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HUM: EMPIRE RESEARCH- India By: Nethra

When did Britain colonize India? The British declared India as part of the British Empire in 1858. Queen Victoria became the empress of India. When did the colonization end? The colonization ended in the year 1947. Who were involved? Britain, French, Portuguese, Dutch empire were all a part of colonizing India. All these countries were involved. But, the British was the most successful in ruling over India. Why? Britishs made their way to India for purpose of trade. India was a country rich in many natural resources at that time. Britishs established themselves there with a company named, "East India Company". This company promoted trade and got many benefits. Soon their focus changed and they started thinking of ruling whole India rather than just keeping trade with them. For this, they used, "Divide and Rule" Policy and became successful in ruling over India. What rules/laws did the colonial power introduce which had an impact on the people living in the country? Some of the rules and laws made by the British are they colonized people and in this way they used their goods and marketed the manufactured goods and made money and controlled them. Cheap labor was available and slavery increased. Sati a practice of Indians was abolished. Taxes were introduced in every field and trade. Indians were imprisoned without trial of suspicion and trouble making. What were the changes to the Indias infrastructure made by the British government? Some of the changes made by the British government, which made changes in India, were:

Building of good transport and communication systems to transport goods and communicate between places. Thus, India has the largest network of railway system. They introduced telegraph and telephone systems. They introduced English language and established English schools, universities. This made many rich well off Indians to go abroad and study and work and make money. Replaced zemindars system to more organized form of rule. India is the largest democracy in the world today. How did people resist colonial rule and fight for independence in the country? The people in India during the colonial rule were not happy with the British rules and laws. The raw materials and goods made by them were taken over by the British and they were not paid well. They were treated like slaves and humiliated and fought against themselves. They resisted the colonial rule when great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi and Nehru showed them the correct ways and they all joined the Quit India Movement and fought against independence in spite of many being jailed and lost families. Gandhi called his method of non-violence Satyagraha. Satyagraha was a milestone in the way it helped the Indian society resist the wrong doings of the British. It also included Tax resistance and non-violent protest based on the principle of Satyagraha. What was the impact of British colonialism in India? The British established monopoly of trade and in that process accumulated huge capital that was used for further industrial development in England. During this process, the British officials made changes in aspects such as education, administration. Thus, the economy improved. Export of raw materials needed an efficient system of transport and communication and hence they developed roads and installed posts and telegraphs. The British colonial rule impacted on the population more beneficially and hence this rule can termed as being fairly honest. The British rule also brought modern medicine to the people of India. As a result of this infant mortality rate and life expectancy were increased. Britishs had to leave India and had to divide India in two countries named India and Pakistan in August 1947. Many traces of the culture they promoted in India are still there in Southern India and Eastern Pakistan. The British managed to control India and followed the Divide and Rule policy and made colonies from 1757 by using strong weapons, confidence and strong army. They made religions of India fight against themselves and in this way controlled many parts of India, as it is easy to control when people fight against themselves. What were the positive effects of the colonialism of British on India? Positive effects:

1. Development of the infrastructure - The British built roads, railways, bridges, schools, hospitals... whole cities. Thus, India has got the largest railway network. 2. Job opportunities for the local population. - Indians could join the military, work as servants, laborers and drivers for the British, and later in the Indian Civil Service. This made many Indians improve their position and status in the society. 3. Education in the West was made available to rich Indians - Example: Gandhi, who went to university in Britain, is a good example. 4. End of arbitrary rule - previous to the British, India had been ruled by zemindars with absolute power, who could do much as they pleased. The British introduced the rule of law, which was the same for everyone. This created equality rights. 5. Protection from external enemies - The British Empire, India was protected from outside invasion by enemies such as Persia and Afghanistan, and from other Western powers who also wanted to colonize the country themselves. So, India was safe from other enemies also. 6. Ending of what the British regarded as "barbaric" practices Sati (jumping into fire when husbands die) and superstitious beliefs of people were both stamped out by the British, and literally millions of lives were thus saved. 7. Economic stability - the annual Land Tax, payable by all Indian families, had been increased by Indian rulers whenever they needed extra revenue, and this sometimes caused great economic difficulties for the majority Hindu population. The British stabilized the Land Tax and kept it at the same level all the time. 8. The British rule brought unity that that would have not existed before. British ideals, such as parliamentary democracy and the independence of judiciary. Telecommunications like telephones and telegraph were introduced and brought positive advancements to the country. 9. English language was introduced and English schools and universities were started. This made many rich well off Indians to go abroad and study and work and make money. 10. The British rule also brought modern medicine to the people of India. As a result of this infant mortality rate and life expectancy were increased. 11. The British taught them to govern the government according to the laws and regulations. 12. New methods of irrigation were made.

What were the negative effects of the colonialism of British on India? 1. Complete lack of political power and influence in the political decision making process in India for all Indians. Indians also had no input into any new laws - these were all decided on and imposed by the British. 2. The British ran India for the benefit of Britain, not for the benefit of India or the Indians themselves. Thus raw materials and riches extracted from India went to enrich Britain and the British, not India and the Indians. 3. Target for enemies of Britain - as part of the British Empire, India became an enemy of Britain's enemies, and a target in any wars Britain was involved in.

4. The British followed the Divide and Rule policy where the Indians were divided into Hindu and Muslims and made them fight against each other. They used Indians for cheap labor and many were slaves. 5. The laws introduced were painful to the Indians. Indians were imprisoned without trial of suspicion and trouble making. 6. The Europeans held back the progression of India. 7. The British considered themselves superior to the Indians and showed them no respect, frequently ill-treating them. 8. The East India Company introduced a high tax, forcing farmers to pay 50 percent of their earnings. 9. Many farmers could not afford their rent and were thrown out of their land. 10. The East India Company reduced the amount of food grown by farmers and started selling cash crops such as cotton, indigo, tea and jute. Therefore there was lack of food for people and there was no surplus food to put aside, so there famines when the monsoon failed. 13. The worst impact on India was when 10 million people died in Bengal in the year 1777. 14. The company cut down many of Indias forests to make ships and railways. As a result of this there was less dung to fertilize the soil, so much good farming soil lost its nutrients and food production dropped even further. 13. The East India Companys land reforms also affected their education system due to the new land tax. As a result of this they also had to shut many schools. 14. All the money raised by taxes only went back to Britain. 15. Before the British arrived, India had been prosperous and self-sufficient. But, now majority of its people were landless, ill fed and some are illiterates too. How did India gain independence? On 15th August 1947, India got independence, British rule ended. After a very long social and political struggle they were finally free. Due to the World War 2 the British lost their power and thus had to leave the country. Also, Mahatma Gandhi with the help of many leaders started non-violence protests and rejected British policies and won millions of Indians heart. He freed Indians who were in prison and this helped many Indians from the British. Timeline information: 1757 Start of the colonialism in India 1829 Certain Indian Social or Religious practices outlawed by British. 1857 1858 Sepoy, mutiny, Indian rebellion of 1857 1858 finished in mid 1858. 1885 Indian national congress founded for educated Indians to voice their opinions. 1905 British partitioned Bengal and so this started the first major resistance against them. 1919 The Punjab disturbances and the worst massacre by General Dyer marked nation wide movement against the British.

1920 -1922 Gandhi led the non co-operation movement against the British. 1930-1931 Gandhi led a campaign of civil disobedience against the British. 1942 Gandhi issued the call to British to Quit India. 1947, 15th August India gained independence from British rule. Thank You!