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# Ch-4 part-2

ANALOG OHMMETER
Analog meter can be designed to measure
resistance by allowing unknown resistance to
complete a series circuit and calibrating the
ammeter scale to read the resistance
There are two types:
- Series type ohmmeter
- Shunt type ohmmeter

1- Series type ohmmeter
- The current in the meter is inversely
proportional to the total resistance of the circuit
R
tot
= R
zero adjust
+ R
meter
+ R
Uk
uk m z
R R R
V
I
+ +
=

Zero adjust
Internal
battery
Ammeter
Unknown
resistance
R
UK

- When the load is short circuit,
R
uk
= 0
R
o
= R
z
+ R
m

Current is very high (maximum ammeter full deflection
I
fs
) , so the pointer go to right , read 0
o m z
fs
R
V
R R
V
I =
+
=

-
When R
Uk
= R
zero adjust
+ R
meter
=R
o
The meter will read half scale deflection
2 2
/
2 /
fs
o
o uk o uk m z
I
R V
R
V
R R
V
R R R
V
I = = =
+
=
+ +
=

From the above scale it is clear that, the total internal
resistance is 10K

-
When R
Unknown
=

The meter will read zero
0 =
+
=
+ +
=
o m z
R
V
R R
V
I

The scale is nonlinear and the resistance increase in the
left side

In general :
The deflection ratio of the meter (D) is expressed as
follows:
UK o
o
uk m z
m z
R R
R
R R R
R R
D
+
=
+ +
+
=

Where
D fraction of full-scale meter deflection
R
o
total internal resistance of the meter (R
m
+R
z
)
R
UK
the unknown resistance
Example-7
Find the value of the unknown resistance when the
I
fs
=1mA, R
m
=100 and V
battery
=3V for the following
cases
D= 20%, 40%, and 50%

z m
fs
R R
V
I
+
=

O = O = = K
mA
R
I
V
R
m
fs
z
9 . 2 100
1
3

O = O + O = + = K K R R R
z m o
3 9 . 2 100

Unknown
resistance
R
UK

Zero adjust
Internal
battery
Ammeter
UK o
o
R R
R
D
+
=

o
o
uk
R
D
R
R =

For D=20% =.2 , so
O = = K R
uk
12 3
2 . 0
3

For D=40%=.4 , so
O = = K R
uk
5 . 4 3
4 . 0
3

For D=50%=.5 , so
O = = K R
uk
3 3
5 . 0
3

The zero adjust is necessary to compensate for the
changing voltage from the internal battery due to its ages.

To make ohmmeter sensitive to small value, connected
some resistance in parallel as shown below, so the range
can change
(The shunt resistances reduces the total internal
resistance, so larger current can passes (which mean
measure a small unknown resistance).

Zero adjust
Internal
battery
Ammeter
R
s
Range
switch
Improved series ohmmeter circuit
2- Shunt type ohmmeter
This type is used to measure small resistance
values

- The unknown resistor (Z
uk
) is connected in
parallel with each of the meter internal
resistance and the range switch resistor
- When Z
uk
=0 (short circuit), no current flow
through the meter, and all the current passes
through S.C
- When Z
uk
is not connected (Open Circuit), all
the current flow through the shunt resistance,
meter resistance and range switch resistance.
- The scale is nonlinear, and the resistance
increase to the right side ( reverse of series
ohmmeter)
- The meter must be turned off, when it is not in
use , otherwise the battery will discharge

On-off
switch
Zero adjust
Internal
battery
A
Range
switch
z
UK
Shunt Ohmmeter

Series Ohmmeter
Using ohmmeter
- Because the ohmmeter supplies a current to the
resistance to be tested, so it must used with
un-energized circuit, otherwise the meter will
need a calibration.
- The measured resistor must be isolated from
other resistance or disconnect one of its end

THE MEGAOHMMETER (MEGGER)
- It is an ohmmeter used to measure very high
resistances such as insulation.
- The megger is equipped with hand-crank
generator to turn generator to deliver a high
enough voltage to force current in the
resistance to be measured. Or use AC source.

THE VOM
35 T (10-kV model)
VOM Voltmeter-Ohmmeter Milliammeter
- It is a meter replace all the previous circuits
combined together.
- Can be used to measure each of the voltage, current
and resistance.
- Have different ranges for volt, ohms and amperes
- Measure AC, DC voltage and current and measure
Ohms
- To measuring Ac, it must have an internal rectifier
bridge

USING VOMs
The precautions for Voltmeter, ammeter and ohmmeter
are applicable for VOMs
For ohmmeter to measure a resistance, the
zero adjust should be
checked each time the
range is switch
For voltmeter/ammeter you must set the range
switch to higher than
expected reading, then
switch to lower to read
accurate reading.
To prevent arcing (damage), the switch range not
change while the DUT is connected.

How to Measure a Capacitor
step-1 (using Ohmmeter)
1- The capacitor is removed from the circuit and discharges
by connected it across resistance
2- Adjust the VOM to ohmmeter and adjust the scale to
higher resistance range
3- Take care of the capacitor polarity if it is electrolyte
4- The ohmmeter read small resistance then it increased as
the capacitor started charges
5- If the increase of the resistance is small , due to slowly
charging, change ohmmeter to less range.
6- If the resistance not increase, the capacitor is bad
Step-2 (using Voltmeter)
1- Change the VOM to voltage measuring
2- The capacitor is connected in series with voltmeter, see
figure
3- When the voltage is applied , it will divide between
internal voltmeter resistance and the capacitor
4- As the capacitor start to charges , the voltage across the
voltmeter is decease.
5- If the voltage not increase, the capacitor is bad
For large electrolyte capacitors may it have leakage current,
so they can appear bad especially with high impedance
meter, to check, compare with similar and good capacitor

Disadvantages of PMMC voltmeter

- Low input impedance: Loading effect

- Insufficient sensitivity to detect low
level signal

Supply
v
o
l
t
a
g
e
Appro
x
.

3
5
V
Cap
a
c
i
t
o
r

Und
e
r

t
e
s
t
Approach

Utilized electronic devices such as

Op-amp ,BJT or FET to solve the above problems

Operational Amplifier (op-amp)

Inverting Amplifier
f
o in
R
V
R
v
=
0 0
1

1
R
R
v
v
f
in
o
=

Non-inverting Amplifier
in A
v v =

f
out in in
R
V v
R
v
=

1
0

1
1
R
R
v
v
f
in
out
+ =

1- Using Op-amp to Measure voltage and current
This circuit can be used as ammeter or
Voltmeter
Ammeter
When function switch at A, current passes through
R
s
, so voltage appear on V
+
and current can be
reading through the meter

Voltmeter
When function switch at V, based on the selected
range, a voltage appears on V
+
V
o
=A*V
+

Where A is the op-amp gain

Example-8
For the circuit shown, if I
fs
=50A, R
m
=1K and the Op-
Amp gain is 101, calculate the value of R
S

V
o
= A*V
in
= 101*0.1=10.1 V
V
o
= I
fs
*( R
s
+R
m
)
10.1 = 50*10
-3
mA*(R
s
+ 1K)
R
s
= 201 K

Transistor

The output voltage is related to input current, so it
is called :

Trans-Resistor Transistor
I
E
= I
C
+I
B
I
C
= I
B
Ic = I
E

|
|
o
+
=
1

o
o
|

=
1
= (100-200)

It is clear that the common collector (Emitter
follower) have the largest input impedance, so it
can be used as VOA

Electronic meter
1-Transistor Emitter Follower Voltmeter

Example-9

The simple emitter-follower
circuit has V
CC
= 20 V, R
s
+R
m
=
9.3 k, I
m
= 1mA at full scale,
and transistor h
FE
= 100
(a) Calculate the meter current
when V
in
= 10 V
(b) Determine the voltmeter
input resistance with and
without the transistor.
Solution
When V
in
=10V
(a) I
m
= (10-0.7)/9.3 =1 mA
Disadvantages of this circuits
1- Can't measure voltage less than 0.5V, because
the junction between B, E will be off
2- When the input voltage is 5v(half the input),
the meter reading must be 0.5mA, but in fact
I =(5-0.7)/9.3 =0.4624 mA

(b) The input impedance with transistor
O = = + ~ ~ = K R R
I
V
I
V
R
m s
E
in
B
in
in
930 ) 3 . 9 ( * 100 ) ( | |

(b) The input impedance without transistor
O = + = = K R R
I
V
R
m s
fs
in
in
) 3 . 9 ( ) (

Based on this example, the above circuit has some
drawback
2- Emitter Follower Bridge Configuration
Voltmeter

V
m
refer to the voltage o the meter
V
m
=V
E1
-V
E2

V
E1
=V
in
-V
BE1

V
E2
=V
p
-V
BE2

When Q1 and Q2 are identical , then V
BE1
=V
BE2

V
m
=V
E1
-V
E2
=(V
in
-V
BE1
)-(V
p
-V
BE2
) =V
in
-V
p

When V
in
=0, R
5
is adjusted such that V
p
=0
Consequently, if Vp is set properly, Vm will be the
same as Vin
Junction Field Effect Transistor

FET VOMs and Electronic Meters
- With using FET amplifier, the sensitivity can
increase from 20K/V to 10M /V
- The resistance loading effect will nearly have no
effect.
- The capacitive loading still needs to be considered
at high frequencies
- The FET amplifier is sensitive to noise than the
passive VOM
3- FET Voltmeter
V
m
= V
E1
-V
E2

E
G
= V
GS
+V
BE1
+V
E1

So V
E1
=E
G
- V
GS
-V
BE1

V
E2
=V
p
-V
BE2
,
V
m
= V
E1
-V
E2
= E
G
- V
GS
-V
BE1
-V
p
+V
BE2

= E
G
- V
GS
-V
p

The JEFT added a very high input resistance which
is need for voltmeter to minimize the loading effect
and make sensitivity is good

4- Electronic Ohmmeter (series connection)
1
R R
R
E E
x
x
B
+
=

1
1

=
E
E
R
R
B
x

Example-10
For the electronic ohmmeter shown in the Figure,
determine the resistance scale marking at 1/3 and 2/3 of
full scale
1
1

=
E
E
R
R
B
x

At (1/3) full scale deflection E=E
B
/3
2
1
3 /
1
1 1 1
R
E
E
R
E
E
R
R
B
B B
x
=

=

At (2/3) full scale deflection E=2E
B
/3
1
1 1
2
1
3 / 2
1
R
E
E
R
E
E
R
R
B
B B
x
=

=

At (1/2) full scale deflection E=E
B
/2
1
1 1
1
2 /
1
R
E
E
R
E
E
R
R
B
B B
x
=

=

5- Electronic Ohmmeter (parallel connection)

When R
x
= or open circuit
2 1
2
R R
R
E E
B
+
=

which is the full scale deflection
When R
x
//R
2
=R
1

2 //
//
1 1
1
2 1
2 B
B
x
x
B
E
R R
R
E
R R R
R R
E E =
+
=
+
=

which is the half- scale deflection

When R
x
= 0 or short circuit
E =0
When R
x
= any value
x
x
B
R R R
R R
E E
//
//
2 1
2
+
=

AC Electronic Voltmeter
The scale on ac voltmeters are ordinarily calibrated in
rms volts

It should be noted that the rms value is calculated from
V
in
, while the average value is calculated from the output
of ac-dc converter

Form factor is the ratio of the rms value to the average
value of the wave form
Crest factor is the ratio of peak value to the rms value
of the wave form
Average-Responding Voltmeter
=================================
Peak-Responding Voltmeter
The primary difference between the peak-
responding voltmeter and the average responding
voltmeter is the use of a detector (storage capacitor
with the rectifying diode)

In the first positive cycle: V
C
tracks V
in
with the
difference of V
D
, until V
in
reaches its peak value.

In the negative half cycle: diode is reversed bias
and the circuit keeps V
C
at V
p
V
D
.
The effect of discharging through R will be
minimized if its value is large enough to yield that
RC >> T.
RMS-Responding Voltmeter
1- RMS value definition: Mathematics

2- RMS value definition: Physical
rms voltage is equivalent to a dc voltage which generates
the same amount of heat power in a resistive load that the
ac voltage does.

Digital Multimeter
Digital Voltmeter (DV)

DVM is essentially an Analog to digital
converter (A/D) with a digital display

Comparison between Digital and Analog Meters

Digital Multimeter Specification
1- Resolution
The number of digits shown for a
digital multimeter is generally
expressed as a mixed number such as
3
1
/
2
, 3
3
/
4
or 5
1
/
2
.
3
1
/
2
or 3
3
/
4
mean total # of digit is 4
5
1
/
2
mean total # of digit is 6

1
/
2
mean that the most significant digit (MSD)
may be 0 or 1
3
1
/
2
can display number from 0000-1999
So, the resolution is 1 part from 2000 or .05%
3
/
4
mean that MSD can be either 0,1,2,3
4
3
/
4
can display number from 00000-39999
So, the resolution is 1 part from 40000 or .0025%

Example-11
For 3
1
/
2
meter , calculate the resolution for 20V,
10V, 2V, 1V ranges
Resolution = V
range
*Resolution of 3
1
/
2

For 20 v R= 20*.05/100 = 10mV
For 10v R=10*.05/100 = 5 mV
For 2V R=2*.05/100 =1 mV
For 1V R= 1*.05/100 =0.5 mV
As voltage range decrease as the resolution increase

2- Accuracy
The accuracy of digital meter is specified in various
ways.
(a) As a percentage of the reading plus or minus a
number of contents
Manufactures specify the accuracy as a
percentage of the reading plus a percentage of the
full-scale-reading
(b) Parts per million (ppm)
Example-12
Two meter reading are given as follows:
Meter-1 accuracy : 0.05% rdg. +1 digit at 25
0
Meter -2 accuracy 0.05% rdg.0.03% (full-scale at 25
0
)
Compute the possible error for a 3
1
/
2
digit meter operating at
25
0
with an input of 100V.
Due to 3
1
/
2
digit , both meter will read four digit
The optimum reading will be 100.0V
For meter-1
0.05% rdg+1 digit ==0.05%*100+0.1=0.15
For meter-2
The meter is specified for both percentage of reading
and a full-scale. Since the full-scale reading for this
range will by 199.9V
0.05% rgd+0.03% FS 0.05%*100+0.03*199.9
=0.109=0.11V
So the second meter have better accuracy than
meter-1

3-Sensitivity
Is the ratio of output response to the input cause
under static conditions
For meter , the sensitivity is related to the lowest range
available for a given function

Electrometer
Is a specialized multimeter with the capability of
measuring voltage, current, resistance, or charge
- Has extremely high input impedance, above
100T
- Designed with low input offset current, low drift
and low current noise
Picometer measure small current 10
-12
A
Nanovoltmeter measure small voltage10
-9
V

Power Measurements

1- Low frequency power measurements
There are three types of power
a- True power I
2
R
b- Reactive power I(V
L
-V
C
)
c- Apparent power IV
s

P =VI*Cos()

I current in Ampere (A)
V voltage in Volt (V)
P power in Watt (W)
phase between voltage and current
Cos() power factor (varies between 0 and 1)

For Single Phase
Measure V, I and the phase angle in between will
described later

Dynamometer wattmeter
It is device used to measure V and I simultaneously
- This instrument is of the electrodynamics type.
It consists of:
1- pair of fixed coils, known as current coils
2- movable coil known as the potential coil.
- The fixed coils are made up of a few turns of a
comparatively large conductor.
- The potential coil consists of many turns of
fine wire. It is mounted on a shaft, carried in
jeweled bearings, so that it may turn inside the
stationary coils.
- The movable coil carries a needle which
moves over a suitably marked scale. Spiral coil
springs hold the needle to a zero position.

Power factor measurement

- Use the previous dynamometer with adding an
extra moving coil, The moving coils are
connected together at right angle to each others

- One of the coils is connected in series to
inductor to respond to current that is out of
phase with the line current

- The other is connected is series with a resistor
and respond to current that in phase with the
line current