs are added to the bare module cost to produce the direct permanent
investment, which equals $26,439,037. An estimate of 15% of the direct permanent investment
is set aside for contingencies. Adding this to the direct permanent investment yields the total
depreciable capital, $30,404,892. Two percent of the total depreciable capital is then set aside
for land costs, and 12 % for startup costs. This allotment for startup is slightly higher than
normally suggested, but we believe it is warranted because of the complexities of our process
and the many recycle streams that must be accounted for. Adding the startup and land costs to
the total depreciable capital produces the total permanent investment, $34,661,557.

138

Table 8. Total Permanent Investment


Total Bare Module Cost, C_TBM

$20,047,306

Cost of Site Preparation, C_Site


Cost of Service Facilities, C_serv
Allocated costs for utilities, C alloc

$1 ,002,365
$1,002,365
$4 ,387,000

Direct Permanent Investment, C_DPI

$26,439,037

Cost of Contingencies, C_cont

$3,965,855

Total Depreciable Capital, C_TDC

15% of C_DPI

$30,404,892

Cost of Land, C_land

Cost of Royalties, C_royal

Cost of Start-up, C_start

$608 ,098
$0
$3,648,587

Total Permanent Investment, C_TPI

$34,661,577

139

Ii

5% ofC TBM
5% ofC_TBM

2% ofC TDC
12%ofC_TDC

140

Important Considerations
Acetaldehyde is an extremely flammable liquid and vapor. Its vapor may cause flash
fires. It fonns explosive peroxides and polymerizes, resulting in hazardous conditions.
Acetaldehyde is therefore stored in stainless steel tanks with a refrigerating system to ensure that
the temperature of the product does not rise above 60 OF. This is why is important to have a
refrigerated storage tank for the combined acetaldehyde product.
Acetaldehyde is also a potential cancer hazard. High vapor concentration may cause
drowsiness or irritation of the eye and respiratory tract. For eye protection, safety glasses with
side shields and a face shield need to be worn by the workers at this plant with risk of exposure.
Additionally, chemical resistant gloves, boots and protective clothing appropriate for the risk of
exposure need to be worn. Decontamination facilities such as eye bath, washing facilities and
safety shower must be provided.
Acetic acid is strongly corrosive and causes serious bums. At temperatures above 102 OF
explosive acetic acid vapor/air mixtures may be fonned. In order to prevent such hazards, there
should be no open flames, no sparks and no smoking in the premises. Also, above 102F, a
closed system needs to be used as does ventilation, and explosion-proof electrical equipment.
Although there is no evidence of acetic acid having carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic
effects, acetic acid is a lachrymator. Prolonged exposure to acetic acid causes sore throat, cough,
headache, dizziness, shortness of breath and labored breathing. Workers with potential exposure
to acetic acid need to be provided with protective gloves, protective clothing and breathing
protection. Leaking acetic acid liquid must be collected in sealable containers and cautiously
neutralized with sodium carbonate. Acetic acid is hannful to aquatic organisms and therefore it
must not be disposed into water bodies without adequate treatment and/or dilution.

141

Hydrogen is even more flammable then acetic acid and it undergoes many reactions with
air, oxygen, chlorine, fluorine, strong oxidants that cause fire or explosions. Exposure to
hydrogen also causes dizziness, asphyxia, labored breathing and unconsciousness. Therefore, in
addition to the safety precautions that need to be taken for acetic acid, hydrogen gas cylinders
must not be handled with oily hands and must be stored in a cool place. In case of spillage, the
danger area must be evacuated and the vapor must be removed with fine water spray. Because of
the dangers associated with storing hydrogen, we receive our supply via a pipeline.
Another aspect taken into consideration was that the furnace operates at temperatures
around 600F. Therefore, steps must be taken to ensure that faults in the process do not make it
necessary for the entire process to shut down since it will be very economically unfeasible and
wasteful to have to shutdown and restart the furnace, especially since it will take an extended
period of time to reach the desired temperature again. Thus, there is a storage tank for the
reactor effl uent before it is fed to the acetaldehyde distillation column. If other parts of the
system fail, the furnace can still operate and feed its product to that tank. It would be more
beneficial to have a storage tank immediately following the reactor, but the high temperature and
high hydrogen composition makes that unfeasible. There will also not be difficulty with a supply
of feed to the furnace if other systems break down, since the acetic acid and hydrogen feedstocks
can be fed virtually directly to the furnace if it is necessary to keep the reaction proceeding.
Also, there is a storage tank for the bottoms of the acetaldehyde distillation column. This allows
the acetaldehyde recovery section and the acetic acid separation section to operate if the other
experiences difficulties and must be shutdown for a short time.
Startup is a special concern for this facility because ofthe importance of recycle streams
to the operation of the absorber AB-320 and the acetic acid distillation column DC-610. A tank

142

holding acetic acid should be positioned near the absorber to provide solvent to the top stage
during startup. This stream is usually furnished from the bottoms product of the acetaldehyde
distillation column, but that will not be operating at the beginning of the process. Ethyl acetate
must also be purchased and stored so that it can be used to form the azeotrope in the acetic acid
distillation column. Aspen simulation results imply that without an initial charge of ethyl acetate
to this column, there is no phase separation in the decanter DE-720, and no ethyl acetate product
is recovered. More energy in the form of natural gas must also be supplied at startup. This is
partially because of the need to heat a cold furnace, but also because there are no waste streams
that can be burned for fuel, and there is no hot reactor effluent to preheat the reactor feeds.
Because waste streams are used for fuel in the furnace, careful control is necessary to ensure that
small irregularities in process conditions do not lead to either excessive or insufficient heating in
the fired heater.
Plant-wide control is also a major issue in this complicated design. Controls should also
be placed before the compressor CP-41 0 in order to ensure that the entering stream will be only
vapor. If the feed stream is cooled below its dew point, a valve may open to reduce pressure and
vaporize the entire stream. This would increase the duty on the compressor, but is necessary for
its long-tenn operation. There is similar attention paid to ensuring that the feed to the recycle
pump P-730 is entirely liquid. The distillate of the near azeotrope distillation column DC-900 is
subcooled to limit the chances that the pressure drop associated with the mixer would partially
vaporize the feed to the pump. The composition of the stream should be monitored, and ifthere
is any vapor a small cooling jacket can be used to decrease the temperature and produce a total
liquid.

143

The amount of acetic acid and hydrogen feeds, as well as their ratio must also be
controlled, for two reasons. First, the plant design is optimized for the flow rates that were used;
if the amount of either feed changed substantially, then unexpected difficulties may result when
the effects of recycle streams are considered. Second, in order to keep the proper oxidation state
for the catalyst, it was determined that a hydrogen/acetic acid mole ratio of 511 is optimal. If this
is not maintained, then the performance of the catalyst may degrade quickly.

144

Operating Cost and Economic Analysis


The Economics Spreadsheet developed by Holger Nickish was used to evaluate the
process. Two different scenarios were considered in evaluating the economic viability of this
design process. In the first, the acetic acid feed was available at $0.161Ib. In the second case,
legislation to eliminate MTBE from gasoline created a glut of methanol, which can be used to
produce acetic acid. In this situation, the cost of acetic acid is $0.12/Ib. Besides these costs (and
the associated change in the working capital), all costs are the same under both scenarios. The
case in which acetic acid is available at $0.16/Ib is considered first.
The annual costs associated with operating the plant under these conditions are
summarized in the Fixed Costs and the Variable Costs tables on pages 146 and 147. Heuristics
for calculating the annual costs are based on the cost sheet outline provided in Table 10.1 of
Seider, Seader, and Lewin. We do not need to purchase the steam and water utilities because we
built the dedicated facilities and assigned the price to allocated costs, part of the Direct
Permanent Investment. Costs for natural gas, electricity, and wastewater disposable were
supplied by Fabiano and Vrana.
We assumed three operators per shift, each earning an annual salary of $40,000. The
major fixed costs we encountered stemmed from the wages and services for maintenance. The
total maintenance costs amount to $2,447,000/year. The cost for replacement catalyst is also
considered here. $543,500 per year is set aside for the catalyst, which we assume we must
replace every five years.
The variable costs are based primarily on the cost of the hydrogen and acetic acid
feedstocks. Acetic acid is especially expensive, costing $0.27 per pound of acetaldehyde
produced. Because of the allocated facilities for stean1 and cooling water, the utility costs are

145

Fixed Costs
Acetaldehyde Production. Acetic Acid $0, 16/1b
April 9, 2002

TOTAL

Operation
IWages and Benefits

- - -$6-:-:0-0-,0-0-0""

Direct Salaries and Benefits


$90,000
Operating Su plies an
_ d_S_e_rv__i_c e_s__ _ _ __ __ _ __ __
$36,OQ~
Tec hnical As~~sta~ce=___t.:..::.o.:..::.M
.:..::..:.:..:
an::::.::u:..:.
fa::::.::c:..:.
tu.:..::.r_=
in::
g'_____ __ __ __ _ __ ____'$::...::5 2 ,000
$57,000
Control Laboratory

Maintenance
\vageSandBene~~_ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ ~$~
1,~0_64~,~00_0~1'
Salaries and Benefits
Materials and Services
Maintenance Overhead

$266,000 .
$ 1,064,000
$53,000

Operating Overhead
General Plant Overhead
----~~----------Mechanical De artment Services
Employ~~. Relations Department
Business Services

--- ---

Overhead:

146

.. ~143,000
$48,000
$11 9,000
$149,000 I

Variable Costs

Acetaldehvde Production. Acetic Acid $0,16I1b

TOTAL

April 9, 2002

Raw Materials

147

only $0.005/lb of acetaldehyde. For the production level used in this plant, the annual amount of
variable costs is $31,009,000.
The working capital was determined by assuming a 14-day supply of the products
acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate, and a one-day supply of acetic acid. This supply can be so low
because our site is shared with a major chemical company. Hydrogen is piped directly to the
facility, so it is not stored. We also hold 30 days of accounts receivable to account for payment
occurring monthly. Additionally, a spare charge of catalyst is held because it is a special catalyst
that could not be ordered quickly if its performance declined. The total working capital for this
process is $12,580,684. This is added to the total permanent investment (TPI) to find the total
capital investment (TCI). The TCI is $47,242,990. A summary of the steps taken to determine
the TPI is found in the Venture Guidance Appraisal on p. 149.
Finally, the profitability of this design was examined. The return on investment (ROI) in
the third year is 11.4%. Investor's rate of return (IRR) and the net present value (NPV) were
calculated based on a cost of capital of 15 %. Using a five-year depreciation cycle and a 20-year
plant life, the IRR is 11.1 % and the NPV is -$5 ,830,000. The annual cash flows are presented in
the table labeled Cash Flows on p. 150. Clearly, construction should not proceed under these
conditions.

148

Venture Guidance Appraisal


Acetaldehyde Production, Acetic Acid $O.16/1b
April 9, 2002

TOTAL

Working Capital
Inventory
IAcetaldehyde
Ace,tic Acid
H yd~'ogcn

Total Inventory:
Accounts Receivable:

3,891,000 Ibs
465 ,070 Ibs
Ibs

$ 1.868,000
$74,000 1
SO

$1 ,942,000 I
30 days

149

S4,430,000

or,:..,.'

Cash- Flows
.~

l/$

'!,.CJ

.l;

0\0

~ ., I. ~ /'/'/'
/'~. .
~
~

~,

:1:fJ;ll.'

~. ~.,1

Acetaldehvde Prodllction.Acetic Add '$n.t.6Llh

Apri l 9, 2002

0"
(j
~
.~

~
I'.-'t:i

-J

.~

v
~

tf

.$

~O::,,'ri

vO

",0

~
~

"
tf

(>0

,c::-

vo.~
~
q,(>

Ib

.<i

!;

.,
<J

V'l';"'';:J'''-~

,,'&

~? ~~;i~~~ ~~~F "

'"/I

II @

~c::-

<q'ri

...

v'ri

......
~'ri

~q,

4.

.:.q,

c::-

of

($11,554,000)

($11,554,000)

($11,554,000)

($21,601,000)

($24.135.000)

($24,13~~

($39,851,000)

$3,233,000

($37,725,000)

($3.699.000)

__ _

/'

($11,554,000)

($11.554,000)

.. $7,221.000
.- -".-,,-- ..... . _ J~~~ ~~~~!OOO)
$9,523.000
($28.861,000)
._----_.__ ..._---. -----_... _....._...... _-_.
($25,170,000)
$4,545,0~~~ _ _ $~,538.000

i~3,8!_1..:?9_~)
$2.868,000
-_._

1'1--'--'- -'---' 11

0'0

,,'ri
q,
~
0

'f

~~~~~~~~~FJ~~-----iH~~:~~~ II ~:~i~~~:~6~1

_~.!.~OOO

$7.061.000

I_ -:;::--:-'-:-::..::..:.::..:.:::..._~'~_~
.,~.. ~61.000

$ 7.061.000"

($17,403,000)

----_.

($15,658.000)

$7.061,000

$7,061 ,000

$7,061.000 I
$7.061 ,000

$7,061. ,-,000- t----i~~~.820.:...000)"


$7.061.000
($11,672,000)

$7.061.000

$7.061.000

($10,674,000)

$7,061,000

$7,061,000

($9.806,000)

$7,061 ,000

$7,061 ,000

($9,051,000)

$7,061,000

$7,061 ,000

($8,395,000)

'i:7 nR1 non

-;.

;~.i"'~
1 ~~.

..,,; 1:Jl:'"
1.

"'-'

($14,1 40.000)

$7,061,000

$7,061,000

$7,061,000

$7,061,000

$7,061 ,000

($6 ,897,000)1 _

$7,061,000

$7,061,000

($6,522,000)

'1:1<1 Qil7 nnn

$14,987,000

($7,328.000)

-I

Our group also examined the economic viability of the process under the conditions of
acetic acid being available at $0.12/Ib. The input summary for this case is presented on pages
152 and 153. The annual costs associated with operating the plant were calculated in the same
manner as they were in the first scenario. The results are summarized on the pages 154 and 155
in the Fixed Costs and Variable Costs sheets. Under both circumstances the total fixed cost sums
to the same amount: $4,740,500. The variable cost does change dramatically, however, as acetic
acid costs only $0.20/1b of acetaldehyde formed, rather than $0.27/Ib as in the first case. This
result leads to a savings in raw material costs of nearly $7,000,000/year, the costs decrease from
$30,290,000 to $23,495,000. Other variable costs were not affected by the acetic acid price.
The working capital is affected somewhat by the lower price of acetic acid because the
one-day supply of acetic acid is not worth as much when acetic acid is less expensive. Thus, the
amount of working capital required for the supply of acetic acid decreases from $74,000 to
$56,000. The working capi tal under these circumstances is $12,562,684, and the TCI is
$47,224,990. These results are summarized in the Venture Guidance Appraisal on p. 156.
The economics of this process was analyzed using the same metrics used to examine the
first scenario. As a result of the substantial decrease in variable costs, the ROI in the third year
improved to 19.5 %. Using the same five-year depreciation schedule and 20-year plant life as
before, the IRR is 18.5 % and the NPV is $12,162,000. The annual cash flows are summarized
in the table Cash Flows on p. 157. The economics of this process is strongly dependent on the
cost of acetic acid. If acetic acid is available at $0.12/Ib, then it is profitable to follow this
design. The rate ofretum is not significantly higher than the cost of capital (15 %), so the
potential reward for building this plant would be relatively small. Thus, more research should be
done to ensure acetic acid can be purchased at the lower price before production proceeds.

151

Input Summary
April 9.1001

- - - -- -- - - - -- - - -- - - -_....

General Information

__ - - -
..

Title of Process: Acetaldehyde Production, Acetic Acid $0.12/1b


Plant Site: Gulf Coast
Startil1g Year:
2002
Years of Design:
1
Years of Conshl.lction:
2
Years of Plant Life:
20
2005
First Year of Production:

Product Information
_ _ __ __ __ _ T_h_e p. rocess yields a singLe product:

Acetaldehyde

---------------

C apacity
Operating Hours p er Year:
The Process will Yield:

7,920
12,818.22

lb per hour

101,520,287

Ib per year of Acetaldehyde

- - - - - _ ... _-

Market Price
0.4800000

The Price per Ib of Acetaldeh yde is:

Equ ipment C osts

IBL TOTAL BARE MODULE COST


Total Capital Investment

20,047,306

of Total Bare Module Costs for Site Preparation and Service Facilities:
to .OO ~/o
Allocated Utility and Related Facility Costs (see Table 9.4): 54,387,000
Percentagc of Direct Pel1lJi1l1ent Investment for Contingencies:
15.00 %
2.00 %
Enter either a dollar value or a percentage ofTowl Depreciable Capital:
Percentage of Total Depreciable Capital for Roya lties:
%
Percentage ofTota.1 Depreciable Capital for SUitt-Up:
12.00 %
Site Factor (see Tablc'_9_._5'):_ _ __1.00
_ _ _ _ __

Working Capital
Inventory will be kept of the follO\ving Materials:
Acetaldchyde:
14 days
4,306,921 Ib
Acetic Acid :
1 days
514,748 lb
Accounts Receivable:
30 days
Other Working Capital Items :
1. Catalyst Charge
$
$
._ .._ _ _ _. . _ . _ .
2. Ethyl Acetate-14 days _ _ __

5,979,000
229.684

Raw Materials
Ib Acetic Acid per lb Acetaldehyde:

1.6732300

lb H '~~~.}2~1 P2~ !b Acetaldel~.y'de: . (~QQ..~~OO

Cost ($) per Ib Acetic Acid:


_Cost ( S~2erlb!-l.2:'ir~g~1~_

0. 1200000
0.5000000

Utilities
MMBnl Natural Gas per Ih Accr:aldehyde: 0.0005261

Cost per MMBtu Natural Gas:


Cost per kWh Electricity:
Cost per lbor~ Water !re~ trnent:

kWh Electricity per Ib Acetaldehyde: 0.04.16670


org\\i~t~rT r~~Ll!l.~!1tper

Jb AcetalctehY0~:

O~~780 140

Other Variable Costs


Selling/Transfer Expense:
Direct Research:
Allocated Research:
Administrative Expense:
Managemcllt Incentive Compensation:

3.00 % ofsalcs
4.80 'Yo of sales
0.50 % of sales
2.00 % ofsales
1.25 ~~) of sales

152

2.3000000
0.0350000
0.0300000

1.25 % of sales

Management Incentive Compensation:


PackHging
Labor:
M aterials:

0.00 per Ib Acetaldehyde


0.00 per lb Acetaldehyde

Byproducts
lb Ethyl

Acetat~per

lb Acetaldehyde:

0.0888820

Price per lb Ethyl Acetate:

$0.6000

Fixed Costs
Operations
Number of Operators per Sh
3
Annual Wages per Operator:
$40,000
Employee Benefits:
Direct Salaries and Benefits:
15
'a ting Supplies and Selvices:
6
$52,000
TechIlical Assistance to Mar
Control Laboratory:
$57,000
Maintenance
Wages:
3.50
Employee Benefits:
Salalies and Benefits :
25.00
Materials and Services:
100.00
Maintenance Overhead:
5.00
Operating Overhead
General Plant Overhead:
7.10
Mechan.ical Department Sep
2.40
loyee Relations Department:
S.90
Business Services:
7.40
Property Taxes and Insurance
roperty Taxes and Insurance
1.50
Depreciation
Direct Plant
8.00
Allocated Plant
6.00
Catalyst Replacement
~.a.~~yst Rep!aCC1n~~.~_._ S_4_3-',S
-_0_0_.0_0_

(assuming 5 Shifts)
Including Benefits
% of wages
% of wages
% of wages
per labor year
per labor year
Including Benefits
% of Total Depreciable Capital,
% of wages
% of Maintenance Wages and Benefits
% of Maintenance Wages and Benefits
% ofI'vlaintenance Wages and Benefits
%
%
%
%

of Mainlenance
of Maintenance
of Maintenanee
of Maintenance

and
and
and
and

Operations
Operations
Operations
Operations

Salaries, Wages
Salaries, Wages
Salaries, Wages
Salaries, Wages

and Benefits
and Benefits
and Benefits
and Benefits

% of Total Depreciable Capital


% of Total Depreciable Capital
% of Allocated Costs

$c...I-"'y_e_aT_ _ __ _ __ _

Financial Information
Cost of Capital:

15.00 %

GeneTallnflation Rate :

%
%
%
%
37.00 %

Product Price Inflation Rate:


variable Cost Inflation Rate:
Fixed Cost Inflation Rate:
Income Tax Rate:
MACRS Tax-Basis
YEAR 1
YEAR 2
YEAR 3
YEAR 4
YEAR 5
YEAR 6

Depreciation Schedu le
20.00'Yo
32.00%
19.20%
11 .52%
11 .52%
5.76%

Distribution of Investment

153

DLSI(]N I

33 ~o

CONSTRUCTION I

33%

CONSTRUCTION 2

33"10

Fixed Costs
Acetaldehvde Production. Acetic Acid $0. l21lb
April 9, 2002

TOTAL

Operation
Wages and Benefits
Direct SalaJies and B-' e-.n-e-fit-s- - - - -_- - . _- _._-

$600,000

- s90,oooJ

,Operatin o Supplies and Services


[Technical As~;stance to Manufacturing

$36,0001
$52 ,000 !

!-=IC-.::.-=on~ol
tr.:..;,.:..:L
;";,,a-=-b:..:.ra
o=-=-,;,.:..
to r-'-y'---'-.:..:..:....=..=..:.~c-=-~"'----------$57,000 -1

ITotal Operations:

, J(

'

$835,000

$835,000

Maintenance
Wages and Beneiits
i ~_al~Ei~~~nd B=-e__r-'w-'.
fi_ts_ _ __
Materials and Services
Maintenance Overhead-- -

S 1,064,-000 .
____ $266,000
S 1.064,000

$53,000
I

$3,282~000 1

aintenance:

Operating Overhead
iGeneralPiant Overhead
Mechanical Deparlrrl~nt Services
Employee Relations Department
Business Services

$3741,000

head:
IJ'r.n.n ,o r t ... ,

T axes and Insurance:'

$4,197,000!
$4,740,500 I

154

Variable Costs
Acetaldehyde Production. Acetic Acid $0,12/1b

Aprij 9. 2002

IAcetic Acid

TOTAL
20 ,08 per Ib Acetaldehyde
--~--------3,O/ per Ib Acetaldehyde

------------~~,

IHydrogcn

Total Raw Materials:

23.J 4

pel' Ib Acetaldehyde

$23,496,O(fO

$23,496,000

Utilities
, N3tur~ _SJas

O. 12
O,lS
O.23
O,QO

__

-lectriCiiY

W~~er Treatment
Eleetricitv

it~i

ITotal;Utilities:

O.SO

pcr Ib_~~etal<:lehyde
per Ib Acetaldehyde

per Ib Acetaldehyde
per Ib Acetaldehyde

,__ ___ I

per Ib .Acetaldehyde

$508,000

BVDroducts

IEthyl Aceta-;-

(S. 33) per Ib Acetaldehyde

--(5.iJ)

jTotal Byproducts:

perlb Acetalde,h yde

Other Variable Costs


r-

I __ ~241j 904,OOO
I

Sellin_g:Trallst~rF~p(;n~e

Direct

R csear~l

:\IIDcalcd Research
AuministrJlive bpense
\ 18nagement

C o m2en3~.?n

, Pacbg~~~ ~~at.:rial,~

Packaging Labor

;1

($5,414,000) 1
I

1.44 per Ib Acetaldehyde

_ _ ___ ~} O per lb Acetaldehyde

O.24c

pCI'

Ib

Acctaldehx~,~_

O,96 J~_e~~ ~el:Jld.ehyd 7__

O.60e per Ib Acewldehydc

OOO per lb
O.OO

Al'CIaldchy~e

155

$18,590,000

Venture Guidance Appraisal


Acetaldehyde Production. Acetic Acid $O.12/1b
April 9, 2002

Working Capital

Accounts Receivable:

30 da~s._ _ _ __ _ _$_4---',4_3_0,'0_00_1

$5,979,000
$229,684
$6,208,684
$12,562,684

156

:Cash Flows
14.
l:.;...

." "
f-pl'll ~1; 2002 ,

1-

"

it', gj

., .~

.,

,'"

~CJ

r-.'ri

-oJ

..),;
.

2002 ~.

2003

_ _DESIGN

aa

CONS TRUCTION

it T~o~ ~ _o.!!.... __~STRUCTION


J

df

2005 450

$21,928,000

$32'893'0001

.~~~:
2008

675

900'

2013

90.0

1 2014_. 90.0

~o ~ ,

($11,554,000)

II
~3.I

---- -- - -

$4 ~8~,000

$43,857,000

I,

2017 900

$43,857 ,000

,1

-.!43 ,857 ,000

900

'. 2021

~ -2022

$43,857,000

202~ _ 90.0 J

$43,857 ,000

90.0

<.'
,:

900-',
-

.~

~ ~~

($10,896,000)

($4,741,000)

($6,932,000)

($4,741,000)

($11,092 ,000)

A.'tJ
r-q,
~
0

.q,

,i

'-# ~
'b'

,..,

~_10,668,OOO

($265,000)

$ 17,323,000

(56,4 10,000)

$17.323 ,000
$17 ,323.000

1-_~S.6,410 , OOO)
($6 ,410,000)

$17,323,000

(56,410,000)

__ --'~OOO)

($4.741.000 )

___

=-=.
__

(521,793,000) .

($4.741 ,000)

(S21 ,793,000)

($4,741 ,000)

($21.793,000)_ ($4 ,741 ,000)

$12,563:9~?"

di

($3 ,947,000)
($4 ,932,000)

__ J!~~~~9~)

~17:.0~~:~0....

~_ ~17,323:OOO

ji,

~ T' ~

$6,291,000

($35,701,000)
($29,101,000)

$13,376,000 ..
$12,391,000

($22,451,000)
($17,094,000)

, ..

d
II

___ _~~~~~~0_0. 1.--$~~1.2~~

~.:e

L' I

".i

($12,436,000)

_." -.:;':

($8,627,000)

$10,913,000

($5 ,525,000)

- S10,91ioOo-U

$10,913,000

_...Jg~??.:~.C!.<:.2

$10,913,000 '

$ 10,9 13,000

($48 1,000)

_ _ $_1~5~

$10,913 ,C!.00

S10,913,OOO ~~~?~

,"

$10 , 913,0~~ _

$10,91?~ _ _~4.:.875 ,~

$10,913,000

$10,913,000

$6,216.000

$~:39~:.?C!.?

. $11 ,652,000

$10,913,000

.;

, -hi ~Il~- '

$11,543,000

L$.~,4:.0:~.~91. 1-_~~_0.:?~3,000 II_S10,g13:~

(56,410,000)

.~

'"

$451,000
$6'72. 1'.0 00 ..
$8,398,000

.'

($641,000)

$1"5,326,00~.. _~$5,67 1,OO~ _ _ ~9!!~_~~000 !

M.

'."

'f-J~

'-I.

'"

'. "',

1- ~-!~~?1 ~,OO~ ~~1 3.0?~ _ _~i;~~'2:00~ ~~::~~~~2'i]tl

($4.741,000)

$17 ,323:000

($6,410,000)

$10 ,913,000

$10.913.000

($21 ,793.000)

($4,741,000 )

$ 17,323,000

(56,4 10,000)

$10 ,9 13,000

($21,793,000)

($4,741 ,000)

($6,410,000)

$10,913,000

- $ 10,913,000
_.-

1 $17.323:000 ---($6,410.000)

$10,913,000

$10,9 13000

--S-;O,712,O'OO-

,'- J ..~t-"""i,1: :.~~.:

$ 10,913,000

$10,913,000

~~?_~?9~_

~.;.J>.-",,;,~q

_ ($21.793,000)

~.:~.!330,~~

__

.:'__ '1.

($21,793,000)

_($21 ,7~~,OOO)

_.

$13,330,000

<

($39,837,000)

$716,000

q,

.~

($24,117,000)

---($6.4. 10

,000)

($4,741 ,000)
($4,741 ,000)

q;.

~\.

r"~
....

($24,117,000)"

$1 7,3.23,0'00-

($21, ~

'tJ

<t.;

Of
0'tJ
~
'tJ
.::i

($24,117,000 )

="(S~~!.93:.000) _.. ($4,741,000)

. _J~21.79~,~"~?)

/I

L
,~l::

($11,554,000) ,
($21,601,000)

($6,410,000)

_.__

/1

}~

($11,554,000)11
($11,554.000)

$17,323.000

___. . _ _ _ _

;;

($11,554,000 )[1

($4.741,000)

. --==-

~ fI

.
(~ 1,554 ~<:.2fl

($641,000 )

'

. ' +~!t;

($11,554,000)
($11,554,000 )

($21,793,000)

($3,993,000)

."~~-;;.

~_._

($1,997,000) '

,i
"

q,
,
q,Q.

($16,344,000)

(521.793,000) ---($4,741,000)
t"-

$43,857,000

q,~

.-1' ~":""i-",-;w.I'r

/,

($4,741,000)

I I~

$43,857,000

900

0'"

,<f
,~
(j

.!!
0'"
(j

-- - -- -- ($22,793~()OO-) - ---($4,741.000) - -

'j

_.

.__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . ($21.793,000)

...... _ _ _ _ _

---.
$43,857 ,000

'i:j~i:i-l- .:1.1

Acid $0 1211h . ~I'"~'-'.

($6,655,000)
($3,993,000) :

~90 0 -$43,857"0~O ~~

2020 900

($4,741,000)
($4,741 ,000)

~r

$43,857 ,000 1_ _ _

'1_

H.

($21,793,000)

$43,857,000 ;
857 000

II

--(i12.563POOi

$43,857,000

2_01_6 190~ . _

2019

&

($11.554.000)

.2015, ~ _ ,~3:~!

2018

q,

.~

)i~O~ !!!!O )4_~'~~~'~iO_ ~------ -- - -

2()12.

t?

'"
~

.~

".
1<

q,

~~~!~~7.~.9~ ~::..~ ~-=- =-~-=-= ~?2:!93,000)

900
90,0

900

0'tJ

'tJ

i ~~~Q I"~ ,i__$~3~~_~:~0~


. 2011

t?

!Lj!.~!.~_~4,OOO)

2006

- ----- - - r-' -- - ---- -

Acetaldehvde

c.P
~

,L ~~:_ _~_
, ./

,,~v
(b~
~'(:s:

...
q,'tJ

"- .~

'

($4 ,741.000)

--

($4.741,000)

!
IL
.

$17,32.3,000

--_.

$17,323.000

($6,410,000)

$29,886,000

($11 ,058,000)

$18.828.000
----

$10,913 ,000

S10,045,OOO '

~,~38,gOO _' ___S 12,~62,OOO

...

'

.,

$9,278,000

1.

",'

.. r--;I;'lH;

158

Conclusions and Recommendations


We have developed a method to produce 100,000,000 pOlmds per year of acetaldehyde
'.

by the hydrogenation of acetic acid over a palladium-iron oxide catalyst, as described in the
patent filed by Eastman Chemical. The acetaldehyde is recovered by first absorbing it with an
acetic acid-rich solvent, then separating the acetaldehyde from water and acetic acid in a
distillation column. In order to attain high recovery of the low boiling (b.p.

70 OF)

acetaldehyde at the purity required for sale, the vapor distillate from the primary acetaldehyde
distillation column is fed to a smaller column with a condenser operating at 10 F that condenses
the acetaldehyde while allowing lighter gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and ethylene to
escape. Large amounts of both hydrogen and acetic acid can be recycled to the reactor in order
to minimize the amount of fresh feedstock that must be purchased. Ethyl acetate, which forms as
a by-product in the acetaldehyde distillation column can be purified and sold, generating
approximately 12 % of the sales revenue.
The profitability of this facility is very sensitive to the price of acetic acid. If the price of
acetic acid remains at its current level of $0.16/Ib , then this design would not be profitable and
should not be pursued. If the price of acetic acid decreases to $0.12 /Ib, there is an opportuni ty to
profit from manufacturing acetaldehyde by the process we have described. Further studies are
needed to project the market for acetaldehyde and whether we will be able to sell the
$100,000,000 pounds per year we produce. In addition, there should be a study to determine the
probable price of acetic acid in the near future. If acetic acid can be purchased as cheaply as
$0.12 /Ib and the market will support the introduction of 100,000,000 Ib/yr of acetaldehyde, then

we recommend implementing this process for the production of acetaldehyde.

159

160

Acknowledgements

We would like to express our appreciation to Prof. Leonard Fabiano, our advisor, Dr.
John Vohs, our faculty advisor, and Dr. Bruce Vrana, who gave us this problem, for helping us
and guiding us with this design project. We would also like to thank the following people who
also helped us with our design project:
Dr. Warren Seider
Mr. Miles Juilian
David Kolesar, Rohn & Haas
Dr. Frank Petrocelli, Air Products and Chemicals
Mr. Henry Sandler
Mr. John Wismer, Atochem North America
Dr. Rob Becker, Environex
Dr. Wen Hsieh
All Industrial Consultants
Fellow Students

161

Bibliography
Agreda, Victor and J.R. Zoeller Ed., Acetic Acid and its Derivatives, Marcel Dekker, New York

(1993).

Eastman Chemical product safety infonnation. http://www.eastman.com.

Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. Wiley, New York (1991).

Levenspiel, Octave. Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed., Wiley, New York, (1999).

McKetta, John J. Ed. Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design. Marcel Dekker, New

York (1997).

Perry, R.H. and D.W. Green, Ed., PeID's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 7th ed. McGraw-Hill,

New York (1997)

Peters, M.S. and K.D. Timmerhaus, Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers, 4th

ed., McGraw-Hill, New York (1991)

Seader, J.D. and EJ. Henley, Separation Process Principles, Wiley, New York (1998)

Seider, Warren D., J.D. Seader, and Daniel R. Lewin. Process DesignPrinciples,Wiley, New

York (1999).

Tustin, G.c., et a1. "Method for Producing Acetaldehyde from Acetic Acid." U.S. Patent No.

6,121,498.

Ullman's Encyclopedia ofIndustria1 Chemistry Online.

Ulrich, G.D., A Guide to Chemical Engineering Process Design and Economics, Wiley, New

York (1984)

Walas, S.M., Chemical Process Equipment, Buttersworth, London (1988)

162

91

SNOI.LV'ln:)'lY:) .LSO:) .LINn

:y XIUN:tIddV

164

Current CE

=405

C~002:= 405

CE I982 := 315

COMPRESSOR CP-410
Powernet := 443.8hp
Powernet = 330.942 kW

11 := 0.72

Power

Power:=
net

0.72

Power = 459.641 kW

From Cost Charts, Cp in 1982

= $280,000

C~002
C p := 280000--
CE 1982

C p = 3.6 x 10

Cp

= $360,000

F BM := 7.3

C BM := FBMC p

C BM = 2.628 x 10

C_BM = $2,628,000

DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-500


Use Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland Method to determind stages, reflux ratio .
Fenske method for minimum stages:

165

d1

=moles of light key (acetaldehyde) in distillate

d
moles of heavy key (water) in distillate

b
j

=moles of heavy key (water) in bottoms

bi

=moles of light key (acetaldehyde) in bottoms

=relative

volatility of light key and heavy key at average temperature

d j := 291.3229

b'=
J . 1113
b i := 0.21 7

a := 2

j
IOg(di . b ;

dJ bI

Nmjn := -J"O"og....::,(a-)~

Nmin = 19.737

Underwood method to find minimum stages

dj
i
_ d - afeed(
_ Xj.feed
l).feed
Lmin - ....0.-_ _ _ _ _- - " - _ - "
afeed - I

Xj .feed := .112

l) .feed := 0.423

166

To find relative volatility of the feed, use the geometric mean of the relative volatilities on
equilbrium stages 27 and 28.

CX

feed := (3 13) 2

CX feed

= 6.245

d,I
dJ
- - - cxfeed'-
xi.feed
l).feed

Lmin :=

cxfeed - 1

Lmin = 491.106

= moles of distillate

D:= 304 .8

Lmin = 1.611

o
Rmin

:= 1.61 I

R:= 1.3R min

R = 2.094

At 1.3 times the minimum reflux ratio, the actual number of required stages can be
determined by the Gilliland Correlation.

R - Rmin
X:=

R+I

X=0.156

y=

N - Nmin

N+ I

y.= I - exp

1 + 54.4 X ) .[X
---I
[( I 1+ 117.2X
XO.5

J]

167

Y = 0.499
Y + Nmin
N := - - -
1-Y

N = 40.422
The actual conditions used in the simulation was a reflux ratio of 2.40, with 40 equilibrium stages.

SIZING AND COSTING DISTILLATION COLUMNS

These calculations were done using Excel spreadsheets. The following explanation outlines
the equations and assumptions used in performing the calculations.
As a first step to finding the dimensions of the column tower, the flow parameter (FP) was
calculated from the values of the liquid and vapor flow rates in the top stage of the column and
the liquid and vapor densities which we got from the Aspen simulation of our process.
Additionally, the surface tension of the liquid gives us the flooding velocity. We assumed a tray
spacing of 24 inches (61 Omm) Using the known variables for the vapor flow rate, flooding velocity
and the density of the vapor phase, the diameter of the column was determined from the
following equation :

Where:
D = Tower diameter

V = Vapor mass flow rate

p = Density

U = Velocity = 85% of flooding velocity

Ib
V:= 151800

hr

1b

P v := 0.464

ft3

U:= 1.16

D = 10.3ft

Since towers are fabricated in increments of 0.5 ft., the calculated diameter of 10.3 ft.
is rounded up to 10.5 ft.

168

The tower height was computed by multiplying the number of trays with the tray
spacing and allowing a 10-ft high bottoms sump below the bottoms tray and a 4-ft
disengagement height above the top tray. All other distillation columns are computed
similarly. The absorber does not have either of the additional heights because there
is no condenser or reboiler. The stripper does not have a reboiler, and thus there is
no need for a 10-ft. bottoms sump.
The bare module cost of the tower is estimated from the following equation:

CBM = I 780L o 87. D I.23.[ (2.S6) + l.694.F


Where,

L
D
FM
P

(1O.01 -7.40Sln(P) + l.395.ln(p)2)]

=tower height in meters

=tower diameter in meters

= material factor = 4.0 for stainless steel

=design pressure in barg

This equation holds for operating pressure> 7 barg. For lower pressure, the pressure
factor is approximately 1.
The bare module cost of the trays are estimated from the following equation :

C BM = [(193 .04) + 22 .720 + 60.3S.D2].FBMoNofq


Where,

D Tower diameter in meters

FBM = Material factor for trays

N = actual number of trays

fq =Tray frequency factor

The actual number of trays is computed by dividing the number of equilibrium stages
used in the simulation by the tray efficiency. The O'Connell Correllation is used to find the
tray efficiency for distillation columns (Seader and Henley):

Eo

=0.503.(aopf 00226

For the absorber and stripper, the tray efficiency is calculated as follows:

Log(Eo)

= 1.597 -

L L
00199010g KMLO
PL /lLJ - 0.0896 ((KM
log
PL'/l JJ2
(

Where

= relative volatility of key components

/l

=viscosity of liquid

169

=K-value of species being absorbed or stripped

PL
ML

=density of the liquid


=molecular weight of the liquid

For the reflux accumulator, the total liquid (reflux + distillate) flow rate leaving the
accumulator = the vapor flow rate from the top tray. The accumulator volume is calculated
using the following equation :

Accumulator volume (V)

=(Volumetric flow rate)(residence time)

The diameter is then determined from the volume. Assuming a cylindrical vessel with
aspect ratio of 4,

The length can then be found from the Length/Diameter ratio, and figure 9.3 (a) of
Seider, Seader, and Lewin can be used to estimate the cost.
The following pages summarize the calculations of the cost for the various columns.
The reboilers and condensers were priced separately using B-JAC because it is more
rigorous and precise.

170

ACETALDEHYDE DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-510

Input
Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lb/ft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

Vapor
143500
83.60459256

51950
0.464469959

34 n/a

Trays and tower


Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

1.6
4
40
0 .564554408
70.85233851
71
610 TS (ft)
1
2

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)
Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D = 4)
Length
Rounded diameter (ft)
Rounded length (ft)
Fm
Fp
Fbm
Cp
Cbm

685
11 .41666667
114.1666667
3.312298574
13.2491943
1.06707317
3.5 meters
3.04878049
10 meters
4
1.1
8.004210526 Current Price
4000
$5,192
32016.84211
$41,560

Calculations
Bare module cost of tower
Purchased Cost

Current Price
753757.9552
$978,436
75566.2224
$98,091

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85% of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Diameter (ft)
Rounded Tower Diameter (ft)
Heigh of tower (ft)

1.111961586
0.205887555
0.080473439
0.089483373
1.197205939
1.017625048
1.223823297
4.014140413
4.5
157.0303831

Bare Module Cost of trays


Purchased Cost

27023.83808
337.797976

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost

$780,781.79
$1,013,515
$75,904 .02 _ _
$98,529
171

Current Cost
$35,079
$438

viscosity
alpha

0.3
2

ACETIC ACID DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-610

Input

I
Vapor

Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lb/ft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

210500
80.63198482

151800
0.464469959

34 n/a

Tra~s

and tower
Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

5
4
18
0.614443808
29.29478624
30
610 TS (ft)
1
2

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)
Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D =4)
Length
Rounded diameter (ft)
Rounded length (ft)
Fm
Fp
Fbm
Cp
Cbm

2243
37.38333333
373.8333333
4.918609886
19.67443954
5 meters
20 meters
4
1.1
8.004210526 Current Price
9000
$11 ,683
72037.89474
$93,511

Calculations

viscosity
alpha

Bare module cost of tower


Purchased Cost of Tower

Current Price
$1,449,963
1117008.686
111983.0659
$145,363

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85% of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Diameter (ft)
Rounded Tower Diameter (ft)

1.111961586
0.105245968
0.093182831
0.103615728
1.361275663
1.157084313
3.145051187
10.31576789
10.5

Bare Module Cost of trays


Purchased Cost of Trays

31831.73264
884.2147955

$41,320
$1,148

$1,148,840.42
$112,867.28

$1,491,283
$146,510

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost

172

1.65
0.25

1.52439024
6.09756098

ACETONE DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-810

Input
Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lb/ft"3)
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

Vapor

2324
1858

0.371575967
74.31519339
32 n/a

Tra~s

and tower
Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

1.6

11
0.607967721
18.09306583
19
610 TS (ft)
1
2

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)
Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D = 4)
Length
Rounded diameter (ft)
Rounded length (ft)
Fm
Fp
Fbm
Cp
Cbm

40
0.666666667
6.666666667
1.285047805
5.140191221
0.457317

1.5 meters
1.676829
5.5
meters
4
1.1
8.004210526 Current Price
$2,207

1700
$17,663
13607.15789

Calculations

viscosity
alpha

Bare module cost of tower


Purchased Cost

Current Price

$97,404
75037 .31296

$9,765
7522 .688471

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85% of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Diameter (ft)
Rounded Tower Diameter (ft)
Rounded Diameter (m)
Height of tower (ft)

1.098560543
0.056532031
0.100927522
0.110874993
1.564084258
1.32947162
0.052382717
0.1 71 81 5311
1.5
0.45720556
52

Bare Module Cost of trays


Purchased Cost

Current Price

$6,170

4753 .085915

$280
216.0493598

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost
-

$79,790.40
$7,738.74

173

0.262
1.65

$103,574

$10,045


NEAR AZEOTROPE DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-900

Input
Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)

Density (lb/ft"3)

Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

Vapor

20350

0.464469959

21700
79.33146894
16 n/a

Trays and tower


Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower

Number of Equilibrium Stages


Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

1.2

4
12
0.60247906
19.91770469
20
610 TS (ft)
1
2

Reflux Accumulator

top stage vol (ft"3/hr)

Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)


Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D =4)
Length

Rounded diameter (ft)

Rounded length (ft)

Fm
Fp
Fbm

Cp
Cbm

150
2.5
25
1.996471156

7.985884624

2 meters
8 meters
4
1.1

8.004210526 Current
$2,726
2100
$21,819
16808.84211

Calculations

viscosity
alpha

Current Price

$143,388

$14,375

Bare module cost of tower

Purchased Cost

110461.6642
11074.07308

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter

Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)


C

Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)

U (85% of Uf)

Diameter (m)

Diameter (ft)

Rounded Tower Diameter (ft)

Height of tower (ft)

0.9563525

0.081592715
0.096763678

0.092540186

1.205866443

1.024986476

0.475956465

1.561137206

54

Current Cost

$7,144

5503.89044
$298
229.3287683

Bare Module Cost of trays

Purchased Cost

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost

$115,965.55
$11,303.40
174

0 .3
1.5

$150,532

$14,673

0.609756

2.439024

ETHYL ACETATE DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-910

Input
Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lb/ft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tens ion (dyne/cm)
Trays and tower
Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

Vapor

3222
86 .39141231

2789
0.46446996

V
36814
930

73444
5

17 n/a

1.6
4
23
0 .515120908
44 .6497116
45
610 TS (ft)
1
2

viscosity
alpha

0.3
3 viscosity
alpha

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)
Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D = 4)
Length
Rounded diameter (ft)
Rounded length (ft)
Fm
Fp
Fbm
Cp
Cbm

38
0 .633333333
6 .333333333
1.263263126
5.053052502
0.457317
1.5 meters
5.5 meters
1.676829
4
1.1
8.004210526 Current Price
1700
$2,207
13607.15789
$17,663

Calculations

Current Price
$417,581
$41,864

Bare module cost of tower


Purchased Cost

321692 .0029
32250.47148

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85 % of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Diameter (ft)
Rounded Tower Diameter (tt)
Bare Module Cost of trays
Purchased
Cost
,

0 .968018785
0 .084707244
0.09627479
0 .093195805
1.2676
1.07746
0 .06205379
0.203536431
3 Higher because .2 ft is too small, and want aspect
ratio <-30
Current Pages
12157.89285
$15,782
$343
264 .3020185

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost

$333,849 .90
$32,514 .77

I
I

$433,363
$42,207
175

0 .3
3

STRIPPER ST -800

Input

Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lblft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

Vapor

14550
83 .60459256

7637
0.33441837

60 n/a

Trays and tower


Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Rounded number of Trays
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

0 .8
4
4
0.348058807
11 .49231085
12
610 TS (ft)
1.3
2

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)
Accumulator Volume (ft"3)
Diameter (L to D = 4)
Length
Rounded diameter (ft)
Rounded length (ft)
Fm
Fp
Fbm
Cp
Cbm

53
0.883333333
8.833333333
1.41142534
5.645701361
1.5 meters
6 meters
4
1
7.424736842 Current Price
2,337
1800
13364.52632
17,348

Calculations

I,:

Bare module cost of tower


Purchased Cost

219579.8593
2666.115202

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flloding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85% of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Diameter (ft)
Rounded off Tower diameter (ft.)
Height of tower (ft)

1.24573094
0.120495325
0 .091018966
0.113385142
1.789187361
1 .520809257
0.167200087
0.548556716
1
28

Bare Module Cost of trays


Purchased Cost

2137.975232
205 .5745416

Current Cost
2,775
267

$221,717 .83
$2,871 .69

287,807
3,728

Bare Module Trays + Tower


Purchased Cost

176

285,032
3,461

K
Molar Mas
viscosity, cP
density of liq, Ib/cuft
Kmmu/rho
2

0.457317073
1 .829268293

10
30 .23
0.5
85
1.778235

ABSORBER AB-320

Iii1:J/;j

Input

Liquid
Flow rate (Ib/hr)
Density (lb/ft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)
Trays and tower
Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower
Number of Equilibrium Stages
Efficiency
Number of Trays
Rounded number of Trays
Tray spacing (mm)
Tray frequency factor
Material factor for trays

Calculations

Vapor

105300
86.984076

23160
0.33441837

31.839 n/a
K
Molar Mas
viscosity, cP
density of liq, Ib/cuft
Kmmu/rho

15
4
15
0.50726453
29.57037
30
610 TS (ft)
1
2

0.475
40
0 .5
85
0.111764706

Bare module cost of tower


Purchased Cost

82886.3851
20349.1044

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter
Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)
C
Flloding velocity/Uf (m/s)
U (85% of Uf)
Diameter (m)
Rounded off Tower diameter
Height of tower (m)

1.09745289
0.28191293
0.07273938
0.07982805
1.28497261
1.09222672
0 .70601546
0.8
22 .5552

Current Price
$107,593
$26,415

2.31631672 ft
0.7620023
74 ft

2.5

Current Price
Bare Module Cost of trays
Purchased Cost
Bare Module Trays + Tower
Purchased
Cost
--
-

$9'73~1

7495.776
249.8592
$90,382.16
$20,598.96

$324

$117,323
$26,~9

177

REFRIGERATED ACETALDEHYDE RECOVERY DC-510

Input
Vapor

Liquid
2429
69.6704938

Flow rate (Ib/hr)

Density (lb/ft"3)
Molecular weight
Surface tension (dyne/cm)

2848
0 .343707769

19 n/a

Trays and tower


Design pressure in barg
Material factor for tower

Number of Equilibrium Stages


Efficiency
Number of Trays
Actual Trays (rounded to whole)

Tray spacing (mm)

Tray frequency factor

Material factor for trays

1.2

4
2
0.259184073
7.716523525

610 TS (ft)
1.9

Reflux Accumulator
top stage vol (ft"3/hr)
Vol. flow rate (ft"3/min)

Accumulator Volume (ft"3)


Diameter (L to D = 4)

Length

Rounded diameter (ft)

Rounded length (ft)

Fm
Fp
Fbm

Cp
Cbm

40

0.666666667
6.666666667

1.285047805

5.140191221

1.5 meters
5.5 meters
4
1.1

8.004210526 Current Price


$2 ,077
1600
$16,624
12806.73684

Calculations

viscosity
alpha

Bare module cost of tower

Purchased Cost of Tower

Current Price

$60,360
46499.66847
$6,051
4661.714367

Surface tension factor/Fst


Flow parameter

Flooding capacity factor/Cf (m/s)


C

Flooding velocity/Uf (m/s)


U (85% of Uf)

Diameter (m)

Diameter (ft)

Rounded Tower Diameter (ft)


Height of tower (ft)

0.989793782

0.059904267
0.1 00340717

0.099316617
1.410515226

1 .198937942

0.076954233

0.252409884
1.5

30

Bare Module Cost of trays


Purchased Cost

1641 .975134
216 .0493598

Bare Module Trays + Tower

IPurchased Cost

$48,141 .64
$4,877.76
178

0.188
100

$2,131

$193
$62,492
$6,332

0.457317

1.676829

DECANTER DE-720
Horizontal Cylindrical Process Vessel
Necessary Volume: 10 minute holding time at half-full

ft3
Flow := 643

hr

V:= Flow(lOmin)2

v=

214 .333 ft3

=3

Assume UD
2

n D L

V=-
4
3

nD 3

V=-
4
I

D:= (4.V) 3
3 n

D = 4.497ft

Round up to nearest 0.5 ft

D:= 4.5ft
L:= 3D
L = 13.5ft

L=4.115m
D=1.372m

179

From cost chart, Cp in 1982 is $7,000

C~002
Cp := 7000- -

CE I982

9 x 10

Cp

Cp

= $9,000

Pressure Factor:
Fp:= I

Material Factor:

FM := 4.0

Based on chart, Bare Module factor is determined

C BM = 6.3x 10

FIRED HEATER F-230

Costs are from Walas, using CE index of 325


CE l985 := 325

Q is heat duty in Million Btu/hr

In Aspen:

Qca 1c:= 12.692

Estimate a stack temperature of 670 F. Using a table found in McKetta. find the efficiency.
efficiency:= 0 .83

Ocalc

Q:=--

efficiency

Q= 15.292

180

Use Q

=20 MMBtu/hr for design

Q:= 20

k is material factor
k:= 42

Design Factor
fd := 0

Pressure factor
f p .=
. 0

Installed Cost for cylindrical fired heater:


C 1nsta \led.1985 := JOOO.k(1 + fd + f p ).QO.S2

Clnstalled:= JOOO.k(J + fd + f ).QO.82.


p

Clnstalled = 6.1 05 x 10

C_lnstalled

C~002

CE J985

= $610,500

Estimate bare module cost and purchase costs using table based on estimates for
bare module costs as a function of purchased cost found in Seider (343)

C p :=

ClnstaJled

2.34

C p = 2.609 x 10

Cp = $260,900

CBM := 3.18C p
C

BM = 8.296 x 105

C_BM = $829,600

181

FLASH VESSEL (FV-310)

Estimate volume required by using a holdup time of 5 minutes at half full.


ft3
flowrate:= 101146
hr
V := flowrate(5 min) 2
4 3
V = 1.686 x 10ft

Because required volume will be large, in order to limit the size of the radius, so that it can be
transported directly, instead of fabricating it on site, an aspect ratio of 4.5 is selected.
I
2
-nD L
4

=V

1
2
.
-n D (4.5-D)
4

D '=

=V

4.Y ) 3
-
( 4.5-n

D = 16.833 ft

Round up the diameter to the nearest half-foot:

D:=17 ft
L:= 4.5D

L = 76.5 ft

In order to use the cost charts, length and diameter must be in meters.
D=5.182m

L = 23.317m

The length of 5.182 m is beyond the cost chart's range, but we will extrapolate based on the
lines that are present

C~002
C p := 150000 - -
CE 1982
C p = 1.929 x 10

Cp = $192,900

182

Pressure Factor
Fp:== 1

Material Factor
FM :== 4 .0

Bare Module Factor


FSM :== 9.5
C BM :== FBMC p

C BM == 1.832 x 10

C_BM

=$1,832,000

ACETIC ACID HEAT EXCHANGER HX-200


Compare cost estimated using B-JAC with estimates from cost chart. Surface area
calculated using B-JAC is used because it is more accurate than the area from the
Aspen results.
2
SA :== 8343.ft

SA == 775 .09m

From cost chart, for shell and tube heat exchangers:

CE2002

C p :== 40000 CE

I982

C p == 5.143 x 10

Cp = $51,430
Pressure factor at 15 barg:
Fp:== 1.05

Material factor for stainless steel

FM := 3.0

FpFM == 3.15

FSM := 6

183

C BM := 651430
C BM

= 3.086 x

10

C_BM = $308,600
Using B-JAC, the estimated purchase cost was $83,255.
Bare-Module cost estimate was $265,000
The prices are comparable, but the bare module cost estimated from B-JAC (and used for
calculating the total cost) is 14% lower than the bare module cost using cost charts.

ACETIC ACID PUMP P-110


Power required is the output divided by the efficiency. The efficiency is estimated

by Aspen .

Powernet := 13hp
Powernet = 9.694 kW

YJ := 0.52

Powernet

Power:= - -
YJ

Power = 18.642 kW

Power = 25hp

C~002
C p := 9000 - -

CE 1982

C p =1.157 x l0

Cp = $11,570
Material Factor

FM := 1.9
Pressure Factor

Fp:= 1.1

184

C BM := FBMCp

C BM

= 5.786 x

10

C_BM = 57,860
Power requirement for this pump can also be calculated by hand, without using the
Aspen results.
This can be done using the following equation , found on p. 804 in Seider, Seader, and Lewin.

(gpm)(psidifference)
hpower = ...:='---'....:..:....----'
(1714)( efficiency)
ft3

gpm:= 719.6

hr

gpm = 89.716 gal

min

psi difference := 263psi - 14.7psi

psidifference = 248.3 psi

efficiency:= 0.52

efficiency used is the value used by the Aspen simulation

(89 .7)(248.3)

hpower:= (1714)(0.52)

hpower = 24.989

The power requirement of 25 hp used for the calculations agrees well with this result.

ABSORBER SOLVENT PUMP P-540

Powernet := 15.6hp
Powernet = 11.633 kW
11 := 0.57

Powernet

Power:= - - -
11
Power = 20.409 kW

CE 2002

C p := 9000--

CE I982

185

C p = U57 x 10

Cp=$11,570

Fp:= 1.1

4
CBM = 5.786 x 10

C_BM

= $57,860

ACETIC ACID PUMP P-600

Powernet := 2.49 bp
Powernet

= 1.857 kW

0.485
Powernet
Power := - -

1'] :=

1']

Power = 3.828kW

C~002

C p := 4800--
CE I982
C p = 6.171 x 10

Cp = $6,171

4
CBM = 3.086 x 10

186

ETHYL ACETATE PUMP P-620

Powernet := 1.83hp

Powernet = 1.365 kW

:= 0.44

Power

Power :=
net

T]

T]

Power=3 .10IkW
CE2002

C p := 4500- -

CE I982

C p = 5.786 x 10

Cp = $5,786

C mV1 := FBMC p

C BM = 2.893 x 10

C_BM = $28,930
RECYCLE PUMP P-730

Powernet := 0.11 hp
0.30

Powernet

Power :=

11

T] :=

Power = 0.273 kW
CE2002
C p := 2000- -
CE I982
C p = 2.571 x 10

Cp = $2,571
C BM := Cp-FBM

C BrvI

= 1.286 x

10

4
187

THE REFLUX AND REBOILER PUMPS WERE NOT SIZED USING ASPEN. THE
POWER REPORTED IS TAKEN TO BE THE TOTAL INPUT REQUIREMENT (CONSIDERS
EFFICIENCY)
ACETALDEHYDE DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER PUMP PB-SOO
Power:= 7.46kW

C~002
C p := 2800- -
.
CE
I982
C p =3 .6 x 10

Cp

=$3,600

C BM = 1.8 x 10

ACETIC ACID DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER PUMP PB-610


Power:= Il .2kW

C~002
C p := 7000--
CE I982
C p = 9 x 10

Cp = $9,000

C BM = 4.5 x 10

ACETONE DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER PUMP PB-810


Power := 0.097kW
188

C p := 1700. CI1002
CE I982

= 2.186 x

Cp

10

Cp = $2,186
C BM := FBMC p

C BM = 1.093 x 10

C_BM

= $10,930

NEAR AZEOTROPE DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER PUMP PB-900


Power:= O.37 kW
C := 2200. CI1002

p
CE I982

Cp

= 2.829 x

Cp

= $2,829

10

C BM := FBMC p

~M = 1.414 x
C_BM

10

= $14,140

ETHYL ACETATE DISTILLATION COLUMN REBOILER PUMP PB-910


Power:= 0.30kW

C := 2J 00 . CI1002

p
CE I982

C p = 2.7 x 10

Cp

= $2,700

C BM := FBMC p

C BM = 1.35

10

189

ACETALDEHYDE REFLUX PUMP PR-500

Power:= 1.49kW

C~002
C p := 3300- -

CE 1982

C p = 4.243 x 10
Cp

= $4,243

C BM

2.121 x 10

ACETALDEHYDE CONDENSER REFLUX PUMP PR-510

Power := 0.25kW

C~002
C p := 2000 - -
CE 1982
C p = 2.571 x 10
Cp

= $2,571

C BM

1.286 x 10

ACETIC ACID DISTILLATION COLUMN REFLUX PUMP PR-610

Power:= 5.6kW

190

C := 5500. CE:2002

p
CE I982

C p = 7.071 x 10

Cp = $7,071

C BM := FBMCp

CBM = 3.536 x 10

C_BM

= $35,360

STRIPPER REFLUX PUMP PR-800

Power:= 0.25kW

C~002

C := 2000.
p

Cp = 2.571

CE I982

10

Cp = $2,571

C BM := FBMC p

CBM = 1.286 x 10
C_BM = $12,860
ACETONE DISITLLATION COLUMN REXLUX PUMP PR810

Power:= 0.097kW

CE 2002

C p := 1600--

CE 1982

C p = 2.057 x 10

Cp = $2,057

CBM := FBMC p

191

Cp

= $2,057

C BM = 1.029 x 10

NEAR AZEOTROPE DISTILLATION COLUMN REFLUX PUMP PR-900

Power:= 1.l2kW

C~002
C p := 3100--
CE l982
Cp

= 3.986 x J 0

Cp

= $3,986

C BM

= 1.993 x 10

ETHYL ACETATE DISTILLATION COLUMN REFLUX PUMP PR-910

Power := 0.097kW
C~002
C p := 1600--

CE 1982

C p = 2.057 x ]0
Cp

= $2,057

C BM = 1.029 x 10

192

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM RF-520


The cost calculations are based on table 20.2 in Walas.
The amount of cooling required for the condenser C-520 is 613,000 Btu/hr. Assuming 33% of
cooling is lost to "heat leak" 900,000 Btu/hr of cooling is required of the refrigeration system .

Q := 0.9 MM Btu/hr
Temperature factor for refrigeration at -20 C

F:= 2.10
Cinstalled:= 1000.146.f.QO.65.

C~002

CE 1985

Cinstalled = 3.568 x J 0

Since it is unclear what is included in the purchase cost of the refrigeration system, in finding
the total cost of equipment, we assume an installed price of $500,000 to ensure that all pumps,
tanks, and the glycol solution are accounted for.

REACTOR RX-240
Amount of catalyst required is determined by the space velocity.
GHSV

= vreactants
Vcatalyst

GHSV:= 2600.hr- J

ft3
reactants:= 224307
hr

Vcatalyst:=

Vreactants
GHSV

Vcatalyst = 86.272 ft3

Take the diameter of the reactor to be 4 ft., and find the required height of the catalyst bed .
Vcatalyst = (

~ }11' D2. h

D := 4.ft
V
h := 4 . catalyst

11D

193

h = 6.865 ft

Additional reactor height is needed for the following:

Footer: 6 ft.

Catalyst Support: 0.5 ft.

Distributor: 0.5 ft.

Header: 3.0 ft.

Total is 10.0 ft. of additional space


Total length:
L:= h + lOft

L = 16.865 ft

Round this up :
L :=17ft

= 4.25

This is a reasonable aspect ratio; the diameter does not need to be re-evaluated.
To estimate costs using cost charts. the dimensions must be in meters:
L = 5.182m
D= l.219m

For a vertical process vessel:

C~002

C p := 13000- -

CE 1982

C p = 1.671 x 10

Cp = $16,710
Stainless Steel Reactor:

F M := 4.0

Pressure is 16 barg

Fp := 2.0

F BM := 16

194

C BM := FBMC p

C BM = 2.674 x J0

C_BM = $267,400

CATALYST COSTS

Assume density of catalyst:


p :=

42.~

ft3

Weight of catalyst required:


Weightcatalyst := p .Vcatalyst

Weightcatalyst

= 3.623 x

J03 1b

Unit price of catalyst is $1650/Ib :

1650

Costcatalyst := - -

Ib

COS~otal := Costcatalysf Weightcatalyst

COS~otal =
Cost

5.979 x 10

= $5,979,000

Catalyst Replacement Costs

Estimate that catalyst must be replaced every 5 years, budget 20% replacement per year
900
Salvage:= Ib
Replacecos ts := 0.2 Weightcatalysd Costcatalysl - Salvage)
Replacecosts = 5.435 x 10

Replacement = $543,500Iyr

195

ACETIC ACID HOLDING TANK T-1


Use 1-day supply of acetic acid, since facility is located on the site of major chemical manufacturer
ft3

vACOH := 320

hr
time := 24 hr

V := v ACOH" time

V = 217.473m

Use cubic meters, because those are the units required for cost chart.
C~002
C p := 20000

CE l982

Cp

= 2.571

Cp

=$25,710

x 10

FBM := 4 .5

C BM = l.l5 7 x 10

C_BM = $115,700
ACETIC ACID BOTTOMS RECYCLE (5-103) HOLDING TANK T-2
Need 12 hour supply of S-103.
ft3

v:= 401.4-

hr

t :=

12hr

V: = vt

V = 136.397m

C~002
C p := 9000

CE I982

C P = 1.157 x 10

Cp

=$11,570
196

C BM := FBMC p

CBM = 5.207 x 10
C_BM = $52,070

ACETIC ACID HOLDING TANK (T-3)


Need 12-hour supply of stream S-102
ft3

v:= 7.542

hr

V:= v 1

v=

2.56 3m

CEz002

C p := 1200- -

CE 1982

C p = 1.543

Cp

10

= $1,543

CBM := FBMCp
CBM = 6.943

10

C_BM = $6,943

ETHYL ACETATE PRODUCT STOARAGE TANK T-4


Require a 14-day supply of the ethyl acetate product.
1 :=
1=

1424h
336 h
ft3

v:= 21.753

V:= v1

= 206.968 m

C := 20000. CEz002
p
CE 1982
C p = 2.571 x 10

Cp

= $25,710
197

CBM = 1.157 x 10

C_BM = $115,700
ACETALDEHYDE PRODUCT STORAGE TANK (T-5)
Must hold a 14-day supply of the combined acetaldehyde products
ft3
ft3
v := 221.854- + 52.593
hr
hr
ft3
v = 274.447

hr

t := 1424hr
V:= vt
3

V =2 .61I x 10 m

CE:2002
C p := 52000 - -
CE 1982
C p = 6.686 x 10
Cp

= $66,860

This tank must be refrigerated in order to keep the temperature of acetaldehyde below 60 F.
Assume that this doubles the bare module cost.

CBM = 6.0 17 x 10

C_BM = $601 ,700

ACETALDEHYDE DISTILLATION COLUMN DC-500 FEED STORAGE TANK (T-6)


This tank must hold 12 hours of S-501, the feed to the acetaldehyde distillation column .
t := 12 hr
ft 3

v:= 181 0.42

hr

198

V:= v!

V=615.1 85 m

C := 22000. CE:z002

p
CE 1982

C p = 2.829 x 10

Cp = $28,290

C BM := FBMC p

C BM

= 1.273 x

10

C_BM = $127,300
STORAGE TANK FOR BOTTOMS OF ACETALDEHYDE DISTILLATION COLUMN (T-7)
This tank must hold a 12-hour supply of the acetaldehyde distillation column's bottoms, stream
S-506.
ft3

v:= 1699.945

hr

V := v!
3
V = 577.645 m

C := 20000. C"E:z002

p
CE I982

Cp = 2.571
Cp

x 10

= $25,710

C BM := FBM C p

C BM = 1.157 x 10

C_BM = $115,700

199

200

lOZ

SNOILV'lil:)'lV:) ISO:) XII'lIIil

:gXION3ddV

202

UTILITY COST ESTIMATES


COOLING WATER
Required cooling water is 385,000 gal/hr. Annual cost is determined considering a cost of
$0.33/1000gal, and operation at 7920 hr/yr.

cw:= 385000

total

cw

gal
hr

:= cwo 7920 hr . .00033

yr
gal

6 - I
total cw = 1.006 x 10 yr

Annual Cost = $1 ,006,000/yr


Find cost if allocated facility is built instead:

According to Table 9.4 in Seider, Seader, and Lewin, the cost is $58/gpm

This book also lists the cooling water cost as $0.05/1 OOOgal, which is considerably

less expensive than our estimate. Thus, assume the allocated cost is $300/gpm.

3 gaJ
cw = 6.417 x 10
mm

Cost:= 6417300

Cost = 1.925 x 10
Allocated Cost

=$1,925,000

It appears to be very beneficial to pay this amount as an allocated cost instead of the annual
cooling water utility.

203

STEAM COSTS

35 psig steam :
Ib

F35 := 2898

hr

.00246
lb

'=-

35'

-I

C 35 = 7.129hr

75 psig steam:
lb

F75 := 16703
hr
-I

c75 := .002551b

C 75 = 42 .593 hr

-I

600 psig steam :

lb
F600 := 29636
hr
.0028
c600:= -
lb

C 600 = 82 .981 hr

C tot = 132 .703 hr

-I

-I

Cannual = l.051 x 10

204

C_annual

=$1,051 ,00/yr

Find Cost for allocated plant.

Cost for steam is allocated facility is $50 per pound per hour

Ib

SteaTTtot := 49238

hr

c:= -

50

Jb

hr
C alloc := SteaTTto(c
CalJoc = 2.462 x 10

C_alloc

= $2,462,000

If generating the initial capital is not a concern, it appears to be more profitable to build an
allocated steam plant.

205

206

LOZ

S.LIflS:[}I Sflld N3:dSdV

:3 XIGN3:ddV

208

VESSELS
ITEM: AB-320

BLOCK:

ABSORBER MODEL: RADFRAC

- SOLVENT
ABSFEED
OUTLETS - RECYCLE
RECOVERY
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
INLETS

STAGE
1
STAGE 15
STAGE
1
STAGE 15
NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

5524.62
85747.6
-0.282589E+09

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

5524.62
85747.6
-0.282590E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.339413E-15
0.176865E-05

**********************

INPUT DATA

****

****

**********************

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO . OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE
COL-SPECS

****

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST


CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY
PROFILES

****

P-SPEC

1.00000
0.0
0.0

BTU/HR
BTU/HR

****

STAGE

PRES, PSI

233.500

*******************

****

RESULTS

****

*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
RECYCLE
COMPONENT:
HYDROGEN
C02

METHANE
ETHYLENE

15
STANDARD
YES
STANDARD
NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

1.0000
.97692
.98156
.96964

RECOVERY
.33439E-05
.23077E-01
.18437E-01
.30358E-01

209

VESSELS
ITEM: AB-320 (CONTINUED)
***
COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS

-------------RECYCLE
COMPONENT:
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

***

RECOVERY

.96448
.92922E-01
.31952
.31643
.12114
.68472E-01
.33743E-01

.35519E-01
.90708
.68048
.68357
.87886
.93153
.96626

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY

***

LBMOL / HR
LBMOL / HR
LBMOL / HR
LBMOL/HR
BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

****

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE

****

PROFILES

159.440
126 .39 1
1,560.49
1,627.95
3,896.66
3,950 .83
0.0
0.0

F
F

****

0.20933E-03
0 . 51743E-03
0 . 25660E-15
0 . 35640E-05

STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=

8
4
2 COMP=ETHYLACE
1

****

**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW .
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

STAGE TEMPERATURE

1
2
14
15
STAGE

1
2
14
15

PRESSURE
PSI

159.44
157.76
133.17
126.39

233.50
233.60
234.80
234.90

FLOW RATE
LBMOL /HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
3897 .
1560.
3907.
1564.
3940.
1604.
1628.
3951.

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR
-0.15764E+06
-0.15731E+06
-0.15377E+06
-0.15223E+06

LIQUID
1550.0000

FEED RATE
LBMOL /HR
VAPOR

-8922.0
-9046.4
-9031.9
-9118.6

MIXED

3974.6166

210

HEAT DUTY
BTU / HR

PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
3896 " 6629

1627.9537

VESSELS
ITEM: AB-320 (CONTINUED)
**** MASS FLOW PROFILES
FLOW RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
O.6269E+05 0.1988E+05
0.6286E+05 O.2029E+05
0.6478E+05 0.2186E+05
0.6587E+05 0.2238E+05

****

STAGE

1
2
14
15

LIQUID
.62278+05

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

.23470+05

MOLE-X-PROFILE
METHANE
CO2
0 . 11598E-02
0.71186E-03
O. 11960E- 02
0.73350E-03
0 . 15743E-02
0.99416E-03
0.17162E-02
0.10895E-02

****

STAGE
1
2
14
15

HYDROGEN
0.60809E-05
0.61050E-05
0.68827E-05
0.72221E-05

PRODUCT RATE

LB/HR

LIQUID
VAPOR
.19877+05

. 65871+05

****
ETHYLENE
0.40053E-03
0.41622E-03
0.53756E-03
0.59411E-03

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
0.85172E-02
0.19824E-Ol
0.15239E-02
0 . 83450E-02
0.19430E-Ol
o .15056E-02
0.13473E-02
0.65621E-02
0.15246E-Ol
0.65127E-02
0.13831E-Ol
0.16901E-02

ETHANE
0.52185E-03
0.54047E-03
0.62258E-03
0.65202E-03

****

STAGE
1
2
14
15

ACETALD
0.64862E-02
0.11212E-Ol
0.64546E-Ol
0.85999E-Ol

STAGE
1
2
14
15

HOAC

0.48004

0.47829

0.45827
0.44897

HYDROGEN
0.90233
0.89991
0.89246
0.88996

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
CO2
METHANE
0.30353E-Ol
0.24232E-Ol
0.30734E-Ol
0.24451E-Ol
0.30626E-Ol
0.24347E-Ol
0.30576E-Ol
0 . 24303E-Ol

****

STAGE
1
2
14
15

ACETALD
0.36806E-02
0.62237E-02
0.25070E-Ol
0.29801E-Ol

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0 . 12776E-02
0.26749E-02
0.12127E-02
0.25221E-02
0.58479E-03
0.11246E-02
0.49963E-03
0.85471E-03

****

STAGE
1
2
14
15

****

MOLE-X-PROFILE

****

****
STAGE
1
2
14
15

HOAC

0.65502E-02

0.62734E-02

0.32669E-02
0 . 26719E-02

STAGE
1
2
14
15

HYDROGEN
0.14835E+06
0.14734E+06
0.12966E+06
0.12323E+06

MOLE-Y-PROFILE

K-VALUES
****
CO2
METHANE
26.167
34.036
25 . 690
33.327
19.454
24.489
17.816
22.307

211

WATER
0.48081
0.47833
0.45029
0 . 43893

****

ETHYLENE
0.79277E-02
0.80664E-02
0.80469E-02
0.80373E-02

ETHANOL
0.97326E-04
0.90711E-04
0.35850E-04
0.34814E-04

ETHANE
0.73968E-02
0.75853E-02
0.75610E-02
0.75481E-02

WATER
0.13479E-Ol
0.12930E-Ol
0.68750E-02
0.57111E-02

****

****
ETHYLENE
19.787
19.370
14.968
13.528

ETHANE
14.171
14.028
12.143
11.576

VESSELS
ITEM: AB-320 (CONTINUED)
K-VALUES
****
ACETALD
STAGE
0.56738
1
0.55500
2
0.38841
14
15
0.34653

****
ETHYLACE
ACETONE
0.13494
0.15000
0.12980
0.14532
0.89122E-Ol
0.73773E-Ol
0.76719E-Ol
0.61800E-Ol
K-VALUES

****

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
CO2
METHANE
0.12705E-02
0.28425E-03
o .13096E-02
0.29278E-03
0.39496E-03
0.17157E-02
0.18667E-02
0.43197E-03

****

****
STAGE
1
2
14
15

STAGE
1
2
14
15

ETHANOL
0.63870E-Ol
0.60261E-Ol
0.26616E-Ol
0.20602E-Ol

WATER
0.28036E-Ol
0.27035E-Ol
0.15269E-Ol
o .13012E-Ol

HOAC
O.13646E-Ol
0.13118E-Ol
0.71298E-02
0.59517E-02

HYDROGEN
0.30512E-06
0.30620E-06
0 . 34359E-06
0.35982E-06

STAGE
1
2
14
15

ACETALD
0 .7 1122E-02
0.12289E-Ol
0.70414E-Ol
0.93631E-Ol

STAGE
1
2
14
15

HOAC
0.71753
0 . 71463
0.68151
0.66635

ETHYLENE
0.27968E-03
0.29052E-03
0.37345E-03
0 . 41191E-03

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
o .12313E-Ol
0.43473E-Ol
0 . 17475E-02
0.42594E-Ol
0.17257E-02
0.12059E-Ol
0.94382E-02
0.33265E-Ol
0.15370E-02
0.93485E-02
0.30118E-Ol
0 . 19243E-02

****

MASS-X-PROFILE

ETHANE
0.39058E-03
0.40435E-03
0.46359E-03
O.48455E-03

WATER
0.21560
0.21440
0.20089
0.19543

****

STAGE
1
2
14
15

HYDROGEN
0.35659
0.34927
0.32417
0.31674

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
****
METHANE
ETHYLENE
CO2
0.26187
0.76209E-Ol
0 . 43599E-Ol
0.75522E-Ol
0.43568E-Ol
0.26042
0.70381E-Ol
0.40677E-Ol
0.24286
0.68836E-Ol
0.39808E-Ol
0.23757

ETHANE
0.43602E-Ol
0.43913E-Ol
0.40967E-Ol
0.40072E-Ol

STAGE
1
2
14
15

ACETALD
0.31786E-Ol
0.52786E-Ol
0.19900
0.23178

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.14546E-Ol
O.46202E-Ol
0.42783E-Ol
O.13561E-Ol
0.61200E-02
0.17854E-Ol
o .13295E-Ol
0.51232E-02

WATER
0 . 47604E-Ol
0.44848E-Ol
0.22317E-Ol
0.18165E-Ol

****
STAGE
1
2
14
15

MASS-Y-PROFILE

HOAC
0.77113E-Ol
0.72532E-Ol
0.35350E-Ol
0 . 28329E-Ol

212

****
ETHANOL
0.87898E-03
0 . 80457E-03
0.29759E-03
0.28316E-03

****

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SO~
BLOCK:
HACDIST

MODEL: RADFRAC

---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

- DFEED
- UP
HAC PROD
BOTTOMS
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
INLETS
OUTLETS

STAGE 28
STAGE
1
STAGE
1
STAGE 40
NRTL-RK
HC-l

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


OUT
IN

***

DIFF.
TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

RENON (NRTL)

***
GENERATION

RELATIVE

2598.01
2 598.01
O.OOOOOOE+OO
0.875184E-15
105380.
105380.
0 . 635216E-14
-0.389505E+09 -0.3831 7 3E+09
-0 . 162575E-Ol
**********************

INPUT DATA

****

****

**********************

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE
COL-SPECS

****

40
STANDARD
STANDARD
NO
NEWTON
NESTED
60
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST


MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR DISTILLATE RATE

0.22508
2 . 41000
304 .8 01

LBMOL/HR

**** REAC-STAGES SPECIFICATIONS ****

STAGE
39
*****

TO

STAGE
39

REACTIONS/CHEMISTRY ID
R-l

REACTION PARAGRAPH R-l


*****
****
REACTION PARAMETERS ****

RXN NO . TYPE
EQUILIBRIUM

1
**

RXN NO.
1
RXN NO .
1

PHASE
LIQUID

CONC.
TEMP APP TO EQUIL
BASIS
F
MOLE-GAMMA
O. OOOOOE+OO

STOICHIOMETRIC COEFFICIENTS
HYDROGEN
O.OOOOE+OO
ACETALD
O.OOOOE+OO

CO2
O.OOOOE+OO
ACETONE
O.OOOOE+OO

CONVERSION

**

METHANE
O.OOOOE+OO
ETHYLACE
1.000

213

ETHYLENE
O.OOOOE+OO
ETHANOL
- 1 . 000

ETHANE
O.OOOOE+OO
WATER
1.000

VESSELS

UNIT: DC-SOO
RXN NO.
1

(CONTINUED)
HOAC
-1.000

PROFILES

****
****
STAGE
P-SPEC

PRES, PSI

32 . 0000

*******************

****

RESULTS

****

*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS


***

OUTLET STREAMS

--------------

UP
COMPONENT:

HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
***

HAC PROD

1.0000
.97495
.95251
.83855
.91215
.19677
.21410E-10

.78425E-07
.25046E-01
.47485E-01
.16145
.87851E-01
.80248
.26357E-09

BOTTOMS

.11383E-24
.45731E-27
.73020E-27
.12866E-26
.12675E-26
.74528E-03
1.0000

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS


***

OUTLET STREAMS

--------------

UP
COMPONENT :

ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

HAC PROD

.28611E-22
.90396E-30
.17208E-03
.47139E-23

.97230E-21
.66439E-28
.13630E-02
.36445E-21

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS


***
TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE
BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOILUP RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY

BOTTOMS

1.0000
1.0000
.99846
1.0000

***

PROFILES

101.848
262.664
734.571
2,293.21
68.6041
1,154.40
2.41000
0.50340
-0.105598+08
0.168921+08

F
F

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR

BTU/HR
BTU/HR

****
**** MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS
DEW POINT
o .11384E-03
BUBBLE POINT
0.13731-03
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
0.31476E-06
ENERGY BALANCE
0.12321E-04
****

STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=

32
32
31 COMP=ACETONE
31

****

**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

214

VESSELS

UNIT:

DC-SO~

(CONTINUED)

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

101.85
114.95
119.83
122.41
155.33
156.90
159.84
168.92
255.53
262.66

STAGE

1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

****

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

PRESSURE
PSI
32.000
34.000
36.400
36.500
36.600
36.700
36.800
36.900
37.700
37.800

FLOW RATE
LBMOL / HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
68.60
734.6
1039.
755.7
1018.
699.9
1005.
630.6
935.3
3509.
1215.
3511.
1218.
3498.
1205.
3472.
1155.
3448.
1154.
2293.

-82123.
-73730.
-81954.
-71409.
-84461.
-72240.
-91045.
-72669.
-0.13349E+06
-76234.
-0.13366E+06
-76308.
-0.13465E+06
-76916.
-0.13749E+06
-79206.
-0.15265E+06 -0.12956E+06
-0.15643E+06 -0.13051E+06

LIQUID

PRODUCT
LBMOL /
LIQUID
236.1971

RATE
HR
VAPOR
68.6041

2293.2091

FLOW RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
2885.
0.3220E+05
0.3314E+05 0.4544E+05
0.3002E+05 0.4395E+05
0.2673E+05 0.4326E+05
0.1442E+06 0.3997E+05
0.1443E+06 0.5209E+05
0.1438E+06 0.5219E+05
0.1429E+06 0.5169E+05
0.1338E+06 0.4440E+05
0.9214E+05 0.4165E+05

HYDROGEN
0.66888E-11
0.49086E-12
0.14772E-11
0.44824E-11
o .13770E-11
0.48965E-17
0.17610E - 22
0.66254E-28
0.10000E-29
0.10000E-29

.16892+08

.65637-01

MASS FLOW PROFILES

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

MIXED

- . 10560+08

2597.9448

****

STAGE

1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
.10355+05 885.3956

1.6931
.10538+06

.92140+05

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****
CO2
METHANE
0.53174E-03
0.63137E-03
0.34473E-04
0 . 50854E-04
0.56288E-04
0.43948E-04
0.84081E-04
0.40888E-04
0.45678E-04
0.21243E-04
o .11037E-05
0.37999E-06
0.26134E-07
0.65422E-08
0.58621E-09
0.10123E-09
0.58843E-24
0.10579E-26
0 . 10000E-29
0 . 10000E-29

215

****

ETHYLENE
0.12183E-02
0 . 14360E-03
0.10980E-03
0.11003E-03
0.45112E - 04
0.29442E-05
0.18403E-06
0.10230E-07
0.91180E-20
0.10000E-29

ETHANE
0.67295E-03
0.62903E-04
0.51164E-04
0 . 48350E-04
0.30441E-04
0.13547E-05
0.59121E-07
0.24565E-08
0.20488E-20
0.10000E-29

VESSELS

UNIT: DC-SOO

(CONTINUED)

MOLE-X-PROFILE
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.22339E-I0
0.19187E-21
0.61500E-I0
0.23368E-20
0.11977E-02
0.35829E-02
0.80995E-02
0.69879E-02
0.79118E-02
0.10710E-Ol
0.89707E-02
o .11227E-Ol
0.12462E-Ol
0.13469E-Ol
0.21380E-Ol
0.21172E-Ol
0.16277E-Ol
0.36185E-Ol
0.87298E-02
0.20325E-Ol

****

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

ACETALD
0.99051
0.99193
0.94338
0.85026
0.30917
0.30551
0.28841
0.24067
0.36284E-03
0 . 94749E-04

****
STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

MOLE-X-PROFILE

****
ETHANOL
0.10000E-29
0.10000E-29
0.10380E-03
o .13095E-02
0.56740E-02
0 . 57204E-02
0.59498E-02
0.68345E-02
0.25265E-02
0.15503E-02

****

HOAC
0.17124E-20
0.11276E-21
0.17743E-02
0.32810E-Ol
0.32859
0.32905
0.33251
0.34139
0.41681
0.48394

HYDROGEN
0.29364E-03
0.19382E-04
0.19784E-04
0.20050E-04
o .11193E-05
0.39752E-ll
0.14117E-16
0.51120E-22
0.82659E-24
0.10075E-23

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
CO2
METHANE
0.71263E-Ol
0.43604E-Ol
0.52004E-02
0.34678E-02
0.49552E-02
0.31152E-02
0.50300E-02
0.31563E-02
0.54041E-02
0.33746E-02
0.61326E-04
o . 13187E-03
0.31822E-05
0.10956E-05
0.75863E-07
0.18991E-07
0.21550E-21
0.54467E-24
0.41556E-27
0.51968E-27

****

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

ACETALD
0.83620
0.98033
0.95724
0.94714
0.88469
0.89234
0.88065
0.83704
0.32215E-02
0.89540E-03

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.19438E-22
0 . 62475E-11
0.21277E-I0
0.30466E-21
o .11606E-02
0.14311E-03
0.24960E-02
0.83436E-03
0.54604E-02
0.47109E-02
0.50931E-02
0.63684E-02
0.94243E-02
0.65951E-02
0.13053E-Ol
0.19563E-Ol
0.57959E-Ol
0.12349
0.31269E-Ol
0.67690E-Ol

****

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

****

****

****
STAGE
1
2
26
27
28

WATER
0.64326E-02
0.77785E-02
0.49697E-Ol
0.10025
0.33781
0.33951
0 . 34719
0.36855
0 . 52784
0.48536

MOLE-Y-PROFILE

HOAC
0.76255E-22
0.66303E-23
0.83708E-04
0.12360E-02
0.22120E-Ol

216

ETHYLENE
0.21785E-Ol
0.25759E-02
0.18263E-02
0.18504E-02
0.19763E-02
0.13023E-03
0.84886E-05
0.53420E-06
0.11427E:"17
0.12438E-27

ETHANOL
0.46844E-31
0.69785E-31
0.65611E-05
0.72313E-04
0.88281E-03
0.92948E-03
0.10726E-02
0.16899E-02
0.68290E-02
0.44658E-02

****

ETHANE
0.24056E-Ol
0.22164E-02
0.18129E-02
0.18364E-02
o .19638E-02
0 . 87879E-04
0.39058E-05
0.17162E-06
0.23538E-18
0.10994E-27

WATER
0.27961E-02
0.61926E-02
0.29633E-Ol
0.36324E-Ol
0.69414E-Ol
0.71930E-Ol
0.77375E-Ol
0.96925E-Ol
0.59016
0.61222

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SOO (CONTINUED)
29
0.22931E-01
30
0 . 24868E-01
31
0.31729E-01
39
0.21834
40
0.28346

HYDROGEN
0.43899E+08
0.39484E+08
0.13394E+08
0.44734E+07
0.81288E+06
0 . 81190E+06
0.8018SE+06
0.77205E+06
0.82659E+06
0.10075E+07

K-VALUES
****
METHANE
CO2
69.062
134.02
150.85
68.191
70.884
88.036
77.193
59.825
118.31
158.86
119.48
161.39
167.47
121. 77
187.63
129 . 44
514.85
366.23
415.56
519.68

****

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

ACETALD
0.84421
0.98830
1. 0147
1.1139
2.8615
2.9208
3.0534
3.4782
8.8786
9.4503

****
K-VALUES
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.10131
0.27966
0.13037
0.34597
0.11949
0 . 32393
0.11940
0.30816
0.69016
0.43986
0.45362
0.70990
0 . 48959
0.75621
0.91483
0.61634
3.5608
3.4128
3.5819
3.3304

****

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

HOAC
0.44530E-01
0.58798E-01
0.47178E-01
0.37673E-01
0.67316E-01
0 . 69685E-01
0.74779E-01
0.92914E-01
0.52384
0.58572

****

****
STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

HYDROGEN
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

CO2
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

K-VALUES

ETHYLENE
17.882
17.938
16.632
16.817
43.809
44.232
46.127
52 . 220
125.32
124.38

ETHANOL
0.46843E-01
0.69784E-01
0.63209E-01
0.55222E-01
0.15559
0.16247
0.18023
0.24711
2.7029
2 . 8806

WATER
0.43467
0.79610
0.59628
0.36236
0.20548
0.21186
0.22286
0 . 26297
1.1181
1.2614

****

RATES OF GENERATION
LBMOL/HR
METHANE
ETHYLENE
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

217

ETHANE
35.748
35.235
35.432
37.982
64.511
64.872
66.072
69 . 886
114.89
109.94

****
ETHANE
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

ACETALD
O. OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SOO

STAGE
1
2

26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

(CONTINUED)
****
ACETONE

O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO

RATES OF GENERATION
****
LBMOL/HR
WATER
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL

O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
15.22
O.OOOOE+OO

****
STAGE

HYDROGEN
0 . 30758E-12
0.22568E-13
0.69433E-13
0.21317E-12
0.67528E-13
0.24011E-18
0 . 86348E-24
0.32445E-29
0.51948E-31
0.50172E-31

26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

ACETALD
0.99535
0.99662
0.96903
0.88366
0.33132
0 . 32739
0.30904
0.25755
0.41191E-03
0.10388E-03

26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

STAGE
1
2
26

O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
15.22
O.OOOOE+OO

MASS-X-PROFILE
METHANE

C02
0.53381E-03
0.34602E-04
0.57761E-04
0.87298E-04
0.48904E-04
0.11816E-05
0.27975E-07
0.62671E-09
0.66734E-24
O.10953E-29

0.23105E-03
0.18607E-04
0.16440E-04
0.15475E-04
0 . 82905E-05
0.14829E-06
0.25528E-08
0.39450E-10
0.43736E-27
0.39928E-30

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.29596E-10
0.81465E-10
o .48521E-02
0 . 1l098E-01
0.11179E-01
0.12674E-01
0.17604E-01
0.30166E - 01
0.24362E-01
0.12619E-Ol

****
STAGE

O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
-15.22
O.OOOOE+OO

0.38561E-21
0.46958E-20
0.24605E-02
0.14525E-01
0.22955E-01
0.24062E-01
0.28863E-01
0.45315E-01
0.82155E-01
0.44569E-01

MASS-X-PROFILE

HOAC

O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
-15.22
O.OOOOE+OO

****

ETHYLENE
0.77963E-03
0 . 91878E-04
0.71827E-04
0.72823E-04
0.30787E-04
0.20092E-05
0.12557E-06
0.69719E-08
0.65917E-20
0.69821E-30

ETHANE
0.46158E-03
o .43139E-04
0.35873E-04
0.34298E-04
0.22268E-04
0.99090E-06
0.43241E-07
0.17944E-08
0 . 15876E-20
0.74839E-30

****

ETHANOL
0.10509E-29
0.10507E-29
0.11150E-03
0.14232E-02
0.63589E-02
0.64105E-02
0.66670E-02
0.76486E-02
0.29994E-02
0.17775E-02

WATER
0 . 26434E-02
0 . 31960E-02
0.20876E-01
0.42605E-Ol
0 . 14804
0.14878
0.15214
0.16129
0.24504
0.21762

****

HOAC
0.23457E-20
0.15444E-21
0.24845E-02
0 . 46483E-01
0.48003
0.48068
0.48569
0.49803
0.64503
0.72331

HYDROGEN
0.14074E-04
0.89365E-06
0.92398E-06

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
C02
METHANE
0.74569E-01
0.16632E-01
0.52346E-02
0.12724E-02
0.50524E-02
O.11579E-02

218

****

ETHYLENE
0 . 14531E-01
0.16528E-02
0.11870E-02

ETHANE
0.17199E-01
0.15243E-02
0.12630E-02

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SO~ (CONTINUED)
27
0.93878E-06
28
O.52804E-07
29
0.18698E-12
30
0.66398E-18
31
0.24027E-23
39
0.43340E-2S
40
0.56299E-25

STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

ACETALD
0.87586
0.98776
0.97699
0.96912
0.91205
0.91723
0.90514
0 . 85974
0.36913E-02
0.10934E-02

0.51417E-02
0.55658E-02
o .13541E-03
0.32675E-05
0 . 77844E-07
0.24668E-21
0.50694E-27

0.12057E - 02
0.12975E-02
0.85246E-04
0.55560E-05
0.34942E-06
0.83377E-18
0.96721E-28

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.86274E-11
0.40719E-22
0 . 28265E-10
0.61395E-21
0.15617E-02
0.29212E-03
0.33670E-02
0.17074E-02
0.74217E-02
0 . 97133E-02
0.86304E-02
0.10470E-01
0.12771E-01
o .13557E-01
0 . 26491E-01
0.26815E-01
0 . 87556E-01
0.28300
0.50341E-01
0.16531

0.12826E-02
0.13819E-02
0.61658E-04
0.27402E-05
0 . 12032E-06
0.18409E-18
0.91632E-28

****
ETHANOL
0.51310E-31
0.73532E-31
0.70029E-05
0.77376E-04
0.95176E-03
0.99913E-03
0.11529E-02
0 . 18152E-02
0 . 81828E-02
0.57026E-02

MASS-Y-PROFILE

****
STAGE
1
2
26
27
28
29
30
31
39
40

0.11761E-02
0.12669E-02
0.22956E-04
0.41007E-06
0.71035E-08
0.22727E-24
0.23109E-27

WATER
0.11977E-02
0.25516E-02
0.12368E-01
0.15199E-01
0.29264E-01
0.30236E-01
0.32522E-01
0.40712E-01
0.27653
0.30572

****

HOAC
0.10888E-21
0.91069E-23
0.11646E-03
0 . 17241E-02
0.31086E-01
0.32131E-01
0.34843E-01
0.44425E-01
0.34104
0.47184

UNIT: DC-SID
BLOCK:
COND

MODEL: RADFRAC

- UP
STAGE
3
- OFFGAS
STAGE
1
HACPROD2 STAGE
3
NRTL-RK
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HC-1
HENRY-COMPS ID:
INLETS
OUTLETS

***

RENON (NRTL)

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

68.6041
2885.40
-0.505817E+07

REDLICH-KWONG

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

68.6041
2885.40
-0.567106E+07

O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.126240E-12
0 . 108073

**********************

****

INPUT DATA

****

**********************

INPUT PARAMETERS
****
NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION

****
3

STANDARD
NO
STANDARD

219

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-510 (CONTINUED)
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE
COL-SPECS

****

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST


MOLAR DISTILLATE RATE
REBOILER DUTY
PROFILES

****

1.00000
12.5112
0.0

LBMOL/HR
BTU/ HR

****

STAGE

P-SPEC

NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

28.0000

PRES, PSI

*******************

RESULTS

****

****

*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
- - - - - - - - - -

OFFGAS
COMPONENT:
HYDROGEN
CO2
METHANE
ETHYLENE
ETHANE
ACETALD
ACETONE
WATER

***

1.0000
.99396
.98875
.95529
.97804
.28451E-01
.56151E-03
.54628E-04

HACPROD2
.15998E-07
.60437E-02
.11253E-01
.44715E-01
.21961E-01
.97155
.99944
.99995

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY
****

***

F
F

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE

****

0.44646E-04
0.17678E-03
0.10043E-05
0.15624E - 04

220

10.0089
98.2806
47.3888
56.0929
12.5112
68.6010
3.78770
-612,887.
0.0

STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=

1
1

2 COMP=HYDROGEN
1

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SI0 (CONTINUED)
PROFILES
****
****
**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F
1
2
3
STAGE

1
2
3

10.009
94.612
98.281

28.000
30.000
30.100

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
47.39
12.51
56.09
59.90
68.60
56.09

-84621.
-82008.
-82057.

LIQUID

-85381.
-74548.
-73689.

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

MASS FLOW PROFILES


FLOW RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
421.8
20 7 0.
2492.
2465 .
2887.
2464.

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
-.61289+06

PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
12.5112

MIXED

68.6041

****
STAGE

1
2
3

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

PRESSURE
PSI

56.0929

****

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB / HR
VAPOR

PRODUCT RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
421.8406

MIXED

2885 . 3956

MOLE-X-PROFILE
CO2
METHANE
0.17955E-01
0.37418E-02
0.73964E-03
0.72101E-03
0.52675E-03
0.60013E-03
****

2463.5549

****

STAGE
1
2
3

HYDROGEN
0.20020E-09
0.63351E-11
0.57453E-11

ETHYLENE
0.98833E-02
0.17242E-02
0.11914E-02

STAGE
1
2
3

ACETALD
0.96188
0.99434
0.99362

STAGE
1
2
3

HYDROGEN
0.16102E-02
0.33631E-03
0.29366E-03

STAGE
1
2
3

ACETALD
0.13045
0.78822
0.83678

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
****
ACETONE
WATER
0.19236E-13
0.83755E-06
0.65762E-12
0.52993E-03
0.21072E-11
0.13349E-02

STAGE
1
2
3

HYDROGEN
0.80441E+07
0.53090E+08
0.51113E+08

K-VALUES
****
CO2
METHANE
21.631
63.211
128.89
72.593
135.62
72 . 826

ETHANE
0.58676E-02
0.84723E-03
0.64615E-03

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****
****
ACETONE
WATER
0.82616E-12
0.66962E-03
0.25729E-11
0 . 16325E-02
0.76367E-11
0.34196E-02
MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
CO2
METHANE
0.38840
0.23641
0.95329E-01
0.52338E-01
0.71440E-01
0.43704E-01

221

****
ETHYLENE
0 . 11412
0.31654E-01
0.22222E-01

ETHANE
0.12901
0.31589E-01
0.24222E-01

****
ETHYLENE
11.550
18.360
18 . 652

ETHANE
21.995
37 . 286
37.487

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-SI0

(CONTINUED)
K-VALUES
****
ACETONE
WATER
0.23279E-01
0.12491E-02
0.25559
0 . 32458
0.27593
0.39036

****

STAGE
1
2
3

ACETALD
0.13562
0.79271
0.84216

STAGE
1
2
3

HYDROGEN
0.92372E-11
0.29057E-12
0 . 26371E-12

STAGE
1
2
3

ACETALD
0.96988
0.99665
0.99665

STAGE
1
2
3

HYDROGEN
0.96269E-04
0.16295E-04
0.14066E-04

STAGE
1
2
3

ACETALD
0.17044
0.83457
0.87593

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
CO2
METHANE
0.18086E-01
o .13740E-02
0.74063E-03
0.26318E-03
0.52784E-03
0.21921E-03

****
ETHYLENE
0 . 63462E-02
O . 1l005E- 02
0.76102E-03

ETHANE
0.40384E-02
0.57964E-03
0.44239E-03

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
WATER
0.10983E-ll
0.27611E-03
0.34001E-11
0.66915E-03
0.10099E-10
0 . 14027E-02

****

MASS-Y-PROFILE
CO2
METHANE
0.50697
0.11248
0.10083
0.20180E-01
0.74708E-01
0 . 16660E-01

****

****
ETHYLENE

O. 11506

0.2l343E-01

0.22830E-01
0.17307E-01

O. l4 813E- 01

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
WATER
0.33136E-l3
0.44751E-06
0.91798E-12
0.22945E-03
0.29081E-ll
0.57144E-03

****

RADFRAC CONDHCURVE: COND


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

HCURVE 1
DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU!HR

PSI

RENON

(NRTL)

! REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
28.0000
94 . 0763
1.0000
0.0
28 . 0000
90.8666
DEW>1.0000
- 2480.7655
89.5678
28.0000
0.9189
-5.5717+04
28.0000
87.9270
0.8345
- 1.1143+05
28.0000
85.9013
0 . 7510
-1.6715+05
!------------+------------+--- - --------+ - -----------!
-2 . 2287+05
28.0000
83.3465
0.6687
28.0000
80.0428
0.5879
-2.7859+05
28.0000
75.6490
0.5095
-3.3430+05
28.0000
-3 . 9002+05
69.6249
0.4346
28.0000
61.1175
-4.4574+05
0.3649
!-------- -- --+------------+---- - -------+------------!
28.0000
48 . 8093
-5.0145+05
0.3025
28.0000 !
32.1052 !
0.2517 !
! -5.5717+05 !
28.0000 !
! -6 . 1289+05 !
10.0064 !
0.2088 !

222

ETHANE

o . 9494 9E - 01

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-610
BLOCK : ACOHDIST MODEL: RADFRAC

INLETS

- ACOHFEED
ETACREC2
- DIST
OUTLETS
ACOHREC
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

STAGE 10
STAGE
2
STAGE
1
STAGE 18
NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL / HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

1093.21
52187.9
-0.176431E+09

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

1093.21
52187.9
-0.173480E+09

0.207987E-15

o .139418E-15
-0.167214E-01

**********************

INPUT DATA

****

****

**********************

****

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

****

COL-SPECS

18
3-PHASE
NO
STANDARD
NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST


MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOTTOMS RATE

LBMOL / HR

0.0
2.50000
359.653

**** L2-STAGES SPECIFICATIONS ****

TWO LIQUID PHASE CALCULATIONS ARE PERFORMED FOR


**** L2-COMPS SPECIFICATIONS ****
KEY COMPONENTS IN THE SECOND LIQUID PHASE

PROFILES
****
****
P-SPEC
STAGE

PRES,

PSI

RESULTS

****

*******************

223

TO

STAGE
17

COMPONENT
ETHYLACE
WATER

95.0000

*******************

****

STAGE
1

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-610 (CONTINUED)
***
COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
--------------

COMPONENT:

HYDROGEN
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC
***

DIST

ACOHREC

1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
1.0000
.95559
. 12359

.32415E-99
.61792E-46
.21697E-08
.27937E-05
.83950E-06
.23878E-05
.44408E-Ol
. 87641

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOILUP RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY

***

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR

BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

****

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE
PROFILES

****

275.183
369.912
2,567.45
359.653
0.0
3,530.02
2.50000
9.81508
-0.365866+08
0.395348+08

F
F

****

0.23796E-06
0 . 38326E-05
0.21642E - 05
0.20501E-03

STAGE= 1 PHASE=L2
STAGE= 2 PHASE=L2
STAGE= 10 COMP=ACETALD
STAGE= 1

****

**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE INCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT .

STAGE TEMPERATURE

2
3
9

10
11

16
17
18
STAGE

1
2

PRESSURE
PSI

275 . 18
297.32
321.48
326.04
327.18
327.86
344 . 44
358.24
369.91

95.000
97.000
97.100
97.700
97.800
97.900
98.400
98.500
98.600

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
2567.
O.OOOOE+OO
2119.
2567.

ENTHALPY

BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR
-0.14477E+06
-0.13170E+06
-0.12969E+06
-0.13673E+06
-0.14121E+06
-0.14159E+06
-0.17006E+06
-0.18094E+06
-0.18708E+06

LIQUID

-0.13766E+06
-0.13052E+06
-0.11528E+06
-0.11789E+06
-0.12041E+06
-0 . 12049E+06
-0.14102E+06
-0.15601E+06
-0.16911E+06

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

350.0000

224

MIXED

HEAT DUTY

BTU/HR

-.36587+08

.39535+08

PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
733.5560

VESSELS
ITEM:
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

DC-610
2154.
2252.
3063.
3070 .
3609.
3890.
359.7

(CONTINUED)
2502.
2601.
2635.
2703.

2998.

3250.

3530.

743.2091

359.6530

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUIDI
LIQUID2
725.6
1842.
O. OOOOE+OO
2119.
2154.
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
2252.
3063.
O.OOOOE+OO
3070.
O.OOOOE+OO
O.OOOOE+OO
3609.
O.OOOOE+OO
3890.

STAGE

1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17

****

ENTHALPY

BTU/LBMO

LIQUIDI
LIQUID2

-0.15347E+06 -0.12268E+06
-0.13170E+06 -0.13170E+06
-0.12969E+06 -0.12969E+06
-0.13673E+06 -0.13673E+06
-0.14121E+06 -0.14121E+06
-0.14159E+06 -0.14159E+06
-0.17006E+06 -0.17006E+06
-0.18094E+06 -0.18094E+06

MASS FLOW PROFILES

****

FLOW RATE
FEED RATE
LB/HR
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
VAPOR
LIQUID
0.110IE+06 O.OOOOE+OO
0.5738E+05 0.110IE+06
.22326+05
0.5333E+05 0.6650E+05
0.6469E+05 0.6937E+05
0.9590E+05 0.7381E+05
.29862+05

0.9662E+05 0 .7 516E+05

0.1724E+06 0.1158E+06

0.2103E+06 0.1516E+06

0.2074E+05 0.1896E+06

STAGE

1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE

LB/HR

LIQUID
VAPOR
.31444+05

.20744+05

FLOW RATE

LB/HR

LIQUIDI
LIQUID2

0.9481E+05 0.1524E+05

O.OOOOE+OO 0.5738E+05

O.OOOOE+OO 0.5333E+05

O.OOOOE+OO 0.6469E+05

O.OOOOE+OO 0.9590E+05

O.OOOOE+OO 0.9662E+05

0.1724E+06 O. OOOOE+OO

0.2103E+06 O.OOOOE+OO

0.2074E+05 O.OOOOE+OO

STAGE

1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

MOLE-X-PROFILE
ACETALD
CO2
0.64777E-03
0.65881E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.12314E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16039E-04
0.39833E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.41966E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.66024E-06
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.94462E-I0
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16870E-I0
0.28667E-ll
O.OOOOOE+OO
****

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

HYDROGEN
0.52175E-07
0.15629E-12
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O . OOOOOE+OO

225

****

ACETONE
0.46370E-Ol
0.99465E-02
0.15170E-02
0.62289E-03
0.77624E-03
0.23011E-03
0.16689E-05
0.70158E-06
0.26423E-06

ETHYLACE
0.28673
0.38722E-Ol
0.30194E-02
0.10106E-02
o .14212E-02
0.35273E-03
0.22613E-05
0.11131E-05
0.49096E-06

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-610

(CONTINUED)

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.59617
0.65230E-Ol
0.80923
0.14055
0.84135
0.15381
0.74579
0.25246
0.68461
0.31306
0.68012
0.31926
0.29245
0.70755
0.14236
0.85764
0.56508E-Ol
0.94349
MOLE-XI-PROFILE
****
****
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.90669E-13
O.82120E-03
0.60785E-Ol
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.12314E-03
0.99465E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16039E-04
0.15170E-02
0.39833E-05
0.62289E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.41966E-05
0.77624E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.66024E-06
0.23011E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.94462E-I0
0.16689E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16870E-I0
0.70158E-06
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.28667E-ll
0.26423E-06

****

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18
STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

ETHANOL
O.48428E-02
O.14249E-02
O.28506E-03
O.11385E-03
o .13193E-03
0.36939E-04
0.16533E-06
0.65214E-07
0.23586E-07
HYDROGEN
O.72522E-07
0 . 15629E-12
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

ETHYLACE
0.39323
0.38722E-Ol
0.30194E-02
0.10106E-02
0.14212E-02
0 . 352 7 3E-03
0.22613E-05
0.11131E-05
0.49096E-06

MOLE-XI-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.46130
0.77837E-Ol
0.80923
0.14055
0.84135
0.15381
0.74579
0.25246
0.68461
0.31306
0.68012
0.31926
0.29245
0.70755
0.14236
0.85764
0.56508E-Ol
0 . 94349

****

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

ETHANOL
0.60270E-02
0.14249E-02
0.28506E-03
o .11385E-03
0.13193E-03
0.36939E-04
0.16533E-06
0.65214E-07
0.23586E-07

MOLE-X2-PROFILE
CO2
ACETALD
0.29593E-14
0.20754E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.12314E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16039E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.39833E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.41966E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.66024E-06
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.94462E-I0
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.16870E-I0
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.28667E-ll

****

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

HYDROGEN
0.52511E-09
0 . 15629E - 12
O. OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO

ETHANOL
0.18369E-02
o .14249E-02
0.28506E-03
0.11385E-03
o .13193E-03
0.36939E-04
0.16533E-06
O. 65214E- 07
0.23586E-07

ACETONE
0.97805E-02
0.99465E-02
0.15170E-02
0.62289E-03
0.77624E-03
0.23011E-03
0.16689E-05
0.70158E-06
0.26423E-06

MOLE-X2-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.93855
0.33228E-Ol
0.80923
0.14055
0.84135
0.15381
0.74579
0.25246
0.68461
0.31306
0.68012
0.31926
0.29245
0.70755
0.14236
0.85764
0.56508E-Ol
0.94349

****

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

****

226

ETHYLACE
0.16400E-Ol
0 . 38722E-Ol
0.30194E-02
0 . 10106E-02
o .1421 2 E-02
0 . 35273E-03
0.22613E-05
O. 11131E- 05
0.49096E-06

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-610

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18
STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

(CONTINUED)

HYDROGEN
0.51337E-03
0.52175E-07
o .13233E-12
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

ETHANOL
0.74092E-02
0.48428E-02
0 . 16669E-02
0.53067E-03
0.53447E-03
0.14948E-03
0.44808E-06
0.18102E-06
0.69455E-07

HYDROGEN
7078.8530
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
6.0067+05
1.2353+06
2.4399+06

WATER
1.0064
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
1.7421
2 . 2376
2.6740
HYDROGEN
9.7764+05
3.3384+05
8.3176+05
6.0099+05
5.0771+05
5.1002+05
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
0.14465E-ll
0.12867E-02
0.65881E-13
0.64777E-03
O. OOOOOE+OO
0.13240E-03
0.30349E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.30124E-04
0.47550E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.57477E-09
0.10460E-09
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.18296E-I0
O.OOOOOE+OO

****
ACETONE
0 . 87261E-Ol
0.46370E-Ol
0.11015E-Ol
0.29458E-02
0.29941E-02
0.87948E-03
0.40904E-05
0 . 18243E-05
0.74614E-06

ETHYLACE
0.42390
0.28673
0.38824E-Ol
0 . 64778E-02
0.65953E-02
0.16102E-02
0.48266E-05
0.24572E-05
0.11765E-05

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
****
WATER
HOAC
0.46427
0.15357E-Ol
0.59617
0.65230E-Ol
0.82122
0.12714
0.79810
0.19192
0.76641
0 . 22343
0.76817
0 . 22918
0.50947
0.49052
0.31856
0.68144
0.15111
0.84889
K-VALUES: V-Ll
****
ACETALD
ACETONE
1.5668
1.4355
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
6.0847
2.4510
6.2005
2.6003
6.3824
2.8238

ETHYLACE
1.0780
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
2.1344
2.2076
2.3962

ETHANOL
1.2293
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
2.7102
2.7757
2.9447

K-VALUES: V-Ll
****
****
HOAC
0.1972
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
0.6932
o .7945
0.8997
K-VALUES: V-L2
****
****
ACETALD
CO2
ACETONE
6 . 1996
488.8010
8.9219
5.2605
296.3349
4.6619
719 . 4065
8.2549
7.2608
581.2255
7.6189
4.7292
500.1802
7.1780
3.8572
503.6339
7.2019
3.8220
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

ETHYLACE
25.8475
7.4047
12.8576
6.4100
4.6406
4.5652
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

ETHANOL
4.0335
3.3987
5.8474
4.6610
4.0511
4.0468
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

****
CO2
15.9536
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
305.8569
299.8558
312.8603

227

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-610

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11

16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18
STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

(CONTINUED)

K-VALUES: V-L2
****
HOAC
0.4621
0.4641
0.8265
0.7602
0.7137
0 . 7178
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

WATER
0.4946
0.7367
0.9760
1.0701
1.1194
1.1294
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

HYDROGEN
7.2408-03
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

****
CO2
3.2638-02
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

WATER
2.0345
rUSSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
HYDROGEN
0.24537E-08
o .11635E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

ETHANOL
0.52048E-02
0.24241E-02
0.53036E-03
0.18259E-03
o .19413E-03
0.54073E-04
0.15948E-06
0.55565E-07
0.18839E-07

****

K-VALUES: L2-Ll
****
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.2527
0 . 1609
4.1706-02
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

K-VALUES: L2-Ll
****
****
HOAC
0 . 4268
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MASS-X-PROFILE
****
****
ACETALD
CO2
ACETONE
0.67640E-13
0.66572E-03
0.62829E-Ol
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.20032E-03
o .21333E-Ol
0.28535E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.35581E-02
0.61084E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.12594E-02
0.59047E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.14399E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.92421E-06
0.42468E-03
0.87132E-10
0.20295E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
o .13745E-10
0.75364E-06
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.21895E-l1
0.26607E-06
MASS-X-PROFILE
****
****
WATER
HOAC
0.25056
0.91385E-01
0.31169
0.53836
0.61211
0.37303
0.46770
0.52775
0.39391
0.60045
0.38933
0.60921
0.11031
0.88968
0.47434E-01
0.95256
0 . 17650E-01
0.98235

228

ETHANOL
0.3047
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING
MISSING

ETHYLACE
0.58936
0.12599
0.10744E-Ol
0.30995E-02
0.39993E-02
0.98751E-03
0.41716E-05
0.18138E-05
0.74998E-06

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-6l0

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

(CONTINUED)

HYDROGEN
O.28401E-08
o .11635E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO

ETHANOL
0 . 53940E-02
0.24241E - 02
0.53036E-03
0.18259E-03
0.19413E-03
0.54073E-04
0.15948E-06
0 . 55565E-07
0 . 18839E-07

HYDROGEN
0.50383E-10
0.11635E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O . OOOOOE+OO

ETHANOL
0.40277E-02
0.24241E-02
0.53036E-03
0.18259E-03
0 . 19413E-03
0.54073E-04
0 . 15948E-06
0.55565E-07
0.18839E-07

HYDROGEN
0 . 19863E-04
0.24537E-08
0.10039E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

MASS-X1-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
0.77519E-13
O. 70280E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.2003 2 E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.28535E-04
0.61084E-05
O. OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.59047E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.92421E-06
0.8713 2 E-10
O. OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
o .13745E-10
0.21895E-11
O.OOOOOE+OO

****
ACETONE
0.68584E-01
0.21333E-01
0.35581E-0 2
0 . 12594E-02
0.14399E-02
0.42468E-03
0.20295E-05
0.75364E-06
0.26607E-06

ETHYLACE
0.67307
0.1 2 599
0.10744E-01
0.30995E-02
0.39993E-02
0.98751E-03
0.41716E-05
o . 18138E-05
0.74998E-06

MASS-X1-PROFILE
****
****
WATER
HOAC
0.16145
0.90808E-01
0.31169
0.53836
0.61211
0.37303
0.46770
0.52775
0 . 60045
0.39391
0.38933
0 . 60921
0.11031
0.88968
0.47434E-01
0.95256
0.176 5 0E-01
0.98235
MASS-X2-PROFILE
****
CO 2
ACETALD
0. 6 1987E - 14
0.43515E-03
0.20032E - 03
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
0.28535E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.61084E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.59047E - 05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.92421E-06
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.87132E-10
O.OOOOOE+OO
o .13745E-10
0.2189SE-11
O.OOOOOE+OO

****

ACETONE
0.27037E-01
0.21333E-01
0.35581E-02
0.12594E-02
0.14399E-02
0 . 42468E-03
0.20295E-05
0.75364E-06
0.26607E-06

ETHYLACE
0.68773E-01
0.12599
0.10744E-01
0.30995E-02
0.39993E-02
0.98751E-03
0 . 41716E-05
0.18138E-05
0.74998E-06

MASS-X2-PROFILE
****
****
WATER
HOAC
0.80475
0 . 94972E-01
0.53836
0.31169
0.61211
0.37303
0 . 46770
0.52775
0.39391
0.60045
0.38933
0.60921
0 . 11031
0.88968
0.47434E-01
0 . 95256
0.17650E-01
0.98235
MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
0.10879E - 02
0.12218E-11
0.67640E-13
0.66572E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.21951E-03
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.50128E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.47384E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.75345E-05
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.65536E-09
0.98753E-10
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.15009E-10

229

****

ACETONE
0.97273E-01
0.62829E-01
0.24075E-01
0.64149E-02
0 . 62093E-02
0.18373E-02
0.61489E-05
0 .2 2707E-05
0 . 80699E-06

ETHYLACE
0.716 8 4
0 . 58936
0.12873
0.21399E-01
0.20749E-01
0 . 51030E-02
0.11007E-04
0.46397E-05
0.19302E-05

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-610
STAGE
1
2
3
9
10
11
16
17
18

(CONTINUED)

ETHANOL
0.65513E-02
0.52048E-02
0.28900E-02
0.91664E-03
0.87919E-03
0.24770E-03
0 . 53428E-06
0.17872E-06
0.59584E-07

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
****
WATER
HOAC
0.16053
0.17700E-01
0.25056
0.91385E-Ol
0.55676
0.28733
0.53909
0.43213
0.49301
0.47911
0.49777
0.49504
0.23756
0.76242

0.12299
0.87700

0.50693E-Ol
0.94930

RADFRAC REB-HCURVE: ACOHDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!

98.6000
358.2887
0.0

98.6000
BUB>O.O

358.3239
98.6000
7.6185-02

359.8340
361 . 2752
0.1540

98.6000
98.6000
362.6270
0.2333

____________ + ____________ + ____________ + ____________ !


0.0
2832.5630
3.5941+06
7.1882+06
1.0782+07

363.8777
1.4376+07
98.6000
0.3141

98.6000
o .3961

1.7970+07
365.0224
0.4793

2.1564+07
98.6000
366.0619
2.5159+07
98.6000
367.0011
0.5634

2.8753+07
98.6000
367.8472
0.6485

!------ -- ----+------------+------------+------------!

3.2347+07
98.6000
368.6087
0.7342

3.5941+07 !
98.6000 !
369.2942 !
0.8206 !

0.9075 !

3.9535+07 !
98.6000 !
369.9120 !

RADFRAC CONDHCURVE: ACOHDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE :
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

I============!============!============!============!

230

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-610 (CONTINUED)

0.0
95.0000
297.1862
1.0000
-5.7254+04
95.0000
295.9248
DEW>1.0000
95.0000
0.9187
-3.3261+06
293.4058
-6.6521+06
95.0000
290.4442
0.8364
-9.9782+06
95.0000
287 . 0608
0.7539
------------+------------+------------+-----------
95.0000
283.7629
-1.3304+07
0.6683
-1. 6630+07
95.0000
281.4700
0.5772
-1.9956+07
95.0000
279.7259
0.4837
-2.3282+07
95.0000
278.3978
0.3886
-2.6608+07
95.0000
277.3608
0.2923
------------+------------+------------+-----------
-2.9935+07
95.0000
276.5240
0.1953
-3.3261+07
95.0000
275.8255
9.7852-02
-3.6587+07
95 . 0000
275.1832
0.0

ITEM: DC-BIO
BLOCK:
ACETONE

MODEL: RADFRAC

- 45
STAGE
8
1
- WAS ACTON STAGE
RECY
STAGE 11
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
NRTL-RK
HC - l
HENRY-COMPS ID:
INLETS
OUTLETS

***

RENON

(NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

20.1112
1194.31
-0.276805E+07

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

20.1112
1194.31
-0 . 294447E+07

-0.176654E-15
-0.886794E-12
0.599151E-Ol

**********************

****

INPUT DATA

****

**********************

****

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO . OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

****

COL-SPECS

11
STANDARD
NO
STANDARD
NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST


MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR DISTILLATE RATE

LBMOL/HR

231

1.00000
4.00000
7.69389

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-S1D (CONTINUED)

PROFILES
****
****

STAGE

P-SPEC

PRES,

PSI

22.0000

*******************

****

RESULTS

****

*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS


***
OUTLET STREAMS
--------------

WASACTON
COMPONENT:
HYDROGEN
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

***

1.0000
.95262
.78379
.22231
.46665
.27389
.10587E-05

RECY
.11031E-18
.47380E-01
.21621
.77769
.53335
.72611
1.0000

SUMf1ARY OF KEY RESULTS

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOILUP RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY

****

***

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR

BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE

167.616
184.338
30.7755
12.4173
7.69389
17.7904
4.00000
1.43271
-428,727.
252,312.

F
F

****

0.24085E-06
0.54550E-05
0.50564E-06
0.83810E-04

STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=

6
1
7 COMP=HOAC
1

PROFILES
****
****
**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

167.62
174.99
176.99
180.08
180.62
181.34
183.14
184.34

PRESSURE
PSI
22.000
24.000
24.100
24.400
24.500
24.600
24.800
24.900

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR
-0.13985E+06
-0.14526E+06
-0.14909E+06
-0.15470E+06
-0.15639E+06
-0.15734E+06
-0.16028E+06
-0.16361E+06

232

-0.11865E+06
-0.12447E+06
-0.12879E+06
-0.13501E+06
-0.13611E+06
-0.13733E+06
-0.14088E+06
-0.14377E+06

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
-.42873+06

.25231+06

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-SIO
STAGE

1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

****
STAGE

1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

(CONTINUED)
FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
7.694
30.78
38.47
30.77
38.46
30.52
30.29
37.99
30.36
37.98
17.94
30.31
30.21
17.83
12.42
17.79

LIQUID

12.4173

****

FLOW RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
439.3
1760.
2199.
1764.
2203.
1753.
2187.
1759.
1793.
2199.
1038.
1791.
1794.
1034.
1039.
755.0

HYDROGEN
0.15496E-l3
0.68273E-14
0.11526E-l3
0.22880E-13
0.24183E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

WATER
0.26316
0.298l3
0.32256
0.34723
0.33671
0.34316
0.35671
0.34832

HYDROGEN
0.12454E-08
0.24908E-09
0.24914E-09
0.25224E-09
0.25227E-09
0.40923E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
439.2836

1194.3096

755.0260

****
MOLE-X-PROFILE
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.38569E-02
0.39977
0.21622E-02
0.31529
0.16098E-02
0.25623
0.13917E-02
0.17887
0.l3897E-02
0.17040
0.10060E-02
0.15567
0.47615E-03
0.11477
0.28700E-03
0.87972E-Ol

****
ETHYLACE
0.32591
0.37711
0.41254
0.46645
0.48538
0.49404
0.52217
0.55747

MOLE-X-PROFILE
HOAC
0.15028E-07
0.90382E-07
0.52631E-06
0.97032E-04
0.52657E-03
0.52800E-03
0.59186E-03
0.11750E-02

****

****
MOLE-Y-PROFILE
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.93129E-02
0.51469
0.42275
0.49481E-02
0.35927E-02
0.35518
0.30006E-02
0.25852
0.29962E-02
0.24689
0.21530E-02
0.22745
0.10029E-02
0.17158
0.60817E-03
0.13347

****

****

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
7.6938

20.1111

MASS FLOW PROFILES

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

233

ETHYLACE
0.25720
0.31217
0.35312
0.41278
0.42406
0.43548
0.46906
0.49754

ETHANOL
0.73056E-02
0.73126E-02
0.70625E-02
0.59611E-02
0.56026E-02
0.55902E-02
0.52791E-02
0.47830E-02

ETHANOL
0.67540E-02
0.71953E-02
0.72009E-02
0.64118E-02
0.61217E-02
0.61700E-02
0.60044E-02
0.56253E02

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-810

(CONTINUED)

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
HOAC

0.20077E-08

0.12424E-07

O. 72702E- 07

0.13779E-04

0.77378E-04

0.77710E-04

0.88395E-04

0.18483E-03

****

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

STAGE
1
2

WATER
0.21205
0.25294
0.28091
0.31927
0.31985
0.32867
0.35226
0.36257

HYDROGEN
80348.
36476.
21612.
11024.
10432.
9116.9
6362.1
5231.8

WATER
0.80561
0.84818
0.87066
0.91942
0.94993
0.95775
0.98752
1.0410

HYDROGEN
0.54631E-15
0.24003E-15
0.40455E-15
0.79408E-15
0.82518E-15
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO

WATER
0.82912E-01
0.93669E-01
0.10117
0.10770
0.10267
0.10463
0.10819
0.10320

HYDROGEN
0.43970E-10
0.87840E-11

K-VALUES
****
ACETALD
2.4148
2.2886
2.2318
2.1561
2.1559
2.1403
2.1063
2 . 1191

****

****
ACETONE
1.2875
1. 3409
1.3862
1.4453
1.4489
1.4611
1.4950
1. 5172

K-VALUES

****
HOAC

0.13357

0 . 13742

0.13810

0.14199

0.14694

0.14718

0.14936

0.15731

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.29714E-02
0.40605
0.16612E-02
0.31935
0.12347E-02
0.25910
0.10555E-02
0.17886
0.10363E-02
0.16752
0.75004E-03
0.15302
O.35314E-03
0.11222
0.20793E-03
0.84031E-01

ETHYLACE
0.78927
0.82795
0.85612
0.88498
0.87368
0.88147
0.89829
0.89247
****

****
ETHYLACE
0 . 50218
0.57944
0.63283
0.70756
0.72387
0.73670
0.77454
0.80778

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
HOAC

0.15782E-07

0.94657E-07

0.55028E-06

0.10032E-03

0.53526E-03

0.53664E-03

0.59838E-03

O. 11605E- 02

****

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.71856E-02
0.52357
0.38132E-02
0.42953

****

234

ETHANOL
0.92443
0.98387
1.0195
1.0756
1.0926
1.1037
1.1374
1.1761

ETHYLACE
0.39689
0.48114

ETHANOL
0.58860E-02
0.58752E-02
0.56647E-02
0.47281E-02
0.43689E-02
0.43587E-02
0.40944E-02
0.36239E-02

ETHANOL
0.54496E-02
0.57988E-02

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-SIO (CONTINUED)


0.87665E-ll
3
6
0.88333E-11
7
0.87859E-11
o .l4252E-14
8
10
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
11

0.27625E-02
0.22963E-02
0.22803E-02
0.16386E-02
0.76220E-03
0.45863E-03

0.36007
0.26084
0.24773
0.22822
0.17192
0.13270

MASS-Y-PROFILE
HOAC
0.21117E-08
O. l3051E-07
0.76207E-07
0.14374E-04
0.80278E-04
0.80622E-04
0.91578E-04
0.19000E-03

****
STAGE
1
2
3
6
7
8
10
11

WATER
0.66908E-Ol
0.79715E-Ol
0.88333E-Ol
0.99920E-Ol
0.99550E-Ol
0.10229
0.10948
0.11181

RADFRAC REB-HCURVE: ACETONE


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

0.54305
0.63180
0.64549
0.66285
0.71297
0.75040

****

HCURVE 1

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON

(NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
24.9000
183.1507
0.0
245.4757
183 . 3695
BOO>O . O
24.9000
2.2937+04
24.9000
183.4705
5.3156-02
4.5875+04
24.9000
183.5689
0 . 1068
6.8812+04
24.9000
183.6639
0.1604
!------------+------------+------------+------------!
9.1750+04
24.9000
183.7557
0.2141
1.l469+05
24.9000
183.8446
0.2676
1.3762+05
24.9000
183.9310
0.3212
1.6056+05
184.0151
24.9000
0.3747
1.8350+05
24.9000
184.0974
0.4283
- -----------+------------+------------+-----------
184.1782
2.0644+05
24.9000
0 . 4818
2 . 2937+05
184 . 2581
24.9000
0.5353
2.5231+05
184.3375
24.9000
0.5889

RADFRAC CONDHCURVE: ACETONE


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY

PRES

HCURVE 1

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

RENON

TEMP

(NRTL)

VFRAC

235

REDLICH-KWONG

0.57904E-02
0.5l315E-02
0.4 8723E- 02
0.49106E-02
0.47721E-02
0.44363E-02

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-B10

BTU/HR

(CONTINUED)

PSI

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
22.0000
174.4885
1.0000
22.0000
DEW>1.0000
-3317.0574
170.2403
22.0000
0.9339
-3 .8 975+04
170.0385
-7.7950+04
22.0000
169.8144
0.8614
-1.1693+05
22.0000
169.5862
0.7887
!--------- -- -+----------- - +------------+------- - ----!
22.0000
169.3540
0.7158
-1.5590+05
-1.9488+05
169.1176
0.6427
22.0000
-2.3385+05
168.8772
0.5695
22.0000
-2 . 7283+05
22.0000
168 . 6329
0.4960
0.4223
-3.1180+05
22.0000
168.3847
!------------+------------+------------+------------!
-3 . 5078+05
22.0000
168.1326
0.3484

0.2743 !

! -3 .8975+05 !
167.8765 !
22.0000 !
22.0000 !
0.2000 !

! -4.2873+05 !
167.6159 !

ITEM: DC-900
BLOCK:
NEAZDIST MODEL: RADFRAC
- NDFEED
STAGE
6

- NEAZRECY STAGE
1

ETACACOH STAGE 12

PROPERTY OPTION SET:


NRTL-RK
HC-1

HENRY-COMPS ID:
INLETS
OUTLETS

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

93.0149
5933.43
-0.159980E+08

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

93.0149
5933.43
-0 . 157592E+08

0.152780E-15
0.276982E-12
-0.149287E-01

**********************

****

INPUT DATA

****

**********************

****

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

236

12
STANDARD
NO
STANDARD
NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-900 (CONTINUED)
COL-SPECS
****
****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST I TOTAL DIST


MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR DISTILLATE RATE
DIST + REFLUX DEG SUBCOOLED
PROFILES

****

P-SPEC

LBMOL/HR
F

0.0
1.80000
72.7032
2.00000

****
STAGE

PRES,

25.0000

PSI

*******************
****
RESULTS ****
*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
NEAZRECY
COMPONENT:
HYDROGEN
C02

ACETALD
***

1.0000
1 . 0000
.99999

ETACACOH
.21252E-41
. 22584E-11
.12760E-04

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS

COMPONENT:
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

***

NEAZRECY

ETACACOH

.99790
.75141
.99188
.99615
.23235E-02

.20984E-02
.24859
.81152E-02
.38485E-02
.99768

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOILUP RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY
DIST + REFLUX SUBCOOLED TEMP
SUB COOLED REFLUX DUTY

****

***
F
F

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR

BTU/HR
BTU/HR
F

BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE

****

0.25122E-05
0.10078E-04
0.10650E-06
0.63138E-05

237

183.909
221.036
130.866
20.3117
0.0
243.616
1.80000
11.9939
- 2,896,260.
3,150,280.
181. 909
-15,189.4

STAGE= 12
STAGE= 3
STAGE= 4 COMP=ACETALD
STAGE= 12

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-900 (CONTINUED)
PROFILES
****
****
**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
FOR THE
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F

PRESSURE
PSI

1
SUBC
2
5
6
7
10

25.000
25.000
27.000
27.300
27.400
27.500
27.800
27.900
28.000

11

12

183.91
181.91
189.95
196.30
198.30
202.03
209.64
212.64
221. 04

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
O.OOOOE+OO
1 130.9
SUBC 130.9
203.6
2 134.6
210.3
5 138 . 5
211.2
6 253.5
233.2
7 256.1
239.6
10 261.7
241.4
263.9
11
20.31
243.6
12

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR
-0.16155E+06
-0.16162E+06
-0.16947E+06
-0.18451E+06
-0.18549E+06
-0.19134E+06
-0.19846E+06
-0 . 19855E+06
-0.19736E+06

STAGE

****

MASS FLOW PROFILES

FLOW RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
7841.
O.OOOOE+OO
1
SUBC 7841.
2
8739.
0.1220E+05
5 0 . 1049E+05 0.1451E+05
6 0.1925E+05 0.1485E+05
7 0.2052E+05 0.1767E+05
10 0.2211E+05 0.2033E+05
11 0.2191E+05 0.2054E+05
12
1577.
0.2034E+05

LIQUID

HYDROGEN
0.13988E-06
0.26500E-I0
0.28227E-ll
0.20671E-ll
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

-0.14732E+06
-0.16091E+06
-0.16285E+06
-0.17095E+06
-0 . 18428E+06
-0.18550E+06
-0.18571E+06

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

-.28963+07
-.15189+05

.31503+07
PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
72.7031

93.0148

20.3116

****

STAGE

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

-0.14187E+06

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
4356.1007

5933.4341

1577.3333

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****

****
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.17419E-12
0.14553E-02
0.10041
0.98959E-14
0.66625E-03
0.65731E-Ol
0.21915E-14
0.23396E-03
0.35968E-Ol
0.22316E-14
0.21237E-03
0.33389E-Ol
0.65935E-04
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.19592E-Ol
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.12641E-05
0 . 3l289E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.31225E-06
0.16114E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.66470E-07
0.75579E-03

238

ETHYLACE

0.53625

0.62779

0.78863

0.77815

0.84363

0.89247
0.83078
0.63500

VESSELS

ITEM:

DC-900

(CONTINUED)

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

ETHANOL
0.87026E-02
0.68974E-02
0.38538E-02
0.36981E-02
0.24370E-02
0.54586E-03
0.35919E-03
0.25486E-03

MOLE-X-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.35295
0.23366E-03
0.29766
0.12561E-02
0.21184E-01
0.15013
0.13871
0.45841E-01
0.84134E-01
0.50136E-01
0.90222E-01
o .13634E-01
0.77673E-02
0.15948
0.48807E-02
0.35911

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

HYDROGEN
0.80807E-03
0.13988E-06
0.48354E-07
0.48144E-07
0.22472E-11
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.29452E-11
0.30501E-02
0.15079
0.17419E-12
0.14553E-02
0.10041
0.61806E-13
0.68541E-03
0.61257E-Ol
0.61391E-13
0.65431E-03
0.58149E-01
0.23087E-03
0.24260E-14
0.36231E-01
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.53464E-05
0.63559E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
o .13649E-05
0.33286E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.33274E-06
0.16827E-02

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

ETHANOL
0.99789E-02
0.87026E-02
0.58970E-02
0.55226E-02
0.39980E-02
0.95359E-03
0.57035E-03
0.36789E-03

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.35544
0.35449E-04
0.35295
0.23366E-03
0.23973
0.63532E-02
0.21994
0.13973E-01
0.15036
0.18552E-01
0.27067E-01
0.40972E-01
0.14371E-01
0.67595E-01
0.80080E-02
0.14283

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

HYDROGEN
5777.0
5277.7
17123.
23283 .
71363.
0.40074E+07
0.51337E+07
0.49047E+07

****

****

ETHYLACE
0.47990
0.53625
0.68608
0.70176
0.79062
0.92465
0.91413
0.84711

****

****

****
STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

ETHANOL
1.1467
1.2617
1.5302
1. 4 934
1.6405
1.7470
1.5879
1.4435

STAGE
1
2

HYDROGEN
0.47062E-08
0.82295E-12

K-VALUES

CO2
16.907
17.601
28.200
27.508
33 . 894
39.163
32.851
36.264

WATER
1.0071
1.1857
1.5967
1.5856
1.7872
1.9853
1.8502
1. 6407

****
ACETALD
2.0958
2.1842
2.9295
3.0809
3.5014
4.2295
4.3712
5.0057

K-VALUES

ACETONE
1. 5017
1 . 5276
1.7031
1.7416
1.8493
2.0314
2.0657
2.2265

ETHYLACE
0.89492
0.85421
0.86997
0.90184
0.93717
1.0361
1.1003
1.3340

****

HOAC
0.15171
0.18600
0.29989
0.30480
0.37002
0.45414
0.42385
0.39775

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.12795E-12
0.10700E-02
0.97336E-01
0.67091E-14
0.45214E-03
0.58810E-01

****

239

ETHYLACE
0.78855
0.85207

...

VESSELS
ITEM: DC-900 (CONTINUED)
0.75130E-13
5
o .54 879E-13
6
7
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
10
O.OOOOOE+OO
11
O.OOOOOE+OO
12

o .12734E-14
0.12934E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

o .13609E-03
0.12321E-03
0.36259E-04
0.65900E-06
0.16568E-06
0.37708E-07

0.27583E-Ol
0.25539E-Ol
o .14205E-Ol
0.21505E-02
o .11273E-02
0.56526E-03

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

ETHANOL
O. 66914E- 02
0.48950E-02
0.23442E-02
0.22437E-02
0.14015E-02
0.29759E-03
0.19931E-03
0.15119E-03

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.10612
0.23419E-03
0.82609E-Ol
0.11620E-02
0.35711E-Ol
0.16797E-Ol
0.32909E-Ol
0.36255E-Ol
0.18920E-Ol
0.37584E-Ol
0.29067E-02
0.64117E-Ol
0.16854E-02
0.11535
0 . 11323E-02
0.27770

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

HYDROGEN
0.28066E-04
0 . 47062E-08
0.14125E-08
o .13807E-08
0.59778E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
CO2
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.22332E-ll
0.23150E-02
0.15089
0 . 12795E-12
0 . 10700E-02
0.97336E-Ol
0.39417E-13
0.51557E-Ol
0.43755E-03
0.48047E-Ol
0.38437E-13
0.41007E-03
0.14089E-14
0.27769E-Ol
o .13421E-03
0.27765E-05
0.43517E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.70672E-06
0.22723E-02
O.OOOOOE+OO
0.17561E-06
o .11709E-02

STAGE
1
2
5
6
7
10
11
12

ETHANOL
0 . 79206E-02
0.66914E-02
0.39368E-02
0 . 36195E-02
0 . 24305E-02
0.51788E-03
0.30883E-03
0.20304E-03

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
WATER
HOAC
0.11032
0.36677E-04
0.10612
0.23419E-03
0.62584E-Ol
0.55288E-02
0.56368E-Ol
0.11938E-Ol
0 . 35746E-Ol
0.14702E-Ol
0.57483E-02
0.29005E-Ol
0.30430E-02
0.47712E-Ol
0.17283E - 02
0.10276

0.91743
0.90293
0.92785
0.93053
0.88163
0.72045

****

****

****

RADFRAC REB-HCURVE: NEAZDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON

(NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!

0.0
2510.6086
2.8639+05

28.0000
28.0000
28.0000

212.6416
212.8657
213.1768

240

0.0
BUB>O.O
8.2608-02

ETHYLACE
0.72848
0.78855
0 . 87596
0.87962
0.91922
0.96037
0.94666
0.89414

VESSELS

ITEM: DC-900 (CONTINUED)

28 . 0000
213.5200
5.7278+05
0.1660
8.5917+05
28.0000
213.9019
0.2496
------------+------------+------------+-----------
28.0000
1.1456+06
214.3344
0.3332
28.0000
214.8328
1.4319+06
0.4170
28.0000
1.7183+06
215.4176
0.5009
2.0047+06
28.0000
216.1166
0.5849
2.2911+06
28.0000
216.9681
0.6691
!------------+------------+------------+-----------
2.5775+06
28.0000
218.0244
0.7534
219.3539
0.8380
28.0000
2.8639+06
28.0000
221.0362
3.1503+06
0.9230

RADFRAC CONDHCURVE: NEAZDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE :
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON

(NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
25.0000
189.5595
1.0000

-1.7636+04
25.0000
185.5610
DEW>1.0000

-2.6468+05
25.0000
185.3809
0.9133

-5.2935+05
25.0000
185.2168
0.8209

-7.9403+05
25.0000
185.0710
0.7287

!------------+------------+------------+------------!
-1.0587+06
25.0000
184.9356
0.6368
-1.3234+06
25.0000
184.8049
0.5450
-1.5881+06
25 . 0000
184.6750
0.4533
-1.8527+06
25.0000
184.5426
0.3616
25.0000
-2.1174+06
184.4055
0.2699
------------+------------+------------+-----------
-2.3821+06
25.0000
184.2614
0 . 1782

25.0000
-2.6468+06
184.1087
8.6488-02

25.0000
-2.8963+06
183.9088
BUB>O.O

-2.9114+06
25.0000
181.9088
0.0

UNIT: DC-910
BLOCK:
ETACDIST MODEL: RADFRAC
INLETS
OUTLETS

- ETACACOH STAGE 13
- ETOAC
STAGE
1
ACOHPROD STAGE 23
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
NRTL-RK
HENRY-COMPS 10:
HC-1

RENON

241

(NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-9I0

(CONTINUED)
MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE
IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE

MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

20.3117

1577.33

-0.400864E+07

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF .

20.3117
1577.33
-0.403129E+07

-0.144151E-11
0.562018E-02

O.OOOOOOE+OO

**********************

INPUT DATA

****

****

**********************

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

****

NUMBER OF STAGES

ALGORITHM OPTION

ABSORBER OPTION

INITIALIZATION OPTION

HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS

INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD

DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD

MAXIMUM NO. OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS

MAXIMUM NO. OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS

MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS

FLASH TOLERANCE

OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

COL-SPECS

****

PROFILES

P-SPEC

0.0
1.80000
1,139.31

****

STAGE

PRES, PSI

16.0000

*******************

****

RESULTS

****

*******************

***

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
ETOAC
COMPONENT:

ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
***

1.0000
.99999
.99870
. 99948

ACOHPROD

.13575E-09
.60485E-05
.12975E-02
.51786E-03

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

OUTLET STREAMS
ETOAC
COMPONENT:

WATER
HOAC

25

10

50

0.00010000
0.00010000

****

MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST

MOLAR REFLUX RATIO

MASS DISTILLATE RATE


LB/HR

****

23

STANDARD

NO

STANDARD

NO

BROYDEN

NESTED

.99960
.33680E-02

ACOHPROD

.40020E-03

.99663

242

VESSELS
(CONTINUED)
SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

UNIT: DC-910

***

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
MOLAR BOILUP RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY

***

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL / HR

BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATI VE ERRORS

****

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE
****

PROFILES

174.959
2 62.932
23.4457
7.28629
0.0
47.0546
1.80000
6.45796
-509,575.
486,919.

F
F

****
0.48994E-04
0.51094E-04
o .19630E-05
0.19249E-03

STAGE=
9
STAGE= 9
STAGE= 13 COMP=HOAC
STAGE= 17

****

**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW .

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F
1
2
11

12
13

14
21
22
23
STAGE

1
2
11

12
13
14
21
22
23

174 . 96
182.05
187.34
189.23
192 . 92
193.35
258.62
261.71
262 . 93

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

PRESSURE
PSI
16.000
18.000
18.900
19.000
19.100
19.200
19.900
20.000
20.100

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
23.45
O.OOOOE+OO
23.97
36.47
24 . 42
37.32
24.60
37.45
36.32
43.63
36.34
43.66
53 . 95
45.53
54.34
46.67
7.286
47.05

- 0.20137E+06
-0.20150E+06
-0 . 20078E+06
-0.20030E+06
-0.19943E+06
-0.19947E+06
-0.19347E+06
-0.19333E+06
-0.19329E+06

LIQUID

-0.18651E+06
-0.18740E+06
-0.18751E+06
-0.18738E+06
-0.18715E+06
-0.18727E+06
-0.18328E+06
-0 . 18307E+06
-0.18299E+06

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
-.50957+06

.48692+06
PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
13.0253

1.3058
19.0057

7.2862

243

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-9ID

****
STAGE

1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

(CONTINUED)
MASS FLOW PROFILES

FLOW RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
2051.
O.OOOOE+OO
3190.
2104.
2089.
3237.
2067.
3228.
3539.
3097.
3101.
3541.
3277.
2843.
2839.
3275.
2837.
438.0

****

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

109.2235
1468.1098

438.0283

MOLE-X-PROFILE
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.11786E-02
0.98893
0.53806E-03
0.99255
0.27172E-03
0.91129
0.27028E-03
0.85736
0.24582E-03
0.75436
o .13254E-03
0.75284
0.21373E-06
0.24239E-Ol
0.53084E-07
0.76123E-02
0.12744E-07
0.22967E-02

****

STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

ACETALD
0.10365E-06
0.21081E-07
0.87037E - 08
0.86100E-08
0.64211E-08
0.15149E-08
0.33483E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

****
STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

MOLE-X-PROFILE

ACETALD
0.51813E-06
0.10365E-06
0.41839E-07
0.41730E-07
0.32639E-07
0.77086E-08
0.42922E-13
0.38672E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO

MOLE-Y-PROFILE
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.25996E-02
0.97730
0.11786E-02
0.98893
0.58811E-03
0.95722
0.58715E-03
0.93830
0.54694E-03
0.90473
0.29510E-03
0.90515
0.95972E-06
0.85087E-Ol
0.24511E-06
0.27665E-Ol
0.59330E-07
0.84354E - 02

****
STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14

****
ETHANOL
0.39722E-03
0.18052E-03
0.11860E-03
0.13464E-03
0.15451E-03
0.12950E-03
0.38914E-05
0.12230E-05
0.36792E-06

WATER
0.76079E-02
0.31573E-02
0.18132E-02
0.19847E-02
0.21860E-02
0.15095E-02
0.39920E-04
0.15080E-04
0 . 54450E-05

****

HOAC
0.18860E-02
0.35759E-02
0.86502E-Ol
0.14025
0.24305
0.24539
0.97572
0.99237
0.99770

****

STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LB / HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
113 9.3050

MOLE-Y-PROFILE

HOAC
0.95836E-03
0.18860E-02
0.38209E-Ol
0.57070E-01
0 . 90704E-Ol
0.91746E-Ol

244

****
ETHANOL
0.86679E-03
0.39722E-03
0.20956E-03
0.21551E-03
0.22125E-03
0 . 18542E-03
0.13513E-04
0.44416E-05
o .13555E-05

****

WATER
0.18275E-Ol
0.76079E-02
0.37707E-02
0.38288E-02
0.38001E-02
0.26232E-02
0.11525E-03
0.45302E-04
0.16572E-04

VESSELS

UNIT: DC-910 (CONTINUED)

0.91478
21
22
0 . 97228
23
0.99155
K-VALUES
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
2.2058
0.98824
2.1904
0.99635
2.1644
1.0504
2.1724
1.0944
2.2250
1.1993
2.2266
1.2023
4.4904
3.5104
4.6175
3.6343
4.6557
3.6728

****
STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

ACETALD
4.9987
4.9170
4.8070
4.8467
5 . 0830
5.0885
12.819
13.195
13.301

****
STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

ACETALD
0.52205E-07
0.10582E-07
0.44825E-08
0.45144E-08
0.34870E-08
0 . 82281E-09
0.24288E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
O . OOOOOE+OO

MASS X-PROFILE
****
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
0.78258E-03
0.99615
0.35609E-03
0.99645
0.18449E-03
0.93864
0.18684E-03
0.89907
0.17600E-03
0.81932
0 . 94907E-04
0 . 81781
0.20440E-06
0.35165E-01
0.51159E-07
0.11129E-Ol
0.12312E-07
0.33661E-02

WATER
2.4021
2.4096
2.0796
1.9293
1.7385
1.7379
2.8871
3.0041
3.0436

****

MASS-X-PROFILE

****
ETHANOL
0.20921E-03
0.94760E-04
0.63874E-04
0.73824E-04
0.87747E-04
0.73556E-04
0.29520E-05
0.93493E-06
0.28195E-06

WATER
0.15670E-02
0 . 64812E-03
0.38188E-03
0.42555E-03
0.48546E-03
0.33529E - 03
0.11842E-04
0.45080E-05
0 . 16317E-05

****

HOAC
0.12949E-02
0.24469E-02
0.60728E-Ol
0.10024
0.17993
0.18169
0.96482
0.98887
0.99663
MASS-Y-PROFILE
ETHYLACE
ACETONE
0.17418E-02
0.99334
0.78258E-03
0.99615
0.97226
0.39378E-03
0.39556E-03
0.95894
0.37254E-03
0.93483

****

STAGE
1
2
11
12
13

ETHANOL
2.1821
2.2004
1.7670
1.6008
1.4320
1.4319
3.4724
3.6316
3.6841

HOAC
0.50813
0.52743
0.44172
0.40694
0.37320
0.37391
0.93755
0.97976
0.99383

****
STAGE
1
2
11
12
13
14
21
22
23

K-VALUES

****

ACETALD
0.26332E-06
0.52205E-07
0.21248E-07
O. 21324E- 07
0.16862E-07

245

****
ETHANOL
0.46066E-03
0.20921E - 03
0.11130E-03
o .11516E-03
0 . 11953E-03

WATER
0.37980E-02
0.15670E - 02
0.78312E-03
0.80010E - 03
0.80286E-03

VESSELS
UNIT: DC-910 (CONTINUED)
0.39796E-08
14
0.30286E-13
21
22
0.28008E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
23

0.20086E-03
0.89279E-06
0.23404E-06
0.57157E-07

MASS-Y-PROFILE

****
STAGE
1
2
11

12
13
14
21
22
23

0 . 93458
0.12007
0.40072E-01
0.12328E-01

0.10010E-03
0.99708E-05
0.33640E-05
0.10358E-05

****

HOAC
0.66393E-03
0.12949E-02
0.26452E-01
0 . 39754E-01
0.63880E-01
0.64566E-01
0.87988
0.95991
0.98767

RADFRAC REB-HCURVE: ETACDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
20.1000
261.7049
0.0
294.9185
BUB>O.O
20.1000
262.0238
4.4265+04
20 . 1000
262.2445
7.7763-02
8.8531+04
20.1000
262.4033
0.1562
20.1000
1.3280+05
262.5220
0.2349
!------------+------------+------------+------------!
1.7706+05
20.1000
262.6139
0.3136
2.2133+05
20.1000
262.6872
0.3924
2.6559+05
20.1000
0.4712
262.7469
3.0986+05
20 . 1000
262.7964
0.5501
20.1000
3.5412+05
262.8382
0.6290
!-------- - ---+------------+------------+------------!
20.1000
262.8739
0 . 7080
3.9839+05
4.4265+05 !
20.1000 !
0.7869 !
262.9048 !
4.8692+05 !
20.1000 !
0.8659 !
262.9318 !

RADFRAC CONDHCURVE: ETACDIST HCURVE 1


INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY

PRES

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

TEMP

VFRAC

246

/ REDLICH-KWONG

0.55380E-03
0.33256E-04
0 . 13417E-04
0.49521E-05

VESSELS

UNIT: DC-910

BTU/HR

(CONTINUED)

PSI

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
16.0000
181.6249
1 . 0000
16 . 0000
175 . 4321
DEW>1.0000
-6816.3628
16.0000
175 . 4104
-4.6325+04
0.9213
-9.2650+04
16.0000
175.3842
0.8290
16.0000
-1.3897+05
175.3565
0.7368
------------+------------+- - ----- - ----+-----------
16.0000
-1.8530+05
175.3266
0.6446
-2.3162+05
16.0000
175.2938
0.5524
16 . 0000
-2.7795+05
175.2572
0 . 4603
16 . 0000
175.2155
-3.2427+05
0.3681
16.0000
-3.7060+05
175.1674
0.2760
!------------+-------- - ---+-- - - - -------+-----------
16.0000
-4.1692+05
175.1107
0.1839
-4.6325+05
16.0000
175.0425
9.1967-02
16.0000
174.9589
0.0
- 5.0957+05

ITEM: DE-720

BLOCK:

DECANTER MODEL: DECANTER

INLET STREAM:
FIRST LIQUID OUTLET :
SECOND LIQUID OUTLET:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY - COMPS ID:

14

DECETAC
DECWATER
NRTL-RK
HC-l

***

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

818.677
36555.2
-0.123667E+09

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

818.677
36555.2
-0.123670E+09

0.111093E-14
0.186056E-06
0.233092E-04

***
INPUT DATA ***
LIQUID-LIQUID SPLIT, PQ SPECIFICATION
SPECIFIED HEAT DUTY - BLOCK SPEC
BTU/HR
0.0
SPECIFIED PRESSURE DROP
PSI
0.50000
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE ON EQUILIBRIUM
0.10000E-03
MAXIMUM NO ITERATIONS ON EQUILIBRIUM
30
EQUILIBRIUM METHOD
EQUATION-SOLVING
OPTION SET OR EOS
KLL COEFFICIENTS FROM
KLL BASIS
MOLE
NO KEY COMPONENT IS SPECIFIED

OUTLET TEMPERATURE
OUTLET PRESSURE
CALCULATED HEAT DUTY
MOLAR RATIO 1ST LIQUID /

***
RESULTS ***
F
PSI
BTU / HR
TOTAL LIQUID

LI-L2 PHASE EQUILIBRIUM


COMP
F
HYDROGEN
0.591754 - 07
0.747201-13
C02

Xl

117.51
35.500
-2882 . 6
0.54114

X2

0.109333-06
0.136155-12

247

0.255060-10
0 . 227032 - 14

0.000 2 3329
0.016675

VESSELS
ITEM:

ITEM:

DE-720 (CONTINUED)
0 . 00071625
ACETALD
ACETONE
0 . 051802
ETHYLACE
0 . 31299
0.0051848
ETHANOL
0.57082
WATER
0.058487
HOAC

0.0011375
0.078651
0.55781
0.0068579
0.27694
0.078601

0.00021945
0.020138
0.024284
0.0032117
0.91738
0.034766

0.19293
0.25604
0.043534
0.46833
3.31255
0.44230

ST-800

BLOCK:

STRIPPER MODEL: RADFRAC

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ------

- DECWATER
STEAM
- 45
OUTLETS
WAS WATER
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID :

INLETS

STAGE
2
STAGE
6
STAGE
1
STAGE
6
NRTL-RK
HC-l

RENON (NRTL) / REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

495.662
10457.0
-0.597787E+08

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

495.662
10457.0
-0.607587E+08

O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.123991E-ll
0 . 161293E-Ol

**********************

INPUT DATA

****

****

**********************

INPUT PARAMETERS

****

****

NUMBER OF STAGES
ALGORITHM OPTION
ABSORBER OPTION
INITIALIZATION OPTION
HYDRAULIC PARAMETER CALCULATIONS
INSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE METHOD
DESIGN SPECIFICATION METHOD
MAXIMUM NO . OF OUTSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NO . OF INSIDE LOOP ITERATIONS
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF FLASH ITERATIONS
FLASH TOLERANCE
OUTSIDE LOOP CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE
COL-SPECS
****
****
MOLAR VAPOR DIST / TOTAL DIST
MOLAR DISTILLATE RATE
REBOILER DUTY
PROFILES

****

P-SPEC

LBMOL / HR
BTU/HR

1.00000
20 . 1112
0.0

****

STAGE

PRES, PSI

25.0000

*******************

****

RESULTS

****

*******************

***

STANDARD
NO
STANDARD
NO
BROYDEN
NESTED
25
10
50
0.00010000
0.00010000

COMPONENT SPLIT FRACTIONS

***

248

VESSELS
ITEM: ST-800

(CONTINUED)
OUTLET STREAMS
-------------

45
COMPONENT:
HYDROGEN
ACETALD
ACETONE
ETHYLACE
ETHANOL
WATER
HOAC

WASWATER

1.0000
.91236
.66785
.97572
.92295E-Ol
.12820E-Ol
.11172E- 02

. 86878E-27
.87637E-Ol
.33215
.24277E-Ol
.90771
.98718
.99888

SUMMARY OF KEY RESULTS

***

TOP STAGE TEMPERATURE


BOTTOM STAGE TEMPERATURE
TOP STAGE LIQUID FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE LIQUID FLOW
TOP STAGE VAPOR FLOW
BOTTOM STAGE VAPOR FLOW
MOLAR REFLUX RATIO
CONDENSER DUTY (W/O SUBCOOL)
REBOILER DUTY
****

***

LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
LBMOL/HR
BTU/HR
BTU/HR

MAXIMUM FINAL RELATIVE ERRORS

DEW POINT
BUBBLE POINT
COMPONENT MASS BALANCE
ENERGY BALANCE
****

PROFILES

182.052
234.068
71.1622
475.550
20.1112
109.250
3.53844
-979,980.
0.0

F
F

****

O.74175E-04
0.17600E-03
0.12572E-05
o .11998E-04

STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=
STAGE=

4 COMP=ETHYLACE
4

****

**NOTE** REPORTED VALUES FOR STAGE LIQUID AND VAPOR RATES ARE THE FLOWS
FROM THE STAGE EXCLUDING ANY SIDE PRODUCT.
FOR THE FIRST STAGE,
THE REPORTED VAPOR FLOW IS THE VAPOR DISTILLATE FLOW.
FOR THE
LAST STAGE, THE REPORTED LIQUID FLOW IS THE LIQUID BOTTOMS FLOW.

STAGE TEMPERATURE
F
1
2
3
4

5
6

STAGE

1
2
3
4
5
6

182.05
181.81
181.89
181.80
200.33
234.07

ENTHALPY
BTU/LBMOL
LIQUID
VAPOR

PRESSURE
PSI
25.000
27.000
27.100
27.200
27.300
27.400

FLOW RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR
LIQUID
20.11
71. 16
91.27
481. 4
125.9
481. 5
125.9
470.4
114.9
464.8
109.3
475.6

-0.16051E+06
-0.13152E+06
-0.13007E+06
-0.12664E+06
-0.12334E+06
-0.12194E+06

LIQUID

-0.13764E+06
-0.14473E+06
-O.14006E+06
-O.13452E+06
-0.12091E+06
-0.10658E+06

FEED RATE
LBMOL/HR
VAPOR

MIXED

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
-.97998+06

PRODUCT RATE
LBMOL/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
20.1111

375.6616

120.0000

249

475.5504

VESSELS
ITEM: ST-800 (CONTINUED)
**** MASS FLOW PROFILES
FLOW RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
4467.
1194.
0.1475E+05
5661.
0.1457E+05
7644.
0.1274E+05
7469.
0.1008E+05
5638.
9263.
2982.

****

STAGE

1
2
3
4
5
6

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

HYDROGEN
0.37543E-13
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

LIQUID

FEED RATE
LB/HR
VAPOR

8295.1546

2161.8336
****
MOLE-X-PROFILE
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.16884E-02
0.17387
0.55181E-03
0.68200E-01
0.48698E-03
0.84100E-01
0.30684E-03
0.81901E-01
0.33847E-01
0.92474E-04
0.15193E-04
0.52837E-02
MOLE-X-PROFILE
HOAC

0.43113E-02

0.28063E-01

0.28444E-01

0.31350E-01

0.34845E-01

0.27432E-01

****

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

WATER
0.28135
0.77683
0.77430
0.81800
0.91485
0.96450

HYDROGEN
0.47643E-09
0.10501E-09
0.27641E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

WATER
0.29619
0.28462
0.28058
0.27099
0.40172
0.79228

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

HYDROGEN
12684.
0.14523E+06
0.19771E+06
0.69594E+06
0.61458E+07
0.12434E+08

MIXED

PRODUCT RATE
LB/HR
LIQUID
VAPOR
1194.3096

****
MOLE-Y-PROFILE
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.37400E-02
0.25122
0.21405E-02
0.19091
0.24087
0.20530E-02
0.18049E-02
0.30165
0.31348
0.11935E-02
0.32729E-03
0.12100
****
MOLE-Y-PROFILE
HOAC

0.72549E-03

0.35212E-02

0.36938E-02

0.51540E-02

0.14821E-01

0.28836E-01

K-VALUES
ACETALD
ACETONE
2.2150
l.4449
3.8786
2.7992
4.2157
2.8638
5.8833
3.6826
12.908
9.2608
21.544
22.900

****

250

9262.6785

****
ETHYLACE
0.53391
0.12230
0.10724
0.60333E-01
0.93990E-02
0.46571E-03

ETHANOL
0.48728E-02
0.40599E-02
0.54299E-02
0.81096E-02
0.69620E-02
0.23030E-02

****

****
ETHYLACE
0.44259
0.51379
0.46597
0.40834
0.24511
0.37961E-01

ETHANOL
0.55370E-02
0.50191E-02
0.68272E-02
0.12065E-01
0.23674E-01
0.19595E-01

****

****
ETHYLACE
0.82897
4.2007
4.3439
6.7661
26.073
8l.508

ETHANOL
1.1363
1.2362
1.2571
l.4875
3.3999
8.5085

VESSELS

ITEM: ST-SOO

(CONTINUED)

****
STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

WATER
1.0527
0.36639
0.36237
0.33127
0.43910
0.82144

K-VALUES

MASS-X-PROFILE
ACETONE
ACETALD
0.11851E-02
0.16089
0.79370E-03
0.12933
0.70891E-03
0 . 16141
0.49918E-03
0.17566
0.18779E-03
0.90622E-01
0.34361E-04
0.15755E - 01

****

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

HYDROGEN
0.12058E-14
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

WATER
0.80753E-01
0.45693
0.46094
0.54421
0.75977
0.89208

HYDROGEN
0 . 16173E-10
0.34131E-11
0.91759E-16
O.OOOOOE+OO
O. OOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOE+OO

WATER
0.89851E-01
0.82673E-01
0.83237E-01
0.82293E-01
0.14747
0.52294

****
ETHYLACE
0.74947
0.35181
0.31223
0.19631
0.38175E-01
0.21066E-02

MASS-X-PROFILE
****
HOAC
0.41250E-02
0.55025E-01
0.56445E-01
0.69525E-01
0.96462E-01
0.84578E-01

****

MASS-Y-PROFILE
****
ACETALD
ACETONE
0.27744E-02
0.24570
0.17878
0.15204E-02
0.14893E-02
0.23038
o .13403E-02
0 . 29532
0.10714E-02
0.37102
0.52826E-03
0.25748

****

MASS-Y-PROFILE
HOAC
0.73364E-03
0.34095E-02
0 . 36528E-02
0.52173E-02
0.18137E-01
0.63444E-01

****

STAGE
1
2
3
4
5
6

****

HOAC
0.16827
0.12547
0.12984
0.16437
0.42527
1.0511

251

ETHYLACE
0.65665
0.72989
0.67607
0.60646
0.44008
0.12254

****

ETHANOL
0.35765E-02
0.61068E-02
0.82661E-02
o .13797E-01
0 . 14785E-01
0.54470E-02

ETHANOL
0.42954E--02
0.37282E-02
0.51793E-02
0.93697E-02
0.22224E-01
0.33074E-01

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: F-230

BLOCK:

FURNACE

MODEL: HEATER

INLET STREAMS:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

HOACHOT
RXFEED
NRTL-RK
HC-1

H2HOT
RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

4958.76
62974.3
-0.158187E+09
***

INPUT DATA

TWO
PHASE TP FLASH
SPECIFIED TEMPERATURE
SPECIFIED PRESSURE
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

4958.76
62974.3
-0.145495E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO

-O.802334E-01

***

599.000
252.000
30
0.00010000

PSI

***

RESULTS

***

OUTLET TEMPERATURE
F
OUTLET PRESSURE
PSI
HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
OUTLET VAPOR FRACTION
V-L PHASE EQUILIBRIUM
F (I)
COMP
HYDROGEN
0.77844
0.23541E-01
CO2
METHANE
0.18794E-01
ETHYLENE
0.61486E-02
ETHANE
0.57369E-02
ACETALD
0.28449E-02
ACETONE
0.99096E-03
ETHYLACE
0 . 20783E-02
ETHANOL
0.75496E-04
WATER
0 . 14542E-01
HOAC
0.14681

599.00
252.00
0.12692E+08
1.0000

X (I)
0.21782E-04
0.21778E-03
0.78448E-03
0.13373E-02
0.20174E-02
0.76336E-02
0.46606E-02
o .11355E-01
0.32673E-03
O.26451E-01
0.94520

Y(I)
0.77844
0.23541E-01
0.18794E-01
0.61486E-02
0.57369E-02
0.28449E-02
0.99096E-03
0.20783E-02
0.75496E-04
o .14542E-01
0.14681

ITEM: HX-200

BLOCK:

HOACHEAT MODEL: HEATX

HOT SIDE:
---------

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
COLD SIDE:

RXHOAC

RX2

NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL) / REDLICH-KWONG

---------INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

HOACHOT

NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL) / REDLICH-KWONG

252

K(I)
0.45846E+06
1386.7
307.34
58.983
36.481
4.7808
2 . 7277
2.3480
2.9642
7.0528
1.9926

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-200

(CONTINUED)
MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE
IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

2354.84
63355.2
-0.186509E+09
***

INPUT DATA

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

2354.84
63355.2
-0.186509E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
0.798951E-15

***

FLASH SPECS FOR HOT SIDE:


TWO
PHASE
FLASH
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLASH SPECS FOR COLD SIDE:


TWO
PHASE
FLASH
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLOW DIRECTION AND SPECIFICATION:


COUNTERCURRENT
HEAT EXCHANGER
SPECIFIED HOT VAPOR FRACTION
SPECIFIED VALUE
LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR
PRESSURE SPECIFICATION:
HOT SIDE PRESSURE DROP
COLD SIDE PRESSURE DROP

1.0000
1.00000

PSI
PSI

5 . 0000
8.0000

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT SPECIFICATION:


HOT LIQUID
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD LIQUID
HOT LIQUID
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT LIQUID
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
***

OVERALL RESULTS

149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937

***

STREAMS:
1

RXHOAC
----->1
T= 5.5681D+02
1
P= 2.5092D+02
1
V= 1.0000D+00
I

HOT

HOACHOT
<-----1
T= 4.6467D+02
I
P= 2.5500D+02
1
V= 1.3360D-01
1

COLD

253

1
1-----> RX2
T=
1
P=
1
V=
1
1
1<----- 2
T=
1
p=
1
V=
1

2.8014D+02
2.4592D+02
1 . 0000D+00

2.4194D+02
2.6300D+02
O.OOOOD+OO

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-200 (CONTINUED)
DUTY AND AREA:

CALCULATED HEAT DUTY


CALCULATED (REQUIRED) AREA

BTU/HR
SQFT

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT:

AVERAGE COEFFICIENT (DIRTY)

4305262.2823

731.4923

BTU/HR-SQFT-R

96.0740

LOG-MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE:

LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR


LMTD (CORRECTED)
F
PRESSURE DROP:

HOTSIDE, TOTAL
COLDSIDE, TOTAL

1.0000

61.2610

PSI
PSI

***

5.0000

8.0000

ZONE RESULTS

***

TEMPERATURE LEAVING EACH ZONE:


HOT

RXHOAC

VAP

VAP

------ >

556.8

HOACHOT

498.21

BOIL

LIQ

<- - ---

280 . 1
2

1<-----

464.7

RX2

1------ >

464.21

241. 9

COLD
ZONE HEAT TRANSFER AND AREA:
ZONE
1
2

HEAT DUTY
BTU/ HR

AREA
SQFT

941032.235
3364230.048

HEATX COLD-HCURVE:

DTLM
F

107.8474
623.6448

58.2896
36 . 0367

149.6937
149.6937

HOACHEAT HCURVE 1

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
3.9139+05
7.8277+05
1.1742+06

AVERAGE U
BTU/HR-SQFT-R

255.0000
255.0000
255.0000
255.0000

241.9905
274.3506
305.1550
334.2501

254

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-200 (CONTINUED)
255 . 0000
1 . 5655+06
361.5443
0.0
------------+------------+-------- - ---+-----------
1.9569+06
255.0000
387 . 0089
0.0

2 . 3483+06
255.0000
410.6693
0.0

2.7397+06
432.5909
255.0000
0.0

3.1311+06
255 . 0000
452.8610
0.0

255.0000
3.3495+06
BUB>O.O

463.4916
------------+------------+------------+-----------
255.0000
3 . 5225+06
463 . 7365
2.3952-02
255 . 0000
3 . 913 9+06
464.2370
7 . 8545-02
4 . 3053+06
255.0000
464.6727
0.1336

HEATX HOT-HCURVE:

HOACHEAT HCURVE 1

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID :

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
245.9153
0.0
556 . 7709
1.0000

-3.9139+05
245.9153
532.4844
1.0000

-7.8277+05
245.9153
508.0415
1.0000

-1.1742+06
245.9153
483.4375
1.0000

245.9153
-1.5655+06
458.6674
1.0000

------------+------------+------------+-----------
-1.9569+06
245.9153
433.7258
1.0000

245 . 9153
408.6071
1.0000

-2.3483+06
-2.7397+06
245.9153
383.3055
1.0000

245.9153
-3.1311+06
357.8145
1.0000

245.9153
-3.5225+06
332.1279
1.0000

------------+------------+------------+---------- -
-3.9139+06
245.9153
306.2390
1.0000

- 4.3053+06
245.9153
1.0000

280.1406

ITEM: HX-210
BLOCK:
H2HEAT

MODEL: HEATX

HOT SIDE:
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID :

RXH2
RX3
NRTL-RK
HC-l

RENON (NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

RENON

/ REDLICH-KWONG

COLD SIDE:
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS 10:

H2HOT
NRTL-RK
HC-l

255

(NRTL)

HEA TERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-210

(CONTINUED)
MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE
IN

***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

7548.63
62598.8
-0.130228E+09
INPUT DATA

***

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

7548.63
62598.8
-0.130228E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.228848E-15

***

FLASH SPECS FOR HOT SIDE:


TWO
PHASE
FLASH
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLASH SPECS FOR COLD SIDE:


TWO
PHASE
FLASH
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLOW DIRECTION AND SPECIFICATION:


COUNTERCURRENT
HEAT EXCHANGER
SPECIFIED HOT VAPOR FRACTION
SPECIFIED VALUE
LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR
PRESSURE SPECIFICATION:
HOT SIDE PRESSURE DROP
COLD SIDE PRESSURE DROP

1.0000
1.00000

5.0000
8.0000

PSI
PSI

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT SPECIFICATION:


HOT LIQUID
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT LIQUID
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
HOT VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD 2-PHASE
HOT LIQUID
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
***

OVERALL RESULTS

149.6937
149.6937
149 . 6937
149 . 6937
149 . 6937
149 . 6937
149.6937
149.6937
149 . 6937

***

STREAMS :

---- >
RXH2
T= 5.56810+02
P= 2.50920+02
V= 1.00000+00

HOT

-- - >

RX3
T= 2.80140+02
P= 2.45920+02
V= 1.00000+00

<----
H2HOT
T= 4.77610+02
P= 2.54820+02
V= 1.00000+00

COLD

<----

7
T=
P=
V=

DUTY AND AREA:


CALCULATED HEAT DUTY
CALCULATED (REQUIRED) AREA

BTU/HR
SQFT

256

8740987.0580
745.1360

2.02600+02
2.62820+02
1.00000+00

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-210 (CONTINUED)
HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT:
AVERAGE COEFFICIENT (DIRTY)

BTU/HR-SQFT-R

149.6937

LOG-MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE:


LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR
LMTD (CORRECTED)
F
PRESSURE DROP:
HOTSIDE, TOTAL
COLDSIDE, TOTAL

1.0000
78.3649

PSI
PSI

***

ZONE RESULTS

5.0000
8.0000

***

TEMPERATURE LEAVING EACH ZONE:


HOT
1

VAP

RXH2

RX3

1------>

------>

556.8

280.1

VAP

H2HOT

1< - ----

<-----

477.6

202.6

COLD
ZONE HEAT TRANSFER AND AREA:
ZONE
1

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
8740987.058

HEATX COLD - HCURVE:

H2HEAT

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DTLM

AREA
SQFT
745.1360

78.3649

AVERAGE U
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
149.6937

HCURVE 1
DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL) / REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
254.8160
202.6189
1.0000
7.9464+05
254.8160
228.0044
1.0000
1.5893+06
254.8160
253.2984
1.0000
2.3839+06
254.8160
278.5066
1.0000
3.1785+06
254.8160
303.6343
1.0000
- ---- - ------+------------+------------+------ - ----
3.9732+06
254.8160
328.6863
1 . 0000
4.7678+06
254 . 8160
1.0000
353.6667
5.5624+06
254.8160
378.5795
1 . 0000

257

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-2~O (CONTINUED)
6.3571+06 !
403.4280 !
254.8160
l . 0000 !
7.1517+06 !
254.8160
428.2150 !
l . 0000 !
!------------+--- - --------+------------+------------!

7.9464+06 !
254.8160 !
452.9430 !
l . 0000 !

254.8160 !
477.6140 !
8 . 7410+06 !
l . 0000 !

HEATX HOT-HCURVE:

H2HEAT

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

HCURVE 1

DUTY

CONSTANT

NRTL-RK
RENON (NRTL)
HC-1

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU/HR

PSI

/ REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
0.0
245.9153
556.7709
1.0000

-7.9464+05
245.9153
532.4844
1.0000

-1.5893+06
245.9153
508.0415
1.0000

-2.3839+06
245.9153
483.4375
1.0000

-3.1785+06
245.9153
458.6674
1.0000

!------------+------------+------------+------------!

-3.9732+06
245.9153
433.7258
1.0000 !

-4.7678+06
408.6071
245.9153
1.0000

-5.5624+06
383.3055
245.9153
1.0000

245.9153
357.8145
-6.3571+06
1.0000

-7.1517+06
245.9153
332.1279
1.0000

!---- - -------+------------+----- - ------+------------!

! -7 . 9464+06 !
245.9153 !
306.2390 !
1.0000 !

245.9153 !
280.1406 !
1.0000 !

! -8.7410+06 !

ITEM: HX-530

BLOCK:

SOLVHEAT MODEL: HEATX

HOT SIDE:
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
COLD SIDE:

SOLV

SOLVCOOL

NRTL-RK
RENON (NRTL)
HC - 1

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

CW2

CW20

NRTL-RK
HC-1

***
TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN
7514.65
169733.
-0.973747E+09

258

***
OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

7514 . 65
169733.
-0.973747E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.244847E-15

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-S30

(CONTINUED)
***

INPUT DATA

***

FLASH SPECS FOR HOT SIDE:

TWO
PHASE
FLASH

MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS

CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0 . 00010000

FLASH SPECS FOR COLD SIDE:

TWO
PHASE
FLASH

MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS

CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLOW DIRECTION AND SPECIFICATION:

COUNTERCURRENT
HEAT EXCHANGER

SPECIFIED HOT OUTLET TEMP

SPECIFIED VALUE
F

LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR

PRESSURE SPECIFICATION:

HOT SIDE PRESSURE DROP


COLD SIDE PRESSURE DROP

158.0000
1.00000

PSI

PSI

6.0000
8.0000

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT SPECIFICATION:


HOT LIQUID
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT LIQUID
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2 -PHASE
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT LIQUID
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
***

OVERALL RESULTS

149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937

***

STREAMS:

HOT

1
1--- -- > SOLVCOOL

COLD

P= 3.1800D+01
1
V=
O.OOOOD+OO
1
1
1<----- CW2

SOLV
----->1
T= 2.6266D +02
1

P= 3.78000+01
1

V= 0.00000+00
1

CW20
<-----1
T= 1.19940+02
I
P= 2.20000+01
I
V= 0.00000+00

T=

T=
P=
V=

1
1

DUTY AND AREA:

CALCULATED HEAT DUTY


CALCULATED (REQUIRED) AREA

BTU/HR

SQFT

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT:


AVERAGE COEFFICIENT (DIRTY)

BTU/HR-SQFT-R

LOG - MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE:

LMTO CORRECTION FACTOR

LMTD (CORRECTED)
F

259

1.5800D+02

9.0000D+01
3.0000D+01
O.OOOOD+OO

3029016.5758
200.7657

14 9.6937

1.0000

100.78 80

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-530 (CONTINUED)
PRESSURE DROP:
HOTSIDE, TOTAL
COLDSIDE, TOTAL

PSI
PSI

***

ZONE RESULTS

6.0000
8.0000

***

TEMPERATURE LEAVING EACH ZONE:


HOT

SOLV
SOLVCOOL
----- >
262.7

LIQ

CW20
<-----
119.9

LIQ

1------ >
1 158.0
1
1 CW2
1<-----
90.0
1
1

COLD
ZONE HEAT TRANSFER AND AREA:
ZONE
1

HEAT DUTY
BTU!HR
3029016.576

AREA
SQFT
200.7657

DTLM
F

100.7880

AVERAGE U
BTUjHR-SQFT-R
149.6937

SOLVHEAT HCURVE 1

HEATX HOT-HCURVE:

INDEPENDENT VARIABLE:
PRESSURE PROFILE:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:

DUTY
CONSTANT
NRTL - RK
HC-l

DUTY

PRES

TEMP

BTU!HR

PSI

RENON (NRTL)

REDLICH-KWONG

VFRAC

!============!============!============!============!
31. 8000
252.2654
1.4239-02

0.0
31 . 8000
-2.7537+05
252.0160
2.1447-03

-3.2425+05
31.8000
251.9706
BUB >O.O

31.8000
-5.5073+05
244.4048
0.0

-8.2610+05
31.8000
235.1265
0.0

!------------+---------- - -+------------+------------!

-1.1015+06
31.8000
225.7630
0.0

31.8000
-1.3768+06
216.3158
0.0

31.8000
206.7872
-1.6522+06
0.0

31.8000
-1.9276+06
197.1795
0 .0

31. 8000
-2.2029+06
187.4945
0.0

!------------+------------+------------+------------!

-2.4783+06
31.8000!
177.7345
0.0

! -2.7537+06 !
31.8000 !
167.9023 !
0.0
31.8000 !
! -3.0290+06 !
158.0000 !
0.0

260

REATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-710

BLOCK:

COOLDIS

MODEL: HEATX

HOT SIDE:
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
COLD SIDE:

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID :
***

13

14

NRTL-RK
HC-1

CW3

CW30

NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

RENON (NRTL) / REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

16385.7
317000.
-0.202855E+10

***

INPUT DATA

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

16385.7
317000.
-0.202855E+10

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO

***

FLASH SPECS FOR HOT SIDE:


FLASH
TWO
PHASE
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLASH SPECS FOR COLD SIDE:


TWO
PHASE
FLASH
MAXIMUM NO. ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

FLOW DIRECTION AND SPECIFICATION:


COUNTERCURRENT
HEAT EXCHANGER
SPECIFIED HOT OUTLET TEMP
SPECIFIED VALUE
F
LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR
PRESSURE SPECIFICATION:
HOT SIDE PRESSURE DROP
COLD SIDE PRESSURE DROP

113.0000
1.00000

PSI
PSI

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT SPECIFICATION:


HOT LIQUID
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD LIQUID
HOT 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT VAPOR
COLD LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD 2-PHASE
HOT LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD 2-PHASE
HOT 2-PHASE
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD 2-PHASE
HOT VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD VAPOR
HOT LIQUID
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
HOT 2-PHASE
COLD VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
COLD VAPOR
HOT VAPOR
BTU/HR-SQFT-R

***

/ REDLICH-KWONG

OVERALL RESULTS

***

261

3.0000
5.0000

149 . 6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937
149.6937

HEATERS AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


ITEM: HX-710
STREAMS:

(CONTINUED)

----- >

13
T=
P=
V=

----- > 14

HOT

2.1413D+02

3.9000D+01

1.0459D-01

T=
P=
V=

<----
CW30
T= 1.0408D+02

P= 2.5000D+01

O.OOOOD+OO

V=

COLD

< ----- CW3

T=
P=
V=

DUTY AND AREA:


CALCULATED HEAT DUTY
CALCULATED (REQUIRED) AREA

149.6937
1.0000
55.6049

PSI
PSI

***

ZONE RESULTS

9.0000D+01
3.0000D+01
O.OOOOD+OO

3689136.6989
443.2090

BTU/HR
SQFT

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT:


AVERAGE COEFFICIENT (DIRTY)
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
LOG-MEAN TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE:
LMTD CORRECTION FACTOR
LMTD (CORRECTED)
F
PRESSURE DROP:
HOTSIDE, TOTAL
COLDSIDE, TOTAL

1.1300D+02
3.6000D+01
O.OOOOD+OO

3.0000
5.0000

***

TEMPERATURE LEAVING EACH ZONE:


HOT
1
1

COND

13

14

1------>

------>

214.1

113.0

CW30

LIQ

CW3

1<-----

<-----

104.1

90.0

I
COLD
ZONE HEAT TRANSFER AND AREA:
ZONE
1

HEAT DUTY
BTU/HR
3689136.699

AREA
SQFT
443 . 2090

262

DTLM
F

55.6049

AVERAGE U
BTU/HR-SQFT-R
149.6937

VAL VE, COMPRESSOR AND PUMPS


ITEM: V-SOl

BLOCK:

B2

MODEL: VALVE

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

DFEED
NRTL-RK
HC-l

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

2598.04
105380.
-0.389504E+09
***

VALVE OUTLET PRESSURE


VALVE FLOW COEF CALC.

INPUT DATA
PSI

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

2598.01
105380.
-0.389505E+09

o .111286E-04
0.838604E-05
0.371189E-05

***

43.5113

NO

FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
NPHASE
MAX NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
CONVERGENCE TOLERANCE
***

VALVE PRESSURE DROP

RESULTS
PSI

30
0.00010000

***

186.389

ITEM: CP-4l0

BLOCK:

COMP

MODEL : COMPR

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

NRTL-RK
HC-l

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

4235.72
20404.3
-0.343117E+08
***

INPUT DATA

ISENTROPIC CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

OUTLET PRESSURE PSI


ISENTROPIC EFFICIENCY
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
***

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

4235.67
20402.4
-0.327405E+08

0.971472E-05
0.926774E-04
-0 . 457894E-Ol

***

262.816

0.72000

1.00000

RESULTS ***

INDICATED HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT


BRAKE
HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT
NET WORK REQUIRED
ISENTROPIC HORSEPOWER REQUIREMENT
CALCULATED OUTLET TEMP F
ISENTROPIC TEMPERATURE F
EFFICIENCY (POLYTR/ISENTR) USED
OUTLET VAPOR FRACTION
HEAD DEVELOPED, FT-LBF/LB

HP
HP
HP
HP

263

616.427

616.427

616.427

443.828

202.604

188.534

0.72000

1.00000

43,033.1

VALVE, COMPRESSOR AND PUMPS


ITEM: CP-4l0 (CONTINUED)
INLET HEAT CAPACITY RATIO
INLET VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE , CUFT/HR
OUTLET VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE, CUFT/HR
INLET COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR
OUTLET COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR
AV. ISENT . VOL. EXPONENT
AV. ISENT. TEMP EXPONENT
AV. ACTUAL VOL. EXPONENT
AV. ACTUAL TEMP EXPONENT

1.37282
131,634.
115,460.
1.00658
1.00800
1.38721
1.37402
1.61390
1.59665

ITEM: P-110
BLOCK: HOACPUMP MODEL: PUMP
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

HOACMIX
2

NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

723.090
42571.9
-0.138556E+09
***

INPUT DATA

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

723.090
42571.9
-0.138493E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO

-0.457815E-03

***

263.000
1.00000

OUTLET PRESSURE PSI


DRIVER EFFICIENCY
FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
LIQUID PHASE CALCULATION
NO FLASH PERFORMED
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
TOLERANCE

30
0 . 00010000

*** RESULTS
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CUFT/HR
PRESSURE CHANGE PSI
NPSH AVAILABLE
FT-LBF/LB
FLUID POWER HP
BRAKE POWER HP
ELECTRICITY KW
PUMP EFFICIENCY USED
NET WORK REQUIRED HP

***

719.600
248.300
1.90509
12.9947
24.9302
18.5904
0.52124
24.9302

ITEM: P-540
BLOCK:
SOLVPUMP MODEL: PUMP
INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

SOLVCOOL
SOLVENT
NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN
1550.00
62277.9
-0.245489E+09

264

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

1550 . 00
62277.9
-0.245420E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O . OOOOOOE+OO

- 0.283578E-03

VAL VE, COMPRESSOR AND PUMPS


ITEM: P-540

(CONTINUED)

***
INPUT DATA
OUTLET PRESSURE PSI
DRIVER EFFICIENCY
FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
LIQUID PHASE CALCULATION
NO FLASH PERFORMED
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
TOLERANCE
***
RESULTS
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CUFT/HR
PRESSURE CHANGE PSI
NPSH AVAILABLE
FT-LBF/LB
FLUID POWER HP
BRAKE POWER HP
ELECTRICITY KW
PUMP EFFICIENCY USED
NET WORK REQUIRED HP

***

235.000
1.00000

30
0.00010000
* **

1,055.61
203.200
64.8476
15.6000
27 . 3599
20 . 4023
0.57018
27.3599

ITEM: P-600

BLOCK:

ACOHPUMP MODEL : PUMP

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

ACOH
ACOHFEED
NRTL-RK
HC-1

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
)
MASS (LB/HR
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR
***

RENON (NRTL)

***

IN

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

743.209
29861.6
-0.116257E+09

743.209
29861.6
-0.116244E+09

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0 . 112453E-03

INPUT DATA

***

OUTLET PRESSURE PSI


DRIVER EFFICIENCY

100.000
1.00000

FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
LIQUID PHASE CALCULATION
NO FLASH PERFORMED
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

***
RESULTS
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CUFT/HR
PRESSURE CHANGE PSI
NPSH AVAILABLE
FT-LBF/LB
FLUID POWER HP
BRAKE POWER HP
ELECTRICITY KW
PUMP EFFICIENCY USED
NET WORK REQUIRED HP
ITEM: P-620

BLOCK:

ETACPUMP MODEL: PUMP

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:

/ REDLICH-KWONG

ETACREC
ETACREC2

265

***

550 . 937
62 . 2000
0.0
2.49224
5.13808
3.83147
0.48505
5.13808

YALYE, COMPRESSOR AND PUMPS


ITEM: P-620 (CONTINUED)
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
)
MASS (LB/HR
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

350.000
22326.3
-0.601971E+08
***

INPUT DATA

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

350.000
22326.3
-0.601865E+08

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.176154E-03

***

98.0000
1.00000

OUTLET PRESSURE PSI


DRIVER EFFICIENCY
FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
LIQUID PHASE CALCULATION
NO FLASH PERFORMED
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
TOLERANCE

30
0.00010000

***
RESULTS
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CUFT/HR
PRESSURE CHANGE PSI
FT-LBF/LB
NPSH AVAILABLE
FLUID POWER HP
BRAKE POWER HP
ELECTRICITY KW
PUMP EFFICIENCY USED
NET WORK REQUIRED HP

***

399.522
63.0000
74.7222
1 . 83054
4.16750
3.10771
0.43924
4.16750

ITEM: P-730
BLOCK:
RECYPUMP MODEL: PUMP

INLET STREAM:
OUTLET STREAM:
PROPERTY OPTION SET:
HENRY-COMPS ID:
***

TOTAL BALANCE
MOLE (LBMOL/HR)
MASS (LB/HR
)
ENTHALPY (BTU/HR

21
20
NRTL-RK
HC-1

RENON (NRTL)

/ REDLICH-KWONG

MASS AND ENERGY BALANCE


IN
85.1205
5111.13
-0.137821E+08

***
INPUT DATA ***
OUTLET PRESSURE PSI
DRIVER EFFICIENCY
FLASH SPECIFICATIONS:
LIQUID PHASE CALCULATION
NO FLASH PERFORMED
MAXIMUM NUMBER OF ITERATIONS
TOLERANCE
***
RESULTS ***
VOLUMETRIC FLOW RATE CUFT/HR
PRESSURE CHANGE PSI
NPSH AVAILABLE
FT-LBF/LB
FLUID POWER HP
BRAKE POWER HP

266

***

OUT

RELATIVE DIFF.

85.1205
5111.13
-0.137811E+08

O.OOOOOOE+OO
O.OOOOOOE+OO
-0.681635E-04

40.0000
1.00000

30
0.00010000
98.1015
15.3000
1.29537
0.10916
0.36921

VAL VE, COMPRESSOR AND PUMPS

(CONTINUED)
ELECTRICITY KW
PUMP EFFICIENCY USED
NET WORK REQUIRED HP

ITEM: P-730

0 .2 7532
0.29566
0.36921

267

268

69Z

.IN3:W3:.I V.IS W3:1ROlId

:U XIUN3:ddV

270

Acetaldehyde from Acetic Acid


Acetaldehyde is a versatile chemical intennediate. It is commercially made via the
Wacker process, the partial oxidation of ethylene. That process is very corrOSlve, requmng
expensive materials of construction. And like all oxidations, over-oxidation of the ingredient and
the product reduce the yield, and convert expensive ethylene into carbon oxides.
Acetic Acid, produced from inexpensive methanol, would be a good feedstock, if a
selective route to acetaldehyde could be found. Because of the possible legislation of MTBE out
of gasoline, there may be a worldwide glut of methanol, so any chemicals that use methanol may
become much more economically attractive. But the reduction of acetic acid to acetaldehyde is
notoriously difficult, because aldehydes are easier than acids to reduce.
However, Eastman Chemical has developed a selective palladium catalyst that glves
acetaldehyde with selectivity of up to 86% at 46% conversion. Byproducts fonned include
ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate, all of which can be sold after puri fication .
Main reaction:

CH 3 -COOH + H2

Side reactions:

(1)

CH 3-COOH + H2 ~ CH 3 CH 20H + H 20

(2)

CH 3-COOH + CH 3-CH 20H

(3)

2 CH 3-COOH + 2 H2

CH 3 -CHO + H 20

~~

CH r COO-CH 2-CH 3 + H 20

CH3-CO-CH3 + CH 4 +H 20

Distillation of the product will be complicated by the existence of azeotropes between


ethanol and ethyl acetate, water and ethanol, and water and ethyl acetate. And the acetic acid
water and acetone-water mixtures are famous for their tangent pinches. Rigorous distillation
simulations with thennodynamics that accurately predict each of these azeotropes and pinches
will be required to have confidence in the design.

271

Your company has asked your group to detennine whether this new technology should be
used in your Gulf Coast plant. Your job is to design a process and plant to produce 100 MM lb/yr
of acetaldehyde from acetic acid, which is available on the site. Based on past experience, you
know that you will have to defend any decisions you have made throughout the design, and the
best defense is the economic justification.
Assume a U.S. Gulf Coast location on the same site as a large chemical plant.
Acetaldehyde can be sold for $0.18/Ib. However, ifMTVE is legislated out of gasoline, that
price might drop to $0.12/Ib. Test your economics with both prices, and make appropriate
recommendations. Hydrogen can be purchased over the plant fence for %0.50/Ib at 200 psig.
Ethanol, if99.95% pure, can be sold (on an excise tax-free basis) for $2.50/gal; however, the
ethanol-water azeotrope can also be sold into the fuel market for $1.60/gal. You may sell either
or both grades of ethanol, depending on which is most economical to produce. Ethyl acetate can
be sold for $0.60/Ib. Acetone can be sold for $0.20/Ib. You will need storage tanks, truck or
railcar loading stations, etc., for each byproduct that you sell, or you may burn them in the boiler
for fuel value. Byproducts sold much also meet nonnal purity specs for that chemical. All prices
listed are in 2002 dollars.
The plant design should be as environmentally friendly as possible. Recover and recycle
process materials to the maximum economic extent. Also, energy consumption should be
minimized, to the extent economically justified. The plant design must also be controllable and
safe to operate. Remember that you will be there for the start-up and will have to live with
whatever design decisions you have made.

References: US Patent 6,121,498 to Eastman Chemical

272

tLZ

86.,'IZI'9 -LN3-LVd S3-LV-LS G3-LINfl

:3XIGN3ddV

274

Ijllllllllill IIUII IIml

111111 11111111 lI!

United States Patent

[11]

[19]

Thstun et at
)

[45J

US006121498A

6,121,498
Sep.19,2000

Patent Number:
Date of Patent:

--',.,

'.

[54] . METHOD FOR PRODUCING


ACETALDEHYDE F ROM ACETIC ACID

R. Pestman et al., "The formation of ketones and aldehydes


from carboxylic acids, structure-activity relationship for
two competitive reactions",Journal ofMolecular Catalysis,
pp. 175-180, (1995).

[75] Inventors: Gerald C. Tustin; Leslie S. Depew,


both of Kingsport; Nick A. Collins, Fall
Branch, all of Tenn.

Z.E Pei et aI., "On the intermediates of the acetic acid


reactions on oxides: an IR Study", Applied Surface Science,
103, pp. 171-182, (1996).

Assignee: Eastman Chemical Company,


Kingsport, Tenn.

[73]

(List continued on next page.)

"[21]

Appl. No.: 09/069,953

[22]

Filed:

Primary Examiner-Howard C. Lee


Assistant Examiner-Everett White
Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Harry J. Gwinel1; Matthew W.

Apr. 30, 1998

[51] Int. CI.7 ........................... C07C 47/00; C07C 45/00;


BOU 23/00; BOll 23/42
[52] U.S. Cl........................... 568/420; 568/401; 502/300;

502/326; 502/339
[58] Field of Search ..................................... 568/420, 401;
502/300, 325, 339
[56]

Smith

A method of producing acetaldehyde hydrogenates acetic

acid in the presence of an iron oxide catalyst containing


between 2.5 and 90 wt % Pd, more preferably 10 and 80 wi
% Pd and most preferably 20 and 60 wt % Pd. The catalyst
has a specific surface area of less than 150 m 2 /g. Hydrogen
and acetic acid are fed to a reactor in a hydrogen to acetic
acid ratio of 2:1 to 25:1, more preferably in a hydrogen to
acetic acid ratio of 3:1 to 15:1 and most preferably in a
hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of 4:1 to 12:1. The hydroge
nation is performed at a temperature of about 250 C. to
400 C., more preferably about 270 C. to 350 C. and most
preferably about 280 C. to 325 C. The hydrogenation of
acetic acid produces a partially gaseous product, and acetal
dehyde is absorbed from the partially gaseous product with
a solvent containing acetic acid. The gas remaining after the
absorption step contains hydrogen, and tbis gas is recycled
for the hydrogenation of acetic acid. .T he absorbed acetal
dehyde is distilled to isolate same. After acetaldehyde is
isolated. from uoreacted acetic acid and the either products
via distillation, the unreacted acetic acid is separated from

the other products using azeotropic distillation. Water is

contained in the other products, and the azeotrope is an

azeotrope of ethyl acetate and water. The unreacted acetic

acid is separated in a column, and the column is controlled

to contain an ethyl acetate rich azeotrope of ethyl acetate and

wa teI.

References Cited
U.S. PATENT DOCUMENTS

4,237,073 12/1980 Steppich el al. ........................ 568/401

4,268,362 5/1981 Ogawa et al. ............................ 203/28

5,059,716 10/1991 Joentgen el aL ........................ 568/426

5,306,845 4/1994 Yokohama el aI ...................... 568/449

5,336,810 8/1994 Van Geem et al. .................... 568/435

FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS


0539274A1 4/1993
0700890Al 11/1996
WO 96/18458 6/1996

ABSTRACT

[57]

European PaL Off..


European PaL Off. .
WlPO.

OlliER PUBLICATIONS

J. Kondo e'l al., "Infrared Study of Hydrogenation of Ben


zoic Acid to Benzaldehyde on Zro z Catalysts", Bull. Chem.
Soc., Jpn, pp. 3085-3090, (1993).
R. Pestrnan et al., "Selective hydrogenation of acetic acid,
towards acetaldehyde", Reel. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas, 113,
pp. 426-430, (1994).
EJ. Groolendorst et al., "Selective Reauction of Acetic Acid
to Acetaldehyde on Iron Oxides", Journal of Catalysis, 148,

pp. 261-269, (1994).

27 Claims, 2 Drawing Sheets

10

18

FEED
'\.

-., )

275

I ' "~-~'':'''-'19

6,121,498
Page 2

OlliER PUBLICAl"10NS
Pestrnan, et aI., "Identification of the Active Sites in .tbe
Selective Hydorgenation of Acetic Acid to Acetaldehyde on
Iron Oxide Catalysts", Journal of Catalysis, vol. 174, 1998,
pp. 142-152.
Pestman, et ai., "Reactions of Carboxylic Acids on Oxides",
Journal of Catalysis, vol. 168, 1997, pp. 255-264.

Pavlova, et aI., "Low-Temperature Co Oxidation on Iron

Oxide Supported Palladium", React.Kinet.Catal.Lett, vol.

59, No.1, 1996, pp. 103-110.

Abstract of Japanese Patent Publication No. 9-100254A,

Apr. 15, 1997.

Chemical Abstracts, vol. 113, No.8, Aug. 20, 1990, p . 136,

Abstract No. 61684.

276

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11

-n

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It;:)

-u

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OI

0
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-I

86r'rZy'9

OOOZ'6I' da S

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FIG. 2

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L_
32

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DE

I ~Q I

ro

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EI

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00
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I-'

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"00

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REACTION
SECTION

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/.

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,I

I
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~
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tv
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Q
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I I

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ER

en
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~

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6,121,498

1
"

METHOD FOR PRODUCING


ACETALDEHYDE FROM ACETIC ACro

reaction (1) (300-400 C.). The above discussed reactions


related to hydrogen and acetic acid in the vapor phase are
summarized below:

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION


5
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates in general to producing
acetaldehyde. More specifically, the present invention
relates to producing acet3.Jdehyde by hydrogenating acetic
acid.
10
2. Description of the Related Art
Acetaldehyde is an important industrial chemical. It has
been used as a starting material for the commercial manu
facture of acetic acid, acetic anhydride, cellulose acetate,
other acetate esters, vinyl acetate resins, synthetic pyridine 15
derivatives, terephthalic acid, peracetic acid and pentaeryth
ritol. Historically, acetaldehyde has been used to produce
acetic acid, but improvements in technology have resulted in
more economical acetic acid production from synthesis gas
(a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen). This devel 20
opment implies that it may be more economically attractive
to produce acetaldehyde from acetic acid ratber than to
produce acetic acid from acetaldehyde if a technically viable
route existed.
Acetaldehyde has been produced commercially by the 25
reaction of ethanol with air at 480 C. in the presence of a
silver catalyst This process has been replaced by the current
process, the Wacker oxidation of ethylene. Both of these
processes start with ethylene, and the Wacker route is more
direct and efficient than the ethanol oxidation route. Acetal-' 30
dehyde bas also been produced by the hydration of acety
lene. This process uses mercury salts as a catalyst, and
mercury handling can cause environmental and safety prob
lems. The use of acetylene causes safety concerns, and the
high cost of acetylene relative to ethylene has rendered this 35
process obsolete, Acetaldehyde can also be produced by
reacting synthesis gas over a rhodium on silica catalyst at
elevated temperature and pressure, but the selectivity to
acetaldehyde is poor, and the process has never been prac
ticed commercially. Acetaldehyde has also been produced 40
from tbe reaction of methanol witb synthesis gas at elevated
temperature and pressure using a cobalt iodide catalyst with
a group 15 promoter, but this process also has never been,
practiced commercially. Although the Wacker process is the
preferred commercial process at this time, it also has many 45
undesirable aspects. These include the special safety and
handling problems associated witb reacting ethylene with
oxygen and the very corrosive nature of the aqueous acidic
cbloride-containing reaction mixtures which necessitates
very expensive materials of construction. Thus a need exists 50
for an acetaldehyde synthesis that is an improvement over
the existing known processes.
A potentially attractive means to synthesize acetaldehyde
is by the hydrogenation of acetic acid. See reaction (1)
below. However the carboxylic acid group is generally 55
considered to be among the most difficult functional groups
to reduce by catalytic hydrogenation. Aldehyde groups,
conversely, are easily reduced by catalytic hydrogenation to
alcohols. See reaction (II) below. Thus, under the conditions
required to reduce a carboxylic acid, the aldehyde is often 60
not isolated in good yield because the aldehyde is further
reduced to an alcohol. Furthermore, when the cart)Qxylic
acid contains an a-hydrogen, conversion to a ketone, water
and carbon dioxide can occur. See reaction (III) below. This
reaction becomes more prevalent as the number of 65
a-hydrogens increases. Thus, aCetone can be readily formed
from acetic acid at the temperatures typically used for

(I) CR,C0 2 H + H 2

....

CH,CHO +

H 20

(II) CHJCHO + H, .... CR,CR,OH

lIG 3 OO" 'c. ~ +0, 8


kcal/mole
lIG4OO" c. ~ -0 ,04
kca l/mole
lIG3 OO" c. ~ -0.4
kcal/mole
AG 4 OO" c, +2.5
kcal/mole

(ill) 2 CH3 C02 H -. CH,COCH, + CO2 + Hp.

The hydrogenation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde and


water (reaction (I) is a mildly endothermic reaction. So, the
thermodynamics of this reaction improve as the temperature
is increased. The subsequent reaction (II), the hydrogenation
of acetaldehyde to ethanol, is exothermic, and this reaction
becomes less favorable as the temperature increases. Since
the equilibrium of the acetic acid hydrogenation is poor, the
reaction must be run with an excess of hydrogen to achieve
appreciable acetic acid conversion. Thus, on a thermody
namic basis, ethanol formation will be favored at tempera
tures of 300-400 C. Reaction (III), the formation of
acetone, is essentially irreversible at all temperatures above
0 C. and becomes very favorable thermodynamically as the
temperature is increased. Increasing the temperature signifi
cantly above 400 C. will not likely improve the selectivity
to tbe desired acetaldehyde product because of increasing
acetone production. Other reactions, sucb as the formation
of methane, carbon oxides and C2 hydrocarbons also are
relevant in acetic acid hydrogenation chemistry, but are of
less importance than the three reactions described above
unless excessively high temperatures are used. In some
circumstances, the formation of ethyl acetate presumably
through ethanol as an intermediate can also lower the
selectivity to the desired acetaldehyde.
Thus, it appears that a IDajor challenge in producing
acetaldehyde via acetic acid hydrogenation is catalyst
desigIh The ideal catalyst should facilitate the initial hydro
genation of acetic acid to acetaldehyde but have essentiaUy
no activity for the subsequent hydrogenation to ethanol nor
for the dimerization reaction producing acetone. If a catalyst
has even a small activity for conversion of acetaldehyde to
ethanol or for the conversion of acetic acid into acetone, tben
extreme losses in acetaldehyde selectivity may occur if the
reaction is operated beyond the equilibrium conversion level
allowed for converting acetic acid and hydrogen into acetal
dehyde and water. A need exists for a caialyst that selectively
hydrogenates acetic acid to acetaldehyde.
Catalyst selectivity is only one requirement for a viable
acetaldehyde synthesis. The synthesis must also be operated
in a manner that will allow for the facile recovery of the very
volatile acetaldehyde product, the recovery of byproducts
and the recycle of unconverted reactants. GeneraUy pro
cesses that hydrogenate carboxylic acids to aldehydes do so
under conditions of about 1 bar pressure (all pressures given
berein are in terms of absolute pressures) and hydrogen to
carboxylic acid ratios approaching 50/1. Although these
conditions may be sufficient for nonvolatile aldehydes, they
are impractical for acetaldehyde which boils at 19-20 C.
Thus, a need also exists for a process that converts acetic
acid into acetaldehyde in a manner that is selective and
provides for the economical recovery of the acetaldehyde.
In spite of the thermodynamic limitations surrOllDding the
hydrogenation of carboxylic acids to aldehydes, several

27~

6,121,498

3
. :"

examples of this reaction appear in the prior art. Generally


these reactions are performed at about 1 bar pressure in the
vapor phase in a large excess of hydrogen at temperatures
ranging between 200 and 500 0 c., and the reaction is most
successful with aromatic carboxylic acids or aliphatic acids
containing few a-hydrogens. Van Geem et aI., in U.S. Pal.
No. ~,336,81O, describe a Mn/Zn/Al oxide catalyst that
converts benzoic acid to benzaldehyde in the vapor phase at
3300 C. in a large excess of hydrogen in 88.3% selectivity
at 98.9% conversion . Joentgen et aI., in U.s. Pat. No.
5,059,716, describe catalyst system based on titanium or
vanadium oxides in conjunction with one or more metals
selected from Cr, Mo, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd and Cu for the
hydrogenation of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids
contai.ning not more than one a-hydrogen at 325-425 0 C. at
1 bar in the presence of a large excess of hydrogen.
Yokoyama et aI., in Stud. In Surf. Sci. and Cat. 1994, 90,
47-58 and in Bull Chern. Soc. Jpn. 1993, 66, 3085-3090,
describe the use of zirconium oxide and modified zirconium
oxide catalysts for the hydrogenation of aromatic carboxylic
acids to aldehydes under similar reaction conditions.
Yokoyama et al., in U.S. Pat. No. 5,306,845, also describe
the use of a purified chromium oxide catalyst for the
hydrogenation of both aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic
acids under similar reaction conditions. This patent gives
several examples of the hydrogenation of high molecular
weight acids, such as stearic acid . Acetic acid is also stated
to be as a suitable acid, but no examples are given.
Yokoyama et al. stress that the reason for the high purity'
requirement in the chromium oxide is to prevent the ketone
formation reaction. Welguny et aI., in European Patent
Application EP 0 700 890 (1996), describe the use of
oxide-supported tin catalysts for hydrogenation of a wide
variety of carboxylic acids to aldehydes under the typical
high-temperature, high-hydrogen, low-pressure conditions
described previously. Although acetic acid is included in the
c1ainIs of tbis patent application, the only examples are for
aromatic carboxylic acids and for pivalic acid. Ferrero et aI.,
in Europe.an Patent Application No. EP 539,274 (1993),
descnbe Ru-Sn-B on alumina catalysts for hydrogena
tion of a wide variety of carboxylic acids to aldehydes under
the typical high-temperature high-hydrogen low-pressure
conditions described previously. Although the Ferrero patent,
application gives no examples for acetic acid hydrogenation,
it is mentioned in the claims. Most of the Ferrero reference
concerns the reduction of senecioic acid to prenal or the
reduction of aromat ic carboxylic acids to the corresponding
aldehydes.
The most definitive work on the acetic acid hydrogenation
to acetaldehyde is described by Ponec and coworkers in
Reel. Trav. Chim. Pays-Bas 1994, 426--430, in J. Cata!'
1994,148,261-269, inJ. Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical
1995, 103, 175-180, in Applied Surface Science 1996, 103,
171-182, and in J. Cala/. 1997, 168, 255-264. These
workers have proposed a working mechanism for the reac
tion and have reported several examples of the conversion of
acetic acid to acetaldehyde in good selectivity. The base
catalysts for these reductions are partially reduced metal
oxides having an intermediate metal-oxygen bond strength.
Partially reduced iron oxide is the most selective metal
oxide, and acetaldehyde selectivities almost as high as 80%
could be obtained at 1.2 bar pressure and using a hydrogen/
acetic acid ratio=50/1 at 321 0 C. Addition of 5 wt. % Pt to
this catalyst furtber increases the selectivity to acetaldehyde
to over 80%. With tin oxide, the addition of the Pt about
doubles the selectivity, increasing it from about 40% to
about 80%. Ponec mentions inJ. Cala/. 1997,168,255-264

4
that there is an optimum Pt level, and tbat increasing the Pt
level above 1.25 atomic % actually decreases the selectivity.
Although the acetic acid hydrogenation process studied
by Ponec and coworkers is very selective to acetaldehyde, it
5 is impractical as a commerciaiway to produce acetaldehyde.
The impracticality stems from the need to isolate and collect
acetaldehyde (normal boiling point-19-20 C.) from a
vapor stream where it is present in maximum concentrations
of 2-3% (or less, depending on tbe conversion) at about 1
10 bar pressure. Water and byproducts must be removed from
the mixture, and bydrogen and unconverted acetic acid must
be recycled to the reactor. These operations require that the
temperature be lowered considerably from the 300--4000 C.
reaction temperature. A practical process requires much
15 lower hydrogen/acetic acid ratios and much higher reaction
pressures than used by Po nee.
SUMMARY OF mE INVENTION
20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to


provide a method of producing acetaldehyde that avoids
dangers associated with mercury and acetylene.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a
method of producing acetaldehyde tbat avoids handling
problems associated with reacting ethylene and oxygen.
It is a still further object of tbe present invention to
provide a method of producing acetaldehyde that avoids
corrosive aqueous acidic acid chloride-containing reaction
mixtures.
It is another object of the present invention to provide a
method for hydrogenating acetic acid with good selectivity
for producing acetaldehyde .
It is still another object of the present invention to provide
a method for hydrogenating acetic acid that allows for easy
recovery of volatile acetaldehyde.
These and other objects are accomplished by a method of
producing acetaldehyde that hydrogenates acetic acid in the
presence of an iron oxide catalyst containing between 2.5
and 90 WI % Pd, more preferably 10 and 80 wt % Pd and
most preferably 20 and 60 wt % Pd. The catalyst has a
specifrc surface area of less than 150 m 2 /g. Hydrogen and
acetic acid are fed to a reactor in a hydrogen to acetic acid
ratio of 2:1 to 25 :1, more preferably in a hydrogen to acetic
acid ratio of 3:1 to 15:1 and most preferably in a hydrogen
to acetic acid ratio of 4:1 to 12:1. The hydrogenation is
performed at a temperature of about 2500 C. to 400 C.,
more preferably about 270 0 C. to 3500 C. and most prefer
ably about 2800 C. to 325 0 C. The hydrogenation of acetic
acid produces a partially gaseous prod1.1ct, and acetaldehyde
is absorbed from the partially gaseous product with a solvent
containing acetic acid. The gas remaining after tbe absorp
tion step contains hydrogen, and ,this gas is recycled for the
hydrogenation of acetic acid . The absorbed acetaldehyde is
distilled to isolate same. After acetaldehyde is isolated from
uoreacted acetic acid and the other products via distillation,
the uoreacted acetic acid is separated from the other prod
ucts using azeotropic distillation. Water is contained in the
other products, and the azeotrope is an azeotrope of ethyl
acetate and water. The uoreacted acetic acid is separated in
a column, and the column is controlled to contain an ethyl
acetate rich azeotrope of ethyl acetate and water.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

The invention will be readily understood by reference to


65 the following description of the specific embodiments
described by way of example only, with reference to the
accompanying drawings, wherein:

280

6,121,498

5
,

''''.

A~,

FIG. 1 is a schematic representation of components used


to produce acetaldehyde; and .

.
FIG. 2 is an schematic representation of components used
to recover acetic acid.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF TIlE
PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
The present invention will now be described with pre
ferred embodiments and examples which are given by way
of example only, not limitation.
A specific embodiment of the process of the invention
consists of two main sections: a reaction section and a
recovery section shown schematically in FIGS. 1 and 2,
respectively. Acetic acid is converted to acetaldehyde and
water with excess hydrogen in the reaction section over a
catalyst containing iron and palladium in a fiXed-bed reactor
RX. The acetaldehyde product is recovered via distillation D
after absorption A using the acetic acid-rich distillation
bottoms as a solvent after cooling S.
Referring to FIG. 1, stream 3 is a feed to the reactor RX
containing acetic and hydrogen. Although a 1-to-1 molar
ratio is stoichiometrically sufficient for producing
acetaldehyde, an excess of hydrogen is supplied in feed 3.
The reactor RX contains an iron oxide/palladium catalysl.
Before the feed is supplied to the reactor, it is heated with
furnace F and reactor preheater PH. The product of reactor
RX is fed to an absorber A This product is hot and is cooled
in feed effluent exchanger FE. Feed effluent exchanger FE
also serves to preheat the feed 3 to the reactor. The product
of reactor RX is substantially gaseous. Absorber A is used to
liquify the acetaldehyde and other prodUCts. Cooled product
4 supplied to the absorber A and acetic acid feed 7 is also
supplied. Acetic acid from feed 7 captures the products and
allows hydrogen to pass via stream 6. A portion of the
hydrogen is recycled via stream 10, recycle compressor RC
and stream 13. Another portion of the hydrogen is purged via
stream 9, and tbis maintains the purity of hydrogen. Recycle
compressor RC compresses the hydrogen. Reactor RX and
absorber A operate under pressure. The pressure in absorber
A is from pressurized product in stream 4 and from pump

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

PU.

,)

The liquid coming off of absorber A as stream 8 is sent to,


distillation column D to recover acetaldehyde. The overhead
from distillation column D is cooled via condenser C to
condense same. A portion of the condensed liquid is sent
back to the distillation column D as a reflux. Offgas 18 is not
condensed and leaves the system shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.
Acetaldehyde product comes from stream 19, and tbis also
leaves apparatus shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. From the bottom
of the distillation column, are-boiler RB is provided to
supply the more volatile compounds back to the distillation
column D. Stream 23 is acetic acid rich and is partially
recycled to the absorber A. As mentioned previously, the
absorption in absorber A works best at lower temperatures,
and solvent cooler S is provided for this purpose.
Stream 30 may contain ethyl acetate, water, acetic acid
and acetone. To separate these compounds, the recovery
apparatus shown schematically in FIG. 2 is employed. First,
acetic acid column AC is used to separate out acetic acid.
The boiling point of acetic acid is very close to that of water,
and it would normally be difficult to separate these two
components via distillation. To address tbis problem, ethyl
acetate is fed to acetic acid column AC via stream 35. Ethyl
acetate forms an azeotrope with water. The azeotrope has a
boiling point significantly lower than either water or ethyl
acetate. This enables separation. After acetic acid reboiler

45

50

55

60

65

281

Ii.

acetic acid is recovered from stream 33. This acetic acid


may be mixed with hydrogen and fed to reactor RX via
stream 3.
The overhead from acetic acid column AC contains ethyl
acetate, water and other products. Because water is difficult
to separate from acetic acid as mentioned above, it is
important that excess water not be supplied via stream 35.
For this purpose, stream 32 is condensed in decanter cooler
DC and then decanted in decanter DE. The aqueous phase
leaves decanter DE in stream 38, and the organic phase
leaves in stream 37. A portion of stream 37 is supplied back
to the acetic acid column Ae. Another portion of stream 37
is fed to azeotrope column Z via stream 39 to distill a "near"
ethyl acetate-water azeotrope. The mixture is a "near"
azeotrope because it does not contain the exact azeotropic
ratio of ethyl acetate to water. As mentioned above, the
azeotrope has a low boiling point and therefore can be
removed as an overhead from azeotrope column Z. After
azeo column condenser ZC, the azeotrope is indirectly
recycled back to acetic acid column AC via stream 43.
From the bottom of azeotrope column Z, stream 42 is
supplied to ethyl acetate column E after azco column
reboiler ZR. As mentioned above, excess hydrogenation of
acetic acid produces ethanol. The ethanol can react with the
acetic acid and produce ethyl acetate in an esterification
process. This reaction occurs throughout the apparatus,
whenever ethanol and acetic acid are present together. The
reaction may be especially prominent when both reactants
are in the liquid phase. Ethyl acetate column E separates
ethyl acetate as an overhead. After ethyl acetate column
condenser EC, stream 54 contains ethyl acetate which can be
sold as a finished product. From the bottom of ethyl acetate
column E, a somewhat small stream 55 of acetic acid is
produced after ethyl acetate column reboiler ER.
As mentioned above, decanter DE separates aqueous
products from organic products. The aqueous stream 38 is
supplied to steam stripper SS. Steam stripper SS is a
distillation column heated by steam 46. Lighter organics
come off the top of steam stripper SS in stream 45 and waste
water comes off the bottom as stream 47. The organics in
streanr45 are supplied to waste acetone column W. Acetone
has a very low boiling point, even lower than the azeotrope.
Thus, a waste acetone stream 51 is produced after acetone
column condenser We. From the. bottom of the waste
acetone column W, a near ethyl acetate-water azeotrope
stream 50 is recycled after acetone column reboiler WR.
The two azeotrope recycle streams 50 and 43 are not
supplied directly back to the acetic acid columnAC. Instead,
they are fed to decanter cooler DC . ~nd decanter DE to
remove water.
The processes depicted in FIGS. 1 and 2 are designed for
optimum operation at the following conditions: 1) as/I
molar ratio of hydrogen to acetic acid in the reactor RX feed
3, 2) byproduct ethanol is converted to ethyl acetate as
dictated by chemical equilibrium at of conditions present in
the bottom of the acetaldehyde recovery column D, and 3)
the reactor operates at 300 0 e., 17.2 bar, and 45% acetic acid
conversion with a selectivity of 89% to acetaldehyde, 5% to
ethanol, 4% to acetone (and COJ, and 2% to methane and
C2 hydrocarbons (ethylene plus ethane). If the degree of
ethyl acetate formation from ethanol and unconverted acetic
acid in the reactor RX is low, the reaction may be simply
catalyzed by adding sulfuric acid to the HOAc-rich solvent
before recovery. The recovery scheme shown in FIG. 2 is
bigbly dependent on this conversion of byproduct ethanol to
ethyl acetate and is a significant part of the present inven
tion.

6,121,498

'.

Mass-separating agents other than ethyl acetate are pos


90 wt % Pd with the balance of the weigbt calculated as
sible. Such agents may be selected from those 'organic
Fe Z0 3 (the actual chemical nature of the iron mayor may not
compounds that from a minimum-boiling azeotrope with
be Fe2 0 3 depending on the specific method of catalyst
water and separate into water-rich and organic-rich liquid
synthesis used). More preferred catalysts contain between
phases upon condensation. Those skilled in the art ofsepa 5 10 and 80 wt % Pd based on Fe Z0 3 The most preferred
rations may select such an alternate to ethyl acetate and
catalysts contain between 20 and 60 wt % Pd based on
modify the process depicted in FIG. 2 appropriately.
Fe2 0 3 . Catalysts containing low amounts of palladium per
However, as ethyl acetate is a coproduct of the process its
form well under low-pressure high-hydrogen conditions, but
use as an azeotroping agent avoids introducing another 10 may not perform well under the high-pressure low-hydrogen
compound to the process and as such is used in the preferred
conditions preferred in the invention. Catalysts containing
embodiment.
low amounts of palladium may rapidly lose their activity and
selectivity under the high-pressure low-hydrogen conditions
In the preferred embodiment the azeotroping agent both
preferred in the invention. Excessively high amounts of
forms a minimum boiling azeotrope with water and forms
two liquid phases upon condensation. Potential azeotroping 15 palladium are uneconomical and may produce excessive
amounts of hydrocarbons. The active components of the
agents include, but are not limited to, acrylonitrile, allyl
catalyst of the invention can be supported, but the support
acetate, allyl acetone, allyl cyanide, benzene, I-butanol,
should be unreactive for the conversion of acetic acid to
l-butenylethyl ether, l-butoxy-2-propanol, butyl acetate,
butyl acetoacetate, butyl acrylate, n-butyl aniline, butyl 20 acetone. The catalyst should have a surface area below 150
mZ/g. Catalysts with excessively high surface areas can
benzoate, butyl butyrate, butyl chloride, butyl ether, butyl
exhibit reduced selectivity to the desired acetaldehyde. The
isopropenyl ether, 2-butyl octanol, butyraldehyde,
catalysts of the invention may be reduced in hydrogen prior
butyronitrile, carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride,
to their use in the reaction of hydrogen and acetic acid by
2-chloroethyl ether, chloroform, chloroisopropyl ether,
crotonaldehyde, cyclohexane, cyc!ohexanone, 25 contacting the catalysts with hydrogen at about between 50
and 500 C. and at about 1-50 bar pressure. More preferred
cyclopentanone, diallyl acetal, diallyl amine, dibutyl acetal,
pre reduction conditions are between 200 and 400 0 C. and
dibutyl amine, dibutyl ethanolamine, 2,3-dichloropropanol,
1-20 bar pressure, and the most preferred pre reduction
dicyclopentadiene, diethyl acetal, diethyl butyral,
0
diisobutylene, diisobutyl ketone, dimethyl butyral, 2,5 30 conditions are between 250 and 350 C. and 1-5 bar
pressure.
dimethyl furan, 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol,
dimethylisobutyral, dipropyl acetal, dipropyl ketone,
It is rather important that the catalyst be in a correct
oxidation state, and the correct oxidation state should be
epichlorohydrin, ethyl acetate, ethyl acrylate, n-ethyl
aniline, ethylbenzene, 2-ethylbutanol, 2-ethylbutyl acetate,
readily regenerated under the reaction conditions. If tbe
2-ethylbutyl butyrate, ethylbutyl ether, ethylbutyl ketone, 35 catalyst is in an over oxidized state, then acetone becomes
2-ethylbutyraldehyde, ethylcrotonate, ethylene dichloride,
the predominant product. The selective catalysts contain a
mixture of zero valent metal and metal oxide phases. If tbe
ethyl formate, 2-ethylhexanol, 2-ethylhexyl acetate,
catalyst is in an over reduced state, methane becomes the
2-ethythexyl amine, 2-ethylhexyl chloride, 2-ethylhexyl
predominant product. Addition of Pd to the catalyst facili
crotonate;2-ethylhexyl ether, ethylidene acetone,
40
tates tQe formation and maintenance of the desired oxida tion
4-ethyloctanol, ethyl propionate, heptane, 2-heptyl acetate,
3-heptyl acetate, hexaldehyde, hexane, hexanol, 2-hexenal,
state.
hexyl acetate, hexyl chloride, isobutyl alcohol, isophorone,
The catalysts of the invention are reactive and selective
isopropyl acetate, isopropylbenzene, isopropyl chloride, iso-'
under a wide variety of conditions. Temperatures can range
propyl ether, mesityl oxide, methacrylaldehyde, l-methoxy 45 from about 250 to 400 C. More preferred temperatures
l,3-butadiene, 3-methoxybutyl acetaie, methylamyl ketone,
range from 270 to 3500 c., and the most preferred tempera
methylene chloride, 2-methyl-5-ethyl pyridine, 5-methyl-2
ture range is from 280 to 325 0 C. At low temperatures the
hexanone, methylisobutyl ketone, methylisopropenyl
rate may be low and, if the mixture is low in hydrogen, the
ketone, n-methylmorpholine, 2-methyl pentanal, 2-methyl
reaction can also be limited by the equilibrium restrictions
pentanol, 4-methyl-2-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-pentene, 50 dictated by the thermodynamics of the reaction. Excessively
4-methyl-2-pentyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, methyl
high temperature can lead to lower acetaldehyde selectivity
propyl ketone, nonane, paraldebyde, pentane, 2,4
due to the formation of acetone and hydrocarbons. Pressures
pentanedione, 3-pentanol, propionitrile, propyl chloride,
can range from less than 1 bar to greater than 50 bars, and
propylene dichloride, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, 1,4 55 the catalysts will still have excellent rates and acetaldehyde
thioxane, toluene, triallyl amine, l,l,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,
selectivities provided the right temperatures and hydrogen to
2-trichloroethylene, valeraldehyde, valeric acid, vinyl
acetic acid ratios are used. At pressures of about 1 bar at
acetate, vinylallyl ether, vinylbutyl ether, vinyl butyrate,
300 0 C. and at hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of about 40,
vinyl crotonate, vinylethyl ether, vinyl-2-ethylhexyl ether,
excellent rates and conversion are seen even with Fe 2 0 3
vinylisobutyl ether, vinyl isobutyrate, vinyl isopropyl ether, 60 containing no Pd. The rate and selectivity under these
vinyl-2-methyl pentanoate, vinyl propionate, vinylpropyl
conditions are even higher if Pd is added to the Fe Z0 3 in the
ether, and m-xylene. Among these, ethyl acetate is preferred
levels preferred in the present invention. However the recov
since, as mentioned above, it is a coproduct and its use does
ery and recycle portions of the process of the invention
not introduce anotber component to the separation.
65 become impractical at these low-pressure high-hydrogen
conditions. Lowering the hydrogen to acetic acid ratio at low
The catalyst (in reactor RX) of the invention contains iron
pressure lowers the rate and conversion to impractical levels
and palladium. Catalysts can contain between about 2.5 and

282

6,121,498

10

and places the catalyst in an unfavorable oxidati?o state


than acetaldehyde (boiling po~nt 19-20~ C.) using a so~vent
causing increased selectivity to acetone. Generally an
rich in acetic acid . The conditions used III absorber A will be
largely dictated by the temperature, press~re, and composJ
increase in hydrogen plus acetic acid pressure increases the
tion of the reactor effluent and tbe desIred aceta~dehyde
rate and degree of acetic acid conversion if other conditions
remain unchanged. Selectivity can also change as the pres 5 recovery. Acetaldehyde recoveries over 50% are desIred and
sure is increased. Ethyl acetate, which normally is not a
may be obtained by proper choice of conditions. Generally,
recovery improves with decreasing temperature, increasing
signillcant product at low. pressure, becomes a significant
pressure, and increasing solvent feed rate. This is why the
product as the pressure increases. Acetone, which can be a
significant product under low-pressure low-hydrogen 10 temperature of the reactor effluent is decreased via a reactor
conditions, is not a significant product at high-pressure
feed-effiuent heat exchanger FE as depicted in FIG. 1.
Preferably, the temperature of the effiuent will be reduced
low-hydrogen conditions provided the catalyst contains
below 250 0 C. prior to absorption. More preferred are
about 20 wt % Pd based on Fe2 0 3 If the catalyst contains
significantly less than about 20 wt % Pd based on Fez0 3 ,
temperatures below 2000 C. with temperatures below 1500
then the activity and acetaldehyde selectivity of the catalyst 15 C. most preferred.
rapidly deteriorate with time on stream, and acetone and
ethyl acetate selectivity increase under ~igh-~ressure lowhydrogen conditions. Pressures from. acellc aCId and. h!dro
gen greater than SO bars can cause Increased selectiVity to
ethanol and ethyl acetate. However the use of di~uen~s ~o
increase the pressure significantly above SO. bars IS Wlt~n
the spirit of tbe invention. and can be done WIthout ha:mmg
the selectivity. In view of the above-mentIOned
considerations, the preferred pressure of acetic acid plus
hydrogen for the process of the invention is between abOut
5 and 50 bars. A more preferred pressure of hydrogep plus

The pressure in absorber A is important to acetaldehyde


recovery and should be as high as practically possible. This
pressure should be close to that used in the reactor after
taking into account pressure drops and placement of the
20 gaseous recycle compressor RC. As noted previously, cata
lyst selectivity to acetaldehyde suffers when the combined
. partial pressure of hydrogen and acetic acid exceeds 50 bars
which effectively limits the absorber pressure to below 60
25 bar after accounting for diluents. So, a broad range of
absorber pressure is S to 60 bar with pressures of 6 to 25 bars
preferred.

The composition of the absorber solvent in stream 7 will


acetic acid is betw~en about 5 and 30 bars, and the most
.
30 depend on catalyst selectivity and .acetic acid conversion in
preferred pressure IS be~een ~bout 6 an~ 20 bars.
The catalysts of the lllvention are acllve under a WIde
the reactor. It should contain mostly unconverted acetic acid,
range of hydrogen to acetic acid ratios. The rate of the
however with at least 50 wt % acetic acid ranging up to 9S
wt % at' low conversion levels. Preferably the acetic acid
reaction increases as the amount of hydrogen increases. The
rate of reaction first increases as the amount of acetic acid
content of stream 7 will be between 60 and 85 wt %. Solvent
increases then decreases as the amount of acetic acid 35 rates will be dictated by the desired acetaldehyde recovery
in absorber A but should range between a solvent to absorber
increases further. As mentioned above excessive amounts of
acetic acid at low pressure can place the. catalyst in the
feed (stream 4) ratio of 0.1 to 20 wt/WI and preferably
wrong oxidation state giving low rates and lllcreased selec
between 1 and 10 wt/wt.
.
The gaseous product of stream 6 from the absorber will
tivity to acetone. Acetal~ehyde can be produced at hyd~ogen 40
to acetic acid ratios rangmg from about 2:1 to SO:l.or higher.
contain mostly unconverted bydrogen and light gases
However, in view of the recovery and rec~cle ~0I11~ns of the
formed as reaction byproducts. This stream will be largely
invention, the preferred hydrogen to acellc aCid raho rangc:s,
recycled to the reactor with a purge rate set to maintain a
desired hydrogen purity. While none of these light gases
from about 2:1 to 2S:1. More preferred hydrogen to acetic
acid ratio ranges from about 3:1 to lS:l, and the most 45 have been shown to have a deleterious effect on catalyst
preferred ratio ranges from 4:1 to 12:1.
performance, it is expected that the hydrogen content oftbe
gaseous recycle 13 should exceed SO mol % with purities
The gas hourly space velocity (GHSY, vo.lumes o~ ~eactants contacting the catalyst per hour at reactIOn condilions)
between 60 and 9S mol % preferred.

,.

depends on the other p~r~eters descnbed p~eviously. ~enerally ~e space veloc.lt~ IS chosen to proVlde the deSired
converSIon. The selecuvlty to acetal~ehyde decreases as the
acetic acid cODversion increases. This effect can be. ~re~ter
at very .low hydr.ogen levels because once ~he equilibnum
conversIOn level IS reached any further reachon converts the
acetaldehyde into ethanol and ethyl acetate. Under th~ mo~t
preferred conditions of temperature, hydrogen to acetic aCid
" aCId pressure It..IS pre erre d t0
ratio and hydrogen plus acehc
keep the acetic acid conversion below SO% if acetaldehyde
is the main product desired. If greater amounts of ethyl
acetate are desired, then it is possible to operate the reaction
so that the acetic acid conversion approaches 100%.
Separation of the reactor eflluent into product and uncon
verted reactant streams requires a number of steps. In the
preferred embodiment, the firSt step is the absorption in
absorber A of acetaldehyde and compounds boiling higher

The second major separation step is recovery of the


acetaldehyde via distillation in distillation column D. Col
umn pressure is important for producing liquid stream 19
from this relatively low-boiling acetaldehyde component
(19-200 C.) and should be as high as possible to minimize
55 refrigeration requirements in the overhead condenser. Mini
mum column pressure is 1 bar with preferred pressures from
5
20 b

to
ar.

50

EXAMPLES
60

The examples that follow are intended to illustrate the


process of the invention and are not intended to limit the
scope of tbe invention.
General Experimental Methods

65

Acetic acid hydrogenations at one bar pressure were


performed using a reactor system equipped with on-line gas

283

6,121,498

11

12

chromatography. Metered gas flows were provided .by six


Tylan Model FC-260 mass flow controllers. Electric tem
perature control and monitoring were provided by a Dow
Camile control system interfaced with a Gateway Model
2000 486DXJ33 computer. All gas delivery lines were teed
into pressure relief columns containing water to prevent
. accidental over pressurization. Acetic acid was fed by meter
ing hydrogen or nitrogen through a temperature-controlled
vaporizer containing the acetic acid. The temperature of the
vaporizer was maintained by a circulating water/ethylene
glycol bath. Product analysis was performed by on-line gas
chromatography utilizing a Hewlett-Packard Model 3790A
gas chromatograph fitted with a 6 fLxlfs inch stainless steel
column containing 80/120 Carbopack B/6.6% CarbowaX
20M. Products were analyzed by this on-line gas chromato
graph with the column programmed for 80 C. for 0 minutes,
4 C./minute to 150 0 C. and 1500 C. for 0 minute using a
flame ionization detector. A4-port Valco Industries sampling
valve was used to send the feed mixture to the reactor or to
the gas chromatograph for analysis. Two six-port Valco
Industries gas chromatographic sampling valves containing
1 mL volume sample loops were used to sample the reactant
stream or the product stream. All tubing lines connecting the
exit of the acetic acid vaporizer, bypass valve, reactor,
six-port sampling valves and the gas chromatograph.. were
constructed of Ifs-inch stainless steel and were heated with
temperature-controlled heating tapes to 1500 C. The three '
sampling valves were heated to 1500 using valve ovens. The
reactor was constructed of main section of 8-inch longx8
mm 0.0. borosilicate glass fused to a lower section con
sisting of 6-inch longx7.5 mm 0.0.-3 mm 1.0. capillary
tubing. The reactor had a I-inch longx8 mm 0.0. borosili
0
cate side arm situated at 90 and 1 inch down from the top
of the 8 mm 0.0. glass portion of the main reactor section.
The three openings to the reactor were fitted with 2-inch
long .-incb 0.0. kovar metal tubing sealed to the end of the
glass. Accurately weighed catalyst charges (typically 0.2 g)
were loaded into the reactor by first inserting a glass or
quartz wool plug from the top of the reactor into the top part,
of the capillary section and then placing the catalyst charge
on top of the glass or quartz wool plug. A thermocouple was
inserted through the top of the reactor into the catalyst bed
and sealed to the kovar tube with Swagelok fittings. The
reactant mixture was fed through the side arm, and the
product exited at the base of the reactor. The kovar portions
of the reactor inlet and outlet were connected to the stainless
steel transfer lines using Swagelok fittings. The reactor
was heated with a vertically-mounied single element electric
furnace containing a 12-inch long heat zone. The apparatus
allowed for additional hydrogen or inert gas to be metered
into the vapor stream exiting the temperature-controlled
vaporizer. The acetic acid partial pressure could be con
trolled by altering the temperature of the vaporizer or by
adding hydrogen or inert gas to the vapor stream exiting the
temperature-controlled vaporizer. The apparatus could also
easily be configured to allow inert gas to be metered to the
temperature-controlled vaporizer. This flexibility in setting
the feed composition facilitated the study of the reaction
kinetics. Normally catalysts were reduced in hydrogen (22.4
standard cubic centimeters per minute, SCeM) overnight at
3000 C. before feeding the acetic acid and hydrogen mixture.

In some cases a higher temperature was used for the reduc


tion. When the reactor was idle between acetic acid hydro
genation experiments with the same catalyst charge, hydro
gen flow (22.4 SCCM) was maintained at 3000 C.
High pressure acetic acid hydrogenation reactioIlS were
performed in a reactor constructed from a 12 inch length of
Hastelloy C tubing having an outer diameter of . inch. All
gas flow, pressure and temperature control devices were
controlled by a Camile Model 3300 process monitoring
and control system interfaced with an IBM Model 750-P90
computer. Hydrogen flow was provided by a Brooks mass
flow controller, and acetic acid was fed using dual ISCO
high pressure syringe pumps. The device was fitted with a
relief valve set for 35 bar. Pressure was controlled by a
modified Research Control Valve with a pressure transducer
located between the flow controller and the reactor. A
2-micron filter was placed between the reactor and the
Research Control Valve. The product exiting the Research
Control Valve was fed to a Valco Industries 6-port gas
chromatographic sampling valve containing a 1 mL sample
loop. The gas chromatographic sampling valve was inter
faced to a Hewlett-Packard Model 3790A gas chroma tograph fitted with a 6 ft.XI/S inch stainless steel column
containing 80/120 Carbopack B/6.6% Carbowax 20M.
Products were analyzed by this on-line gas chromatograph
with the column programmed for 80 0 C. for 0 minutes, 4
C./minute to 1500 C. and 1500 C. for 0 minute using a flame
ionization detector. The transfer lines, filter and Research
Control Valve connecting the reactor to the gas chroma tographic sampling valve were heated to 200 0 C. by a
temperature-controlled heating tape. The gas Chromato
graphic sampling valve and the transfer line connecting it to
the gas chromatograph were maintained at 150 C. The
reactor tube was loaded to position the accurately weighed
catalyst charge (typically 0.2 g) in the middle of the reactor.
Quartz fines (1 inch layer), 12x20 mesh quartz chips (35
inches-layer) and quartz or glass wool plugs were placed on
both sides of the catalyst charge. The entire length of the
reactor was heated with a temperature-controlled heating
tape. The acetic acid was delivered to the reactor via a line
passing concentrically through the reactor head and about an
inch into the upper portion of the heated portion of the
reactor. The hydrogen delivery line and the relief valve were
also fitted to the reactor head. Thus the upper portion of the
heated reactor acted as an acetic acid vaporization and vapor
mixing zone. Catalysts were reduced in hydrogen (25
SCCM) at 1.7 bar at 300 C. in the reactor over night or
longer before feeding hydrogen and acetic acid. Reactions
were started by setting the bydrogen and acetic acid feeds to
the desired rates at the 1.7 bar setting and then selling the
pressure to tbe desired amount. When the reactor was idle
between acetic acid hydrogenation experiments with the
same catalyst charge, hydrogen flow (22.4 secM) at 1.7 bar
was maintained at 300 C.
The following definitions apply to the specific examples:
Space velocity (SV or GHSV)=volumes of gas per vol
ume of catalyst per hour under reaction conditions,
Space time yield (STY)agrams of product produced per
liter of catalyst per hour,
% acetic acid conversion=100(mmoles acetic acid
reacted)/(mmoles acetic acid fed),

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

284

6,121,498

14

13

% acetic acid accountability=100(mmoles aceti>; acid


Catalyst No.8: Pd sponge. Pd sponge (20 mesh, Alfa lot
#00777) was used as received.
recovered+mmoles acetate equivalents in products)/
(=oles aceticacid fed);
Example 1
% normalized selectivity=100(mmoles product)/(total
This example illustrates the effect of changing the weight
mmoles all products).
percentage of Pd on Fe 20 3 by large amollDts under a
Catalysts
stand
ard set of feed conditions at one bar pressure. The
The catalysts used in the examples were obtained by the
example illustrates that acetic acid conversion is low when
methods that follow.
.
the catalyst contains 0 or 100% Pd and that the selectivity to
Catalyst No . 1: Fe 2 0 3 . Fe 2 03 (Aldrich, lot
#DQ15808DQ, 99.98% purity) was used as received. 10 methane is high . The example also illustrates that, of tbose
catalysts converting over 90% of the acetic acid, the catalyst
Catalyst No. 2: 2.5% Pd on Fe20 3. A solution was
containing 10 wt % Pd produces acetaldebyde at the higbest
prepared from Pd(N03)2xHz0 (442 mg, Alfa lot
rate and selectivity with the lowest methane selectivity. The
#120982,39.9% Pd) and water (10 mL). This solution
example further shows that althougb the catalyst containing
was added to 20x40 mesh Catalyst No.1 (7_1607 g) 15 no Pd had the highest acetaldehyde selectivity, it also had the
contained in an evaporating dish. The mixture was
lowest acetic acid conversion. The relationship between
dried on the steam bath and calcined in a muffle furnace
acetaldehyde selectivity and conversion will become more
for 4 hours at 400 C.
apparent in subsequent examples. Tbe data for Example 1
were collected at a point in time when the catalyst activity
Catalyst No.3: 5% Pd on Fe 20 3. A solution was prepared
from Pd(N0:J2xHz0 (127 mg, Alia lot #120982, 20 was high and are presented in Table 1.
39.9% Pd) and water (2 mL). This solution was added
Example 2
.
to Catalyst No.1 (1.0294 g) contained in an evaporat
This. example compares the performance of catalysts
ing dish. The mixture was dried on the steam bath and
25 containlD~ 2.5. and 5 wt.% Pd under conditions ?~ compa
calcined in a muffie furnace for 5 hours at 400 C.
rable acelic aCid conversIOn. The same feed condllions used
Pd
F
A I .
.'
Ca ta Iyst N0.:
4 lO ot
-;0
on ez 3' so ution was pre
.
'
,
ill Example 2 were used as lD Ex:rn:ple 1, and the data were
pared from Pd(N0 )2 xH 20 (251 mg,Alfa lot #120982,
3
39.9% Pd), Fe(N03)3. 9Hz O (5.06 g, MallincJ.aOdt lot
colle~ted after the catalyst a~t!Vlty had moder~ted thus
L)
'T'
h'
I
t'
Vll'T'J)
d
t
(10
allowmg for the lower conversIOns. The example illustrates
#5032 n.n~. an wa er
m. JO t 15 so u IOn was
th b a l "
5
m Pd'
I ' th
.
d fr
..
'd 30 at t e cat yst contammg wt -/0
15 more se ectJve an
added a separate soI utlOn prepare
om cltnc aCI
..
' I C
I
'al)
that contalmng 2.5 wt % Pd when run at the same level of
(2 .59 g, E astman Ch emlca ompany pant maten
"d
.
Th
I fu b ill
h
acelic aCI conversIOn.
.
d
th
e examp e rt er ustrates t at
and water (5 m).
L The mIxture was evaporate on e .

. .
.
.
much higher acetaldehyde selectIVIty at much hlgber acetic
d '
fIl
.
.
steam bath to a sea Iy mass and th en calClDe ill a mu e
..
. .
c 5 h
4000 C
aCid conversIOn can be achieved With catalysts contalDillg
fu mace lor
ours a t .
35
Pd than the Fe 20 3 catalyst of Example 1. The data for
.
Catalyst No.5: 20% Pd on Fez 0 3' A solutIOn was pre
E xamp Ie 2 are presente d'ill T able 2 .
pared from Pd(N03hxH 20 (501 mg, Alfa lot #120982,
Example 3
39.9% Pd), Fe(N03)3.9Hz0 (5,06 g, Mallinckrodt lot
#5032"KHTJ) and water (10 mL). To this solution was
This example compares the performance of catalysts
added a separate solution prepared from citric acid 40 conta:iJ)ing 5 and 10 wt % Pd IlDder conditions of comparable
(2.23 g, Eastman Cbemical Company plant material)
acetic acid conversion. The same feed conditions used in
Example 3 were used as in Example 1, and the data were
and water (5 mL). The mixture was evaporated on the
steam bath to a scaly mass and then calcined in a muffle'
collected while the catalyst activity was higbest thus allow
45 ing for the higher conversions. The example illustrates that
furnace for 5 hours at 400 C.
the catalyst containing 10 wt % Pd is more selective than
Catalyst No.6: 40% Pd on Fe20~. A solution was pre
pared from Pd(N03)2xH20 (Alpha lot #120982, 39.9%
that containing 5 wt % Pd when run at the same level of
acetic acid conversion. The example further illustrates tbat,
Pd), Fe(N03hx9H20 (Mallinckrodt lot #5032 KJITJ)
and water (10 mL). To this solution was added a
at one bar pressure, the optimum performance is achieved
separate solution prepared from cilric acid (Eastman 50 when the Pd level of 10 wt %. The data for Example 3 are
Cbemical Company plant material) and water (5 mL).
presented in Table 3.
The mixture was evaporated on the steam bath to a
Example 4
scaly mass and then calcined in a muffle furnace for 5
This example illustrates the effects of changing the mole
hours at 400 C. The amount of Pd(N03hxH20 used in 55
fraction of acetic acid in hydrogen (XHOAJ at various space
Catalyst No.5 was approximately doubled to achieve
velocities on tbe performance of the 5 wt % Pd on FeZ0 3 at
40% Pd.
one bar pressure. The example illustrates that high acetal
Catalyst No. 7: 80% Pd on Fe20 3. A solution was pre
dehyde selectivity can be achieved at higb acetic acid mole
pared from Pd(N03)2xH20 (2.005 g, Alfa 101#120982,
60 fraction, but that it is difficult to obtain higber conversions
39.9% Pd), Fe(N03)3.9H20 (1.01 g, Mallinckrodt lot
by lowering the space velocity when tbe acetic acid mole
#5032 KHTJ) and water (lOmL). To this solution was
fraction is high at one bar pressure. The data for Example 4
added a separate solution prepared from citric acid
are presented in Table 4.
(1.93 g, Eastman Chemical Company plant material)
Example 5
and water (5 mL). The mixture was evaporated on the 65

steam bath to a scaly mass and then calcined in a muffle


furnace for 5 hours at 400 C.

This example illustrates tbe performance of tbe 10 wI. %


Pd on Fe 20 3 at 250 psig pressure and at a 5/1 bydrogenJ

285

6,121,498

15

16

acetic acid ratio as a function of time on stream. The


example illustrates that good rate and acetaldehyde selec
TABLE 1
tivity can be achieved, but that the rate, conversion and

Effect of a to 100 wt %Pd 00 tlle Performance of Fop, Olt21ysIS

acetaldehyde selectivity decrease after a certain time on


stream. The example also illustrates that the selectivity to
Wt%Pd
80
1()0

0
10
20
40
hydrocarbons is very low under the high-pressure low
Calalyst /'10 .
4
7
8
5
. hydrogen conditions. The example further illustrates that
19
96
99
% HOAc Conv.
26

98
81
ethyl acetate is a significant product under the high-pressure
280
499
157
79
45

low-hydrogen conditions. The performance data for 10 G/(l-hr) HAc


80
56
% HAc sel.'
15
4
38
35
Example 5 are presented in Table 5.
0.6
%acetone sel.
3.1
0.2
0.3
2.7
1.1
%EtOH sel.
7
38
22
50
0.4
55
Example 6
%CH., set.
10.5
2.7
8.5
62.9
95.4
8.6
0.1
0.7
3.1
% C, H. C. sel.'
0.3
0
0.1
This example illustrates the performance of the 40 wt % 15 % HOAc acct. 100
100
108
107
105
100
Pd on Fe2 0 3 at 17.2 bar gauge pressure at 7/1 and 5/1
Conditions: 90 SCCM H2 containing 2 mol % HOAc, 0.2 g catalyst, 300
hydrogen/acetic acid ratios with time on stream. 1bis
e.
example also iliustrates that the performance of this catalyst
'Selectivities are normalized.
does not deteriorate in the manner exhibited by the 10 wt % 20 "c, HydrocarlJOllS - ethylene + ethane.
Pd catalyst of Example 5. The performance data for
"'Acetic acid accountability.
Example 6 are presented in Table 6.
TABLE 2
Effect

of % Pd on tbe Performance of Fe 2 0, CatalysIS

Wt%Pd
%HOAc Conv.
G/(l-lu:) HAc
% HAc sel.
%acetone sel.
% EtOH seL
%CH., sel.
% C2 H. e. sel."
%HOAc accl'"

25
54
597
78
0.8
15
4 .6
1.0
91

50
621
79
0.8
15
4.1
0.9
107

52
656
77
0.9
17
4.4
0.9
103

50
698
80
0.8
14
3.8
0.8
103

Cooditions: 90 SCCM H2 containing 2 mol % HOAc,


'Selectivities are normalized.

"c, Hydrocarbons - etbylene + ethane.

...Acetic acid accoun~bility.

45
59
51
48
45
674
748
694
527
662
82
84
84
73
84
0.7
0.6
0.6
1.6
0.7
12
10
9
9
18
6.1
5.2
5.7
5.9
5.9
1.6
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.6
97
101
101
102
105
0.2

g catalyst,

300'

e.

Example 7

TABLE 3
This example illustrales the integx.ated process of the 45

invention. The processing steps of the invention are depicted

Effect of % Pd 00 the Performance of Fe20, Catalysts:


in FIGS. 1 and 2. The reactor (a) is loaded with a Pd/Fe2 0 3
Comparison at the 5 and 10 WI. % Levels
catalyst of the invention and operated at 300 C. with a 5/1

molar hydrogen to acetic acid ratio at 17.2 bar pressure, and 50

5
10
Wt%Pd
the reaction is 89% selective to acetaldehyde, 5% selective
to ethanol lethyl acetate, 4% selective to acetone and C02,
98
92
97
91
% HOAc Coov.
and 2% selective to hydrocarbons at 45% acetic acid con
773
994
642
779
G/(l-br) HAc
version. Ethanol is converted to ethyl acetate as dictated by
52
47
68
% HAcsel."
36
the chemical equilibrium conditions in the bottom of the 55
1.0
1.0
1.1
0.9
%acetone scI.
acetaldehyde recovery column (1). Optional sulfuric acid
27
44
40
39
% EtOH sel.
catalyst can be used 10 facilitate the attainment of the
3.4
14
5.4
11
% CH. scI.
ethanol-acetic acid-water-ethyl acetate equilibrium. The
2.6
0.6
3.7
1.0
% C, B.C. sel.
heat and material balances for the process of the invention 60
103
103
98
98
% HOAc aeel.
operating in this mode are provided in Tables 7 and 8.
Conditions: 90 SCCM H2 conlaining 2 mol % HOAc, 0.2 g catalyst, JOO
While the invention has been descnbed in connection
with the preferred embodiments and examples, it will be
c.
understood that modifications within the principle outlined
'Selectivities are normalized.
above will be evident to those skilled in the art. Thus, the 65 "c, Hydrocarbons ~ ethylene + ethane.
invention is not limited to the preferred embodiments and
"'Acetic acid accountability.
examples, but is intended to encompass such modifications.

286

"

6,121,498

17

18

"

TABLE 4
Effect of Cbanging tbe Mole Fraction of Acetic Acid in Hydrogen

on the Performance of 5 wt. % Pd/Fe203

at Different Space Velocities.

5350
90
73000
0.057
38
1003
S7
1.1
8.0
3.2
0.6
86

TfOS,}nin."'
SCCM H2
GHSV, hr- '

X HOAC
% HOAc conv.
Gf(l-br) HAc
% HAc sel.
% Acetone sel.
% EtOH sel.
% CH. sel.
% C, R C. sel.
% HOAc acct.

7033
30
24000
0.095
31
283
87
1.1
6.8
4.8
0.8
82

7141
90
73000
0.095
16
497
89
0.9
5.3
3.9
0.5
91

8134
90
73000
0.026
66
740
79
0.9
15.8
3.7
0.7
92

9291
90
73000
0.20
16
899
90
1.8
5.8
1.8
0.4
95

8886
90
73000
0.20
23
523
87
2.5
7.5
2.7
0.2
81

9328
25
20000
0.20
17
338
89
3.9
4.6
1.9
0.3
96

9396
25
20000
0.20 '
,~. ,:
26
407
89
3.0
5.4
2.2
0.6
89

Conditions: 0.2 g catalyst, 300 C.


*TfOS total time on stream under hydrogen and acetic acid feed.
Selectivities are normalized
'''c, Hydrocarbons ~ elbylene + ethane.
....Acetic acid accountability.

TABLE 5

TABLE 6
25

Effect of Tune on Stream on the Perfomance of 10 WI %

Effects of Hydrogen/Acetic Acid Ratio and Tinte on Stream on the

Pd/F~03

Performance of 40 WI % Pd/Fe203 at 250 psig.

at 250 psig aDd 5/1 Hydrogen/Acetic Acid Ratio.

TIOS min
J

1739

2089

22

10

3350

970

TrOSt min

512

% HOAcConv.
Gf(l-hr) HAc

2318

3530

2600

46

42

38

1530

2125

2175

H,fHOAc
;>,(

534

30

. GHSV, hr-l
% HOAc Conv.

2600

% HAc sel.

77.9

62.7

% acetone sel.

1.5

4.6

% HAc sel."

86.4

77.1

% EtOHoel.

15.0

16.2

% acetone sei.

1.7

1.3

1.5

% EtOAc sel.

4.6

15.5

% EtOH sel.

9.6

15.9

J5 .2

0.7

0.7

% EtOAc sel.

2.1

5.6

6.3

0.1

% CH. sel.

0.1

<0..1

<0.1

% C:zll C. 8el.

<0.1

<0.1

ca.

%
sel.
% C, RC. sel.

0.2

Gf(l-hr) HAc
35

40

ConditiollS : GHSV 12200, 300 C.

Conditions: 300 C.

'TIOS total time on stream under hydrogen and acetic acid feed.
"Selectivities are normalized

"'c, Hydrocarbons -

77.0

"!TOS - total time on stream under bydrogen and acetic acid feed
45 Selectivities are normalized.

"Cz

etbylene + ethane.

Hydrocarbons - ethylene + ethane.

TABLE 7
HOAc Hydrogenation Reaction Section Balance
Stream

. J

11

Temperature C
Pressure BAR
Vapor Frnction
Mole Flow KGMOUHR
Mass Flow KGIHR
\blume Flow M3/HR
Enthalpy MJIHR
Mole Flow KGMOUHR

67.3
19.0
0.848
4982
63088
6348
-3888JO

HOAC
H2
HAC
METHANE
ACETONE
ETHANOL

742.54
3742.14
33.21
358.78
2.59
0.23

18

19

23

30

31

33

36

77.6
19.0
1.000
3845
18807
5914
-57092

37.8
6.9
1.000
22
510
84
-2J48

37.8
6.9
0.000
318
13455
18
-61647

167.8
6.6
0.010
4466
183638
465
-1624722

167.8
6.6
0.010
737
30312
77
-268188

167.8
6.6
0.010
3729
153325
389
-1356535

37.8
2.8
0.000
3729
153325
155
-1397118

66.7
19.0
0.847
4982
63086
6333
-388610

15.63
3332.30
33.21
356.76
2.59
0.23

0.00
5.28
5.94
8.40
0.00
0.00

0.00
0.05
293.39
2.95
0.06
0.00

2265.66
0 .00
0.30
0.00
26.65
6.11

373.98
0.00
0.05
0.00
4.40
1.01

1891.67
0.00
0.25
0.00
22.25
5.10

1891.67
0.00
0.25
0.00
22.25
5.10

748.43
3742.14
33.21
358.76
2.59
6.12

13

287

6,121,498

19

20

,-.--
"

TABLE 7-continued

------ 1

HOAc Hydrogenation Reaction Section Balance


Stream

ETIIEI'!
H2O
CO2
ITOAC
Mass Fraction
HOAC
H2
HAC
METHANE
ACErONE
ETHANOL

ETIIENE
H2O
CO2
ETOAC

11

13

18

19

28.43
28.98
39.37
5.89

28.43
28.98
39.37
5.89

1.28
0.11
1.49
0.00

2.18
16.85
2.61
0.00

0.7070
0.1200
0.0230
0.0910
0.0020
0.0002
0.0130
0.0080
0.0270
0.0080

0.0500
0.3610
0.0790
0.3090
0.0080
0.0008
0.0430
0.0280
0.0930
0.0280

0.0000
0.0210
0.5130
0.2840
0.0000
0.0000
0.0700
0.0040
0.1280
0.0000

23
0.00
2071.76
0.00
95.49

0.7410
0.0000
0.0001
0.0000
0.0080
0.0020
0.0000
0.2030
0.0000
0.0460

36

33

0.00
1729.78
0.00
79.73

0.00
341.98
0.00
15.76

0.7410
0.0000
0.0001
0.0000
0.0080
0.0020
0.0000
0.2030
0.0000
0.0460

0.0000
0.0000
0.9610
0.0040
0.0003
0.0000
0.0050
0.0230
0.0090
0.0000

31 .

30

0.00
1729.78
0.00
79.73

0.7410
0.0000
0.0001
0.0000
0.0080
0.0020
0.0000
0.2030
0.0000
0.0460

28.43
23.09
39.37
0.00

0.7410
0.0000
0.0001
0 .0000
0.0080
0.0020
0.0000
0.2030
0.0000
0.0460

0.7120
0.1200
0.0230
0.0910
0.0020
0.0040
0.0130
0.0070
0.0270
0.0000

TABLE 8
HOAc

Hydro~nation

Recovery Section Balance

12

Temperarue C
Pressure BAR
Vapor Fraction
Mole Flow KGMOllHR
Mass Flow KG/HR
\-blum. Flow M3/HR
Enlhalpy MJ/HR
Mole Flow KGMOllHR

167.8
8.8
0.006
737.5
3032.3
61.4
-268378

96.8
2.1
1.000
1490.7
87620
22170.6
-515645

141.5
2.1
0.000
382.8
22466
24.8
-169455

43.3 .
2.1
0.000
1136.1
79762
89.5
-473168

43.3
2.1
0.000
1198.6
84156
94.4
-499232

43.3
2.1
0.000
353.3
7270
7.6
-102244

43.3
2.1
0.000
62.6
4394
4.9
-26065

102.2
2.1
0.000
16.9
1445
1.B
-7813

HOAC
ACETONE
ETHANOL
H2O
ETOAC
HAC
Mass Fraction

374.10
4.40
1.01
342.15
15.77
0.05

25.00
82.96
9.91
238.03
779.28
0.87

26.38
87.53
10.46
251.14
822.21
0.92

2.41
4.96
1.60
336.28
798
0.05

1.38
4.57
0.55
13.11
42.93
0.05

Saeam

HOAC
ACErONE
ETHANOL
H2O
ITOAC
HAC

0.7410
0.0080
0.0020
0.2030
0.0460
0.0001

28.74
8736
10.92
587.71
795.05
0.92

0.0200
0.0580
0.0060
0,1170
0.'7990
0.0005

370.36
0.00
0.00
12.47
0.00
0.00

0.9900
0.0000
0.0000
0.0100
0.0000
0.0000

0.0190
0.0600
0.0060
0.0540
0.8610
0.0005

50
What is clainled is:
1. A method of producii:Jg acetaldehyde, comprising the
steps of:
(a) hydrogenating acetic acid at a pressure between about
5 and 50 bars in the presence of an iron oxide catalyst
containing between 20 and 90 WI % palladium to 55
produce a gaseous product; and
(b) absorbing acetaldehyde from the gaseous product with
a solvent containing acetic acid.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the catalyst
contains between 20 and 80 WI % palladium.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the catalyst 60
contains between 20 and 60 wt % palladium.
4. The method according to claim 1, further comprising
the step of supplying bydrogen and acetic acid to a reactor
in a hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of 2:1 to 25:1.
S.The method according to claim 1, further comprising 65
the step of supplying bydrogen and acetic acid to a reactor
in a hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of 3: 1 to 15: 1.

0.0190
0.0600
0.0060
0.0540
0.8610
0.0005

0.0200
0.0400
0.0100
0.8330
0.0970
0.0003

0.0190
0.0600
0.0060
0.0540
0.8610
0.0005

1.3 6
0.09
0.01

am
15.41
0.00

0.0570
0.0040
0.0004
0.0001
0.9390
0.0000

6. The method according to claim 1, further comprising


the step of supplying hydrogen and acetic acid to a reactor
in a hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of 4:1 to 12: 1.
7. The method accordiIig to clainl 1, wherein the iron
oxide is Fe2 0 3
8. The method according to claim 1, wherein the bydro
genation is performed at a temperature of about 2500 C. to
400 0 C.
9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the hydro
genation is performed at a temperature of about 2700 C. to
3500 C.
10. The method according to clain11, wherein the hydro
0
genation is performed at a temperature of about 280 C. to
325 C.
11. The method according to claim 1, wherein the catalyst
has a specific surface area of less than 150 m2 /g.
12. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of
absorbing acetaldehyde is run at a temperature below 250 0
C.

288

6,121,498

21
.\

.(

13. The method according to claim 1, wherein tbe step of


absorbing acetaldehyde is run at a iemperature below 2000
C.
14. The method according to claim 1, wherein the step of
absorbing acetaldehyde is run at a temperature below 1500
C.
15.- The method according to claim 1, wherein step (b)
produces a gaseous remainder containing hydrogen, the
gaseous remainder being recycled to step (a) for the hydro
genation of acetic acid.
16. The method according to claim 1, further comprising
the step of (c) distilling the absorbed acetaldehyde from the
solvent containing acetic acid.
17. The method according to claim 16, wherein step (c) is
performed at a pressure of 1 bar or greater.
18. The method according to claim 16, wherein step (c) is
performed at a pressure from 5 to 20 bar.
19. The method according to claim 16, wherein step (c)
produces acetaldehyde product and a mixture of ethyl
acetate, water, acetic acid and acetone, the method further
comprising the step of (d) recovering the acetic acid from the
mixture of ethyl acetate, water, acetic acid and acetone using
an azeotropic distillation.
20. The method according to claim 19, wherein a hetero
geneous water azeotrope is used for the azeotropic distilla
tion.
21. The method according to claim 19, wherein an azeo
trope of ethyl acetate and water is used for the azeotropic
distillation.
22. The method according to claim 21, wherein the
unreacted acetic acid is separated in a column, and the
column is controlled to contain an ethyl acetate rich azeo
trope of ethyl acetate and water.
23. The method according to claim 19, wherein step (a) is
conducted in a reactor zone, the method further comprising
the step of returning acetic acid recovered in step (d) to the
reactor zone.
24. The method according to claim 19, further comprising
the step of (e) recovering ethyl acetate, water and acetone

22
from tbe mixture of ethyl acetate, water, acetic acid and
acetone using decantation, steam stripping and distillation .
25. Tile method according to claim 16, wherein step (c)
produces acetaldehyde product and a mixture containing
acetic acid, a portion of the nllxture containing acetic acid
being used in step (b) as the solvent for absorbing acetal
dehyde.
26. A process for the preparation and recovery of acetal
dehyde comprising the steps of:
10
(a) contacting within a reactor zone hydrogen and acetic
acid with a hydrogen to acetic acid molar ratio of less
than 25 in the presence of an iron oxide catalyst
containing between 20 and 90 wt. % palladium at
temperatures between 250 and 400 0 C. and pressures
15
between 5 and 50 bar;
(b) absorbing the reaction product in acetic acid-rich
solvent and returning a major portion of the uncon
densed gases to the reactor zone;
(c) distilling the acetaldehyde from the acetic acid-rich
20
solvent;
(d) recovering unconverted acetic acid by azeotropic
distillation;
(e) returning the recovered acetic acid to the reactor zone;
25
and
(f) recovering the coproducts water, acetone and ethyl
acetate by decantation, steam stripping and distillation.
27. A method of producing .acetaldehyde, comprising the
steps of:
30
(a) supplying hydrogen and acetic acid to a reactor in a
hydrogen to acetic acid ratio of 2:1 to 25:1; and
(b) hydrogenating acetic acid in the reactor at a pressure
between about 5 and 50 bars and a temperature of about
250 0 C. to 400 c., the hydrogenation being conducted
35
in the presence of an iron oxide catalyst containing
between 20 and 60 WI. % palladium.

* * * * *

289