RENE GUEXON

MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA

Translator RichardC. Nicholson

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Originallypublished in French in as L'Hommeet son devenirselonle VedAnta o LesEditionsTiaditionnelles r9z5 Third, revised edition, zoor SecondImpression zoo4 Secondedition, t945,Luzac& Company,London First edition 1928, Rider & Co., London Englishtranslation@ SophiaPerennis zoor All rights reserved Series editor: IamesR. Wetmore

CONTENa5,"'*-Editorial Note Preface 1 r 2 3

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No part of this book may be reproducedor transmitted, in any form or by any means,without permission For information, address: Sophia Perennis, P.O.Box 6rr Hillsdale NY rz5z9 sophiaperennis.com

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData Gudnon. Ren€ ILhomme et son devenir selon le Vedanta.English] Man and his becoming accordingto the Vedanta/ RendGudnon ; translatedby Richard C. Nicholson.-3rd rev. ed. (Collectedworks of Ren€Gu6non) Includesindexes. rsBN o 9oo588 616 (pbk alk. paper) rsBN o 9oo588 6z + (cloth: alk. paper) l. Vedanta.2. Man (Hinduism) I. Nicholson, Richard C. IL Title. Br32.V3 G7813 2oo1 rz8'.o954-dczr 20OrOOO974 p.

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the.Ego, 2\ The vital center of the Human Being: seat of Brahma 3 1 Purusha and prakriti 39 Purushaunaffectedby Individual Modifications 46 The Degreesof Individual Manifestation 5t Buddhi or the Higher Intellect 57 Manas or the Inward Sense: The Ten External Facultiesof sensationand Action 6r The Envelopes of the.Self,: The Five Vdyus or Vital Function s 67 The EssentialUnity and Identity of .self in all the States of the Being 72 The Different Conditions of Atma in the Human Being 79 The waking state:or the condition of vaishvdnara gz The Dream state:or the condition of Thijasa gg The state of Deep sleep:or the conditio n of prdjna 95 The Unconditioned Stateof Atma ro2 SymbolicalRepresentations of Atmaand its Conditions by the SacredMonosyllable Om rog The Posthumous Evolution of the Human Being tr2

GeneralRemarkson the Vedanta ,..__. 7 FundamentalDistinction betweenthe.self and

EDITORIAL
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NOTE

The Reabsorptionof the Individual Faculites 119 Differencesin the PosthumousConditions accordingto the Degreesof Knowledge D5 The Coronal Artery and the'Solar R"y' r32 'Divine The Journey' of the Being on the Path of Liberation Bg Final Deliverance ry3 1)ideha-lulukti and ttv an-fivfukta 16o The Spiritual Stateof the Yogi: The SupremeIdentity 168 GeneralIndex v5 SanskritIndex v7 THr p.lsr cENTURy HASWTTNESSED an erosion of earlier cultural valuesas well as a blurring of the distinctive characteristics of the world'straditional civilizations, giving riseto philosophicand moral relativism, multiculturalism, and dangerousfundamentalistreactions.As earlyasthe l92os,the Frenchmetaphysician Ren6Gudnon (1886-195r) had diagnosed thesetendencies presented and what he believedto be the only possiblereconciliationof the legitimate,although apparently conflicting,demandsof outward religiousforms, 'exoterisms', with their essential core,'esoterism'. His works arecharacterized by a foundational critique of the modern world coupled with a call for intellectualreform; a renewedexaminationof metaphysics, the traditional sciences, and symbolism,with specialreferenceto the ultimate unanimity of all spiritual traditions;and finally, a call to the work of spiritual realization.Despitetheir wide influence,translation of Gu6non'sworks into English has so far been piecemeal. The SophiaPerennis edition is intendedto fill the urgent needto present them in a more authoritativeand systematic form. A completelist of Gudnon's works,given in the order of their original publicationin French,followsthis note. Gu6nonpublishedhis fundamentaldoctrinal work, Man and His Becoming according to the VedAnta, in 1925. After asserting that the Vedentarepresents the purest metaphysics in Hindu doctrine, he acknowledges the impossibility of ever expounding it exhaustively and states that the specificobject of his studywill be the nature and constitution of the human being. Nonetheless, taking the human being aspoint of departure,he goeson to outline the fundamental principlesof all traditional metaphysics. He leadsthe readergradually to the doctrine of the SupremeIdentity and its logical corollary-the possibility that the being in the human state might in this very life attain liberation, the unconditioned state where all separateness and risk of reversionto manifestedexistence ceases.

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Nicholson.singlequotation markshavebeenusedthroughout.Wherever possible. Neither is it a of the orientalistsand historiansof work of erudition in the sense 'outside" but represents from the doctrines who study religion 'sacred sciknowledgeof the traditionally transmittedand effective of Hinduism in his Introduction Gu6non treatsother aspects ence'.with further reviewsby |ohn Ahmed Herlihy and Iohn Champoux. upon other orthodox branchesof Hinduism. but not infrequently also upon the teachingsof other traditional forms.Man and His Becoming an exposition of this school should not be consideredexclusively It is.A specialdebt of thanksgoesto Cecil Bethell. in Hinduism.XII MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA Although Gu€non chosethe doctrine of the Advaita school(and in particular that of Shankara)as his basis.a syntheticaccountdrawing not only and of this master. The presenttranslation is basedon the original work of Richard and further revised for accuracy C.references dated. with phonetic Gu€nonwas more concerned As for transliterations. within citations. rather. writings.The text was checked by famesWetmore. set Gu6non often useswords or expressions off in To avoidclutter. both the general THE WORKS OF REN6 GUfNON Introductionto the Study of theHindu Doctrines(rqzr) Theosophy: History of (r9zr) a Pseudo-Religion The SpiritistFallacy !gzt) Eastand WestQ9z4) Man and HisBecoming according to the VedantaOgzS) TheEsoterism of Dante (:1925) The Crisb of theModern World 0gzt) TheKing of the World 0gzz) Authorityand Spiritual Temporal Power0gzg) Perspectives on lnitiation 0g+6) The GreatTriad 0g+6) TheMetapLrysical Principlesof theInfinitesimalCalculusQ946) Initiation and Spiritual RealizationGgSz) Insights into Christian Esoterism Ggs+) of Sacred Symbols Science 0g6z) in Freemasonry Studies and the Compagnonnage 0g6+) Studies in Hinduism j966) TraditionalFormsand Cosmic Cycles Ggzo) TheSymbolism of the Cross(rgtr) Insights into IslamicEsoterism and Thoism0gZl) TheMultiple States of theBeing (rgtz) (tgZl) Reviews TheReignof Quantity and the Signs of the Times(rq+S) Miscellanea Q976) . indicateeditorialinsertions. reflectsthe here adopted The system fidelity than academicusage.and Englisheditions substituted.Brackets have been upGu€non'sadditions. and provided who revisedand proofread the text at severalstages index and the index of Sanskritterms. and Gu6non's views of scholarsfamiliar both with the languages or. andStudies Doctrines Hindu of the to the Study 'scarequotes'.

while however alwaysremaining strictly faithful to their spirit. as occasionarises.that there is nothing in this procedureto prevent us. for the sakeof those who are ableto profit thereby.at the sametime.It should be clearlyunderstood. If therefore it has seemed desirablein the present instanceto supply precisereferences. from pointing out analogies and making compariwith sons other theories. .we shallreferto the teachings of other orthodox branches of the Hindu doctrine insofar as they clarifr or complete the teachingsof the VedAnta on variouspoints.or at making such adaptationsof them as might seemmost intelligible and advantageous. we havedone so for reasons quite unconnected with the specialpreoccupationsof orientalists.and more especially the teachingof the Vedanfa which is the most purely metaphysicalbranch of thesedoctrines.we simply wished to show that we have inventednothing and that the ideasexpoundedderivefrom a genuine traditional source. in particular.evenregardinga singlepoint. For reasons which havealreadybeen explainedelsewhere. for it goeswithout sayingthat we makeno claim to put forward an absolutely complete expositionof the doctrine.regardless of their origin. either at presentinga direct exposition of variousaspects of the Eastern metaphysical doctrines.PREFACE ON severaloccasions we have expressed in previous writings the intention of undertakinga series of studiesthat would aim.To anyoneinclined to raiseobjectionsto the adoption of sucha method we would reply that suchcriticism is all the lessjustifiablein that our intentions are in no wisethoseof a historian. we havefurnishedthe meansof referring to textscontainingcomplementary information. and that it is the truth of ideaswhich interestsus exclusively. we wish to re-assert emphaticallyat this point that our purposeis not erudition but understanding. according to the needsof the case. The presentwork constitutesthe first of thesestudies. we have takenthe Hindu doctrinesasour centralauthority. however.

a study undertakenmerely'from the outside'is of no avail.by reasonof their mental habits. haslittle if anythingat all to do with'profane'knowledge.no matter what. but we havenoticed that somepeoplehavefailed to grasp our meaning and it is thereforeadvisable to emphasize it still further. From the foregoing remarks it should be clear why we have restrictedthe scopeof the presentstudy to the nature and constitution of the human being: to make our comments intelligible we which at first shallnaturallybe obligedto touch upon other subjects but it will always be in relasight may appearto be besidethe point.and this is a procedurewhich in fact advantages.that is to sayin the realm of the Universal. but we know only too well how easilysuch misunderstandings arise. it would be extremelydifficult to avoid an appearance chartematization which is incompatible with the most essential acteristicsof the metaphysicaldoctrines.Moreover. can be no placeat all for'specialization'. either as regardsthe importance of the questionstreated or as regards their interdependence one upon another:that would be to attribute to us an intention which we havenever entertained. all the inevitablybe productiveof extremelyserious sinceWesternpeople.and that is why we take steps to forestall them whenever it lies within our power to do so.in order to make studies.from which all elsederives. erudite and the specialists mental principles will never be lost sight of.at times they even constitute an obstacle. on the contrary. better abstain altogether from expounding a doctrine than contribute toward denaturing it. If we haveembarkedfirst upon the expositionof questionsrelative to the human being. out of the difficnlty.this would it would but nonetheless amount to no more than an appearance. Moreover. this consistsin treating a particular point or one more or lessdefinite aspectof the doctrine at a time. the studies which go to make up the latter cannot be looked upon evenasan indirect path of approachto 'sacredscience'. however.in a work of that incomprehensible to Westernreaders. we think it advisable to mention this at the outsetlestanyoneshouldbe temptedto seesomesort of hierarchicalorder in our works.it is only insofar as any offers considerable question. the case of man can neverappearto it asa privileged one. more so errors.by reason of the often irremediable mental deformationwhich is the commonestconsequence of a certain kind of education. tion to this one subjectthat we shallintroducethem.sucha thing would be a sheerimpossibility.One must forever pretextfor unjustiguard affording the slightest be on one's against fiable assimilationsof this kind. Genuineknowledge.are only too prone to discover'systems'even wherenoneexist. we have begun with the discussionof thesequestions simply because they havealreadybeen raisedduring the courseof previous our writings and thus a complementary work such asthe presentone now seemscalled for.it is not a question . The principles the entire field of a rangevastlyexceeding themselves are possessed legitimate to of their possibleapplications. or that particular application.it is not because thesequestions enjoy any exceptional importancein themselves from the purely metaphysical point of view: that point of view being essentially detachedfrom everycontingency.2 MAN ANI) HIS I}ECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PREFACE 3 As for an exposition of the entiredoctrine.For understandingdoctrinessuch as those we are expoundinghere. whereversucha thing is possible. it is this truth which must never be lost sight of. leaving oneself free to take up other points afterward. so long asit is intendedto treat of genuinemetaphysics and not of the pseudo-metaphysics of Europeanphilosophers. There is a further point which is of too greatimportanceto be passedover without comment in thesepreliminary observations. them in their turn the subjectof other separate there will neverbe any dangerof thesestudiesbecomingwhat the because the fundacall'monographs'. is relatedto principlesthat it can be said to be treatedmetaphysically.in the there metaphysical order. and the secondary points themselves can therefore only appear as direct or indirect applicationsof those principles. althoughwe thought we had explainedourselves clearlyenough on other occasions. which aloneconcerns us. doubtless.as we havealreadyremarked.either it would involvean interminablelabor.but it is nonetheless in relation to this expound them.there is a way if merely through clumsiness. or it would require to be put in so synthetica form as to be quite Moreover. even Fortunately. of syssort. The order in which any subsequent studiesmay appearwill depend similarly on circumstances and will largelybe determinedby considerations of expediency.

All thesethings.and to attempt to do so would be the surestway of what we mean by the distorting them. not from contempt. and it is only in this way that a genuineintellectualelite can be formed.it is for thosewho are capable to the underof it to raisethemselves standingof the doctrine in its integral purity.it is not for the doctrine to abaseand reduceitself to the levelof the limited understanding of the many. of the the extravagances about what we havealreadysaid elsewhere are we will not fail to understandthat occultistsand Theosophistsl alluding here to something of quite a different order and that the by us as attitude of peopleof that kind also can neverbe regarded worse case anything but'profane'.it would be reach'-to usea common foolish to try'to bring within everybody's phraseof our time-conceptions which can only comewithin the grurp of an elite. it ls not a question of philosophy either. moreover'they only make their by pretendingto a knowledgewhich is not theirs.We haveexplainedelsewhere intellectualelite. SeeTheosophy: andWst andIntroductionto the Studyof theHindu Doctrines-Eo.Among several personswho receivean identical teaching. . These questionshave already been dealt with previously. it is in fact nothing else. to a degree repeatingourselves indeed.each one understands and assimilates it more or lesscompletelyand profoundly according to the range of his own intellectual possibilities. The fact beenodiouslycaricascience'has that in the modern West'sacred not a reasonfor keepis imposters conscious less tured by more or repudiatingit. the which would be in flat contradiction with our avowedintentions. 2.4 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PREFACE 5 of history or philotogy or literature.giving to one simply hasto describe or displease.we declareunhesitatinglynot only that it exists.2It is in view of this is indispensable felt work. of assimilating without howevermodifring or simplifring them afterthe fashionof 'popularizers'. comes about quite naturally. From the precedingremarksit should alsobe clearthat the docowing to trines we propose to discussrefuseto lend themselves.and this is one of the absurto exPose why we find it necessary the principal reasons presents occasion dity of their pretendeddoctrines wheneverthe itself. the resultsof which no doubt will only make themselves andThe SpiritistFallacy' Eo' History of a Pseudo-Religion l. or for ignoring.and what part it will be calleduPon to play if it ever comesto be formed in the WesUwhile at the sametime we have shown how a genuineand profound study of the Easterndoctrines in preparingfor its formation.but Anyonewho caresto refer to alsothat it is our sole preoccupation.and the more unfamiliar they areto Westernminds today.without which there could be no genuine hierarchy.that we believeit necessary to expoundcertain ideasfor the benefit of thosewho are capable them. Indeed. if not the contrary. their very nature. eachtiring the name and rank which normally belongto it. on actually ing silent about it.to any attemPtat'popularization'.but because one is not calleduPon to considerwhom one may happento please things asthey are. and in this way selection. 'profane' or as we class which knowledge belong to that order of 'external'.and we will add.but it was necessary to recall them before embarkingupon a strictly doctrinal exposition.the more imperativeit is to emphasize them. See East after a long interval. at the risk of which somemay considerfastidious.

much more externalthan the religiouspoint of view and therefore still further removedfrom that of the subjectwe are about to study. To deliberately considerthis doctrine under theseaspects is one of the gravest of to resultin failureto understandanythingabout it errors. is somethingwholly Western. As for philosophy. . the modes of which are quite different from those of the West and cannot be includedwithin the samecategories. one. A singleexceptioncan be madefor the very special sense in which the word is usedin reference to the'Hermetic philosophy'.is neithera philosophynor a religion.it is an essentially'profane'lkind of knowledge even when it is not purely illusory. a sense which is moreover almostunknown to the moderns.if one is not to extendthe scopeof this word beyond its just limits.1 GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VEDANTA Tun Veddnta. in fact one revealsoneselfthereby as a complete strangerto the true character of Easternthought. the same term cannot be applied to Easterndoctrineswithout stretchingits meaningto sucha degree quite impossible that it becomes to giveit any definition. As we said above. and we cannot help thinking.it also representsan exclusively Western point of view. particularly when we consider what philosophy has become in modern times.but it goeswithout sayingthat it is not this unusual sense that we at presenthavein mind. contraryto an opinion widely held among orientalists. moreover.that its absence from a civilization is hardly a matter 1. We havealreadyexplainedin a previouswork that religion.calculated from the outset.nor doesit partaketo a greateror lesserextent of the characterof either. even of the vaguestkind.

"ry the slightestneed much as for our part we haveneverexperienced to resort to this philosophicalterminology.Seeing philosophyeverywhere. more or lessnarrow limits of which arenaturally determinedby the is absolutely horizon' of its author. or in other words essentially a systemis nothing but a closed conception.theseconceptions. it can in no wise be contained within the more or lessnarrow framework of any systemwhatsoever. include under ciple. including those againstwhich he himself quite justly protestedon other occasions.'a the opens which statement Joo. and this symbolismis carriedeveninto the purely intellectualrealm.Indeed. we were merely concerned .and.by these might give rise.the Fundamentally.distinguishingit from anythingthat Europeans ttre name of philosophy. it is only natural that they should also see systems whereverthey go.which would still suffer of being somewhatrepellentand needlessly from the disadvantage complicated.2It furnishesthe principle and the common basisof all the more or lesssecondaryand derivativebrancheswhich go to make up those diverseconceptionsin which certain peoplehave seenso many rival and opposedsystems.where 'inward knowledgeis likened to vision'.metaphysics being entirely philosophical or detachedfrom all relativitiesand contingencies.there is no need to read into this statementthe suggestion of a more or lessartificial and belated'syncretism'.as is alwaysthe But we do not wish to embark at caseunder such circumstances. far asthey are in accordwith their principle. because knowledge doesnot permit of of the Universal.for this precisely is the proper meaningof that term.and we declineto acceptas'universalthought' is in reality but an ito udopt a phrase of the same author) what extremelyspecialmode of thought. and suchknowledge being enclosed within anyformula.who carry to extremes especially conceptions. that is merely the result of Westernhabits of thought which lead them into falseassimilations nothing but at everystep.but by no meansincompatible. The diversemetaphysical of India conceptions and cosmological are not.8 VEDANTA MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE GENERAI REMARKS ON THE VEDANTA 9 that for regret. as such. obviouslycannot contradict one another. nevertheless of iispensing with suchterms.the sacred encein its integrality. the individualist tendencyand the resultantquestfor originality at that arecompleteand defsystems to establish any price. strictly speaking. metaphysics is essentially otherwise. word these concepSanskrit darshana. how diffrcult it is for some people to step outside the 'classical'framework within which their Western education has confinedtheir thought from the outset' it must be regardedin reality as a To return to the VedAnta.has as its primary meaningthat of ing': it cannotin anyway denote'system'. But all systematization impossiblein pure metaphysics.is precisely and limited on all sides' relative inite.whenceit is derived.r. to undesirableassimilationsof every kind.tt contesting. that is to say. howevercomprehensive. to which these questions present upon the kind of discussions with showing. but only developments of a singledoctrine accordingto different points of view and the in various. In this respect and without looking any further. 'mental .directions.for tions. doctrine.even if it were not wrongly applied.different doctrines. where everythingbelongingto the individual order is truly non-existent. Moreover. bears the twofold 'seeing'(videre 'knowing' (as meaning of in the Greekot6a): sight is in Latin) and takenasa symbolof knowledgebecause it is its chief instrument within the sensible order. on the contrary. is just what we are at fhat philosophy is to be found everywhere pr. from which Veda and vidyd are derived.Besides. while in principle admitting the inadequacyand inexactitudeof those western terms which have been persistently that he could seeno way declared imposedupon them. In a recent book a certain orientalist has asserted 'philoJophyis philosophyeverywhere. insoIn reality. translate and if orientalists it thus.. The root vid. they are bound mutually to completeand elucidateeachother. for the entire doctrine must be considered 2.This is necessarily so. one can a differenceof prinobservea profound and irreducibledifference. which is attachedto eachof 'point view'.openingup truly unlimited possibilipurely metaphysical iies of conception. Another historian of the Eastern doctrines.and he madeasfreea useof them as This appearsall the more surprising inasoi his piedecessors.as is implied by the use of such words as 'intuition' for example.properlysignifies'view' or of the verbalroot 'seedrish.ru-pLr.the avowedaim of all philosophical among the moderns. The singledoctrine to which we havejust alluded is represented and traditional Sciessentially by the Veda.

and not in respect of pure knowledge or jfidna.In everything or that proceedsmore or lessdirectly that concernsmetaphysics from it. simultaneously enquiring into the historical order in which they may actuallyhave and renderedexplicit. Tradition.the more so sincethe power inherentin the tradition hasthe effectof limiting the scopeand bearingof individual errors. that is to say to the 'collectiveentity'which arrangedand finally .for it to remain within the bounds of orthodory it is only necessary to reduceit again to its truly essentialcontent.'but chieflyinsofarasthey include precepts. which is often placedin oppositionto karma. sometimesof very secondary importance. it meansritud action. of preventing them from becoming widespread and acquiring real authority. The secondMtmansd (uxara-Mtmansd) is attributed to vydsa.in its integralitSforms a perfectlycoherent since and whole. it is nonethelesstrue that the basis remainsexactlythe same.Though the expositionmay be modified to a certaindegree of this or that externallyin order to adaptitself to the circumstances always tradition of period. hasbecometo a certain extentrepresentative the Atomist schoolin the caseof the vaisheshika. in any case. Iconsidered The nameMlmdnsd.Sincetheseare containedin the Veda.derivedfrom the verbalroot mun.in its iterativeform.Thispractical 'to Mlmansa has for its aim. more or lessfar-reachingdeviation or alteration of the doctrine. 1I within theVeda. there is nothing which is not in accordance with the Scriptures asthe basis of that tradition]. portion the which is contrary to Iof the Vedamust be rejectedby those who adherestrictly to the orthodox tradition. whethervoluntary or involuntary. determine in an exact and precisemanner the sense of the Scriptures.composedof all those who havedevotedthemselves to one and the samestudy over the course of a period the duration of which is no lessindeterminable than the date of its beginning. The first Mlmdnsd (Pilrva-Mlmdnsd) is attributed to laimini. the criterion of orthodory' with theVedathatconstitutes agreement where contradiction point at that Heterodoxyis found. becausein the West there is generallyno question of orthodory exceptasviewedfrom the purely religiousstandpoint. more particularly. but we must recall in this connectionthat the nameswhich are thus attachedto the formulation of the different darshanas cannot be relatedin any way to particular individuals:they are usedsymbolically to describe what are really'intellectualgroupings'.it indicatesa with theVedaarises. it means action in all its forms. in a specialand technical sense. which term to instancemerely accordingto its religious mode. On this point we cannot do better than quote by way of generalindication this passage from the sdnkhyaPravachanaBhashy a of Vijfiana-Bhikshu: In the doctrine of Kalada [the vaisheshika] and in the sarlkhya Kapila]. no slur is caston the legitimary of that darshana in itself.and that from its comprised asbeing synthetically whole. would renderany proposedsolution quite misleading. of eliminating those which exceedcertain bounds. an opposition corresponding preciselyto the distinction betweenthe two Mlmdnsas.'to think'. as the commentator somandthasays.with the accomplishment rites. evenaPartfrom the fact that beendeveloped probablylastingover a period of of oral transmission. of The word karma indeed possesses a double meaning: in a generalsense. the heterodoxyof a conceptionis fundamentallynot differwith the essential ent from its falsity. in the doctrine of faimini and that of vyisa [the two Mtmdnsds].resultingfrom its disagreement it follows that it is principles. it is necessary stressthis point in order to avoid any error in interpretation. Even where a partially heterodox school suchas of a darshana. and.and that theseexternalmodifications in of the doctrine. which moreovergenerallyoccurs only within somewhatrestricted schoolsand can only affect specialpoints.10 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA GENERAL REMARKS oN THE vnnATTTe. no wise reachor affectthe essence of a conceptionwith the fundamentalprinciple The concordance and sufficientcondition of its orthoof the tradition is the necessary on no account be taken in this however must doxy. origin. therefore. and.suchasis prescribed by the veda. which howeverdoesnot mean to saya systematic all the points of view which it comprisescan as well be considered there cannot be any real object in as in succession. The first Mtmdnsd is also called KarmaMrmdnsdor practical Mlmansabecause it is concerned with actions. denotes the reflective studyof the'sacredScience': it is the intellectual fruit of meditation on the veda. the existence indefinite duration.

detached less particular and contingent applications derivable from it. Shruti is 'revelation' not in the religiousand western senseof the word. The upanishads. forming an integralpart of the veda.r3asreferringto the'supreme Self'(para. speakof eight'immortals'. speaking. In other words.a the author of theseaphorisms. elsewhere having neitherbeginningof days. To describethe is not confined to any particular epoch. The principal teachingsof the vedanta. .but is of g'realization'. but the indispensable which it is ordained.in order to be an authority it is necessarily independentof all other authority.for it is easyto seethat it is. saysShankaracharya. that which is taught therein.It is this which constitutesthe VedAntastrictly of accordingto the etymologicalsignificance that is to say.with the vedanta. on the other hand. one may regard it as belonging to the purely intellectual and contemplativeorder. we haveMelchizedek.whose sevenChiranjlvLs.12 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA GENERAT REMARKS oN THE yEDANTA 13 codified the traditional texts constitutingthe Vedaitself. while smriti playsa part that 3. 4. is the final and supremeaim of from all the more or traditional knowledgein its entirety. in short. insofar at leastas it can be taught. is a meansof direct perception [in the sphereof transcendent knowledge]. It is important to note that the Brahma-Sutrasbelong to the classof traditional writings calle d smriti.shruti.amounting. Somethingsimilar is to be found in other traditions: thus in Thoism they who is'without father.and in view of which it is.based 'end of the Veda' This expression contained in the Upanishads. sinceVylsa is describedas one of the literally'beings endowedwith longevity'. here again. from professing to detect in them the germs of a Buddhism interpreted after the modern fashion. or followed by a correspondin alwaysaccompanied basis.that is to sayof heterodo*ytsucha statement obviously amounts to a contradiction in terms. who is called Bddarayanaand Krishna-Dwaipayana.3 existence second Mlmdnsd in relation to the first. like all the other Vedictexts.it is nonetheless doctrine in a meaning. The second MimAnsd is further entitled Brahma-M|mansaas 'Divine Knowledge' and directly concernedwith being essentially (Brahma-VidyA). understood in this ordinary sense.while the Upanishads. conclusion sense of in the double be understood should do in fact form the lastportion of On the one hand.'incorporated' (sharira)in all things. havebeen coordinatedand synthetically formulatedin a collectionof aphorisms known either asthe Brahmasiltras or the shdrtraka-Mrmdnsa.form part of shruti.butthe authority of smriti is derivedfrom that of shruti. it follows from this that in a caseof doubt asto the interpretationof the doctrine. on which it is based.we find ourselves in the domain of pure metaphysics. a fact which hasnot preventedcertain orientalists.nor end of life' without mother. the'end of the Veda'. We cannot saytheoreticalMlmdnsd by way of symmetrywith practical Mimdnsd. it is the fruit of direct inspiration. Z:l). one cannot insist too stronglyon the fact that it is the Upanishads which here represent the primordial and fundamental tradition and consequently constitute the Veddntain its essence.confusetwo very different points of view.it is always to the authority of the (Ipanishads that it is necessary to appealin the lastresort.as extractedexpressly from the upanishads. (Heb.This attribution is particularly significant.are one of the very foundationsof the orthodox tradition.and. say.since.so that it is in its own right that it holds its authority.without descent. one may instance. who. as most orientalistswould haveit. is identified with Vyasa. and of aim. becausethis description would give rise to ambiguity. teaching principallyupon the that term.asthe meansin view of the end. Although the word'theory' is indeed etymologicallysynonymous it true that in current speech with contemplation. The term Shdrirakahas been interpreted by Rdminuja in his commentary (Shrt-Bhashya) on the Brahma-sutrasLr. not a historicalor legendarypersonwith whom we are dealingin this but a genuine'intellectualfunction'.mdtmd) which is in a sense. has come to convey a far more restricted which is complete from the metaphysicalpoint of view theory.and it would assuredly be difficult to carry misunderstanding further. to a permanentfunction. such as Max Mtiller.is not self-sufficient.the Upanishads the Vedictexts. and it would probably be easyto discoveryet other parallelismsof a similar kind.

As a matter of fact.s But to avoid any misunderstandingas to the force of the analogy thus indicated betweentranscendentand sensoryknowledge. In Hindu logic. in variouslanguages.if knowledgeis symbolizedby light.being but a reflex of perception. 7. canin no way be divergent from them.it is the author_ ity of the upanishadswhich must prevail.memory.it is necessary to add that.74 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA GENERAL R-EMARKS oN TI{. the most important of which arethoseby Shankarachirya and Rimanuja.it is not without reasonthat the sameroot man or menhasserved. for whom the question of the intrinsic truth of the ideas concerned hardly seems to arise. It is nevertheless quite certain that shankarachdrya's point of view goes deep.its primitive meaningis'memory':in fact. have givenriseto numerouscommentaries.if the first is describedby a word bearingthe primitive meaning of 'hearing'.it is on the contrary direct perceptionor inspiration alone which. the principle of analogyis expressed by the following sentencefrom the Emerald Table:'That which is below is like that which is above.It is true that eachschoolis naturally enoughinclined to think and to maintain that its own point of view is the most worthy of attention and ought.u-r. But in order to settlethe questionin all impartiality one hasbut to examine these points of view in themselves and to ascertain how far the horizon extendswhich they embracerespectively.after which nothing remainsbut to draw the consequences and to determinethe manifold applications.6 thus.both of them. Moreover.and Shankaricharya's superiority would thereby be established.nevertheless to takeprecedence overthem. pure intelligence and recollection.aitr more in the nature of differences of adaptation.so that we must not exaggerate the importanceof their apparentdivergences.who translated the ftvo commentaries into English:he suggests that that of Ramdnuja is more faithful to the teaching of the Brahma-sutras but at the sametime recognizes that that of shankarichirya is more in con_ formity with the spirit of the upanishads. and because accordingto the Hindu cosmologicaldoctrine sound holdsthe primordial rank amongsensible qualities. moreover. madeup of two superposed trianglespointing oppositeways.is capable of numerous applications. can be respectively represented by the sun and the moon.the Brahma-sutras.d further than that of Ramanuja.infer this from the fact that the first is of shaivite tendencywhile the secondis clearly vaishnavite.8 ZEDANTA 15 is analogous to induction. like every true analogy it must be applied inversely. It may further be said that the distinction between shruti and smriti is.by extension. as we have explained above. to form numerouswords denoting at one and the sametime the moon.this is preciselyin order to indicate its intuitive character.one can. to maintain that there exist doctrinal differences between the upanishadsand the Brahma-sutras. memor% The Brahma-sutras.T 5.. asis most often the case. it is. in the transcendentorder. of indirect knowledge. while not excluding other views. attains the Principle itself. that is to say. they are. only their brevity. A curious argumenthas beenraisedby Thibaut.t r. everythingwhich possesses the character of reflectiveor discursive.while induction risesabovesensible perceptionand permits one to passon to a higher level. Tiacesof this symbolism are to be detected evenin speech: for example. rendering them a trifle obscurewhen they are isolatedfrom any commentarSmight provide some excusefor those who maintain that they find in tlem the'mental faculty' or discursive thought.and that which is aboveis like that which is below'.being baseddirectly and exclusively on the upanishads. perception (pratyaksha) and induction or inference(anumdna) are the two 'meansof proof' (pramdnas)that can be legitimatelyemployed in the realm of sensible knowledge. but in order to understand this formula and apply it correctlyit is necessary to refer it to the symbol of 'solomon's Seal'. fundamentallS equivalent to that betweenimmediate intellectualintuition and reflectiveconsciousness. 6. otherwisethe intuitive faculty and the discursive faculty. moreover. As for smriti. In the Hermetictradition. This symbolism. to what is highest. which we cannot enlarge upon here. strictly orthodox. and man himself insofar ashe is specifi_ cally a'rational beingl . which are in r.althoughthis wasprobablynot the intention of Thibaut..can be taken as denoting.in that it derives its authorityfrom an authorityotherthan itself. the text of which is extremelyconcise. rn order to be able to entertainsuchan opinion it is obviouslynecessary.self-evi_ dent that no school can claim to representthe doctrine in a total and exclusivemanner. but evenwerethis actuallythe .

most of all. The inadmissibility of this of the Upanishads. This last observationprompts us to a further remark.so that none can attain to it save by himself alone. but this is not how peoplewho talk about'Esoteric Brdhnrirnism' understand that expression. and way.it is an interpretationwhich has never beensuggested or admittedby any competentHindu.sinceit seemsto 'justifr the claims of Western Theosophists'to have derived their sanction from India. it is indeed'initiatic'. it is because it cannotbe otherwisewhereinstruction is allotted rvith discretionand in accordance with the real capacities of men. because it is not merely words that haveto be conveyed.and he indeed admits that he did not adopt it without hesitation.even in cases where they have been formulated in written texts.but asthe two aspects quite an erroneous doctrine. there are profound reasonsfor this.In the East the traditional doctrinesalwaysemploy oral teachingas their normal method of transmission.Exoterismand esoterism.would then apply without distinction to all parts of the Veda. it is meaningless to say. from the fact that the word'esoterism'is especially arises expression implies the correlative a comparative. In reality.thatis.the name of the Upanishads denotesthat they are ordained to destroy ignoranceby providing the meansof approachto supremeKnowledge.16 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA cENERAT REMARKS oN THE vznAttre t7 of interpretation and competent an authoritative besides something and the traditionaldoctrine. the teaching is accessible in its entiretyto all thosewho are (adhikan). are others.althoughwe havealreadyexplainedthis elsewhere.therefore. personal strictly remain a task which must necessarily this point of view. the distinction betweenexoterismand esoterism the'letter' would amount to no more than the distinctionbetween 'spirit'.then that is because the supremeKnowledgeis in its essence strictly incommunicable. thereforethosewho in a certain sense to the limited narrower. in the metaphysical especially which is indeedwhat matters to take into accountthe inexpressible.ed' of derivinga real . there is also a clear exampleof this relationshipto be met with in the Islamic tradition. of one and the same view. serveno purpose for a it.the sacredscripturesof all races. of where it is important always sphere. but the same does not apPly in the caseof the more purely Easterndoctrines. and if it is solely a question of approaching. it is his commentarythat we shallfollow in preference we must againmake To completethesepreliminary observations that it is it clear. whose intellectual horizon is t'roterism. of meanplurality it to the and one could alsoapply and the depth containedin the traditional textsor.capable irrtellectually'qualifi. moreover. existedin certain schoolsof Greekantiquity. which would be two distinct and more or lessopposeddoctrines.Thus the argumentis reallypointless' has all that we need retain is the observationthat Shankaracharya contentsof deducedand developedmore completelythe essential his authority can only be questionedby thosewho the Upanishads: are ignorant of the true spirit of the orthodox Hindu tradition. existence regardednot as the doctrine in question. but above all it is a genuineparticipationin the tradition which has to be assured.and it differsprofoundly in all its rnethods from that 'profane'educationwhich the credulity of modcrn Westerners so strangelyoverrates: this we havealreadypointed 'sacred out when speaking of science' and of the impossibilityor 'popularizing' it. if suchwerethe meaning. In a general valueless. Althoughthe traditionalteachingis not esoteric in the strict sense of the word.On the other hand. in Brdhrrranism. it goeswithout sayingthat the sameteachingis not understoodin an equal degreeby all who receiveit among such personsthere are while discernthe esoterism.It is true that we must certainly avoid anything which might lend countenanceto certain most .all told.and that its use necessarily cannotbe appliedto a division such but of an'exoterism'. since words and symbols. In thesecircumstances. whoseopinion is consequently to all others.rrlvantage from iU and if there are doctrinesreserved for a chosen le'w. Another expression which seems to us evenmore unhappy than 'Esoteric Brahmanism' is'Brahmanic Theosophyl which has been usedby Oltramare.that the word 'Upanishad' denotes knowledge acquired'bysitting at the feet of a teacher'. this title. by providing'supports' beyondactingasaidsto conceiving From one. As a matter of fact. if ings of greateror lesser preferred. claims which he perceives to be ill-founded. Brihmanism'to the teachings incorrectto apply the label'Esoteric as some havedone.In their caseone can only speakof a kind 'natural esoterism' such as inevitably pertainsto every doctrine.with Max Mtiller and other orientalists.

e just made use It will perhapsbe objectedthat we haveourselves 'Divine which is equivalent. God'strictly speaking. and'Theosophy'. evenin current speech. Moreover. Guinon is at painshereto distinguishbetween'theosophy'. exclusively from an etymologicalstandpoint. nothing more should be looked for in everythingpertainingthereto . or again.S. The point to note is that suchterms as'theology'and'theosophyl evenwhen regarded etymologicallyand apart from all intervention of the religiouspoint of view. of the phrase and'theologylThis is the originalmeaningof the words'theosophy' true. what complicatedby the fact that Gudnon also introducesthe term'Theosophism' (with very little precedentin English)to designate not only Blavatsky's Theosophy. to Knowledge'. they have no connectionwith genuinetheosophyeither.or more generallystill. A similar remark could be made with regard to the terms'astrology' and 'astronomyl which were originally synonyms.can only be translatedinto Sanskritas Ishvara-Vidyd. where but other similar movements.we cannot regardthe last-namedterms or the'wisdom of 8.why seekto apply this sameword to doctrines for which it was never intended. they havecome to assume fering acceptations. Eo.there was no better expression available. taking things in inverseorder. suchasit must almostinevitablybear when relatedto western conceptions.for the Sanskritterm which can be leastinaccuratelyrendered by'God' is not Brahma. it is the highest of the relativities.or the 'Divine Personality'. the adjective'divine'. is merely a determination. among the Greeks either term denotedboth the meaningswhich theseterms havelater come to conveyseparately.moreover. two terms. but it is nonetheless true that it is'qualified' (saguna)and 'conceived distinctively'(savishesha). self-styledTheosophists of whom Oltramare speaksare almost completelyignorant of the Hindu doctrines. All the same.universalmanifestationin its entirety being strictly nil beside Its Infinity. but.The consideration of Ishvara therefore alreadyimplies a relative point of view.after all. for the purely metaphysical point of view essentially implies the considerationof Brahma or the SupremePrinciple. 9.understoodas designatingthe movement The matter is someof the samename founded by H.sincewe havealready beencarefulto warn the readernot to apply a religious shadeof meaningto it. has enough points in common with theosophyto justifr describingit by that name. is being made to theselatter movements. for they are among thosewith reference to which it hasby now becomequite impossible to ignorethe changes of meaningwhich long usage hasbrought about. as Principle of.'beyond all distinctions'(nirvishesha).However. necessary. beganby being almostsynonymous widely diffor purely historical reasons. Besides. on the other hand.8 between'theosophy' osophismaside. no Easterndoctrine.the first of all determinations. and thereforelendsitself better to sucha transposition aswe make here than the substantive whenceit was derived. whereas Brahma is'unqualified' (nirguna).and consequently there cannot be any questionof theosophyany more than of theology. but owing to the unsuitabilityof European languages for the purposeof expressing purely metaphysical ideas. systems with religion that we are dealinghere. but there are still graverand more decisive reasons Although the againstadmitting the proposeddesignation. of which Ishvara.We will use the capitalized'Theosophy'.and havederivednothing from them but a terminologywhich they useentirelyat random. we do not think that there are any seriousobjectionsto its use.when dealing with the Vedantais Brahmavidyd. it can still be saidthat no Hindu doctrine.but ishvara. MetaphysicallSmanifestation can only be consideredfrom the point of view of its dependence upon the Supreme Principleand in the quality of a mere'support'for raising oneself to transcendent Knowledge.a certain ambiguity might still remain.'Theosophism' when reference the word is usedin its strictly etymological and the uncapitalized'theosophy'when sense. is usedlessstrictly. Olcott and Mme Blavatsky. and in relation to. and to which it is not much better suited than are the it is not labelsof the philosophical of the West? Onceagain. and.Theosophyis something peculiarly Western. in the first place. and this is why we insist on distinguishing But leavingThecarefully and'Theosophism'. this follows exclusively conceptions directly from the fact that the word denotes of mystical inspiration.as an applicationof the principial Tiuth.not even with that of the West. therefore religious and even specifically Christian ones.what we renderapproximately as 'Divine Knowledge'. universalManifestation. absolutely unconditioned.18 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA GENERAL REMARKS ON THE VEDANTA T9 undesirable confusions.more vaguelyperhaps.these although.we readily admit that this term'Divine Knowledge'is not itself entirelyadequate. In any case.

besides. too greata strictness on this scorewould undoubtedlyleave very few terms indeed at one's disposal. It is hardly necessary 'Self' use of the term doesnot imply on our part any identity of view with certain schoolsthat may have used this word. set forth any but purely Westernviews. the essential of the Unmanifested. referthe reader would we chapter. as we explainedwhen interpreting the title of the Upanunqualified.the fundamental distinction 'Self' between the ISoi].ofu. upprouchbeing madeto Knowledge 2 FUNDAMENTAL DISTINCTION . the main subjectof study and havebeendiscussed Vedanta as it pertains to the human being.are the namesof the differentkinds of philosophicalsystems. in our opinion.highly fantasticat that.especiallyas there exist hardly any which at one time or anotherhavenot been misapplied by somephilosopher. mitting. present treatedin rather summary fashionin the matters form these Doctrines.and 'ego' the individual to explainthat the lmoi]. it is essential to define from the start.The misusewhich may havebeenmadeof a word doesnot.also. The only words which we intend to reject are those inventeddeliberately to express viewswhich have nothing in common with what we are expounding:such.for example. but that. such.SELF' BETWEEN .20 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA the understanding to facilitate than a kind of illustration'ordained thus perobject of metaphysics.where Hindu the of the Study to to our Introduction in greaterdetail. as clearly as possible.EGO' AND IN oRDER ro uNDERSTAND rHoRoucHLy the teaching of the which havehad to be 10.but also to certain pseudo-orientalschoolswhich have entirely distorted the Veddnta under the pretextof adaptingit to the Westernmentality.l0 ishads.which is the veryprincipleof the being.. exceptwhere it is possibleto replaceit by another word equally well suited to express the samemeaning. provide adequate groundsfor declining to employ it. For a fuller accountof all thesepreliminary questions.which is not the casein this instance.generally havenever misunderstood. under an Eastern terminology. we are alluding here not only to Theosophism.are .

nor to have extractedthe most profound consequences which follow from iU this is moreoverwhat often occurs. is quite incapableof extendingits swayso far asto include the personality. and because this developmentis. exceptwhen looked at from the point of view of manifestation. with one reservationhowever for the 'Self'. but only of perfect simultaneity. constitutes the portion or rather the particular determinationof that beingwhich is calledhuman individuality. and the second with the'Self.but also-although the word trut both of these. is only a transientand contingentmodification. can in no way affectthe principle.in particular. as such. As regardsmanifestation. we may alsousethoseof 'personality' and'individuality'. The Theosophists.interpretthe personalityand the individuality in a sense which is the exact opposite of that in which they should rightly be understood.amounting. even when they attempt to carry their views further than those of the majority.not a development at all.aswill be explainedmore fully in what follows. 'Self The is the transcendent and permanentprinciple of which the manifested being.the human being. and this must be understoodnot only of the manifested states of which we havejust been speaking. In placeof the terms'Self'and'ego'. In a generalwa5 it appearsthat Westerners. it merely develops the indefinite possibilitieswhich it contains within itself. through a multiplicity of modalities of realization.and that is why we saythat this is their normal relationship. to so many different states.22 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FUNDAMENTALDTSTTNCTT2N BETwEeN'ssrr'aruo'rco' z3 the terms which belongspecifically to the vocabularyof the occultists and other'neo-spiritualists'.eachin its own domain.for sinceit must alwaysbe considered under the aspect of the eternity and immutability which are the necessary attributes of pure Being. evenon occasions where Scholasticism showsthe most remarkable similarity with certain portions of the Easterndoctrines.wheneverany distinction has been made betweenthese two terms.'Previously.is found nevertheless to be realized in the 'eternal present'. whether individual like the human stateor supra-individual. hasnothing in common with what modern philosophers so often call the'human person'.rlity and fall entirely within the scopeof psychology.so that evenwhat is virtual under one aspect. by u relative passingfrom potency to act through an indefinite seriesof degrees.limited by the special conditions of existence which defineit.which there is every reasonto retain. called human. obviously we need have no scruplesabout employing such words. on the contrary. are for us equallyincluded in the individu.Immutablein its own nature. whateverhe may have supposed. .has not overlookedthis distinction. moreover.a modification which. while at the same time restoring the meaning which normally belongsto them. The'self is thus the principle by which all the statesof the being exist. it is this aloneand not the personalitywhich can strictly be besides. which is.even in the West. of which statesone alone. who seemto havetaken a delight in confusingtheir terminology. Its essential permanence is not therebyaffected.it is the first which they identify with the'ego'. may denotesomethingover and abovethe personality. as we shall explain later on. the personality. strictly speaking. ashe conceives them. metaphysically speaking. mistakefor the personalitywhat is actuallybut the superior part of the individuality.for example.which. outsideof which there can be no questionof succession. In any case. which would cause it to be'other than itself'.but it doesnot seemto havegrasped its full metaphysical significance.it is obviouslynot susceptible of any particularization.is neverindividualizedand cannot becomeso. however. Leon Daudet in certain of his works (I) Heredoand Le Monde deslmages)has distinguished in the human being betweenwhat he calls'self'(soi) and'ego' (moi). preciselybecause this process is only relative. for the integral being. the fact of having tried to establish sucha distinction indicatesa kind of presentiment which deserves to be pointed out as remarkablein an author who had no pretensions to be calleda metaphysician. as for termswhich the last-named havemerelyborrowed from earlierdoctrineswhich they habitually plagiarize and shamelessly without understandinganything about them.nothing but the individuality pure and simple. the personality has alwaysbeen regarded assuperiorto the individuality.it may be said that the 'Self' developsits manifold possibilities. Scholastic philosophy.The'Self'. in fact. l.indefinite in their mulritude. or a simple extensionof it:l in these circumstances everythingof the purely metaphysical order necessarilyremainsoutsidetheir comprehension.

and accordingto Ramanuja's in somesort its body [this word being taken here in a purely analogicalsense]. term.such asthe human state.more or lessakin to would amount to acceptinga kind of true to saythat such an It is nonetheless the theoriesattributed to the Manicheans.'spiritual' nature.2 in this mannerin relationto a being. lGu€non later publisheda separate of the Cross. Atma permeates all things. 'spirit' nothing is implied however. and which. from the'Self'.that is. be noted is that to the extentthat we make this distinction. moreover. in principial aswell asbeyondExistence. stateof that being.'constitute modifications. and that is why.it is true that one might restrict the perly speaking 'Self' principle of the manifested as use of this latter word to the 'Divine just as the Ishvara. and neither has nor can have. It is our intention to setforth more completelyin other works the metaphysherewe needonly touch on thoseasPects ical theory of the being'smultiple states. to also extend it analogically universalManifestation. ditions in manifestation.it can only enjoy . needless all states of manifestation are strictly equivalent and can be regarded in the sameway.that in this use of the word and. we may call the'Universal Spirit'. that is to say accordingto the sensein which the rwo terms to one another.when it is declaredthat'God is pure spirit' it is reasonable 'spirit' as supposethat this statementmust likewisenot be taken in the senseof opposedto'matter'. the universalsense.considered the personality. more accurately.24 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FUNDAMENTALDlsrrNCTIoN BETwEEIv'srtr' aN. its accidental expression. in parwhich might recallWesternphilosophicalconceptions. which are. is the the unconditioned and unmanifested 'supreme Self' (the literal rendering of Paramatma) of all that ever'the same'through mode.implying merelya diversityof conas'material'. according for that distinction. The reflection in question what may be calledthe centerof this individualitp but determines if isolatedfrom its principle. be they moreoverof an intelligentor non-intelligent aswell to Western conceptions.Seealso The Symbolism Multiple States to 3.when confronted with the of the being.but one can 'Self' principle of all the states of the being. and between that it is in no way required to concernitself with the more or less 2.makesno sort of differencein respectof Principle. in any way. and unmanifested. any more than by any other contingency.as well as the possibilitiesof manifestationthemin principial mode. under whatever understoodin of Existence. in default of a better skrit is calledAtma or Paramatma. to say. since it is essentially particularization. it particularly and'distinctively'in relaexceptwhen one considers in relation to a certain definite tion to a being.or. the same word the reflexive atman.even And to the influenceof Cartesiandualism. replaces reallydistinctfrom Atma. leadingto the is of a kind that readilylendsitself to falseinterpretations. Eo. being subject in this respect.it cannot be and obviouslycannot be affectedby the point of view from which What should we regardit. of the principle which in Sanprimordial and non-particularized. specialand often quite artificial questionsto which such oppositionsgiverise. in fact. for.'thatis.but the'Self'derivesits being from itself selves alone. once more in this connectionthat genuinemetalet it be repeated lies quite outside all the oppositionsof which that existing physics 'spiritualism'and'materialism' affords us the type. comprising all the possibilitieswhich are not susceptibleof any manifestation.in the perfect and indivisible unity of its nature. to understandit in this way have no meaning exceptin reference 'demiurgic' conception. The'self is not therefore pronoun'itself'.in relation to anybeingwhatsoevetis in reality identibeyond all distinction and all cal with Atma.and insofarasone considersit from this specialand limited point of view alone.3 though unconsciously. as it were.any principle which is externd to it.that it is not turned into a correlative ern mind is inclined to do. of the constitution of the to an understanding of that theory that areindispensable work on this theory. The'Self'. expression 'a substitutionof being'for pure Being.both manifested as the The personalityis an immediatedetermination.on the clearunderstanding.is the Principle of Personality" states. In theology. in Sanskrit. in casesother than the nominative.l of the Being.and it abides exists.eco' z5 'exist' then becomes inappropriate-of the unmanifested state.This.o'.is proThe'Self'. the'Self'doesnot reallybecome 'other than itself'. 'matter'. non-manifestation.but just now it is the human individuality which more particularly concernsus. asthe modof ticular. we are of the'Self in order to condepartingfrom the direct consideration sider its reflection in human individuality or in some other state 'Self'. sinceas we said above. In this distinctfrom Atma case. the indefinitemultiplicity of the degrees that is.entitled The human being.

the general. it includesall degrees of formal manifestation.and from a certain point of view their identificationwould in fact be justified. which is properly speakingbut a mere name is usuallythe extensionof the individual.and to which we ask our readersto refer whenevernecessary: Universal Individual the unmanifestedand the manifested.to which. are from that very fact supra-individuah if. it cannot thereforebe considered from any point of which has precisely view exceptthat of pure metaphysics..The pseudo-metaphysicians of the Westare in the habit of confusingwith the Universalthings which. evenat this higher level. The sameis true with regardto The terms 'subtle state'and'gross state'. being formless. The'grossstate'in fact is nothing elsethan corporealexistence itself. at least by comparisonwith individual states. it the which right identifr with collective. that is.we will here.for the second of these two terms. To forestallany misunderstandings of the kind just described and in order to avoid tedious repetition. cannot in any way be opposedto it. It is important to add that the distinction between the Universaland the individual must not be regarded asa correlation. accountmust be taken of certainstates of manifestationwhich. in realitS pertain to the individual order. belongsessentially to the of the word.ormal Manifestation Subtlestate 1 I Gross state I Individual 1 General I Particular r Collective t sing. or rather.If we regardthings in this manner.and it effectuallypossesses this reality only through 'Self'.lu. but this. However. human individuality belongsby one of its modalitiesonly. it is the unmanifested which is the all-essential.metaphysically. all statesin which beings are investedwith forms. it should be clearly understood. to the order of principles in the strictestsense universalorder. We can now sum up thesefurther considerations in the following table: Universal r The Unmanifested I FormlessManifestation . because their mental horizon does not extend beyond this domain and becausethey wish to impose on everybody else the limitations which are but the effectof their own incapacity.it might at first sight appearthat the Universaland the unmanifested should coincide. we only distinguishbetween the Universaland the individual we shall be forcedto assignthesestates to the universal.Moreover. for what properly characterizes individuality and essentially constitutes it assuchis precisely the presence of form amongthe limitative conditionswhich defineand determinea given stateof existence.will be explainedlater. Some carry the confusion still further.26 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FUNDAMENTALDISrrNCTI2N BETwEuN'srlr' AND'EGo' 27 for it is from that principle that it derives a purely illusory existence.that is to sayrelative. since.comprisingboth the unmanifested and the supra-individual states of manifestation.is necessarily conditioned. who cannotevenconceive the'empiricist'philosophers. but will alsoextendto the formless. that is. the Universalfor its domain. whether inborn or acquiredthrough a particular form of education. must not lead us to forget that everythingmanifested. all its reality. As for the individual. that to which they fallaciously apply this general.once and for all. by belongsto the particular order only. the corporealand sensible world. but we may point out now that this last distinction is only true on condition that we take as our starting-point the human or more precisely. insofar asit is identifi ed therewith by universalization.which we arethe better ableto do inasmuchasit is a questionof a manifestation which is still in a way principial. provide the following table. which many indeedregardasthe only kind of knowledgepossible. The personalitSlet us insist oncemore. therefore. and by meansof thesesuccessive degradations they end by reducingall things to the level of sensoryknowledge. which setsforth the essential distinctions in this connection.the Universal will no longer consistsolelyof the unmanifested. being strictly annulled in respectof the first. which are assigned to the different degrees of formal manifestation. and not . participation in the nature of the that is. aswe shall see.as they haveno conception at all of the Universal.

as the image reflectedin a mirror derivesall its reality from the object it reflectsand could enjoy no existence apart from it.the extra-corPoreal also. but althoughthese'transcendentals'do indeedbelong to the universalorder.considered which constitute a certainsum of possibilities integrality. and we will recall to mind-for the more modern amongthem seemto haveforgottenit somewhat-that'categories' in the Aristoteliansense of the word are nothing but the most general of all genera.is at oncerealin one sense and illusory in another.which includesbut the smallest fraction of its possibilities.and it is. far from really constituting the whole being. from the unmanifested. We must furthermorewarn philosophers more especially that the Universaland the individual are by no meansfor us what they call 'categories'.betweenthe corporealand incorporeal.wheneveran attribution or quality of any kind lishedobservation things are automaticallydivided into two groups'namely.is illusory in relation to the supremeReality as the image is also illusory in relationto the object. transcend all genera.that the human being. We thus observe that existence. and cannotevenhave symmetrical not truly are that thesetwo terms only a portion sinceone of them represents any common measure.t no homogeneityand may includethings having nothing in common with one another. extendingin different directionsbeyond other possibilities.constituteits subtlemodalities. symmetry nor any common measure good merely from the holds their distinction since constitute a twofold division.and points which Westernwriters.the second.from this point of view that the distinction in questionis in the first placeestablished this point transcends by the Hindu doctrine. which alone is the true being. no doubt.which is only participative. It would be more correctto comparewith the Universalwhat the Scholastics which do precisely term'transcendentals'. on the other hand. that is to sayconditionedand manifestedbeing. 4. It follows from this that human individuality is at oncemuch more and much lessthan Westerners generally supposeit to be: much more. of which. on the one hand. its corporeal or gross which. is to be found point Symmetryup to a certain this manifestation.all other individual states. however.because it alone representsits permanent and unconditioned state. it relatesto the state in which we actually find ourselvesat the moment. ner. including the'categories'. things devoid of it. a simiso also. the corporealmodality.therefore. because this individuality. and because there is nothing elsewhich can be considered as absolutely real. is but one stateof that being among an indefinite multitude of other Moreoverthe sum of all thesestates is still nothing at all in states. It is thereforeevident the secondplace. there is neither which do not really betweenthe two grouPs.but only in a relativeway by reasonof its dependence upon the Principleand insofarasit reflects it in some degree.nonetheless.comprises a multitude of in addition.and if we should attemptto isolateit from the Principle.within the realm of form itself. moreover. who have this is one of the essential distorted the Veddntaby their erroneous and highly prejudiced interpretations. As to the'subtle state'. in and everyother being situatedin the samestateof existence. relation to the personality. so that they still belongto the individual domain.but all these possibilities together represent. or of being.Thus. present in its It may be said. real also. but while the first named group is found to be thus positivelydefined manin a wholly negative which is only characterized and determined.within the manifested.they denote the limit from a certain point of view. moreover.a provided that we restrict ourselvesto the consideration of the human individuality alone. which constitute of one out of the indefinite multiplicity of states the remainderof all includes the other while formal manifestation. and modality. objectof transcending since it must inevitablybe taken asa basisand term of comparison.which however does not rob this division of its validity under the Now it is preciselyin this manner that the manifested original terms of reference. all possible is considered. it would still be a .rr.28 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FUNDAMENTAT DrsrrNcr roN BETwETN 'snr'AND 'EGo' 29 in the it includes. much less. havefailedto grasp. is in no wise limited therebyand is in reality indefinite. can be distinguished lar distinction can be made bebveenthe formal and the formlessand lastly.Evenif one afterwards ulterior the with entertained been has only it if even or of view. This asymmetrycan be made more intelligibleby applying to it a well estabof ordinary logic.All the rest is. but this lesser reality. one and the same degreeof universalExistence.and. things endowedwith this quality. because they recognizein it scarcely anythingexceptthe corporealmodality. true that nevertheless it remains it effectively. in its integraldevelopment.this illusion would becomea pure and simplenon-entity. specialpoint of view of a certain quality takenasa starting-point the secondgrouP porr. human the of modalities first place.

or rather virtually: it is simply a matter of the individual (for it is only in respectof the individual that one can speakof realization)becoming effectively conscious of what reallyis from all eternity. if it is preferred. J THE VITAL CENTER OF THE HUMAN BEING: SEAT OF BR AHMA THE'Self'.at which point. consequently. exactmeaningof this word Yoga is in fact neither more nor less. Although it is very far from constitutingmetaphysics pertain to metaphysics. This is what may be called the 'supreme Identity'. moreover. where the doctrine on this and on many other points is fundamentallythe sameasin the Hindu tradition. itis Brahma andnotlshvarawhich must be recognized and aboveull by expressly Principle.ldespitethe numerousinterpretations. Atma is identical with Brahma itself.In important more much Beingis. other words. 1 1. which orientalists and Theosophistshave suggested. The realizationof this identity is brought about through Yoga. for the union in question.advisesa carriedout with reflectivestudy of the texts of the Upanishads and princiits basis as the aid of a dialecticwhich [taking them with them. 'the production as an be considered or as of a nonpre-existingresult'.envisages simple of capacity in the only [but 'Deliverance' asthe goal.30 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA that they constitutethe whole of the Universal mistaketo suppose the most important considerationin pure are they that even or with Being.which following the adds study of Brahmal to which Shankaricharya commentary: This first siltra. t . in spiteof greatdifferences of form. thal is to say. while enjoining the quest of Brahma.This is declared asthe Supreme beginsthe words:'Now with these open theBrahma-sutras.aswe haveseen in the lastchapter. and.but they do not tranthey are co-extensive metaphysics.eventhough not actuallyrealizedin the sense hereintended.the doctrine in which they 'ontology' does indeed are thus consideredstops short.existsnonetheless potentially.or. like them ple] is never in disagreement auxiliary means]. moreover. It should be noted that this realizationought not strictly speakingto 'achievement'.but only the that which is beyond principle of manifestation.The 'union'. . eachmore fanciful than the last. metaphysically. than Beingitself. in its entirety. its derivatives: and the Englishword'yoke'showsthis root in a form almost identical with the Sanskrit. scarcely in the Latinjungereand altered. must not be regarded as distinct from Atma.accordingto Shankaracharya's expression. and which.with the Universal.for Beingis not the Unmanifestin itself. scendBeing. The root of this word is to be found. through the intimate and essential union of the being with the Divine Principle. according to an expression borrowedfrom Islamicesoterism.

It should be noted in and Aristotle among this connection that the Greeksthemselves. as we have alreadystated. the samepart to the heart. which dwellsin the heart. question must also be regardedsymbolically. the other modalities beingno longersubject to the spatialcondition. since it is in reality the center not only of the corporealindividuality. inasmuchas this world is eminently relative. in accordance we have previously mentioned. in relation to manifesteC first in relationto the Principle. In the latter world. that in and the brain to the moon. it is so by realife. is smallerthan a grain of rice.smallerthan a grain of mustard. it may be added. It goeswithout saying. in illusory mode therefore.the conclusion of the text expressly denotesthis.there is nothing correspondence arbitrary. The heart is regardedas the center of point of view. (jlva) and consequently in the human individual.from the physiological son of its connectionwith the circulation of the blood. there would obviouslybe nothing to And it may further be addedthat the lotus and the cavity in seek.that relatingto the corporealworld only. in which. It is indeedonly in the capacity of a'support'for this transposition that Ether is mentionedhere. with the smallerventricle(guha)of the heart spondinganalogically (hridaya). indefinite extensionin its own sphere(which occupies. and althoughthis appears asjtva in the sphereof individual existence. dwellsat the centerof the individuality is not merelythe ethericelement.'there is a small lotus. that is to saywith the physiologicalorgan bearing that name. this elementdoesin fact play the part of a principle. and of which the corporealmodality but one degreeof existence). intelligence.for such a 'localization' is in no wise to be conceived literally oncethe point of view of corporealindividuality has beentranscended. in the vital center of which we have just been speaking. although our contemporaries the prono doubt may be led by their habitsof thought to disregard for sucha thing.32 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE VITAI CENTER OF THE HUMAN BEING. this manifestationshould not be regarded separatelyfrom its Principle.alsomakingit the seatof assigned others.the second This vital center is consideredas correor conditioned existence.but in a wholly relativesense. smallerthan the germ which 2.and we shallknow It.t.and which appliesmoreoverto the sum-totalof modalitiescomprisedin that state. the heart correspondsto the sun moreover.itis Atma in its supremeReality. only a very limited portion.the particularized manifestation of the'self in life Qtvatma).if nothing more were really being referredto.and it is preciselythis acceptation which has to be analogically transposed. of thought in its reflectiveand with a symbolismwhich discursivemode: and thus. in fact. and not of feeling as the moderns commonly do. 'In . with which linked in a very specialway.Metaphysicallyin fact. smallerthan a grain of millet.' SEAT OF BRAHMA 33 That is why it is said that it is Brahmawhich dwells in the vital centerof the human being. and in fact. Nor is what we are at present considering merelythe'living soul' that is. viewedhere more especially under the vital aspectwhich is one of the conditions of existence specificallydetermining the human individual state.not only of one who is actually'united'or'delivered'-thesetwo words the denoting the samething viewed under two different aspects.betweenthe two there is strictly speakinga only.but it must not be confusedwith the heart in the ordinary sense of the word. through its centeron a higherplaneand in a more symbolical of the Araconnectionwith the universalIntelligence(in the sense bic term Al-Aqlu) as relatedto the individual. a place in which is a small cavity fdaharal occupied by Ether fAkasha]. This Atmi. since. the brain.this is true of everyhuman being. smallerthan a grain of barley. asmight be supposed by thosewho confinethemselves to its most externalmeaning.that is. is only the instrument of the mental faculty. found reasons this seatof BrahmafBrahma-pura)]that is to say. and indeed.as all tradivitality itself is essentially asa tions are unanimousin recognizing. we must seekThat which is in this place. describingthe center of the integral individuality as the heart. which is the 'Self'. in actualfact. capableof moreover. the greatest careshould be taken not to regardwhat is merely an analogy as an identification. but of the integral individuality.2 That which. Chhandogya Upanishad v nt t. constitutesonly a portion.if one may so expressit.the principle of the four other sensible elements.butit is further considered sense.but which is perfectlyvalid.

evento the which doesnot recall a similar symbolismoccurring in another text of the Upan'TWo birds. for the developmentof possibilities. . while the other looks on without eating. and manifestationin its entirety.it is the individual who dwellsin the. illusory manner.sinceso long ashe regards himself in separative mode. a point is the intersectionof two lines. possibilities.'(Matt. once they are realized. in fact.all possibilitieswhich transcend him appearaspotential. Moreover.dwell in the sametree. it is the smallestof all seeds.rnehastakenup the viewpoint of manifestation. The sameidea is very clearlyexpressed in the Gospeltext. which dwellsin the heart. and the first last. and although this is only an illusion. zo:16) 5.however. when we saythat the'self is potentiallyin the individual. in a more general way condition all manifestation.In point of fact. Though the point of view is certainly a different one. so that the birds of the air come and make nestsin its branches.exist through it alone and haveno reality exceptthrough participation in its essence.s Similarlp space 3. viewed in the principial and unmanifestedstate. and the being becomes effectivelyconsciousof this when 'Union' is realized.beingthe unconditioned].t3:3r12). beyond all manifestation.sinceit is not as an individual that he can attain them. Chhandogya Upanishad nt .'(Mu4$aka rlr.r4. apparentlyat any rate.the'self is not affected by any contingency.. this meansthat . sinceit is essentially unconditioned.can in no way be regardedas potential.whateverhe attainsis strictly speaking but a reflectionand not thosepossibilities themselves. In reality.6).and that'union'exists only virtually beforeits realization. we may saythat for the individual they always remain potential.representing in this casethe higher states of the being. however. but when it has grown it is the greatest of shrubs and becomesa tree.a To make a comparisonwith smallest mathematicsby way of clarification.To the individual. that of ordinary elementarygeometry.deriving his own being seemingly from himself. greaterthan all the worlds together lthat is. greater than the atmosphere of subtlemanifestation]. yet in principle it is the greatest.self.it is immutable in its'permanent actuality'. though arithmeticalunity is the smallestof numbersif one regards it as situatedin the midst of their multiplicity. it presupposes a possible'actualization'and can only be appliedtherefore in respectof 'becoming'or of manifestation. while it immenselytranscends all existence. but the individual. When it is said 0f the'Self' that it is in a certainsense indwelling in the individual. the one ishads: eatsof the fruit of the tree. who is involvedin the realm of action and its consequences. for.which excludes all'becoming'.'So the last will be first. [the sphere greater than the sky [the sphere of formless manifestation]. it is easyto understandhow the conceptionof the'Kingthe growing of the tree stands dom of Heaven'can be transposedmetaphysically. Evenfrom a more externalpoint of view.a line is solid.' SEAT OF BRAHMA 35 is in the grain of millet. last and in the order of manifestation. since is but the development of its intrinsic virtualities. The first of the two birds is Upanishad jwatma. and there is no single featureof the parable. and just asthe image of an object is inverted relativeto that object. it goeswithout sayingthat this must be understoodonly from the point of view of the individual himself.and thereforethere cannot be anything potential about it. 'birds of the air'. the line engenders the surface.3. though it is the principle by which spacein its entirety is produced. being the sole principle of all things. is also greaterthan the earth [the sphereof grossmanifestation].1. becauseanalogy is necessarily applied in an inversesense. but in the contrary sense. In this contextone cannot help recallingthe 'The Kingdom of heavenis like a grain of mustard seedwhich a Gospelparable: man took and sowed in his field.The 'self is only potentially in the individualsolong as'Union'isnot achieved. which is pure Knowledge.and if they are inseparably from the latter in an this is because the former is only distinguishable associated.1.but this conscious realizationimplies a freeing from the limitations that constitute individuality as such. this Atma. the secondis the unconditioned Atma. on the contrary.the following observationcan be made:by continuousdisplacement the point engenders the line.no 6.and the surfaceengenders the a surfaceis the intersectionof two solids.Shvetdshvatara Upanishad w.rpplication in an inversesense.3 This is so.it is important to distinguish very carefully between 'potentiality' and 'possibilityi The first of thesetwo words implies aptitude for a certaindevelopment. inseparablyunited companions.and which. and this is yet another exampleof . aswe havealreadypointed out.that which is first or greatestin the principial order is. 4.34 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE VITAI CENTER OF THE HUMAN BEING. the intersectionof two surfaces.it is thus that the geometrical point is quantitativelynil and doesnot occupy anyspace.6 and this is why it is comparable to a grain or a germ. since it virtually contains them all and producesthe whole series simply by the indefinite repetition of itself.'(Matt.

In the Islamic esotericdoctrine the sameidea 12. are which.and that it is not merely at the confinesof human individuality but rather at the confinesof the totality of manifested states. 11.which is representedas feminine.thereforeomnipresent. If. though remaining unmanifested themselves.even principiallS with manifestation. insteadof consideringeachindividual separately.is the active principle. to all eternityl. that Purusha and Prakriti appearto us asproceeding in somesort from apolarizationof principial Being.must enter into correlation with another principle.which is only to be found in thosetraditional doctrinesthat are in fundamentallyit is nothing but a particusomeway or other attachedto Judaism: the idea of universalmanifestationand its relation with the lar way of expressing Principle.rz-r3.but which refersto the sameidea asthe comparison fire with a grain].38 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA are eternally containedin the Principle. althoughwe haveto considerthis statemore especially.also calledPumas. transposed an This Purusha. we consider the whole of a domain formed by a determinate degree of existence. The correlativeof Purushais then Prakriti. the undifferentiatedprimordial substance. moreover.and thesetwo are the poles of all manifestation. for there cannot in truth be any other principle than the Supreme Principle.4. represented as masculine.by Mulryi is expressed. while Purusha. of the size of a thumb langushtha-matra.ll is of a clear luminosity like a smokeless [without any admixture of obscurityor ignorance]. in such wise that it containsin its permanent actuality all as past or future relativelyto any given moment of that appears of transa relationshipthat is.l2 PURUSHA AND PRAKR ITI Ws Musr Now coNSrDEx Purusha no longerin itsell but in relation to manifestation. and this will enableus later on to understand better why it can be regarded under severalaspects. n. we are alreadyin the realm of relativity. Moreover. principially.capable manifestation.the same may be said of all other manifestedstatesof the being and not only of the human state. although such a correlation is really non-existent in relationto the highest(uttama) aspect of Purusha. it is the passive principle. in themselves. A comparisoncould alsobe madeherewith the'endogeny asit is taught by the Taoisttradition. it is today [in the actual statewhich constitutes human individualityl and it will be tomorrow [and in all cycles or statesof existence]such as it is [in itself.'Theonly differenceconcernsthe idea of creation.It may be said then that Purusha. and that applies relativelyto each individual. while being at the sametime one in reality. for.in order that manifestation may be produced. it is important alwaysto remember that it is but one state among others. but once we are dealing. is time which ference beyondthat particular mode of succession the properJ. in termsof succession. which must not be takenliterally asdenotinga spatial expression dimension. It is the union of thesecomplementary principleswhich producesthe integral development of the human individual state.in their indefinite multipliciry. 'He on Unity (Risalat-al-AlTadiyah): lAllah] is now such as He was [from all eternity] every day in the stateof Sublime Creator. of the Immortal'.exceptin a relativesense.it is the Lord of the past and of the future [being eternal. . Katha Upanishad 'd-Din ibn al-'Arabiin his Tieatise in almostidentical terms.

successively 'Lord of produced beings'. 'microcosm'. ifestation in it. is 'substance' (which is and e?6og in all its universality.it is very themselves probablethat eventhe Greeks did not possess the notion the philosophers as well as of matter as understoodby moderns. at any rate. tradition (Tao TeChing.moreover. 2. to adopt the language the'universalconstructiveprinciple'. 'King' 3.5 Now it is essentialto notice that the conception of the pair hasnothing at all to do with any'dualistic'concepPurusha-Prqkriti and in particularthat it is totally differentfrom the tion whatsoever. sense. relativelyto a determinatestateof being.3This conception. more or lessspecialized variousapplications.the pair PurushaPrakriti. Architect of the Universe'of the Westerninitiations.who givesit its specialcycleof existence. of capable moreover are function and accordingto whether or not they are referredto the considerationof this or that rycle or determinatestate. his name l.as is the conceptionof 'substance'.it is also the z5).Purusha cannot be 'spirit'. evenapproximately. may be considcorrespondingto that ered as equivalent.it is thereforea mistaketo look upon thesenamesasindicatinghistoricalpersonages. correspondsto the 'Great an aspector function of Vishvakarmq. the as Divine Will and Supreme Brahmaitself insofar as it is conceived Ruler. physicists. the meaning of the word iil4 in Aristotle. of modernWestern the origin of which is really imputable to Cartesianism. thePurusha-Sukta here. Iust itself asthe primordial and universalLegislator. .that such to translateit.which term is only acceptable the asserand despite tion that it be taken in quite a different sense. 'matter'. (Dharma).40 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PURUSFIA AND PRAKRIT/ 4l suchasthe individual domain in which the human stateunfolds (or no matter what other analogousdomain of manifestedexistence similarly owing its definition to the combination of certain special Purushais. asa Personage must in fact on no accountbe regarded but rather as a principle. exactlythat of 'form' on account of the unsatisfactorilyrendered by the word ambiguitiesto which it too easily givesrise) correspondsno less 'essence' 'substance'.and of which the latter represents a at most but one very particular aspect. between'essence' 5.theseterms'essence' and'substance'.to what Islamicesoterism kAmil). outside this stateit losesall validity and it is in no wise applicableto the 'essence' whole of universalmanifestation. a notion is lacking in any real foundation. Prakriti corresponds tions of a considerable number of orientalists.an expressionof with Prajapati. precisely to regarded as the correlative of taken in their widest Indeed.chap. It is interestingto note that in other traditions the primordial Legislatoris also calledby namesthe root of which is the sameas that of the Hindu Manu: we have for example Menesamong the Egyptians and Minos among the Greeks. embracethe totalify of manifested and the constitution of the universalmanifestation analogybetween that of its individual human modality. It is worth rememberingthat the institution of castes of point the from considered Purusha of function the Concerning analogy. of manpossibilities their corresponding develop all the beingswho identified as well as simultaneously). as Manu. betweenthe'macrocosm'and the usedby certainWesternschools. 'spirit' much more universal order than that of and'matter'. has already been explained elsewhere.l This Will is manifestedin more particular form. This is the Adam Kadmon of the Hebrew Kabbalah. These terms properly belong to the Hermetic doctrine and are included among those which.4or. expressing as Manu is the prototype of man (mdnava). for each as the Manu of that cycle. are perhapsthosewhich give the most exactidea in Western a conceptionof a languages of the conceptionwe are discussing.2 it).may be further extendedto the and it then establishes states.moreover. as regarded as corresponding to the philosophicalnotion of we havealreadypointed out in connectionwith the descriptionof on condiAtma as'UniversalSpirit'. (Wang)of the Far-Eastern upon restsessentially 4. may be justifiably employedin spite of the abusethey havebeenput to by the pseudo-esoterists ofthe presentday.seeespecially view we are discussing 'UniversalMan'. which is in fact so completelyforevenlessto the notion of eign to Hindu thought that there is no word in Sanskritwith which this shows.in the realm of existence Man' (al-Insanalcalls'Universal state. in our opinion. this x'9o' of the Rig-Veda. Law or asa'myth'. Prajdpatiis also Vishvakarma. specificationreferring to one determinate state of being. which is properly speakingthe Cosmic the reflectedimageof Brahma (and in reality one with Intelligence. It should further be added that the distinction and primordial as it is in comparison and'substance'. for sucha domain (including and limiting conditions). Furthermore. 'spirit-matter'dualism philosophy.

Architect of the Universe' trsed by certainWesternschools.moreover.2 it). and despitethe assertions of a considerable Prakrifi corresponds number of orientalists.who givesit its specialcycleof existence. precisely to 'essence' regarded as the correlative of 'essence' Indeed.it is thereforea mistaketo look upon thesenamesas indicatinghistoricalpersonages. (Wang)of the Far-Eastern tradition (Tao TeChing. which is properly speakingthe Cosmic the reflectedimageof Brahma (and in reality one with Intelligence.Concerning the function of Purushaconsideredfrom the point of x. are perhapsthosewhich give the most exactidea in Western languages of the conceptionwe are discussing. may be considcorrespondingto that ered as equivalent. of the Westerninitiations. and manifestation the constitution of the universal analogybetween that of its individual human modality. taken in their widest sense.5 Now it is essentialto notice that the conception of the pair l\rrusha-Prakritihasnothing at all to do with any'dualistic'conception whatsoever. evenapproximately. of the Rig-Veda. . outside this stateit losesall validity and it is in no wise applicableto the whole of universalmanifestation.9o. primordial as it is in comparison 5.an expressionof with Prajdpati. at anyrate. 'King' 3. much more universalorder than that of and and of which the latter represents at most but one very particular aspect.that such a notion is lacking in any real foundation. Law (Dharma). of manpossibilities all the beingswho developtheir corresponding as well as simultaneously). his name the'universalconstructive l. may be justifiably employedin spite of the abusethey havebeenput to by the pseudo-esoterists of the presentday.chap. upon restsessentially 4. as has already been explained elsewhere. a specificationreferring to one determinate state of being.the pair PurushaPrakriti. 2.to what Islamicesoterism kamil).theseterms and'substance'. accordingto whether or not they are referred to the considerationof this or that rycle or determinate state. correspondsto the 'Great an aspector function of Vishvakarma.which is in fact so completelyforeign to Hindu thought that there is no word in Sanskritwith which to translateit. regarded as corresponding to the philosophicalnotion of as we havealreadypointed out in connectionwith the descriptionof Atma as'UniversalSpirit'. the meaning of the word iilq in Aristotle. or asa'myth'. itself asthe primordial and universalLegislator. Manu. asa personage must in fact on no accountbe regarded but rather as a principle. a conception of a 'spirit' 'matter'.3 This conception. this shows. Furthermore. in our opinion. relativelyto a determinatestateof being.may be further extendedto the and it then establishes embracethe totality of manifestedstates. Prajapatiis alsoVishvakarma. the as Divine Will and Supreme Brahma itself insofar as it is conceived Ruler.Purusha cannot be 'spirit'.it is very probablethat eventhe Greeks themselves did not possess the notion of matter as understoodby the moderns. These terms properly belong to the Hermetic doctrine and are included among those which. and the between the'macrocosm' 'rnicrocosm'. This is the Adam Kadmon of the Hebrew Kabbalah.4or.it is also the z5).as is the conceptionof 'essence' 'substance'. expressing |ust as Manu is the prototype of man (mdnava).in the realm of existence Man' (al-Insdnalcalls'Universal state. It is worth rememberingthat the institution of castes this analogy.identified ifestation in it. and It should further be added that the distinction between'essence' and'substance'.seeespecially view we are discussing 'UniversalMan'. the Purusha-Sukta here.moreover. successively 'Lord of produced beings'.which term is only acceptable on condition that it be takenin quite a different sense. and e?6oq 'form' unsatisfactorilyrendered by the word on account of the ambiguitiesto which it too easilygives rise) correspondsno less 'substance'. philosophersas well as physicists. the origin of which is really imputable to Cartesianism. more or lessspecialized and function are moreovercapableof variousapplications. and in particularthat it is totally differentfrom the 'spirit-matter' dualism of modern Westernphilosophy. for each as the Manu of that cycle. evenlessto the notion of 'matter'. for sucha domain (including Purusha and limiting conditions). is (which is exactlythat of 'substance' in all its universality.l This Will is manifestedin more particular form. to adopt the language principle'.40 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PURUSHA AND PRAKR/TI 4I suchasthe individual domain in which the human stateunfolds (or no matter what other analogousdomain of manifestedexistence similarly owing its definition to the combination of certain special is. It is interestingto note that in other traditions the primordial Legislatoris also calledby namesthe root of which is the sameas that of the Hindu Manuzwe have for example Menesamong the Egyptians and Minos among the Greeks.

'essence' without its intrinand ple. neither compoundedof parts nor endowedwith qualities. Sixteen [the eleven indriyas or faculties of sensationand action. order. since it would not be a root if it had a root itself.which are unified in it asin their common principle. but.Prakriti cannot thereforereally be a causeby itself (we are speakingof an 6.itis identifiedwith Mdyd.In connection from the very fact that it is it may be pointed out that the Veddnta. the 'cleterminant' of manifestation. originating simply from the fact that.UniUniversalBeing itself.at leastas far ashe is capable versalBeing is beyondthe distinction of Purushaand Prakriti. which is Purusha. or the individual consciousness.6 has appeared if the SArykhya its point view people who failed to understandit. the'universal of capable passive. principle to endow the plasticor substantial sinceit is inadmissible of the word. and it is with this distinction that multiplicity strictly speaking irreof an absolute begins:but one must not seein it the expression ducibility. of ceptionsbeloved the nature of Prakriti.that from which all others derive directly or indirectly.'that which is laid down before all other things'.is nonetheless dualities. the We havestill to define more precisely first of the twenty-four principles (taXvas) enumerated in the before Prakriti. apart from the action or rather the influenceof the cssential principle. Purusha. Sevenprinciples. r. which generates 'ego'. that is because does afactwhich first duality the of consideration stopsshort at the which it aspossible. SArykhya-Sutras. such an opinion.is essentially 'dualistic' to those (advaita-vdda).comprisingall determinationspotentially.it should be addedthat useof the entirelyfrom Spinoza's which we heregive to'substance'differs the sense sameterm. In our Introductionto the Studyof the Hindu Doctrinesit hasbeenexplained that this'doctrine of non-duality' must not be confusedwith'monism'. to assimilate with'pantheism'. polarizesitself into sic unity being howeverin any way affectedthereby.had to be considered SA4khya.all manifestedthings are indeed by Prakriti.that is to say.and which is. so to speak. of which they are so many modifications or lrroduced rleterminations. 67. furthermore. 'cfficient cause').however. for whatit is alwaysa conceptionsimply of a philosophical everform the latter may assume. which is in no wise to be found there: it is Universal of which it is the PrinciBeingwhich. and the five bhutas or substantialand sensibleelements] are productions 8. in this doctrine. would be formally opposedto the teachingof the Veda. or Buddhil andthe others lahankAra. what is called'production'is always viewed from the standpointof 'substance'. meaning (substantial in the strictly etymologicalsense of all manifestasupport the is to say that substratum'. and perhapsalsofrom the fact that Purushais only mentioned there as the twenty-fifth tattva. the notion of the and the five tanmatrasor essential determinations of things] are at the same time productions [of Prakritil and productive [in relation to thosewhich follow].the great lMahat. moreover quite independently of the others. 'doctrine of non-duality' the purely metaphysical. I .it is the first of all with all other distinctions.42 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PURUSHAANDPRAKR/TI 43 relative.inferable from its effectsonly sinceit is imperceptiblein itsell and productivewithout beingitselfa production. the root of all manifestation(since mula signifies'root'). for asa result of a'pantheistic'confusion. it is also described asPradhana.but never determining itself.alwaysimplies a certain'naturalism' which is when used in a reasonable anti-metaphysical. it is without root.which includePrakriti and all its modifications. it is evenlesspossible sense. tions would be deprived of all reality. including manasor the mental faculty amongthem. essentially 7. and it is purely potential tion)7 with spontaneity.'Root. root of all. is not a production. the intellectualprinciple. without the presence theseproducof Purusha. relativelyto the manifestation 'substance'. Milla-Prakriti is'primordial Nature' (in Arabic al-Fitrah). Nor has the'non-dual' doctrine any connection and not of a metaphysical thesetwo sincethe latter term.'8 Prakriti. In order to precludeany possiblemisinterpretation.he employsit in referringto of conceivingit: in reality. everykind of determination. conceived as'mother of formsl It is undifferentiated(avyakta) and 'undistinguishable'.according to the Purdnas. The opinion accordingto which Prakriti is self-sufficientas the principle of manifestation could only be derived from an entirely erroneous view of the Sankhya. not preventits admitting everythingtranscends conof the systematic is the very oppositeof what occursin the case philosophers.

theexpansive impulse. that which is createdand doesnot create. 10.and represented as a downward tendency. thesederreiopmentswill find a more appropriateplacein other studies.which are in perfect equilibrium in the state of primordial indifferentiation. tamus. the 'becoming'.xas. 9. conformity to the pure essence of Being (sar). givesriseto the multiplicity of determinations.the expression'Divine Nature'is not entirelyadequate.according to an expression 'actionless from borrowed the Far-Eastern tradition. however. Colebrooke(EssaTs on the Philosophy of the Hindus) was right in pointing just quoted aboveand the folout the remarkableagreement betweenthe passage lowing. it cannot produce anything outside itself and likewise there is no possibility of it not being in itself and by itself' (Book III).that which is createdand itself creates. while 'indistinction'.'But the first and fourth kind [respectively assimilable to Prakriti and to Purusha] coincide [are mergedor rather are united] in the Divine Nature. Prakriti.since. shloka3. the third.ro To completetheseremarks.the second. we will confine our remarksin this instanceto the foregoingdefinitions. the first of which is that which creates but is not created. necessarily one in its containswithin itself a triplicity which.assimilated with ignorance. Sa4khya-Karika. that which is neither creatednor creating'(Book I). obscurity. Purushais neither producednor productive [but unproductive] itself].in fact. while Purusha.it may be added that Prakriti.represents a rupture of this equilibrium. this is not the occasionto enlargefurther on theseconsiderations for they lie somewhatoutsideour presentsubject. its activity'.nor to speakof the diverseapplicationsto which they give rise.at a determinatelevel of existence. standsoutsideNature.These guqasarenot. so to speak.e Iin though it is indeedits action.as it is in itself.in accordance with which the beingdevelops itself in a givenstate.or rather. sincewhat it here designates is properly speakingUniversalBeing:in reality it is Prakriti which is primordial Nature.and lastlythe fourth. very name of which expresses an ideaof . to which all manifestedbeings are subjectedand which must be carefullydistinguished from the specialconditionswhich determine and define such and such a state or mode of manifestation. which essentially determineseverything that is substantiallyproducedthroughPrakriti. possesses three gut. or constitutive qualities.The three guryasare: sattva. being infinite. and lastly.essentially immutable. on becomingactualizedunder the 'organizing'influenceof Purusha.which we havealreadymentionedelsewhere. takenfrom the treatiseDe DivisioneNaturaeof ScotusErigena:'It seems to me that the division of Nature must be established according to four different kinds. every manifestationor modification of substance. states but conditionsof universalExistence. more especially in relation to the cosmological theory of the elements. It will however be noticed that the ideaof 'creation'hasbeen substitutedfor that of 'production': furthermore. therefore. so to speak.for it can be calledcreative and uncreate. and. which is identified with intelligiblelight or Knowledge and is represented asan upward tendencft rajas.44 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA PURUSHAANDPRAKR/T/ 45 . and beings in their different statesof manifestationparticipate in the three guryas in different degrees and. but also neither creating nor created.in indefinitelyvarying proportions.

Theseparticipationsneither increase Him nor decrease Him. itis Paramdtmd I. Moreover. forming a sort of closedsystem. so to speak.the air. They are the'two birds who dwell on the sametree'. 3.but in this casethe applicationof the symbol is fig-tree no longer'microcosmic'but'macrocosmic':'The world is like an everlasting declares. which is calledParamatma.'4 It is not subjectto the conditionswhich [Ashvatthasandtana] the roots of which point upward into the air. 16-18. one destructibleand the there are in the world two Purushas.being absolutely indivisible and 'without duality'].3. 4. whosoeverknows it. in a certain sense.That is why the Sdnkhya.2 asfor the third.Wewould remind the readerthat in our interpretation we are chiefly following the commentary of Shankarcharya. representingthe three fundamental degrees and the heavens.must be applied in an inversesense. able Lord. we may nevertheless.the lime-tree among the Germans.all play exactlythe samepart.3 a portion lansha)of the Supreme Ruler [who.in accordance with the explanationwe havepreviouslygiven. and which. pervades and sustains threeworlds [the earth. .Tiue as it is to saythat the personalityis really beyondthe realm of multiplicity.the the other indestructible. as imperishluttamal.it is because analogy.permanentprinciple of the being through all its statesof asthe text explicitly manifestation. . chapterz. often describes Purushaasmultiple. however. the personalityof which is a primordial determination.if the figure of tree is thus seenupside-down. 2. and the sonality. suchas that which makesone body of several organsfor one being of several states].Here is a Thoisttext expressing a similar idea: of everysort. are so many participationsin the UniversalRuler.pzLT). for they are communicatedby Him. and the hymns of the Veda are its leaves. Purusha.the ash among the Scandinavians. while the branchesgrow downward into the earth. is reallywithout parts. Frenchtranslationby FatherWieger.accordingto the text of to a mentioned in an earliernote.naturally.its name is alwaysemployed in the singular.where.I am [beingthe supreme extolledin the world and in theVedaunder the name of Purushottama. 'monadism' therefore.1. The word iva indicatesthat thereis questionof a comparison(upama)or of a manner of speech intended to facilitateunderstanding but which is not to be taken 'Norms literally.to the being as a whole. a conceptionincompatiblewith any notion of a truly metaphysicalorder. evenin this case.there is also reference the Upanishads tree in the Katha Upanishad rr. asa sparkis a portion of the fire [the natureof which is wholly presentin everyspark]. the sameknows the Vedal The root is abovebecauseit stands for the Principle. the first is distributedamongall beings. As I transcend the destructible and even the indestructible Principleof the one and of the other].and the branches are below because they represent the deploying of manifestation.But there is anotherPurusha. the highest secondis immutable. but it should be noticed that. speakof a personal(we ity for eachbeing refer. 6. Bhagavad-Gtt\ xv. the point of view of which does not attain to Purushottama.'is. Brahma-S[ttras Ir.r the destructible isjlvatma.PURUSIiA UNAFFECTED BY INDIVIDUAL MODIFICATIONS 47 f- PURUSHA UNAFFECTED BY INDIVIDUAL MODIFICATIONS AccoRDrNG to the Bhagavad-G|tA.moreover.here as everywhere else. the symbolism of the'World Tiee' is far from being confined to India: the oak among the Celts. and not to one of its states viewedin isolation).with any of the kind associated with the name of Leibnitz. In both cases the tree is described as the sacredfig (ashvaxhaor pippala). not detachedfrom Him' (ChuangTzu. whoseseparate Of the first two Purushas.it is the 'individual substance' which is regarded asa completewhole.43. betweenwhich all the modes of manifestationare distributed].consideredas identical with the personality. .The Sankhyahas nothing in common. so as to emphasize its essential unity. existence is in fact transitory and contingentlike that of the individ'indestructible' is Atma consideredas the peruality itself. in this form or in others.

In any case.subtle. of the Light.Yetsirah.which sits on the Brahmdnda. for example).48 TO THE VEDANTA MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING PURUSHA UNAFFECTED BY INDTVTDUAL MODTF|CATIONS 49 therewith it determine the individuality.moreover.. this symbol.and gross)which are described . connecting it with its source. of the 'UniversalSpirit' (Atma). From a different point of view but nevertheless analogicallyconnectedwith the preceding one. belongingto the realm of formlessmanifestation. sideredasindivisible in its innermost nature. Brahma- .ted in water quivers with the undulations of the water.fl. by sphere' tially. :. a limitation must be imposed on its generalsense. Prakriti or Pradhana.if one adopts the particular point of view of the constitution of the corporealworld. Ruahh is Air (Vayu). the Spirit correspondingto Purushaand the Watersto Prakriti.which is the first meaning of Ruahh in Hebrew. to usethe Aristotethe actualdevelopmentof thesepossibilities.and relativeto eachindividual. * 3' 46-53' Sutras.but it neveritself entersmanifestation. and the luminous ray which confers existenceupon this image. the plastic from to the being. Prakriti and her its final dissolution.andAsiah. In this connectionone can in particular refer to the openingpassage of Genesis(r: z): And the Spirit of God wasmoving over the faceof the waters. plastic principle of the the imageof passivity'.Lastly. (that development them in their distinctive nothing which concerns in'becoming') can affectits immutability' is to say.. principle.and consequentlyderives from Prakriti.and it must also be noted that Hamsais at the sametime the'breath' (spiritus).bearingthe samemeaning. much leave other orb itself. is nonethelessmanifested. it would be possibleto show that a perfect concordance betweenthe Bible and the Vedain respect exists of the development of the sensible elements. that modificatilns are pioduced in the manifested or.as being the reflection (abh4sa)in the individual realm.'that is to say from the twenty-four Sa4klrya. so the modifications of one individual the Supreme individuals unaffectedand.rsthe'three worlds' (Tribhuvana)by the Hindu tradition. 7. asimmutable considered Iuminoussource.. the essential of of the possibilities the development Purushawhichdetermines things' all so that Prakriti.however. to act''All modificapotency from by their passage lian expression.as such. Ruahh Elohim of the Hebrew text can also be assimilatedwith Hamsa.however. the higher intellect (Buddhi).the vehicleof Brahmd..rn .' This passagecontainsa very clear indication of the two complementaryprincipleswe are discussing here.6 As for the water..riiion of the world [that is to say."y. and.sincethey alt proceed and not essential asfrom a singleroot. . of which it is the first production: the water can 6.which is the principial stateof non-manifestation. s. although formless and supraindividual. it is habituallyregarded asthe symbol 'universal (Prakriti). and even in its relations (such as pleasure remains unaffectedby individual modifications and accidental. likewise less it is distinct therefrom Iin externalmanifestation.T Here. the'World Egg' that is containedin the primordial Waters. It must be pointed out that the ray presupposes a medium of propagation (manifestation in non-individualizedmode). 'living It is the soul' Qwatma) which is here comparedto the image of the sun in water. principle of all things.ds exclusivelyfrom tattvas of the derivatives. Thesethree worlds also ligure in the HebrewKabbalahunder the namesof Beriah. contingent which arepurely and pain. potencontaining all the possibilitiesof manifestation substance. Vijflana-Bhikshu' to of eachcycleof existence] prod. and with whom the Personalityis in reality just as all sparksare identicalwith fire conidentical in its essence. over them is Atsiluth. referring respectively to the three fundarnentaldegrees of manifestation(formless. from it' and different are insofar as they are viewed distinctively. Ruler Himself.the symbolic swan. 5. It is from this principle.is. principially one.sinceit is purushais. one can discernin the examples alreadygivenan indication of threesuperposed meanings. 'from the original tion lparinamo)tl . pro.s who is Purushottama. distinct from modifications or manifestedqualitiesare.is common to all traditional doctrines. and that the imageimplies a plane of reflection(individualizationunder the conditionsof a certain stateof existence). as we shall seelater on.sinceBuddhi. which reflectsthe solarlight.but for the fact that it would imply too long a digression. yet without in accordance lessthe solar affectingthe other imagesreflectedtherein. modificaThus the solar or lunar light [capableof manifold birth to it [the tionsl appearsidentical with that which gives but nevertheitself].in that they can in no manneraffectit]' their essential and fluctuates As the imageoi th. so much the more so.

and which is not itself manifested by anything'. examples the of by means easier. while corresponding with states of manifestation.. which is outside any change or r.has the grammatical form of the dual number.but if the Saryklrya.or in other words. by the manifestationof Atma must be underprinciple. in alike. Though the aboveexplanations diate principle relativeto this grossmanifestation.t. which allows of its conveying.however.and that is why it is not in any way affected thereby. and thus it leavesoutside itself those formlesspossibilities which. element(Ap). becauseit regardsAtma. that is to no existence at all if it were separated just used calls.This last meaningis the highestof all. it is also worth noting that the word Malm. and 7. like all things that pertain to grossmanifestation.The expression for one reservation.8 nonetheless o THE DEGREES OF INDIVIDUAL MANIFESTATION WE uusr Now IASSoN to considerthe different degrees of the manifestationof Atma. before primordial the potential state.The of the possibilitiesof manifestation. in which capacityit lastly. totality are the separation. with which we have still only After that. which is properly speakingPrakriti.insofar as this manifestationconstituteshuman individuality.and the'double chaos'before ously:we then have. and applicationscan be extractedfrom the traditional texts' .sinceit neverentersinto manifestation. of the formlesspossibilitiesas that and waters' as the'lower is described sibilities 'lower 'upper waters'. If the symbol of water is takenin its usualsense. We will repeat once more that Atm-a andPurushaare one and the sameprinciple. because its point of view is chiefly'cosmological' sees and not strictly speaking metaphysical.we have Prakriti. 6.the Veddnfa it quite differnecessarily sees ently. can be consideredas we have done previmanifestation of fundamental degrees mentioned. then the sum of formal pos8. water as a sensible is alreadyincluded implicitly. their waters.insofar as the latter constitutesthe potential aspectof U. sincethis individuality would enjoy from its principle. Atma is'that bywhich all thingsaremanifested. must be referredto the Universal.i*'.l and it is this point which must never be lost sight of throughout all that follows.50 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA here the potential sum of formal possibilithereforeonly represent ties.in the corporealworld. the waters' from the'upper waters' is also describedin Genesisr. continuing downward.in for the subtlemanifestationplaysthe part of immethe realm of the'lower waters'. a good PurPosein making it served are somewhatlengthy. say from the personality. which means'water'in Hebrew. the whole passage will be given in a subsequent chap*rno Upanishad .5-9. 'actualization' this manifestation as the development or of the potentialitiesof Prakriti.ral Being. regardedas the personality.in the first two cases.. the parting of the From the point of view of cosmogony.as we havepreviously stated.but it stoodmanifestation referredto Atma asits essential must not be inferred from this that Atma manifestsitself in some way.which appearswhen it is carried over beyond Being itself: the waters then represent Universal Possibiliry at the total manner.In other words.that is to sayinsofar as it embraces in an absolutely conceived non-manifestation and manifestation of same time in its Infinity the domains immediatelybelow it.the realm of manifestationin the individual mode.we believethey will have how a plurality of meanings understand to given. and it may indeed literally be saidto constituteit. But there is also another and superior meaning to the samesymbolism.among other in the idea of the'double chaos'of the formal and formlesspossibilities meanings.the three reachedthe Principle of manifestation."r. at the degree the original polarization of Being. and that it is from Prakriti and not from Purushathat all manifestation is produced.

on the other 2. from another point of view. The sameidea is expressed by the Scholastic adage:Esse et unum conyertuntur.and.This will be still better understoodif one remembersthat all manifestedbeingsalike are subjectto the in which they of existence generalconditionswhich limit the states are placed.and. to draw a distinction first of all betweenformless and formal manifestation. Il therefore.if we cannot. it is againnot with a quantitativemultiplicity that we are concerned. Having giventhesefew indispensable explanations.Between metaphysicalUnity and mathematical unity there is analogy but not identity. as regardsits relationshipwith human individuality it must never be considered asconstitutiveof it. once it is a possibility. it is that of Nature and of logical'point of view.which is the Supreme Brahma. 'microcosm' 'macrocosm' to and the basic analogy between the which we havealreadyalluded.if Beingis one. Being. It is necessary.not to the samebeing. furthermore. viewedin this manner.'essentially' as well as'substantially'.isolatethat statefrom all that belongs. nor even to Being. but to the samedegreeof linked togetherin various and thus all appears universalExistence. When viewing the whole of universalmanifestationin this manner. and that it is Unity itselP in the metaphysical sense. but when we confineour attentionto the individuality.the the points of view of respectively and the Vedanta represent Sarlkhya 'substance'and 'essence'.it should be readily understoodthat they correby reasonof the spond with the degrees of universalmanifestation. The personality. as the true principle to which everything must ultimatelybe referred. really isolateone stateof that being from the whole composedof all the at a givenlevel.52 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE DEGREES OF INDTVIDUAL MANIFES?ATION 5l 'becoming'.it cannotproperlybe appliedto the Supreme Principle. assuch.since it is preciselythe presence of form among the conditions contributing to make up a particular mode of existence which characterizes that mode asindividual.It can thereforecorrectlybe saidthat Beingis one. it will alsonecessarily be a supra-individualelement. as we haveseen. however.because to that word (that of a lesser havealreadyascribed of this multiplicity is basedupon unity. and therefore its point of view (assumingthat such an is still applicablehere)is truly unlimited.when we speakof the multiplicity of universalmanifestation. different ways.although it is properly the principle of universalmanifestation. other states amongwhich it is situatedhierarchically no more can we. expression of individFurthermore.the Supreme Principle is'without duality'.indeed.and through Beingto the Supreme Principle. all the possibilitiesof manifestation).both within manifestationitsell and also insofar as the latter.is unmanifested.because doesnot limit itselfto'essence' but. for at this stage we havepassed quite outsidethe domain of quantity. Multiplicity. and not in the mathematicalsense.even insofar as it is regarded just as more especiallyas the principle of the manifestedstates. but as linking the individuality to the personality.It might be saidthat. of and that the first canbe calleda'cosmo'becoming'. forming a single whole in its indefinite multiplicity.as we shall seein what follows: Unity is indeed the first of all determinations. from the very existence which it is derived and within which it is principially contained. Finally. we haveto considera formlesselement.it is alwaysexclusively with the latter that we are concerned. nor for any reasonat all asforming a part of it.in the sense reality).The human stateproperly so called.belongs wholly to formal manifestation. it extendsmuch furthet sinceit attains to Paramdtmd or Purushottama. . and of its we may say that in the very multiplicity of its degrees 'Existence modes is onei accordingto a formula borrowed from Islamic esoterism. is attachedto its principle. when consideringany given being. to Being. let us return to the consideration of the degrees of manifestation. there is a fine distinction which it 'unicity' 'unity': the first and is important to note here as between embraces multiplicity as suchwhile the second is its principle (not its'root'. on the other hand. in the sense in which this word is appliedto Prakriti only but as containingwithin itself. for quantity is merely a specialcondition of certain manifested states.but this mode is illusory.metaphysics 'substance'. and similarly. exists we accordingto its own mode. but it is alreadya determination. remains outside of and beyond that manifestation(and we may recallAristotle's'unmoved mover' at this point).when we speakof the different degrees ual manifestation.that is. in regarded as the correlative of which thesetwo terms are unified.like every other individual state.

the bhnta.In point of fact. which is one of those conditions defining the domain in which the human stateis contained. in the second belong to the domain of subtlemanifestation.only corresponds with a special condition of existence. a real ontologicalconnection.Wehaveseen that. however. Similarly.54 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE DEGREES OF INDTVTDUAL MANIFES?hTION 55 hand. if we situate them in the totality of universalExistence. whether we are dealing with the or with the'microcosm'.in formal or individual manifestation. The elements about which we shall now be speakingarethe tattvas enumeratedby the Sarykhya.s of the first group to the subtle stateand those of the secondto the grossstate.a chain at oncelogical and ontological (the two points of vie% moreover. since they are the corporeal elements:but mana.that is. of Prakriti and Purusha. which is the formlesselement to which we werealludingjust now.the common principle of thesetwo ordersof manifestation. and henceplaced hierarchically between it and formless manifestation.sincethe samerelationship cannotbe established in respect of thoseother states which. and. principial in relation to formal manifestation. superiorasthesemay be to the corporealmodality. in the caseof the former.being conceivableat the same time as faculties and as organs. inasmuchas they contain its immediateprinciple (their domain extendingat the sametime much further).s incontestably belongto the domain of grossmanifestation. with the exception.passingthrough the intermediaryof formlessmanifestation and then of subtleman'macrocosm' ifestation. for those statesmust nevertheless also be included in subtle manifestation.in a certainsense. formlessmanifestationis also. and thereis an indefinitenumber of other . indeed. or does it not at least roughly correspondwith it? For example. in the first group we haveBuddhi first of all. which is alsoto sayboth in the subtle and in the grossstate.as we have already explained.s. nevertheless. A questiontherefore suggests itself in this connection:is this division equivalentto in respect the di-vision we havejust specified of the degrees of manifestation. principial in relationto the second. it is necessary. one last observationis called for. in speakingof the order of development of the possibilities of manifestation. are not human states and thereforediffer entirelyasto their conditions(other than the conditionimposedby the presence of form).be clearly understoodthat that part of subtle manifestationwhich is takeninto consideration in all thesecircumstances is reallyonly the portion affectingthe human individual statein its extra-corporeal modalities. while the other indriyashavein somesort a twofold aspect. therefore. from the moment that we acceptthe human individuality as a term of comparisonas we must inevitably do. group. through a series of principles becoming progressively more relativeand determined. while the latter is not productiveof any further state: but the answeris not really quite so simple. betweenthe latter and its higher unmanifested moreover.The sameremark also applieswhen we saythat subtle manifestationis productiveof grossmanifestation:for this to be strictly accurate. signifyittg. more relativelystill. however. in itself at least. among thesetattvas. the first is. between the subtle and the gross state. they still belong to that degree of Existence in which the human stateasa whole is situated.the more so since.psychically aswell as corporeallytherefore.although its activiry is also exercised in relation to gross manifestation. not being corporeal.in a relativesense.great care must be taken to explainthat suchan order implies a purely logicalsuccession.It must.be referredto subtle manifestation.We have.of the first and the last. while clearlybearing in mind that the human individual stateis reallyneither more nor less important than any other statewhatsoever. aha4kdra and the tanmatras.and.they do indeed Again. moreover. subtlemanifestationis productiveof gross manifestation.if we limit ourselves to the point of view of individuality.someare regarded as'productiveproductions' and othersas'unproductiveproductions'. Development in time. which is. asto the other tattvas which are included with it.and that there cannot be anyquestionat all hereof a temporal succession.and thus it establishes a link principle. we might be inclined to refer the tattva. or of the order in which the elementscorrespondingto the different phasesof this developmentshould be enumerated.must.if we distinguish.corresponding in sucha way that they can only be separatedartificially) extending from the unmanifesteddownward to grossmanifestation. such is the general order which must be followedin the development of the possibilities of manifestation.though likewiseindividual states.of course. to apply the restrictionwe havejust mentioned.

consequently. and it is this which justifies its other name of Mahaf. being but one stateamong all the rest). these extensionsare really situatedin mere prolongationsof that state. formlessmanifestationis the principle of formal manifestation. Suchbeing the case.forget that it already belongsto manifestation. relatedin the order of time to other states way. 7 BUDDHI HIGHER 'l'Hr OR THE INTELLECT r r R S T D E G R E Eo F T H E M A N T F E S T A T T o N of Atma.and included also within universalmanifestation. though indeedmanifested. its immediatebut transcendent principle.56 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA modes of developmentequally possible.we must not. next. are already freed from time.sincethese.In other words. . the question of tempoany the more apparentthat there cannotbe of ral condition applying outsidethis samestate. is the higher intellect (Buddhi). and we shall doubtless have occasion in other studies to explain just how such prolongationsmay be reachedthrough the of one or other of the conditionswhich togetherconsuppression it is all tribute to makeup the corporealworld.if we view the 'Self' (Atma) or personality. 'substance'. however.Human individuality cannot thereforebe of the being.or of an element superiorto all foris nevertheless which. considered in relation to the human individuality or to any other individual state. for and thereforeproceeds all manifestation.taking this cxpression in the sense explainedin the last chapter. Prakriti.'essence'and It is nonetheless true that Buddhi transcends the domain not only of human individuality but of every individual state whatsoever. consciousness of the that we shall find individuality realized.it is never really individualized. Buddhi. outside its corporeal modality. anC it is at the sametime what may be calledthe expression of the personality in manifestation. is also called Mahat or the 'great principle'.It might further be addedthat certain extensions human individuality. its governing the relation of the integral human statewith other when it is a questionof a prinand this is evenlessadmissible states. that of the particular (or rather 'particularist') 'ego'. ciple common to all the statesof manifestation. necessarily implies the two correlative and complementary terms..This principlestill pertainsto the universal order.therefore that which unifies the being throughout the indefinite multiplicity of its individual states(the human state. Purusha and. without on that accountbeing exempt from the generalconditions of the stateto which this individuality belongs. just as. it is the secondof the twenty-five principlesof the Sarykhya and the first thereforeof all the productions of Prakriti.therefore. be considered to is the as element mal manifestation. from the point of view of universalExistence. which.in its utmost extension. as we have seen above. at whateverdegreewe take it. and it is not until the next stage. then. since it is formless. from Prakriti.areextra-temporal and that is alsotrue evenwhen in a general which likewisebelongto formal maniit is only a questionof states of the festation.is.nor.

or rather. beyond these. in the first place.It will be noticed that Buddhi is not unrelatedto the Logos of the Alexandrians.2 determines realmof the vital possibilities that proceedsfrom the everything like Furtherm ore.it should be remarked.more generally individual states all the manifested states (individual or non-individual) of that being. 2.for there is nothing individual about it). Eo. Vishnu. Buddhi. reason is for this for the realization of the as any other. since as we pointed out before. human the of Purushaitself dwellsat the center of the spiritual ray with the to sayat the point wherethe intersection the'living soul'Qtvatma). together in a separate forth set be however will to referred cal symbolism with all the developmentsto which it lends itself. of course. As to the sense readerto the remark previouslymade concerningthe'UniversalSpirit'.58 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA BUDDHI OR THE HIGHER INTELLECT 59 as the Spiritual Sunl which shinesat the centerof the entire being. Buddhiwill be the ray directly emanatingfrom this Sun and illuminating in its entirety the particular individual statethat more esPecially concernsus.but under his three principal aspects Brahma.without however going into the question so far as to interrupt the courseof our exposition. as we have stated. may one that identification.Buddhi is.we would refer the in which this expression l. universalExistence. the human stateaswell that any statewhatsoever. identifiedwith the centerof the entirebeing.purely contingent] it belongs [without however being itself individualized] to individual beings[to whom it communicates the possibilityof participating in the divine attributes. .a reflectionwhich could not exist without the mediation of Buddhi.of formlessmanifestation. and.that did we as say.Buddhi may be viewedrelatively to the (Atma) and relatively personality the'living soul' Qtvatma).it could then only apply to Ishvaraexclusively. Further. and Shiva. it is the Divinity as flshvara. for this is the real meaning three aspects of the Sanskritword Deva. were one to give to the word'God'the meaning that it has subsequently assumed in Westernlanguages. moreover. the latter moreoveronly being the reflectionof the personalityin the individual human state. in the sphereof e (vijfiana). which is.a It is easyto seethat Buddhi is here considered in its respective relations with the first two of the threePurushas which arespokenof in the Bhagavad-Glta: in the 'macrocosmic'order the 'immutable' Purushais Ishvarahimself.weare not referring in this instanceto a mathematicalpoint' but to what might by analogy be called a metaphysical point. participates in the three guyas. always with the proviso however that such an expressionmust not be allowed to evoke the notion of the 'monad'of Leibnitz. that explains why.so that its separate manifestati work.and. or 'triple manifestation']. to of the samebeing.whatevermultiplicity of aspects can be consideredaspertainingto it in a second ary way. it is regarded knowledg it is then identifiedwith the divine Trimurti.that is to sayin the very nature of UniversalBeing.the ray which determines the formation of the imageand at the sametime unitesit with its luminous source.constituting the Tiimurti.The geometriexistence on of AtmA.but regarded distributively [under the aspectof 'separativity'. should be regarded wherethis spiritual ray is projected. To recall here the symbol of the sun and its reflectedimage in the water.xas. while at the sametime linking it to the other still.and of this function of intermediarybetweenthe personality I I l lr 3.the Principleof all existence]. should be taken.l moreover. in his indivisible unity which is that of UniversalBeing.of whom the Trimurti is the expression in manifested mode (we are speaking. when viewed from the standpoint of distinctive asternary. [SeeThe Symbolismof the Cross. Ma*ya-Purdna.and it if not effectively. in which this geometricalsymbolismis treatedin detail. since jlvAtmd is nothing more than a particular and contingent is reallyillusory. etymologi. and it is stated that the otherPurusha is'disseminated amongall beings'. 4. its usein the plural would make nonsense from the Hindu just as much as from the Christian or Islamic point of view.not in himself.that.ully the exact equivalent]. mental unity of the being in all its states. can be taken as a basis and in virtue of this SupremeIdentity. being one single manifestation [milrti] in three Gods. It is in virtue of the twofold relationshipwhich hasjust beenindicated. Similarlp in the'microcosmic'order. asvirtually. Clearly. of which the Latin word Deus is.3through the influence of the three gut. of Mahat is conceiveddistinctively as three Gods [in the sense of the intelligible Light. In the universalorder. It is preciselyin this sense. owing to the fundathe center of eachstate. that is individuality. potentialities of Prakriti.to the centeritself.

the simply as a conditioned modality. described and for that however.'measure'. B MANAS OR THE INWARD SENSE: THE TEN EXTERNAL FACULTIES OF SENSATION AND ACTION (ahar. from and. mentary determinations. but this is not the place to enter into fuller details on this subject. in its turn.'this'. In an immediatesense the princithey constituterespectively ples of the five bhutas or corporeal and sensibleelementsand receivetheir finite expression in the particular conditions of individual existence prevailingat the levelof the human state. establishthe individual conviction to is since its proper function the notion that the'I am' is conto sayprecisely (abhimAna). and the sum total of these objects is as in opposition when conceived by the term idam.it then producesas a result(aharykara).but these qualities must be looked upon here as existingin a relativelyprincipial and'non-developed'state l.that we may regardthe intellect. 'ego'(aham. givesrise to the notion of the principle of the Sarykhya. incorporeal therefore and outwardly imperceptible. taken here in the sense of like the Arabic dat)r in universalExistence.with the doublesense of form and color). producesalt the other principles or elementsspewe shall cially attachingto the human individuality. literally'that which makesthe me'). since this with the only comesaboutthrough its intersection apparentpassage particular domain constituted by certain conditions of existence defining the individuality in question. a claim philosophers modern reasonquite different from that which 'subject' and 'object' or between'mind' and to establishbetween 'things'.sapid(rasa). relative purely to aham or'me'. opposition. ant of this intersectionthe individual consciousness 'living soul' implied in the Qtvatma)in which it is inherent.asalsoto the Englishthat.in spiteof the in some aspassing of such away of speaking' inevitableinadequacy sort from the state of universalpotentiality to the individualized state. whencethe name ahankAra.As we which is the third have already pointed out. afterindividual consciousness kara).whichbearsthe samemeaning. The word 'assignment' 'deter(matra. this consciousness.theSankhya subtleelegoeson to describe the fivetanmatras.Theseelements now considerin greaterdetail.but without really ceasingto be such as it was. auditiveor sonorous visible(rupa. 'that'. It shouldbe noted that thesewords tat and dat arephoneticallyequivalentto one another.Thus the individual consciousness proceedsdirectly.thatis cerned with external (bahya) and internal (abhyantara)objects.6o MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDINIG TO THE VEDANTA and the individuality.rIN rrs Lrsr oF run tattvas. the objectsof perception (pratyaksha)and which are respectively contemplation (dhyana). but intellectualprinciple. and olfactory (gandha). or tat. neuter pronoun.We will merely remark that the five tanmatrasare usually indicated by the names of the (shabda). ' I I . qualities: sensible tangible(sparsha). belongingto the samegroup of productiveproductions. tanmatraliterally meansan mination') delimiting the proper sphere of a given quality (tad 'quiddity'.

It is possible. 3. to apply the nameof to the beginning and end of any cyclewhatsoever.there are elevendistinct and specificallyindividual facultieswhich proceed from ahankAra.7neither is it a production [implying a starting-point for its actualexistence. to that of 'essence' to'substance'. 4.rominent Irrincontemporary philosophers. accordingas it is takenin relation to the antecedent state. 'birth' 'death' 7. as will be explained further on. It is in a sense quite similar to this conceptionof the tanmLffasthat Fabre D'Olivet. whatever possesses not be infinite. manifestation. since.theattributes of which areessentially formless. analogically. which plays such a and vitalorder. 6.s to the bhfitasis analogous.Water (Ap). To avoid any misunderstanding it should be addedthat this intuition has nothing at all to do with the so-called 2. the passage from one stateto anotheris then both a deathand a birth. the faculties and also of sensation and reabsorbed and action. Here the reference or the bhiltas depending can be either to the tanmatras whether the indriyasare considered or the grossstate. This was doubtless Aristotle'smeaningwhen he said that'man [as an individual] neverthinks without images. Fire ( Tejas).Air (Vayu).the eleventh.being identifiedwith the Supreme Brahma. are developed [in manifestation] in a similarsequence [exceptthat reabIinto the unmanifested] sorptionproceeds in an inverseorderto that of development]. in whatever state of of an existence that is to say. or in fact.at leastvirtually and even actually 5.it is enoughto quote the teaching of the Brahma-Sutras on thissubject: The intellect. as is the casefor everythingthat proceeds from Prakritil.that to.ait is in no way inherent to the transcendent intellect(Buddhi).'thatis to saywithout forms. Concerningthe production of thesevarious principles. say as in the subtle faculties or asorgans.6Z MAN AND HIS BECoMING ACCoRDING To THE VEDANTA MANAs oR THE TNwARD sENsE 63 only.r4-2o. all participatein the five tanmatras. and Earth (Prithvtor Prithivt): and it is from thesethat the whole of grossor corporealmanifestationis madeup. Mdnava-Dharma-ShAstra (The Law of Manu) r. It is worth remarking in this connectionthat.which belongs to the formal order (and which includesreasonas well as memory and imagination). The readermust be remindedthat it is in no wisean order of temporal succession that is in question. in his interpretationof Genesis (The HebraicTongue Restored). furthermore.areEther (Akasha). its emanation [insofarasit is regarded of a being] is not as the personality a birth [evenin the widestmeaningof the word]. Of the elevenfacultiesin questionten are external. at the sametime. in its relativedegree.in (an order the order of their production or of their manifestation parallelto that just indicatedfor the tanmdfras.however. Similarly.s and this sequence from which always follows that of the elements thesefacultiesproceedas regardstheir constitution6 [with the exception. so that the term'elementary essences' could be applied accurately enough to the tanmatras.is acquireddirectly and immediatelyby intellectualintuition.the inward sense. sincea corresponding sensible quality goeswith eachelement).considered from the 'macrocosmic' point of view.As to Purusha lor Atmal. for Aristotle also. 'rntuition'of . five of sensation and five of action. makesuse of the expression'intelligible elementization'. to the subsequent 8. which is concerneC with both these functions. which is not discursivein any respect.this knowledge.pure intellectis of a transcendent order and can claim knowledgeof universalprinciples as its proper object. the relation of the tanmatra.it partakes of its infinite essence8 [implyingthe possession of the divine attributes. assignto it any limitation [by any particular condition of existencel.of the intellect. As for the developmentof the differentfacultiesof individual nran. correlative of a correlative of any kind canbesides.which is developed in the formlessorder prior to the determination of anyformal or properly individual principle].together with the its usual and etyrnologicalmeaning ideaof 'becoming'which is implied in it. ceases when it is thus applied to be any way a 'substance'. Betweenthe tanmatrasand the bhiltas. a merelysensitive part theories of cerin the decidedlyanti-metaphysical l. (ahankara). cf. and which.2 The five bhutas. and not in the human state alone.3 and this is directlyattached to consciousness It is to manasthat we must refer individual thought.the word'nature'when applied to UniversalBeing or even beyondBeing. The word'essence'.and constituting along with the latter the group of 'unproductiveproductions'. One cannot in fact. is the inward senseor mental faculty (manas). sinceit is through the bhntasalone that they will be actually manifestedin the sensibleorder.loses entirely.

the eyesor sight (chakshus). Sutras. means or five of instrumentsof knowledgein their own particular sphere].Where a action [karmendriyas). either of knowledge(buddhi or jfiana.r. its states his axe and his other tools and then laying them aside. these terms or of action (karma). all the faculties itself.enjoys so this Atma in its union with its instrutranquillity and repose. The eleven faculties mentioned above [although indicated collectively by the term prdnal are not [as are the five vdyusof which we shall speaklater] simple modificationsof the muklrya-Prana ensuing with the assimilation or principalvital act [respiration. Siltras. on the Brahma-Sutras. to mean. . \. Brahma- philosophersterm sensoriumcomcalled [what the Scholastic is given. truly supra-individual: interpretedas swam apito bhavati. the intellect [not in itself and insofar as it belongsto the transcendent order. breath'. and the inward senseproperly so monls cannot be separated].aswhen it is saidthat in deepsleep(sushupti).by reason of the plurality of its functions. in relinquishingthem. 4.ll and action [indicatedby the The various facultiesof sensation word prAna in a secondaryacceptation]are elevenin number: five of sensation [buddhindriyas or jfidnendriyas. it really means'power'. The possession 'connaturality' with Ishvara.the term indriya is employed sense'distinguishing in its widest and most comprehensive within manAs. but distinctprinciples[from the special human individualityl . in its most usual acceptation. it comes primary meaningof the word'faculty'.7.'t+ which is also the As to the word indriya. is to say which is nirguna.and not merelyBrahmaassaguna. Aristotle was right in also stressing which amounts to itself be motionless. and the inward sense[manasl. Brqhmaw.is active [althoughthis activity in no their respective its inmost naturel.since here we are contemplatingthe SupremeBrahma. and the mouth or tongue [so that.not to speakof all that liesbeyondany attribution whatsoever. the are:the earsor hearing(shrotra).The being here taken in their widestsense).8. must (or movement) of principle the things saying. enjoys way affects repose and tranquillity Iin the'inaction' from which. in this case'we are dealing merely with the sevenopeningsor orificesof the head]. 14. the individual consciousness [aharykara. as has alreadybeenpointed out.but asa particular determinationrelativeto the indifrom which vidual]. five instrumentsof sensation the tongue or skin or touch (tvach).that 'actionIshvaral.but only in principle [therefore to it nor inherfor this activity lkartriWa)isnot essential less']. 12. 13. I l. in itself it neverdeparted]. and.t 2 'vital really means The term prana.2. the two ears.that the principle of all action must be'actionless'. greaternumber [thirteen] is given.r-7. asconof the divine attributesis calledin Sanskritaishwarya 9. his spiritualprinciple lAtma viewedin relationto himl is one with Brahmalr3this statebeing beyond distinction and therefore is that is why the word svapiti. organsare specified.and which of thesefacultieswith are thus nothing but the manifestations organs].since'while arereabsorbed ing.Wherea lesser seven sensible term is appliedin a more restrictedmanner:thus. Commentaryof Shankaracharya vr. but in certain Vedic texts it servesto describesomething is identified in principle with Brahma which. without dreama man sleeps into prana. Chhandogya interpretationby the method of Nirukta and not one of etymologicalderivation. both the faculty and its bodily organ. It goeswithout sayingthat this is a caseof Upanishad. ments [by meansof which its principial facultiesare expressed and developedin eachof its statesof manifestation.3.r4-r7 and 33-4o.6+ MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA MANAS OR THE TNWARD SENSE 65 realizedin the Supreme insofar asthis participation is effectively Identity.in other words.'he has enteredinto his own ISelf]. the same number [usuallyseven] munel. \.but. point of view of from it]. in the universalsense. by extension.the two nostrils the two eyes.which are thus describedby one and the sameword and which are consideredas constituting in combination a single instrument.r0 contingent and ent in it.eIt is active. but is simply eventual [merelyrelativeto graspingin his hand As the carpenter' of manifestation]. stituting a real the point that the prime mover of all 10.'he sleeps'.

' in this primordial state.because called'made of Beatitude' the 'Seh.it is superiorto conditionedexistence. but. to explainthis correspondence spondingelements of corconditions fully the discuss to detail. and.'accordingas it is considered in relation to this or that stateof manifestation.n bodily sense (the an were.being taste(rasana).it would be altogetherwrong. It is (Ananda).enjoysthe plenitudeof its own being.strictly speaking. The first envelope the suffixmayasignifring 'made 'consisting of' or of' whatever is denoted by the word to which it is joined) is none other than the totality of the possibilities of manifestation which Atma comprises within itself. and it is in no wayreallydistinctfrom the'Self'. be said to be actuallycontainedwithin suchenvelopes. In the TaixiriyaUpanishad tt. and partaking in consequence to a certainextentwithin itself. it would be necessary which we cannot undertaketo do here. seconda centrifugalmovement).by its very nature. . consciousness application. 89-92.the which is that of the correthe order of developmentof the senses. which it henceforthbecomes modificapart asa secondary of (Buddhi) the data of transposes tion.betweenthe two.l (dnandamaya-kosha.8. 9 ENVELOPES OF THE.10.rswhich is reckonedas the tenth.SELF': THE FIVE VATUS OR VITAL FUNCTIONS Purushaor Atma. M dnav 1. moreover. that Atma cannot. the voice or organ of speech(vach).the generthe hands(pani).the feet (pada). since.5. Manas must be regardedasthe eleventh'fulfilling in its own nature a double function of serviceboth toward perception and of the properties of toward action.the pure intellect the precedingfacultiesinto the Universal. as it one being.16 which it centralizes each. ascloth(koshas) ing itself in a seriesof 'envelopes' or successive vehicles. and it is situatedat the level of pure t 5 . a-Dharma-Shdstra 16. u .and lastly ativeorgans(upastha). knowledge):three are internal and ten being inherent in the former. and ten gates(consciousness sentinels perbut not in the latter when vieweddistinctively). This word vachisidenticalwith the Latinvox.that is to saythe assimilationof the perceptionby the 'ego'.The five poreal existence. r and rrr. finally. it is not susceptible of any limitation and is in no way conditionedby any stateof manifestation whatsoever. accordingto the VeddntA. ceives. representing so many phases of its manifestation. the inward sense (ahankara) makesthe individual (manas)examines.is regarded. According organs are (distinguishing three faculties in Manas) the thirteen instrumentsof knowledgein the sphereof human individuality (for to the end of action is not in action itself but only insofarasit relates three to compared external.in its'permanent actuality' in the principial and undifferentiatedstate. to comparetheseenvelopes to'bodies'. instrumentsof action are:the organsof excretion(payu).since it is the last phaseonly that belongsto the corporealorder. and an organ of action executes 'entry'and the other an'outgoing':thereareheretwo successive and of which the first is a centripetaland the complementaryphases. It is important to note. the designations of the various envelopes are referreddirectly to the'Self.66 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA thus in enumerated noseor smell(ghrana). these facultieswith their respective to the Sarykhya. in (bhiltas). manifestingitself asjlvatma in the living form of the individual being.which presupposes it. however.

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ENvELoPEs oF TrlE's.elr'

6g

Here, of Ishvara.2 Being;that is why it is regardedas characteristic envelope when this it is only order; formless we arein the therefore, is viewed in relation to formal manifestation,and insofar as the principle of the latter is containedin it, that it can be saidto reprethat by which form sentprincipial or causalform (kdrana-sharlra), stages. in the succeeding and actualized will be manifested is formed by the The second envelope (vijfianamaya-kosha) of integraland uniLight (in the intelligiblesense) directly reflected versal Knowledge (lnana, the particle vi implying the distinctive 'elementary (tanmdtras), essences' mode);3it is composedof five 'conceivable'but and it arises state; their subtle in not'perceptible', (Buddhi) with the out of the conjunction of the higher intellect from the principial facultiesof perceptionproceedingrespectively which constitutes of development external the and five tanmatras, of the corporealindividuality.4The third envelope the five senses (manomaya-kosha), in which the constituentsof the preceding with the inward sense(manas),especially up linked are envelope or thinking faculty;this, brings into play the mental consciousness5 to the individbelongsexclusively aswe havepreviouslyexplained, from the radiation, arises ual and formal order,and its development
can (those of the four following envelopes) 2. Whereasthe other designations appliesnot calleddnandamaya as applicableto jtvdtmd, the envelope be considered only to Ishvara but also, by transposition, even to Paramdtmdor the Supreme II.5.1:'Differingfrom Brahma,andthat is why it is saidin the TaiXiriyaUpanishad of distinctiveknowledge[vijfidnamaya]is the other interior Self that which consists fanyo'ntara Atma) which consistsof Bliss lAnandamayal.Cf. Brahma-Siltrast. r.r2-r9. root asthe Greekfv6orq, which it 3. The Sanskritword jnana has the selfsame 'production or 'generan idea of it expresses Latin co-gnoscere; also shareswith the itself through it knows and realizes the being'becomes'whatever ation'because that knowledge. that the term shariraproperly applies, 4. It is startingfrom this secondenvelope if this word, asinterpretedby the methodsof Nirukta,be giventhe sense especially 'dependentupon the six of [principles]i that is to say upon Buddhi (or upon aha7kAra, which is derived directly from it and is the first principle in the individual r.ry). order) and the fivetanmdtras(Manava-Dharma-Shdstra degree a more advanced we mean somethingrepresenting 5. By this expression pure and simple: it might be said of determination than individual consciousness to be the resultantof the union of manasandaha1kara.

in reflective mode,of the higher intellectwithin a determinateindividual state, which is in this case the human state.The fourth envelope (prdnamaya-kosha) comprises the faculties which proceed from the 'vital breath' (prdna),that is to saythe five vdyus(modalities of this prana), as well as the facultiesof action and sensation (theselast alreadyexistingprincipially in the two precedingenvelopes as purely'conceptive'faculties,at which stage,indeed,there could be no question of any sort of action, any more than of any external perception). The combination of these last envelopes (vijfidnamaya,manomaya,and pranamaya) constitutesthe subtle form (sukshma-sharlra or linga-sharlra), as opposedto the grossor (sthula-sharlra); corporealform thus we meet again here with the distinction betweenthe two modes of formal manifestationwhich we havereferredto on several previousoccasions. The five vital functions or actionsare calle d vdyus, althoughthey are not strictly speakingair or wind (which is the generalmeaning of the word vdyuor vata,derivedfrom the root va,'to go','tomove', and usuallydenotingthe elementair, one of the characteristic propertiesof which is mobility),6 sincethey belongto the subtleand not to the corporealstate;aswe havesaid above, they are modalitiesof the'vital breath'(prana,or more generallyana)7considered chiefly in relationto respiration. Theyare:(i) aspiration, that is,respiration regarded asascending in its initial phase(pranain the strictestsense of this word), and attractingthe still unindividualizedelementsof the cosmic environment,causingthem to participate,by assimilation, in the individualconsciousness; (ii) inspiration,considered as descending in a succeeding phase(apdna),wherebytheseelements penetrateinto the individuality; (iii) a phaseintermediarybetween the two preceding ones(vydna), consisting, on the one hand, of all the reciprocalactions and reactionswhich are produced upon the contact of the individual with the surrounding elements,and, on
6. We refer the readerto the previousfootnote concerningthe various applications of the Hebrew word Ruahh,which corresponds rather closelyto the Sanskrit vdyu. 7. The root an occursagain,with similar meaning in the Greek&urpoq,'breath' 'wind', or and in the Latin anima,'soul'.the original and proper meaningof which is precisely'vitalbreathl

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7t

of which the other hand, of the various resultantvital movements, movementin the the circulation of the blood is the corresponding (iv) expiration(udana), which projects the breath, bodily organism; while transforming it, beyondthe limits of the restrictedindividuality (that is, the individuality reducedsimply to those modalities which are commonly developedin all men) into the sphereof the possibilitiesof the extendedindividuality,viewedin its integrality;8 and (v) digestion,or inner substantialassimilation (samdna),by which the elementsabsorbedbecomean integral part of the individuality.eIt is clearlystatedthat all this is not purely a matter of the operation of one or of severalbodily organs;it is, in fact, easyto realizethat it refersnot merely to the analogicallycorresponding in the widest functions,but ratherto vital assimilation physiological possible sense. is the fifth and last The corporealor grossform (sthula-sharira) to the envelope, the one which, for the human state,corresponds most externalmode of manifestation;it is the alimentaryenvelope (bhutas) (annamaya-kosha), of the five sensible elements composed out of which all bodies are constituted.It assimilates to itself the combined elementsreceivedin nutriment (anna, a word derived secreting the finer parts,which from the verbalroot ad,'to eat'),10 remain in the organic circulation, and excretingor rejecting the coarser, excepting those howeverwhich are depositedin the bones. the earthysubstances As a result of this assimilation becomethe flesh,the watery substances, the blood, and the igneoussubstances, the fat, the marrow, and the nervoussystem(phosphoric matter); in which the nature of one elefor there are corporealsubstances althoughthey are all formed by the ment or anotherpredominates, I union of the five elements.l
that the word'expire'means both'to ejectthe breath' 8. It shouldbe observed (in respiration)and'to die' (in respect of the bodily part of the human individuality); both thesemeaningsare relatedto the udanain question. Upanishad v.ry-n; Maitri Upan9. Brahma-Sutras rr.4.8-r3. Cf. Chhandogya ishad u.6. 10. This root is the same as that of the Latrn edere, and also,though in more altered form, that of the English eat and the German esselr. Upanishad v r. 5. t-3. I l. Brahma-Sutras il. 4. 2r.Cf . Chhandogya

Everyorganic being, dwelling in such a bodily form, possesses, in a more or lesscompletedegreeof development, the elevenindividual facultiesof which we havespokenabove, and, aswe havealso seen, thesefacultiesaremanifested in the bodily organismby means of the elevencorresponding organs(avayavAs, a name which is also appliedin the subtlestate, but only by analogywith the grossstate). Accordingto Shankaricharya,l2 three classes of organicbeingsmay be distinguished, according to their mode of reproduction:(i) the viviparous Qlvaja,or yonija, or again,jarayuja), such as man and the other mammals;(ii) the oviparous(andaja), suchasbirds, rep(udbhijja), tiles,fish,and insects; and (iii) the germiniparous which includes both the lower animals and plants, the former mobile, beingborn chieflyin water,while the latter,which areimmobile, are usuallyborn in the earth:however, accordingto sundry passages in (oshadhi), the Veda, nutriment (anna),that is to sayvegetation also proceedsfrom water, since it is rain (varsha)which fertilizesthe earth.l3

i

t
;

12. Commentaryon the Brahma-Sutras \r.r.2o&2r. Cf. Chhandogya Upanishad vr.3.r; alsoAitareya Upanishad v.3. The latter text, besides the three classes of living beings mentioned in the others,mentions a fourth class,namely those born of damp heat (svedaja); but this class can be linked on to the seed-bornclass. 13. See especiallyChhandogyaUpanishadr.r.z: 'Vegetables are the essence fromvarsha.Theword lrasalof water';v.6.zandvfi.4.2iannaarisesorproceeds 'taste' rasaliterally means'sap'and it hasbeenseenearlieron that it alsosignifies or 'savor'; moreover, in Frenchalsothe words sdveand sAyeur,like the corresponding Englishwords,havethe sameroot (sap),which is at the sametime that of the Latin sapere(French savoir) by reason of the analogy which exists between nutritive assimilationin the bodily order and cognitiveassimilationin the mental and intellectual orders.It should also be noted that the word anna sometimesrefersto the elementearth itself,which is the last in the order of development, and which is also derivedfrom the elementwater which immediatelyprecedes it (Chhandogva Upanishadvt.z.4).

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10
ESSENTIAL UNITY AND IDENTITY OF THE ( ) -SELF IN ALL THE STATES OF THE BEING
a point of fundamental wE NEEDTo EMPHASIZE Ar rnls sTAGE importance.All the principles or elementswe havebeen speaking about, which are describedas distinct, are indeed so when viewed from the individual standpoint,but only from that standpoint,for in reality they merely constituteso many manifestedmodalities of the'Universal Spirit' (Atma). In other words,although accidental and contingent insofar as they are manifested,they serve as the possibilitiesof Atma (those which, of certain essential expression of manifestation);and these from their very nature,are possibilities reality, are in no wise basic in their possibilities,in principle and in the distinct from Atma. This is why they must be considered, Universal(and no longer in relation to individual beings),asbeing 'without duality', and outside of in reality Brahma itself, which is which there is nothing, either manifested or unmanifested.l anything which leavessomethingoutside itself cannot be Besides, and thus infinite, being limited by that very thing which it excludes; asmeaningthe whole of universal the World, taking this expression
'd-Din ibn al-Arabr, in his Treatise on Unity (Risalat-al-Afuadiyah), 1. Mufryi saysin the samesense:'Allah-may He be exalted-is exemptfrom all comparison as well as from every rival, contrast, or opposition.' There is moreover perfect and Islamic esoterism. alsobetweentheVeddnta in this respect agreement

manifestation, is only distinguishable from Brahma in an illusory 'distinct Inanner,while on the contrary Brahma is absolutely from that which It pervades',2 that is, from the World, sincewe cannot apply any of the determinativeattributesto It which pertain to the World, and sinceuniversalmanifestationin its entirety is rigorously nil in relationto Its Infinity. As we have alreadypointed out elsewhere, this irreciprocity of relationshipentailsthe formal condemnationof 'pantheism', aswell asof immanentism'of any sort; and the Bhagavad-Glta alsoasserts the samething very clearlyin the following terms:'All beingsare in Me and I am not Myself in them. . . . My Beingupholdsbeingsand, without being Itself in them, it is through It that they exist.'3 Again, one may saythat Brahmais the absolute Whole for the very reason that it is infinite, while, on the other hand, though all things are in Brahma,they are not Brahmawhen viewed from the standpoint of distinction,that is to sayin their quality of relativeand conditioned things,their existence as suchbeing moreovernothing but an illufrom sion the standpointof supremeReality. That which is asserted of things and which cannot apply to Brahmais but an expression of relativity,and at the sametime, this relativity being illusory,all distinction is equallyillusory,because one of its terms vanishes when brought into the presence of the other, nothing being capableof entering into correlation with the Infinite. It is solely in principle that all things areBrahma,but alsoit is that alonewhich constitutes their fundamentalreality;this it is that must neverbe lost sight of if thereis to be a proper understanding of what is to follow.a No distinction [bearing upon contingentmodifications,such asthe distinction betweenthe agent,the act, and the end or the
2. Seethe text of the treatiseon the Knowledge of the Self (Atma-Bodha) of Shankardcharya, which will be quoted further on. 3. Bhagavad-Gtta rx.4 and 5. 'Do 4. We will here quote a Thoisttext in which the sameideasare expressed: not inquire whetherthe Principle is in this or in that; It is in all beings.That is why It is given the epithet of great, supreme,entire, universal,total... . That which causedbeings to be beings is not Itself subject to the same laws as beings.That

thatis to sayIts'productiveWill'. It is the author and effectsIparticular and manifested]. the Principleproducesthe succession It is the author of causes and of effects[the prime Inor involvedin that succession].but Apara-Brahma way to be'without duality' (Advaita). I r . but is not the causes cause]. which is properly speakingIts'Omnipotence' ('actionless' activity as regardsthe Principle. 75 unity and identity of result of that act] invalidatesthe essential cause Brahmaas lkaranaland effectlkaryal.changes of condensations from It and is modified by or dissipation. for such expressions which cannot possiblyexist.however. or rather in Its'nonduality']. French translation by FatherWieger. although the waves.it is no longerwith'essence' and'substance'thatwe are dealing. that is the aspectanalogousto Prakriti.andhenceappearastwo complementary aspects of the Principle.Everythingproceeds Itself condensation and under Its influence. if one is permitted to use such an expression. flesh. 6.It is in all beings.7 The sameearthyieldsdiamondsand other precious minerals.6 is than the more the effect]. subtlebeingstakediverse [incorporeal] forms. pp395196). . It is as nirguna that Brahma is karana. without it being possible to sap therefore. such as hair and nails. As milk is spontaneously changed into curdsand waterinto ice [but without this conversion from one stateinto anotherimplying any change of nature].by the determining of a norm. the [although PrinBrahmais one [asBeing]and without duality [asSupreme ciplel. as we hope to explain on another occasion.infinite.' (Chuang Tzu. and as sagunathat it is karya. and various excrescences. This is the very formula of the'supreme Identity'. of state]. in the most conciseform to give to it.and it will be noticed that the latter answersmore profoundly and more adequatelythan the former to the supremeReality in its prakriti only changelessness. .becomingpassivityasregards the manifestation).the foam. on contrary. but it is Itselfviewedunder the specialaspect of distinction or of differentiation. is no objection[to this conception of universalmultiplicity in Its unity. That is why Brahma Itself is purushottama.It is Atma [in every state]is possible andAtma lin itself. is Itself limitless.for the'Non-Supreme' Itself is but illusory insofar as It is distinguishedfrom the'supreme'. that is the asPectanalogousto Purusha. it is not Its totality [eternallyimmutable] which is modified in the appearances of the world [nor anyof Its parts. It is not separated [by any limitations] from Its modifications[formal as well as formless]. but It is not identical with beings. that it is possible t greatest variety of leaves. agedas Universal 7. 5.just as the effectis not truly and essentiallydifferent from the cause.in the unconditioned state]. It shouldbe addedthat when this conceptionis thus transposed beyondBeing.the samesoil producesa diversity of plants offering the which causedall beingsto be limited. but is not that succession tation.as It is unmodified.but is not and dissipations[births and deaths.the drops.in order to resolvethis apparentdifficulty. This comparisonwith the seaand its watersshowsthat Brahma is here envisPossibilirywhich is the absolute totality of particularpossibilities.It should be noted that Para-Brahma and as'superior Brahma' and Apara-Brahmaought never to be translatedrespectively 'inferior presuppose a comparison or a correlation Brahml'. although all things only exist in effectas Its modifications]. being alreadyunified in Being. Its Shakti. It [and not otherthan It]. It must not be forgotten. flowers. the spray. and modificationswhich thesewatersundergoexist other accidental apart or conjointly asdifferent from one another [when considor of ered distinctively. and the lotus grows from marsh to marsh without organsof locomotion.it is also what the Far-Eastern tradition 'active calls perfection'(Khien) and 'passive perfection'(Khouen)which moreover coincidein Perfectionin the absolute sense.zz.that is. . for it is indeed relativeto our own conceptiononly that they constitutetwo aspects: insofar as It is modified.That Brahmais indivisibleand without parts[asIt is]. that we are here well beyond the distinction of Purusha and Prakriti and that both these two.sThe seais the same as its waters.and fruits. insofar. soBrahmamodifiesItself in diverse ways[in the indefinitemultiplicity of universal manifestation].either under the aspectof succession on that accountto simultaneitpbut without their nature ceasing than its cause 4n effectis not other [in essence] be the same].that It is modified in reality. As for manifesof its phases.sinceIt hasnone]. cause. as sagunaor savishesha: and. whereas represents. Itself. the samenutriment is converted in the organism into blood.but rather with the Infinite and Possibility.are with all the more reasonincluded in the Supreme Brahma. chap. the 'Non-Supreme' 'supreme' or or Para-Brahmaand the latter is the former is the (who follows Brahmd in any it in no wise that ceases is Ishvara). crystal rocks and common worthless stones.and does not differ (in nature) in any way from them.8Thus the spider spinsits web out of its own substance.1 -l I l r. .without the aid of instruments or externalmeansof any kind whatever[and without Its unity and identity being affected thereby.being neither differentiatednor limited. in relationto manifestation.if It can be 8.74 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA ESSENTTAL UNITr AND TDENTITr oF THE'sar.

capable of everyactivity [although or rather on that very account]. chap..' . therefore no motiveor special end [suchas pertains to an individual act] other than Its own will lwhich is indistinguishable from Its omnipotence]12 must be assigned to 9.indifferent. 'O Principle! Thou who bestoweston all beings that which befits them. lets all things follow their coursewithout influencing them.as the Shakti of Brahma. chap.10 illusoryforms [corresponding diverse to different modalitiesof formal manifestation. without organ or instrument of action of any sort. monosyllableOml.'ls That which was.r3-37.which we havespokenof in previousfootnotes. .6.and who dost not claim to be calledvenerable. it is in Thee that I move.without a determinateaim.I: 77 viewed thus. devoid of every 15. 12. the reverof the Absolutewith its innumerablefacets. 'The Principle. the idea of Dharma. so that the latter must be regarded as unaffected by this merely apparentmodification]. We will likewise recallin passing what we havealreadyhad occasion to point out elsewhere. Thou hast neverclaimed to be calledequitable. to the being who assumes them.Thou hast never claimedto be calledcharitable.pz6r). Kether (the first of the ten Sephirorh) is the'garment'of Ain-Soph(the Infinite or the Absolute). berating surface which magnifiesevery creaturethat is mirrored directly in it. ibid. It is Its Shakfi.I3thus the raincloud distributes rain with impartiality [without regardto the and specialresultswhich arisefrom secondarycircumstances].r. ful. there is nothing It doesnot do (id.l I l.which [in Itself] is nevertheless tinct] quality. that is to say Maya in its inferior and exclusively cosmic sense.producing a variety of plants accordingto their species [by proper to theseseeds respecreasonof the different potentialities tively].ibid.la Every attribute of a first causeis (in principle) in devoid of every [disBrohma.It claims no title Ino qualificationor attribution whatsoever]. if it is distinguishedfrom the Principle in order to be'separatively' considered.in the JewishKabbalah. Uniry consideredinsofar as it contains all the 'Dominical 'is aspects of Divinity (Asrdr Rabbaniyah or the mysteries'). p39r). and especially of Saint Thomas Aquinas. the determination must be imputed to It [as in the caseof a particular cause]. in principle]. The modificationsproducedin a dream offer one of the most striking analogiesthat it is possible to put forward in illustration of the multiplicity of the states of the being.e Itself. 14. conceived as'conformity to the essen13. different seeds to grow in various this samefertilizing rain causes ways. we shall thereforehaveoccasionto speakof it again if. in itself. . Father Wieger'sFrench translation. we one day set forth this metaphysical theory more completely. that is to say the 'Omnipotence' of the SupremePrinciple. Bhagavad-Glta rx . appliedto the entire order of universalExistence. maydvirilpa beingconsidered aspurelyaccidental and not belonging. Cf.76 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING To THE VEDANTA ESSENTIAL UNITY AND IDENTITY OF THE SEI.who here is calledPrakriti because in relation to manifestationl. 4-8: is I. and.Thou whosebenefitsextendto all times.and it is also Itself insofar as It is considered as Universal Possibility. and by the sole virtue of that productive power. ..thatis to saythe which is not subjected Shakti can only be an aspectof the Principle. moreover. Doing nothing.that which is and that which will be. of themselves.rt Brahma is almighty [since It contains all things 'actionless'. impartial.without their being in any sense Diversechanges are pre[of condition and modesof existence] sentedto the same[individual] soul while dreaming [and in this stateperceivinginternal objectswhich belong to the domain of subtlemanifestation]. the similarity is all the more remarkable in that the points of view are naturally very different. as we intend. chap. In connectionwith this point an interestingcomparisoncan be made with the teachingof Catholic theologians. it is then nothing but the'Great Illusion' (Maha-Moha).(idem. In Islamic esoterismalso.I produce and reproduce[throughout all the cycles]the multitude of beings. It actsnot.on the subjectof the forms that angels are ableto assume. truly all is Omkara [the Universeprincipially identified with Brahma. that is because It comprisesall possibilitieswithin parts of Itself.zz. 10. without claiming to be calledskilsupportestthe Universe. 'It r . namely that almost everythingthat is said theologically of the angels can alsobe said metaphysicallyof the higher states of the being. p$). Thou who enfoldestand producing all its forms. and all else by the sacred assuch. This is precisely tial natureof beings'.symbolized to threefoldtime [trikala.zs. Immutable in my producit is considered tive power lShakti.[Guinon carried out this project inThe Multiple States of theBeing.Thou who wast before the beginning. eachindividual being is modified [while developingits because possibilities]in conformity with its own nature. Brahma-Sutras sensible form. ! (Chuang Tzu. 'It can be said of the Principle only that It is the origin of everythingand that It influences all while remaining indifferent.' This surfaceis likewiseMAyA taken in its highest sense.. Eo. the No accidental differentiation of the Universe. other than the corporeal modality] are assumed by this samesubtlebeing without in any respectaltering its unity [such illusory forms.Again in an exactlysimilar way. and.. who havedeveloped all this Universe.

nor arethey connected aggregate of limiting conditions defining each state of existence In this instancewe are referring exclusively to the taken separately. or.in truth.aswell asto the non-individual states that is what is meant here by the conditions of Atma.Atma is truly unconditionedand neverceases 11 THE DIFFERENT CONDITIONS OF ATTWA IN THE HUMAN BEING WE wrrr Now ENrERupoN on a more detailed studyof the different conditions of the individual being residingin the living form. whateverthe nature of that being may be.we also need to envisage.r6 'All this'.78 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA temporal condition viewed under its three modalities of past.we are referringto what may be calledthe'causal'state.and future] is also truly Omkara. includesthe subtle form (silkshmasharlraor liryga-sharlra) on the one hand and the grossor bodily form (sthula-sharrra) on the other. are still in the realm of Being:therefore. itself. Thesemodalities. moreover.vz. if it be preferred. as previouslyexplained.the variousmodalitiesto which. that is to saythe statewhich correand which belongsconsequently to the sponds to kdrana-shar\ra universal and formless order. (asmoreoverthe continuation of this latter text. this is Brahma.in to be so. which we shall give later on.The conditionswe are referring to must not be confusedwith that particular condition which we havealreadynoted as being specialto eachindividual. Ma4QukyaUpanishad .must be understoodas referring to the different modalities of the individual being regardedin its of the total being. t.this Atma [of which all things are but the manifestation] is Brahma. particular that we are considering). variousstates. With this causal state. which. present. distinguishwith that ing him from all other individuals.taken be relatedboth to the grossand to the subtle as a whole. can always state. all conditions lpadas. integrality. clearly shows). and of the being] has four this Atma [relativelyto the various states a word signifring literally'feet']. we though we are no longer in the realm of individual existence. 6.Assuredly. in a perfectly generalway. What is beyondthesetwo states no longerbelongsto the individual assuch. the former being confinedto the bodily modality and the latter comprisingthe remainderof the individuality (thereis no quessinceit is the human statein tion hereof the other individual states. although. any single individual being is subject.

that the individual. Cf. The word aksharaetymologicallymeans'indissoluble'or'indestructible'. Likewise. total. ChhandogyaUpanishadr. 5.however. In Sanskrit.in the sameway that dreamingis intermediatebetweenwakarenot generally however.representing accidents or modificationsof the principal idea. \r. A verbalroot in Sanskritis calleddhAtu.1. which is really an extra-individual of deep sleep. It may be saidthat the root is the fixed and invariableelementin a word. by its development.2. formless and is the'causal' which sleep. and it from Atma. distinction in the similarly. . through the possibilitiesof multiple modification that it carriesand containsin itself. mentioned.this the first of all.z3.Atma has four conditions(padas).startingfrom the lastdegree.in a more ordinary sense. everyverbalroot is syllabic.which runs: syllable is everything laksharala that is: its explanationfollows. We will now go on to explain what the text we referredto says on the subjectof eachof theseconditionsof Atma.to which secondary and variable elementscome (in the etymologicalsense) to be added.with the exceptionof one phrase.the first three states to subtle the dream state. givesbirth to the entire language.2. just explained. one attemptedto separate nothing but possibilitiesof AtmA: whatevertheir nature.tQnkya Upanishad. being none other than the monosyllable itself regarded synthetically under its principial aspect. to say the is to d to Atmd. 4. 6. absolutely strictly to belong which those even states. beyondBeing. as such.s is here taken as the ideographic symbol of Atma.the fourth of which. supreme.the first two contracting these into o).3 l.1.composedof three letters (mdtrds. also BrihadaranyakalJpanishad v.r and rr.7-8.and in which the being returns likewiseinto nonor at leastinto the formless. in the theory of cosmic ryclesit indicatesthe interval betweenfiio Yugas. Thesetwo last states.which expresses the essence of the Veda.the vowel e is formed from the union of a and i. Concerning u. 2. that of manifestation.whereis the seatof Brahma.8O MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE DIFFERENT CONDIT/ONS OF ATMA IN THE HUMAN BEING 8T principial state. this is because the syllable the syllable(and not the alphabetical letter) is lookedupon asconstitutingthe primitive unit and fundamentalelementof language. (morning and evening) similarly consideredas intermediate between day and night. deep and manifestation. andm.the fourth of which is not reallya special condition at all but is Atma regarded in Itself.the point of contact or of junction the twilight to describe betweentwo things) is also used.Besides that of death.being prior to all 'indissoluble'(akshara). moreover. representing its fundamentaland immutable nature.in the sameway that it neverbecomes of principle manifestaand transcendent although it is the essential tion in all its modes. The word sandhya(derived from sandhi. Disregardingfor the moment the fourth state. the living sod. and u are the only ones that are considered fundamental and reallvdistinct. Brahma-S[ttras For the detaileddescriptionof thesestates we haveonly to turn to the text of the Mar. because. manifestation. unconditioned. and even a further one.6has four elements. the openingpassage of which we have alreadycited. unconditioned.2 from that distinct essentially not are since they separate as reckoned we have as state.and unconditioned state. 3. if is referredto by meansof this word. seeBrahma-Sutras this state.it is indeed the seedwhich.correspondreturn later.'Thesacred monosyllable Orn.is not susceptible of any representation.ro.The being'sdifferent states.u. ing and deepsleep.a fourth. just as.corresPonding ing to grossmanifestation.a word properly meaning'seed'. This syllable. are relate the fundamentalrealityof the sinceit is this alonewhich constitutes would be purely illusory if being that state of every since being.to which we shall are:the waking state. represent the variousconditionsin which of to speak possible it is why that is senseconditions of AtmA. these all Metaphysically personality.in an absolutely transcendent manner independently of any condition and which. thesethree statesanother is sometimes state. the vowel o is actuallyformed from the combination of a and u. and working backto the. is'non-expressed'by any letter (amdtra). considered as intermediate (sandlrya)l between deep sleep and death. the three vowels a. truest the being finds itself as in the although it must be clearlyunderstoodthat Atma in itself is in no way affectedthereby and does not on that account ceaseto be manifested. i. lettersbeingA.ljtvatmal withdrawinginto the bosom of the UniversalSpirit lAtmal alongthe path which leadsto the very center of the being. the stateof ecstatictrance. 'Om.in Arabic.

the name Nara isnonetheless capable of being transposed analogically so asto be identified with purusha.z8: itis Atma who is both'all' (vishva) when He appears asthe personaliry and 'man' (nara) when he appears as the individuality (that is to sayasjivatma). and thus it comes about that vishnu is sometimes referred to as NarottamA or 'supreme Man'. and this is true preciselyin virtue of this transposition.the geniu. but this particular state can be taken as the symbol for the whole of universalmanifestation.The use of a spatial symbolism is moreover extremelywidespread. which however corroborates the precedingone.from another point of view. under all its aspects.THE WAKING S?I4. a conceptionwhich t. Here the extent of this term appears to be limited to one of thesestates onlS l. sincefor the human being it is necessarily the basisand point of departurefor arl realization. such as abode. Vaishvdnarais thereforea title which is properlybefitting to Atmd. a whole siecial study would be needed to dealadequately with the developments to which it may give rise. Finally. the most externalof all. and described as constituting his body.any more than the conception . 3.vaishvanara alsomeans.ANARA 83 L2 THE WAKING STATE OR THE CONDITION OF VAISHVANARA Tnn first condition is Vaishvdnara. it will sufficeto effectthe transpositionappropriateto the degree to which the conceptionis calledupon to apply.TEOR THE CONDITION OR YAIS''Y. It is obvious that this and all similar expressions. for the root $ha reappears in the Latin stareand its derivatives. species'. which has knowledgeof external objects. etc. which consti_ tutes the corporealworld.4 Furthermore. of which it is an element..ompr"* m.or more exactlywhat may be called. Ma4QnkyaUpanishad r 3. 4' In this connectionnara or nri is man considered as an individual belonging to the human species. understood as spe_ cific nature."ni.that is-to sayas a being endowedwith the mental faculty. that of grossmanifestation. whereasmdnava is more exactlyman in his capacity as a thinking being. in that case it is the human species. an analogy which is that of . aswe shall seefurther on (cf. insofar as such expression is possible.2 vaishvdnara. whatevermay be the other modalitiesin which they are capable of developingthem_ selves in order to realize.residence. Shatapata Brdhmana).f. On this derivation.aswehavealready explained. the (adhidevaka) andthe'microcosm'(adhyatmika). the seatl of which is in the waking state ljagaritasthanal. The term sthanahasas its exactequivalentthe word 'state' (status). regardedhowever more especially in the completedevelopmentof his statesof manifestation and under the particular aspectof that development.macrocosm.as individuals and without going beyond the human level. asin all symbolism. and which has sevenmembersand nineteen [sensible] mouths and the world of grossmanifestationfor its province. 5' It would be illuminating to establish points of .thatwhich is common to all men'. that is to saywith the cosmic Intelligence insofarasit governs and unifies in its integrality the whole of the corporeal world.rg.onco-rd"nce with the conception of 'adamic' nature in the Jewishand Islamic traditions.rsalMan.therefore.s the full rangeof their respective possibilities.Under this aspe ct Vaishvdnara is also identified with virdj.r. on the other hand. conceivedby analogy with the body of individual man.3 is what we have called 'Universal Man'. th. 2. nature of this species is characterized. impried in the word nara. of th. asthe etymologicalderivation of the word indicates.seeShankaricharya's commentaryon the Brahma-Sutras t.that is to saythey must be taken as indicating not a placebut rather a modality of existence.must always be understoodin this contextsymbolicallyand not literally. it should be observedthat the corporeal stateis in fact common to all human individuals..which is moreoverthe essential attribute inherent to his species and the one by *ni.universal of Man.with the samemeaningsasin Sanskrit. we cannot here undertakean investigationof the maniford and . .z. as for the nature of the species.a fact which canbe accounted for by the actualnatureof the conditionsgoverningcorporeal individualiry and which dictate the terms in which any translation of the truths that concernother statesof the being must necessarily be expressed.-Itis in this sense that the statein questioncan be relatedto'Unl. a name which must not be taken as implying the least trace of anthropomorphism. on the other hand it is alsoa name of Agni.

One may notice the remarkablerelationshipbetweenthis symbolismand the physiological function of the semi-circularcanals. 6. in this division.muklrya-prarza againat a later stage.if one may so express it. which is then considered asthe medium of diffusion of light.corresponds to the feet.6are the two sentedin the sensible (iii) the igneous principleis the mouth. the whole of the higher states.It is noticeable that the first two of the three namesderivefrom the same root. (v) the atmosphere. (vii) and finally the earth. accordingto which the sun and the moon correwould to the heart and the brain.the middle term of the Tribhuvana. (ii) the sun and the moon. which are described as so many mouths.It will be noticed that no mention is made here of the heart because its direct relationship with universalIntelligenceplacesit outside the sphereof the individualfunctionsproperlyso called. the final term in actuationof the entire corporealmanifestation.8 that is to saythe cosspace (prana) proceeds. as Vaishvdnara.be it understood)with the relationshipbetween the corresponding parts of the human organism. moreover. for the brain in fact correspondsorganicallywith the'mental' function. (vi) the intermediateregion (Antariksha). that is to say of the higher blage of the higher luminous spheres. which are taken here as the emblem of the whole lower portion of the body. it is alsoworth noting that the agentof that diftrsion is not Air (Vayu) but Ether (Akasha). in neither casemust the designationof theseheavenly alchemists ies be taken literally. elaborated. namelythat of human individuality. extendingbetweenthe Earth (Bhu or Bhumi) and the luminous spheresor the heavens(Svar or Svarga)and consideredas the region where forms (still potential in relation to the grossstate)are meanings. and aboveall to formal manifestation. which is but a reflection of the intelligible Light or of the supra-individualprinciples.which is ordinarily describedas the atmosphere. When the terms are transposed in order to make them applicable to the entirety of the states of universal manifestation.It doesso by means of nineteen organs. correwhencethe'vital breath' mic environment sponds to the lungs. howeverin this instancesolelyin their statesof being (considered relationshipwith the particular statein question). The namesof the three worlds. here again. The relationship of thesevarious members to one another and their functions in the cosmicwhole to which they belong is analogous (but not identical. becomes conscious of the world of sensible (considmanifestation 'non-supreme' eredalsoasthe sphere of that aspect of the Brahma which is calledviraj).long explanations spond respectively in order to show how thesedifferent points of view are reconciledand be necessary correspondences.7(iv) the directionsof eyes. at midday and in the sandhya-updsanh evening).8+ MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE wAKING srATE oR THE coNDrrroN oR vATSHvANARA 85 After what hasjust been said it will be easyfor us to explain the significanceof the sevenmembers mentioned in the MaryQukya principalpartsof the'macroandwhichform the seven Upanishad Tiakingthem in order: (i) the assemcosmic'body of Vaishvdnarq.is comparedwith the part of the headcontainingthe brain.Bhu. corresponds to the stomach.symbolically. (dish)arethe ears.and Swarare the threevyahritis. therefore in the form in which he is dwelling in living things. we shall have occasionto refer to this is both the breath of the mouth Furthermore. and because this'seatof Brahma'isreallyand truly the centralpoint both in the cosmicand in the human orders. is externaland'peripheric'. modalities).because they are the'entranceways' of knowledge for everything belonging to this particular domain. Bhuvas. superposed at different levelsand in hierarchically likewiseis applicable to but this would lead us too far afield and at the moment we must limit ourselves this bare reference.while the third represents.and warmth is intimately associated 8.the intellectualassimilationwhich operatesin 9. the word being taken howeverin a much more extended and lessdeterminatesense than in the preceding case. because they refer to modalitiesof the samestateof existence. or more exactlythe principlesrepreworld by thesetwo luminaries.It should also be observedthat the presentsymbolismdiffers from that previouslyalluded to. harmonizedin the whole framework of analogical is occasionallya name of Agni.Antarikshais identified with Bhuvas. Atma. belongingexclusively to the circum'wheel ference of the of things'. In the condition we are describing. words which are usually uttered after the monosyllableOm in the Hindu rites of (a meditation repeatedin the morning. the word Antariksha also includes the atmosphere. .whereas everythingpertaining to manifestation. We have alreadymentioned that Vaishvanara who is then chiefly consideredin the guise of animating warmth. 7.e that is to say. Here one might recall the symbolical meaningswhich the sun and moon bear in the WesternHermetic tradition and in the cosmologicaltheoriesthat the bodbasedon it. (mukha) and the principal vital act (it is in the latter sense that the five vayusareits with life itself. In one sense.

individual consciousness the facultieswhich we have alreadystudied in detail. asthe first of the conditions of is described in questionis exercised.that is to sayto the corporealworld. tation. of dreamingand deep the states be lookedupon asin fact preceding modalithe extra-corporeal to respectively which correspond sleep. instead of sion by the being of its higher states. in which. oneself.and afterwardsof all further realizationwhich lies of Dharma: it is the equilibrium in wfiich all 10. for its part and in the place allotted to it (from the fact that it is that individual being and not toward making up the total another). finally. that term the corresponding of the word indriya) are: ous explanationof the generalsignificance the five organsof action.lo in which the activity of the organsand faculties The waking state. conceivedas the faculty them one with which gives form to ideas and which associates (aha4kara): theseare another.firstly of individual realization (that is to sayof the full realizationof the individuality in its integral extension). thought (chitta).and. eleconstituent the of one sense organ and faculty it is in a certain is an it belongs ments. it contributes of necessity harmony. the five vital the five organsof sensation. it marks indeedthe limit of that developin which human ment. starting from its primordial and unmanifestedprinciple.in the sameway that the individual to which elementof the cosmicwhole. AtmA.considered the individual state). proceeds of this from its correspondingorgan or faculty in Vaishvanara. (manas). one places the order of which view of this realizationwith its various degrees. the manifested from direction. . although the grossor corporealmodality to which it corresponds occupiesthe lowest degreein the order of development (prapancha)of manifestation. ties of the individuality and to the supra-individual statesof the being.The reason alreadybeenexplained:it is in this corporealmodality that we find the basis and point of departure. at leastin relation to the stateof existence anomalyhas apparent this for individuality is situated. tial and apparent beyondthe individual possibilitiesand implies the taking posscsif.Consequently of manifesdevelopment view of the placingoneselfat the point of at the point of aswe are doing at present. breaths(viyus). contrary in the proceeds necessarily the waking statemust clearly then in that case to the unmanifested. Each organ and each faculty of every individual belonging to the domain in respectively question. Thesenineteenorgans(alsoincluding in with our previin accordance faculties. the'mental' faculty or the inward sense in its relation to here exclusively the intell ect (Buddlri.86 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE WAKING STATE OR THE CONDITION OR VAISHVANARN T\7 knowledgeis often comparedsymbolicallywith the vital assimilation effeited by nutrition. disorders. This harmony is also an aspect which is madeup of the sum of all parorder the disequilibriumsarecompensated.

3. is the sensible quality naturallybelongingto Tbjas. and it may be recalledthat on this point. in relation to one another. and which residesin the luminous arteries(nads) of the subtle form. physiologically.that the elementsof the nervoussystemoriginate from the assimilation of fiery substances. soul'. the subtle form itself (sukshma-shar|ra or linga-shartra)in which Thijasadwells is likened to a fiery vehicle.and more particularly by sight. for they are expressly just as described asluminous.3At the same time it must be t.in describingthe constitution of the annamayakosha. in the subtlestate.THE DREAM STATE oR coNDITIoN oF TAIIASA 8g L3 THE DREAM STATE OR CONDITION OF TAIIASA a word derived condition is Thijasa Tsr second [the'Luminous'. so the subtle stateis linked to the corporeal statein two different and complementary ways. sincevisibilitp necessarily presupposing the presence of light. fire is in a sense polarizedinto heat and light. Elsewhere in this connectionwe haverecalledthe'chariot of fire' upon which the prophet Elijah wastaken up to heaven(2 Kings z:z).through the blood as to the caloric and through the nervous systemas to. there can no longer be any questionof bhutas. such as those which introduce the principles .2although this must of coursebe distinguishedfrom corporealfire (the element Tejas or that which derivesfrom it) which is perceived by the senses of the grossform (sthula-sharira). We havealreadymentioned. 2.which is inseparable closelyconnected from heat.As for the luminosity to which we have just alluded. As for blood.whichis at the into the inward sense tially. As to the nddTs or arteries belonging to the subtle form.In this text the subtlestateis calledpravivikta.it is only necessary in the present instanceto consider those relating to the human state).which has knowledge of inward [mental] objects. the luminous quality. two these indicates.which is the manifestation of AgniVaishvdnara.the lsvapna-sthanal. however. where it is distributed without any division of its nature in the manner of a diffusedheat. and.however. in its essential itself. contrary to what happensin the which is'common to all men'. 'living 'separate'.vehicle of VaishvanAra. their source.but only of the correspondingtanmatra.'essence'and'substance'in a relativesense. as on many others. they should on no account be confusedwith the corporealarteriesby meansof which the circulation of the blood is effected. being liquid.and they only play the part of a plasticsupport that serves for the fixation of an elementof igneousnature: fire and water here represent.+.the conceptions of Aristotle are in completeagreement with those of the East. state the subtle (since there is no longer any question here of sensiblequalities) to As we havealreadyhad occasion must be found in that statealso.Furthermore. in the dreamstate is seat whose igneouselement].l while existingall the time potenIn this statethe outward faculties.s which are their immediate determining principles.which has seven members and nineteen mouths and whosedomain is the world of subtlemanifestation. moreover.is to all intents confined within itself. when in the becausethe ifestation. waking state.they correspond ratherto the ramificationsof the nervoussystem. remark with the nature of life itself. (manas).it shouldbe regarded asthe reflectionand diffraction of the intelligibleLight in the extra-sensible modalitiesof formal manifestation (among which. from Tejas. but thesemust haveundergonean elaboration due to the action of the vital heat.considered applied to sametime light and heat. it is formed originally from watery substances. are reabsorbed and their immedisupport. which is the bodily organism. one might easilycomparethis with certain alchemicaltheories.lit' L MA4Q*kyaUpanishad grossmanit is a stateof distinction that precedes because erally'predistinguished'. the word also means dream state. very is subtle state to the belonging everything elsewhere.The igneouselementin is indeedat one and the properties. as the very name Thiiasa transposed suitably aspects. common sametime their ate end.

to the order of properlybelongs ing the'vital breath'(prana).which said It is sometimes function. of a practical (vyavaharika) ulty of acting in the sense alsoillusory no doubt with regardto absolute(paramdrtha)reality possessing a and transitory like all manifestation.{ '/ I \ I ()I clearly understoodthat betweenthe nadls and the nervesthere is only and not identification. since the former are correspondence not corporeal and we are really concerned with two different within the integral individuality.9-ro. we shall on Further numbers. in which the that is to say of of mental conceptions. the 'world'.althoughthis definite object and corresponding scienceis quite unknown to Westerners. in fact.this rcrrlt of thosc in an order inverseto the development sorption is effected samefaculties. ol tltr' upon the strtrit'tl our remarks to supplement haveoccasion in the protcss ol subtle arteriesas well as on the different stages reabsorptionof the individual faculties:aswe havesaid. any borrowing.of which they modifications. but the differencehere is more apparentthan real. the scienceof rhythm. Cf.in the order of that are conferredsymnot to mention the many other designations of elements. Upanishad 7. a fact.What the Islamic esotericschoolscall dhikr fulfills exactly resortedto are quite the samefunction. 5. they apply for exampleto the geometrical 72x 5 = rz x 3o) and to the duration of the astronomicalperiod of the precession years).432 but we cannot enter at presentinto the properly ate and elementaryapplications.ro8 = 22x 33. which arebasedon the assimilation up with breath-control.4 becauserespiration is essentialfor maintaining life and in a realway to the principal vital act. (kama) alone. in the sensible the facthe same'livingsoul'possesses in the wakingstate.to fire and water in the order respectivelyanalogous.Similarly.however.alwayssomething incompleteand uncoordinated about this production: it is for this reasonthat it is looked an apparent or as only possessing upon as illusory (mdyamaya) (pratibhasika)existence world where it is whereas. from another point of view the possibilitiesof the than thoseof the waking statesince dream stateare more extensive from some in a certainmeasure they allow the individual to escape of the limiting conditions to which he is subject in the corporeal that ariseout of the transpositionof thesedata into difsymbolicalconsiderations ferent orders. This confusion has actually been perpetratedby certain orientalists. may well be known in two different having its own for we aredealingherewith a science quartersquite independently. however. Brihadaranyaka . We are alluding heremore especially to'Union' (Yogain the proper sense Yoga.3. of view cannot metaphysically And indeed.with a bodily thousand. dependingsubstantially upon the subtleform of the individual himself.9zo of the equinoxes(72x 36o.in the Hermetic language. it should not be corresponds ascanalsof concludedon that accountthat they can be represented this would amount to confussomesort in which the air circulates. waking stateover the dream statewhen eachis considered or at least a superiority which is valid only from a'profane' point be consideredas a real superiority. objectsconsistexclusively combinationsof ideasclothed in subtle forms. which exactlyequivalentto that which it should here be taken in a sense However. 'is In the dreamstatethe individual'living soul' Qtvatma) to itself through the action of its own desire its own light' and it produces. and often indeed the actual proceedings which is not to be taken as evidenceof similar in both traditions.s subtle manifestation. a world issuing entirely from itself. terms of a duality of this on the two correlative bolically. the orientation of the activity of the that this differencerespecting superiority of the doesnot imply an effective being in the two states in itself.yet nevertheless relative reality and a stability sufficient for the needsof ordinary 'profane'life (Iaukika.whose understandingis doubtlessunable to operateoutside the limits of the corporeal world.a word derived from loka.it is important to observe normally bearsin the Gospels). however. that is to sayto the methodsPreParatory of certainrhythms. = 24x 33 6. which are called 'mixed things'. the one active and the other passive. situated production. to a clearlydefinedorder of reality. nature. The fundamentalryclic numbers are:72= 23x 32.according that the total number of nddlsis seventy-two hundred and twenty milit is givenasSeven to other texts.when a relationspheres betweenthe functions of thesenadtsand respiraship is established tion.T and accidental are merelyso many secondary There is. lion.432 division of a circle (36o 72x6 = ro8 x 4.6 cyclic with the obvious connection 'sulphur' and 'mercury'. '. chieflybound of the word).90 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE DREAM STATE OR COND/TION o'.Theseare their most immedix 6o = z5. connectedwith Hathato the teachings 4.sincethese numbers are meant to be taken symbolicallyand not literallS as is their and this will be apparentif one observes usual in such cases. w .

intellect. and in the Orphic tradition.the ur -z.ra indeed. which belongsto either gender. under whatevermode it may happento exist. 12.Io which is Brahmd(determination of Brahmaas effect' karya)rl enveloping Himself in the 'world Egg' (Brahmdnda). dream and waking of these in fact restrict their attention in this way to the aggregate two states. This cosmogonicsymbol of the'World-Egg'is in no wise peculiar to India. since is imporit all Above do not extendbeyond individual existence. it is utterly unattainableby any conceptionthat confinesitself to the considerationof externaland the internal objects. it is for exampleto be found in Mazdaism. such an opPosition is really quite meaningless.each possibility necessarily position at that levelin the universalhierarchydeterminedfor it by its own nature.8But.which means'lightl ll..tl Furthermore.t-6.in that of the Druids. this indispensable distinction.is the type and degree precisely real for that very reasonand possesses consistingin something of reality consonantwith its own nature: ideas(and that is all the meaningproperly attributableto the word 'ideal') is neither more nor lessreal on that accountthan something finding its consistingin anything else.forgold.knowledge of which constitutesrespectively did which schools. the absolutelyreal (pdramArthika) is the Self(Atma) alone. heterodox certain states.primordial germ of the cosmic Light. Hiranyagarbha is described asthe'synthetic aggregate of life' Qtva-ghana). to distinworld which is the realm of grossmanifesguishit from the sensible of Plato's tation.so the'World Eggl 13. and thence a compact and undifferentiated mass.ls expressed in the following formula: Yatha pinda tatha Brahmdnda. the whole formal manifestation which is contained therein virtually as a conceptionof this Hiranyagarbha. consideredunder this aspect.r2 out of which therewill develop..and which in fact relatesto possibilitiescontained in a prolongation of human individuality. 8.so this idealworld of havebeen speakingis identified with Hiranyagarbha(Iiterally. and Manu.e tant not to be misledinto imagining an oPpositionhere of the kind which certain modern philosophers claim to establishbetween 'ideal' and 'real'. howeverthat may be. This term howevershouldnot be takenin the sense 'intelligible world'.in the Eglptian tradltion (the Egg of Kneph).accord. Everythingthat is.the realm of subtle manifestationcan be describedas an ideal world. and the analogy between the 'microcosm' and the 'macrocosm'.to the sun amongthe planets. The embryonic condition. which in eachindividual being playsa correspondingpart to that playedby Brahmdnda in the cosmic order. the alchemists alsolooked on it ascorrespondingby analogy.is the'mineral light'.16 is nevertheless but one of the special 10.92 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE DREAM STATE OR COND/TION OF TAIJASA 93 modality. 14. we which in its entirety is identifiedwith Viraj. as we have explainedelsewhere.supre-. That is why Viraj proceedsfrom Hiranyagarbha. We are especiallyalluding to the extension of the idea of life which is implied in the point of view of the Westernreligions. it canreallybe identifiedwith'Universal Life'ls by reasonof the previously mentioned connection between the subtle state and life. The word ghana signifiesprimarily a cloud. On the dream statecf. This namebearsa meaningvery closeto that of Taijasa. thereby condemned themselvesto remain wholly within the limits of formal manifestationand the human enclosed individuality. And the life wasthe light of men' (fohn r:4).and it is at leasta remarkable fact that the Latin name for gold itself(iurum) is strikingly similar to the Hebrewaor. among the metals.to which field the physiological point of view is restricted). sincehis'ideas' are possibilities in the principial (in of the overspite being formless to which must be referred state. pro_ ceeds fromViraj. s correspond in reality 'Golden Embryo').which is of the highestimportance (sinceit expresses the distinction of the'supreme'from the'non. is in sanskrit called piiao. according to the Hindu doctrine. in turn. 15.ing to its mode of realization. the supra-individual to is to say that to Buddhi. Brahma-Sutras the latter 9. By reasonof its connectionwith the mental faculty.. which. imaginative expressionsin which Plato often enveloped his with ideas thoughts): in the subtle statewe are still only concerned comprises state this which possibilities the clothed in forms.'asthe individual embryo."nnot be indicatedifi as is usual among orientalists. especially in a language like Frenchwherethe neutergenderis wanting. The subtle stateis properly the realm of yuXn and not that of voOq.the latter practice leadsto perpetual confusion. It must be pointed out that Brahmdis a masculine form while Brahmais neuter. evenwhen considered in its entire extension(and not limited to organicor corporeallife only. 16. one employsthe singleform of Brahman. . this is what the Far-Eastern tradition refersto under the name 'longevityl of . just asthe sensible world In the order of universalmanifestation.

in the waking state. 'To 2. as his own realm] and whose mouth total ConsciousIthe instrument of knowledge]is Iexclusively] ness [Chir] itself [without intermediary or particularizationof any sort]. which we by adoptedto begin with. or at the'microcosmic' point of view.3 17. L4 THE STATE OF DEEP SLEEP OR coNDrTroN oF PRAlfrre WHEN the beingwho is asleep experiences no desireand is not the subjectof any dream. 3. manoffiaya-ko l.being distracted. (since individual faculties).his stateis that of deepsleepfsushuptasthdnal:he [that is to sayAtma itself in this condition] who in this statehasbecomeone [without any distinction or differentiation]. concentrate all one'sintellectualenergyasit were in one mass'isanother expression of the Taoistdoctrine bearingthe samemeaning (ChuangTzu.chap. which by their combination constitute the subtle form (vijndnamaya-kosha.that is to sayunder the comesto havethe samenumber of membersand aspectof Thijasa. characterizes the two precedingstates. Thoism likewise declares.it distinguishes diverse beings'(ChuangTzu. chap. being speciallyapplicableto the individual or formal realm. This explainshow Atma in this dream state. during sleepthe undistractedsoul is absorbedinto this unity. the ideal world in question is conceived sensible the which to those by facultiescorrespondinganalogically which arethe samefaculties or if it be preferred.p4:). mouths (or instrumentsof knowledge)asin the waking stateunder of Vaishvanara. vijndnamaya-kosha is the first of the 'envelopes' in which Atma is clothed on entering the 'world of namesand formsl that is to saywhen manifesting itself asfivAtma. rr.Prajfidna or integralKnowledgeis hereopposed to vijfidna or distinctiveknowledge.to the two realms of grossor sensible manifestationand subtleor ideal manifestation. that one is calledPrajfra (He who knows aboveand beyondany special condition): this is the third condition. Frenchtranslationby FatherWiegerp215). world is perceived.94 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA to which human individuality conditions of the stateof existence does not extend beyond the life therefore of sphere belongs. Ma4QukyaUpanishad t.as at the'macrocosmic'point oneself Whetherone places we havejust done. sha andpr dnamaya-kosha).but still are they principle in as these and at anotherdegree under anothermode of existence considered in a different realm. .The possibilitiescomprisedwithin that state.which. Thesefacultiesmust here be regardedasdistributed in the three'envelopes'.2 assimilation]with Beatitudefanandamaya].rT the aspect to enumeratethem a secondtime sincethe There is no necessity definitions we havealreadygiven can be applied equallSby means of a suitabletransposition.1who hasidentifiedhimselfwith a synthetic whole [unique and without particular determination] of integral Knowledge who is filled [by inmost penetrationand lPrajndna-ghanal. 5. FatherWieger'stranslation.4. of view. should here be viewed integrally and taken as including the subtle modalitiesaswell asthe grossmodality. actuallyenjoying that Beatitude fAnanda. their activity being exercised of development.All is one.which. be it understood.

In this state the different objects of manifestation.A C C O R D I N G T o T H E V E D A N T A THE STATE OF DEEP SI. and.it has to be remembered that all manifested states arecontained.including those of individual manifestation. it is.The psychicproperly speakingis in fact the subtlestate. 97 As will at oncebe apparent.for it is causein the completesense of the word. moreover.moreover. sincethesetwo complementaryaspects of causalitydo in fact relaterespectively to 'essence'and to'substance'inthe sense we havepreviously givento thosewords.without concerningourselves with the various far more specialized meaningswhich have been attachedto it in later times. Purusha and Prakriti. in its subtle and grossstates.'Primordial Nature': but in reality. This is essentiallya formless and supra-individualstate.as well as the conceptionof 'the glorious body'. that is to sayboth at one and the sametime 'efficient cause'and'material cause'.conceivedas root of the manifested(vyakta). the of and if Atma. is identified in this respectwith MuIaPrakriti. so that the statewhich we are now discussing necessarily eludesits investigations. to which however we much prefer the expressions'essential cause' and'substantial cause'.is not a body in the proper senseof the word. that is to sayits transposition outsideform and the other conditionsof individual existence. the vehicleof Atma in this stateis the kdrana-shArlrA. since they are reallysupra-individualstates of the being.If Atma. to use the ordinary terminology. sum itself these possibilities.as concernsthe human being. that is simply because it is no longer situatedwithin conditioned existence.external as well as internal. This stateof indifferentiation. or of the two poles of manifestation.principle and cause(karana)of all mandeveloped' ifestationand the sourcefrom which manifestationis developed in the multiplicity of its different states and more particularly. synthetically and in principle. which it hasalreadybeennecessary to attachto the Universal. in the first place becauseit lies beyond the mental sphereor the sphereof discursive and differentiated thought.is thus beyondthe distinction of Purushaand Prakriti. as used by the ancients.which is only its effect (karya). is syntheticallycentralizedin the essential and fundamentalunity of the being. Beatitudeis made up of all the possibilities of Atma. but subsistin principial mode.within unmanifested Being.it is incapableof going any further. should be included within it and this is evenin a sense true. .EEP OR CONDTT/ON Or enA$t.in which all knowledge. given the methods it employs. as we have already pointed out. the very objectivewhich it setsbeforeitself and which is exclusively the study of mental phenomena. i l N ( . being unified by the very fact that they are no longer conceived under the secondary or contingent aspectof distinction. This unmanifestedstate. sincehere we are beyond the sphereof distinction. that is because it is reallynothing elsethan the plenitudeof its being.it dealsonly with a quite restrictedportion of the human individuality.but actually at the level of pure Being. are not destroyed. it is the'realization'of the permanentand immutable possibilityof which the body is but a transientexpression in manifested mode. It is this which allows of the transposition in a metaphysical senseof the theologicaldoctrine of the'resurrection of the dead'.e. aswe shall seelater on. and in the secondplacebecauseit lies equally beyond all phenomenaof any kind. itis Purushaas well as Prakriti. as'non-distinctively' beheldin integral Knowledge. asPrdjfia. one might say. which are themselvesstill unmanifested. whereby it cannot be made to apply even to the whole of the subtle state. in this third state.wherethe mental faculty is in direct relationshipwith the corporeal modality. containingthem both in its own indifferentiation. In any case. it is not really somethingdistinct from Atma itself.as certainorientalists posed. sincethis is anandamaya-kosha: and althoughit is spoken of analogicallyas a vehicleor an envelope. in other words.4 4. is the unmanifested and'non(avyakta)state.it might evenbe said that that stateis doubly inaccessible to it.96 M A N A N D H r s l l l : ( . nevertheless.and in making this assimilation we takethe word'psychic'in its primitive sense. the latter. of necessity they find themselves amongthe possibilities of the'Self'and the latterremains conscious in itself of all thesepossibilities.limits it strictly to the realm of the individuality.from the very fact of being consciousof its own permanence in the'eternal present'. ( ) r \ .Indeed.enjoysthis Beatitudeas its rightful kingdom. of the formlessstatesof manifestationas well. but its'transformation' (or'transfiguration'). including that of the other states. that is to saybeyondall formal manifestation.As for modern Westernpsychology.it cannot thereforehaveanythingto do with a'psychic'or'psychological' havesupstate.

6Thus thesethree. In this state. The terms'subject'and'object'.being marked in the derivativeby the participle) but in suffix kta.asequivalents of thesethreeterms. The stateof deepsleephas been described of Germanphiwho evenseemtemptedto identifr it with the'Unconscious' talists. once there is no longer any real distinction.8 the intelligibleLight is seized directly. in its relationship an envelope tude. however.which is the termination of the passive 'Self' looked at of the asthe total Consciousness the universalsense.bearing in mind the reservations that we have made concerningthe useof thesewords. The term Chit. and generallyspeakingit is advisable to avoid them as far aspossible. the second is its subject (Sar).that is to sayby the two polesof manifestation. Prakriti.Buddhi then naturally corresponds to Knowledge.the object is'the known'. not even in illusory mode) there could be no return from the stateof deep sleepto the statesof dreaming and waking. and Prdjfia.their use often gives rise to considerable inconveniencefrom the point of view of clarity. basedupon a spatialsymbolismwhich could not apply literally to pure Being.sThis object.Nevertheless.while constituting in a certainsense 'Self' (anandamaya-kosha) as we have alreadyexplained.Furthermore. besides. 'essence' 'substance'. considered outsideand beyond all the particular conditionswhich determineeachof its various states of manifestation.' 8. It might be said. faculty of supra-rationaland supra-individualknowledge.or their'common act'.3. since all formal manifestation would be irremediably destroyedfor the being once it had entereddeep sleep. and the third is its object (Ananda).the ternary group Sachchidananda. andAnanda as'unconscious'bycertain orien5.is of the identicalwith the subjectitself. and and by the first production of Prakriti under the influence of Purusha. as indeed it could not be.Intelligence(Al-Aqlu). andBuddhi.3.this production being formless manifestation. with such an interpretation. it would amount rather to a first particularizationof Beingin distinctivemode. nonetheless but their opinion appears consciousness. to seehow.the sense their relation is knowledgeitself.unlike its previouslymentionedderivativeChina.the threebeing but one in Being'which knows Itself by ltself. although alreadymanifested: in this respectthereforeBuddhi must in a way be included in the stateof Prajfia. which is asit werea resultantof the subjectand object. which implies a modification by reflection. we are using a purely analogicallanguage. See also our commentson the meaningof the wordNirvdna which will appearin a later chapter. initely freedfrom the conditions of individual existence.Moreover. We have previously appliedthis expression'intellectual intuition' to Buddhi.and of in modern philosophy. which could not exist at all. 'subjective' and'objective'hasvaried of their derivatives theseterms and especially to such a point that they havebeen given almost diametricallyopposedinterpretahave taken them indiscriminatelyto indicate marktions. Brahma-Siltras r.8. cf.98 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE srATE oF DEEa sLEEp oR coNDrr/oN or pn. and some philosophers edly conflicting meanings. becausethese objects would then be but a pure nothing. In Arabic we have. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad rv. return is on the contrary alwayspossible that is to saydefat leastfor the beingwho is not actually'delivered'.which thus will compriseeverything which is beyond individual existence.which is Sator pure Beingand is not really distinct from it. We have therefore to consider a new ternary group in Being constituted by Purusha.eIt goeswithout sayingof coursethat in speaking here of outward and inward.in the sense not lead to any ambiguity: the subjectis'the knower'.that is to sayby intellectualintuition. and the Intelligible (Al-Maqul): the first is universalConsciousness(Chit).A/fie 99 Wereit otherwiseand were the objectsof manifestationnot thus to subsistprincipially (u supposition impossiblein itself. it is important to note that in the order of UniversalExistence it is Prakriti that 'conceives' her productionsunder the 'actionless' .t5. that Purushais the'subjective' pole of manifestation and Prakriti the'objective'pole. losopherslike Hartmann.Chit. Sat. the Intelligent (Al-Aqil). must not be understood in the restrictedsenseof individual and formal thought (this restrictive determination. this error doubtlessarisesfrom the fact that they are other than individual and'psychological' unable to conceiveof any consciousness for it is not easy inexplicable. Prajfidna. which is alsosometimes calledby the name of samprasdda or'serenity'.can6.it must be addedthat this ternary group only represents what might be calledthe'outwardness' of Beingand does not therefore coincide in any way with the other principial group we havejust described and which refersreally to its'inwardness'. 7.to use the language of Aristotle.they are able to understandsuch terms as Chit. 9. in which they are usedhere.but such a and doesin fact takeplace. (generally united asSachchidananda)7 arebut one singleand identical entity. and this'one' is Atma.However. which is Anandaor Beatiwith its unique object. and no longerby reflectionthrough the mental faculty (manas)as occursin the individual states.

He is the origin [prabhava.sincethe latter must be considered is really which reality any longer no is itself by itself'. as has been said by the Scholastic 10.Heaven(T'ien) corresponds to Purusha(considered at the variouslevelsthat we havealreadyindicated) and Earth ( Ti) to Prakriti. Effectssubsist'eminently'in their cause. we then quoted declares ishvara'.in its universalextension. active. thus the first cause.into the ternary group distinguishable which Matsya-Purana Buddhi of which we havealreadyspoken:the Mahat lor Buddhil is that'in the Universal.fra 1ol again. 11.of which He is the principle.as in Himself as in relation to manifestation.10He is the inward governorlantarydmT all the controls and ing at the very centerof the being. while Himself remaining'actionless' in the fullnessof His principial activity]. but here it is the totality of ryclesor statesconstituting universal manifestation that is referred to.the analogyis therefore inverted in this caseas in those we have previously enumerated.a term which of the'three the aggregate hereimplies.A7.in the order of with Being.regulates on the contrary' in the order of individual existences. 13.sincenothing can be and they arethereforeconstituents philosophers. matrix or primordial root. of its nature. their in synthetically presentto Him in integral knowledgeand He knows directly all which is in no way distinct effectsin the principial total cause. In the cosmicorder this can be applied to the phases of 'in-breathing' occurring in respectof eachcycletaken separately.that is to sayof all the states is omnipresentIsinceall is He principlel. as'knowing differentfrom AtmA. apart from the special viewpoint of manifestationand of the various conditioned states the intellectis not which dependupon it within that manifestation. by His expansion in the indefinite multitude of His possibilitiesland the end [apyaya. MarySukya Upankhad t6. of manifestationcomprised worlds'. everythingbeing comprisedwithin its own possi'Knowledge of the Self' that Beatitude bilities. Thus.whereas it is the subjectthat knows under the action of the object. 'outwardness' of Ishvara:in Himself the latter ifestation'is only the is independentof all manifestation. facultiescorresponding to the being'svarious states.tl He is the sourcelyoni. who. and it is in that resides. .and which again is fully in agreethis is moreover implied by its'reflective'character.one will be obligedto saythat the universal presence at leastrelis passive. if intelli-' the genceis taken as inhering in the subject(although its'actuality' presupposes of two complementaryterms).by His return into the unity of Himself] 12of the universality of beings[beingHimselfUniversal Being]. knows all effectsby that very fact. well sinceHe is Beingitself:and everythingthat is saidof Ishvara. influenceof Purusha. at the sametime asprinciple or first cause]of all [that existsunder any mode whateverl.r3 found in the effectsthat was not to be found in the causefirst of all.while the individual intelligence Intellectis essentially atively so (even though it is also active at the same time in another respect).is transposed which is co-extensive in formless manifestation. This'inward governor'isidenticalwith the'UniversalRuler'referred to in the Taoist text quoted in an earlier note. these terms are therefore not employed in the samesense that they must bear asconstituentelements of the Hindu Tribhuvana. The Far-Eastern tradition also saysthat 'the Activity of Heavenis actionless'. that is to say it knows all things in an absolutely direct and'non-distinctive'manner. accordingto its terminology.can be said equally of Prdjfia. strictly speaking This one fPrAjfia)is the Lord llshvara)of all lsarva. 'out-breathing'and 12.which is identifiedwith Him. residfrom Him].knowing itself. Lastly.1OO MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE srATE oF DEEa sLEEp oR coNDrrroN or en. and Prajfia is also Ishvara. ment with Aristotle'stheories.for there then distinct from it.to Whom the kdrana-sharlra 'triple manIt can alsobe saidthat the kimurti or properlybelongs.

sinceIt is without any limit].when consideringthe first three states.it could alsobe saidthat the first two amount to no more than a third of Being. MaryQukya Upanishad t.the Supreme The sagesthink that the'Fourth' [chaturtha). v\.sincethey only contain formal manifestation. dreaming. lmahattara)is the Fourth s of Atma: the greatest arethe four state with one of Its feet.7. (ii) the totality of the possibilitiesof non-manifestation (of which moleover we for they are obviouslybeyond only speakin the plural by analogy.awhich knows neither internal nor externalobjects Iin a distinctiveor analytical sense]. since.l Thus. It dwells lTnrryal. and indeednon-perceptible by any faculty at all].If Brahma wetenot'without parts' (akhanda)it might be saidthat only a quarter of It is in Being(including therewithuniversal manifestation.when the states from the metaone ered distinctively. since It cannot be qualified by any particularattributeor determination]. and absolute.and consequently [prap absolutelyand totally free from the specialconditionsof any mode.being neither knowing nor not knowing.whichmeans'foot' can alsomean'quarter'' .incomprehensible It comprehends alU. is invisiblefadrishta. and from that sameviewpoint the last is three in itself. infinite.like everythingbelongingto the'Fourth' (insofar asthey are manifested they belongto the asmanifestable theybelong to the first two states: third state. while the third state by itself amounts to two-thirds.such WarrNc. and which therebylimits 3.evenwhen considered in all its universality. Maitri UPanishad 2.fundamental essencefpratyaya-sara)of the self lAtma present in all the states]. the unique.It is essential to note that only possibilities of manifestation enterinto the realm of Being. multiplicity and even beyond unity).deep sleep. actionlesslavyavaharya.'assuredly that which is Chaturtha.2These three other quarters may be in the following manner: (i) the totality of the possibilities regarded ol manifestation insofar as they are not manifested. indescribable [avyapadeshya. which is universal possibility. Similarly. Pada. (iii) and lastly.in language. lagrdhya.fullness of Peace and Beatitude.three feet in the last. lthus] It [Itself. In the first three Brahma has.s It will be noticed that everything concerningthis unconditioned stateof Atma is expressed under a negative form: it is easy to understand why this must be so. The two words chaturtha and Turtya bear the same meaning and apply to the one identical state:Yadvai Chaturtham tat Turiyam.total.since It cannot be clothed in any form].principial in relation to the two former). 5. 4. which togetherconstitute the realm of Being. in Its changeless identity].subsisting thereforein an absolutelypermanentand unconditionedstate. 4 3) . indefinable [alakshana. sinceit includesboth formlessmanifestationand unmanifestedBeing. that is Turlya' (Br ihaddranyaka LJ p anish ad v . everydirect affirmation is necessarily particular and determinate.the affirmation of somethingwhich excludes somethingelse.2l.3 L5 THE UNCONDITIONED STATE OF ATMA and that which is beyond. the proportions previously establishedfrom one point of from anotherpoint of view: of the four feet view are found reversed of Atma areconsid(padas) of AtmA.of which It is the principle) while Its three other quarters are outside Being.outsideof and independently must be known. of existence whatever].since.without any trace of the developmentof manifestation ancha-upashama. nor the former and the latter takentogether[regarded syntheticallyand in principlel and which is not [even] a synthetic whole of integral knowledge.THE uNCoNDrrroNED srATE oF ATMA 1o3 Principle of both.only havethe importanceof physicalviewpoint. without duality:rt is Atma of any condition].thefirst three. unthinkable lachintya.

participates in both alike.1O4 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE UNCONDI?IONED S?hTE OF ATMA 1O5 the object so affirmed. I l.Treatise the last two chaptersof which resemblethe text we havejust quoted in a remarkused.then. the passage alreadyquoted from the Bhagavad-Gnd xv. what has been said of speech(vach)is then succes_ sivelyrepeated. lchuong Tzu.that from which all others proceed. tive. Our point of view in the present instance is purely metaphysical.and it would certainlybe difficult to justifr it seriously.3-5.mentalfaculty. can also apply from the theological should be added that the sameconsiderations point of view. 7. It should be realizedthat That which is not manifested by speech[nor by anythingelse]. in their real sense. It is superiorto what is known [distinctively.e nor speech. we are no longer in unity but in beyond Being for the reasonthat we are beyond all determination. cf. 'The Principle is reachedneither by sight nor by hearing. expresses in reality the negation of all limiq it is thereforethe equivalentof total and absoluteaffirmation. herewe are but derived. and in the selfsame t.12 9. the eye standsfor the facultiesof sensation and speech for the faculties of action.outsideall individualization and all manifestation]. if only therebyto proclaim Its absolutechangelessness and the impossibility characterizing It by any positiveattribution whatsoever). accordingas the point of view refersto the . or in that are those who haverecognized other words that only attributes which are negative in form can properly be on MysticalTheology. like subtle objects.by nature and function. Similarlp the Koran saysin speakingof Allah: . which comprisesor embracesall particular affirmations.because 'the comparisonto this is an unexPected fourth dimensionof the mathematicians'.r-r.but by which speech is manifested las well as everything else].a negation:7 tion which is a true affirmation and the apparentlynegativeterms pre-eminentlyaffirmawhich we find here are. zz.with which unconditionedAtma is identicalJ. 'non-duality'. but this explanation.'. we haveseenabove that manas. even down to the expressions the immediateprinciple of the manifested(which refersto the state of Prajfia): but It is the principle both of the manifestedand the unmanifested(although this supreme principle can also be said to be unmanifestedin a higher sense.It cannot be expressed in sensiblemode by words.there 'negativetheology'alone is strictly valid.The eye cannot reach Him. 12. Kena-upanishad r . one with pure Being]. Brahma [in Its Infinity]. Cf. taken in the sense that we havejust explained.microcosm'or the'macrocosm'] or'that' [Ishvara or universalBeing itself.p39). saythe least.Brahm4 cannot be reachedby any individual faculty: tt i"nrrot.Everything that can be exto the pressed by meansof an affirmativeform belongsof necessity realm of Being. FatherWieger's translation.ll such is the teachingthat we have receivedfrom the wise men of former times.s (vyakta)nor unmaniIn Itself. which has a similar form. to say. which Paramdtmd'transcends the destructibleand even the indestructibl. are whence all others the first of numbers. nor conceivedby thought.or. . chap. gross objects. and not what is looked upon [as an object of meditation] as 'this' [an individual being or a manifestedworld. in shrutis 6j. or superiorto the manifesteduniverse] and It is even beyond what is not known [distinctively.the eye does not attain to.. Saint Dionysius the Areopagite. i.sinceit in any way.precisely 'non-distinctively':and it is in this mannerthat UniversalPossibility contains absolutely all possibilities.6Everydeterminationis a limitation.. ascribedto God.Atma is neithermanifested as the unmanifested at leastwhen one only regards fested(avyakta). in other words.rg. It is for the samereasonthat this stateis simply called'the Fourth'. sincethis is itself the first affirmation or the first just as unity is determination. has cannot be characterized the orientalistsand in this connectionone can mention a curious example escaped 'the Fourth' of their lack of understanding:Oltramare imagined that this name it remindedhim of showedthat a'logical construction'only was intended. 6. nor in ideal mode through mental images. about the . although the latter ordinarily keepswithin the limits of Being. So alsothe word'Infinite'. able manner. l0' Here.or beyond the unmanifesteduniverse.nor the mind:I' we do not recognize rt [as comprehensible by aught other than Itself] and it is for this reasonthat we do not know how to expoundIts nature[by meansof anysort of description]. but it 8. evenprincipial.but which is not any one affirmation to the it impliesthem all equallyand because exclusionof others. Spinoza himself has formally recognizedthis truth: Omnis determinatio to mention that his application of it is more negatioes4but it is hardly necessary reminiscentof the indetermination of Prakritithanof that of Atma in its unconditioned state.be perceivedby the senses. It lthe supreme Brahma.according to -th. that is it is the negationof a determinaconsequently.although quite plain. lik. destructibleis the manifestedand the indestructibleis the unmanifested.

of everything capaand definiteknowledgeis possiblein respect in but it is not possible ble of becomingan object of knowledge: is That object.one can neitherasknor makeanswerwhat Itis. Here again.that which is uttered is not It. to know It [in Its manifestations]is not to know It [as It really is]. Concerningthe Principle. Kena Upanishad II. as in the condition of Prdjfia. I know It [according to the instruction I havereceivedconcerningIts nature]. Father Wi eger'stranslation. Inaction said: I know the Principle. The Infinite wasright in sayrng that It knew nothing about the essence of the Principle. He who thinks that Brahma is not comprehended [by any facultyl.that which is seenis not It.la lute and supreme M. and He comprewithout [however] this comprehensionexisting in any hends His own existence manner whatsoever.15 15.for It is the [total] Knower.analogically' essential . BrihaddranyakaUpanishadtv.in Its incommunicableessence] is unknown to thosewho know It [after the manner of some object of knowledge. .even relative. The Principle cannot be uttered. Cf.not being imaginable. The Principle.and the Knower them all within Its infinite compreother things [encompassing UniversalPossibility].I3 Neither canit be said thatBrahmaisableto become an object of knowledgefor anything other than Itself' knowledge sinceoutsideItself there is nothing which can possess in absoIall knowledge. be it a particular beingor UniversalBeing] and It is known to thosewho do not know It at all Ias'this' or'that']. saysthe Primordial State. pp 3g7 19 il.hearing(shrotra).. . what you know of Its nature is in reality but little.106 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE UNCONDTT^TONED STATE OF ATMA rO7 addsthe following commentaryto this Passage: Shankaracharya A disciple who has attentively followed the exposition of the that he knowsBrahma nature of Brahmamust be led to suppose perfectly Iat leastin theory]. But how is one to understandthis. in the same become'all-known'.vitalbreath (prana). way that fire can burn other things but cannot burn itself [its Brahmars nature being indivisible. that it is by not knowing It that It is known? This is the way. The Principle cannotbe seen. absolutelynothing. in spite of his apparentjustifian erroneousopinion' iation for thinking so. [The reply is asfollows]: I do not think that I know It.but canwith hension..just as. but he who thinks that Brahmais comprehended[by some sensibleor mental faculty] knows It not.this answeris superficial.]. an such become the caseof That which cannot know can Brahma.one cannot evenmake the principial distinction.Whoeverasksquestions about the Principle and answers them. that existsapart from Him [Allah].' Henceit is saidin the succeeding passage of the text: If you think that you know lBrahmal well. which would be anotherItself]. (ChuangTzu. but.andlastlyaboutthe. and yet I know It. Here is an almost identicalTaoisttext:'The Infinite 'I said: do not know the Principle.5. cannotbe described either. Brahma Iin Itself. that which is heardis not It.'verily that Man knows It. .kshus). chap. by him Brahma is comprehended [for by the Knowledge of Brahmahe hasbecomereallyand effectively identicalwith Brahmaltself]. .The Principle cannot be heard.without duality.this is nevertheless of everytext concernmeaning In actualfact the well established ing the VedAntais that the Self of every being who possesses Knowledge is identical with Brahma [since through that very Now a distinct Knowledgethe'supreme Identity' is realized]. both show that they do not know what the Principle is. by that I mean to saythat I do not know It well [distinctivelSasI should know an objectcapable of being describedor defined].this answeris profound. for this reasonBrahma should be still more attentivelyconsidered by you. r-3. Not to know It is to know It [in Its essence]. Whoever among us understandsthe following words [in their true meaning]:'l do not know It.betweena subjectand an objectwhich are nevertheless'the 'all-knowing' in order to to be Itself and It cannot cease same'. be 13.. nevertheless.which is identical not make Itself the object of Its own knowledge [for' in Its identitS which is not the resultof any identification.being but a participation knowledge].r4:'How could the [total] Knower known?' a comparisonwith the following phrasefrom 14.Inaction was able to saythat it knew It as regardsIts external manifestations.zz.one can establish 'd-Din ibn al-Arabi:'There is (Inity of Mu[ryi (RisAlat-al-At\adiyah) on the Treatise nothing.

and (conversely)the mdtra. of which he makeshimself the centerby virtue of that very knowledgeand by the identification it implieswhen onceit is fully effectivel. in formal manifestation. of sound from its first modalitp just asthe subtlestateis. whose seat is in the waking state. is [represented by] ttt.because it is the measure fmiti. and none of his descendants of spiritualposterity]lwill be igno[in the sense rant of Brahma.syMBoLrcAl REPRESENTI{T/oNoF ATMA ro9 L6 SYMBOLICAL REPRESENTATION OF ATMA AND ITS CONDITIONS BY THE SACRED MONOSYLLABLE OM with the coris concerned Upanishad Tns nnsr oF rHE MAryQukya its elements and Om monosyllable respondenceof the sacred (padas): it explainson the (mdtras)with Atma and its conditions and.alike by its nature and by its position. the secon d matra. Prdjfia. and he becomes the first [in the realm of vaishvdnara or of virdj.is [represented Vaishvdnara.through his identification with vaishvdnara.with all things.all sensible objectsbecomedependentupon him and form an integral part of his own being].by reasonof the identification with Hiranyagarbha. both of the alphabet and of the monosyllable om. and M.s [of Om] arethe conditions lof Atma]: these areA. just as vaishvanara is presentin all things in the sensible world and establishes their unity]. which is This Atmd is represented in its turn by letters lmatrasl. . He who knows this in truth advances along the path of Knowledge[by his identificationwith Hiranyagarbha].is [represented by] u. the expression has a more particular connectionhere with the 'World-Egg'and the ryclic laws. being as it were immanent in all the others. In this sense. because sounds.thatis to say.which are varied modifications of it and which are unified in it.the bol and on what it represents. on one hand the symbolicalreasonsfor this corresPondence the symboth on bearing meditation of the other hand. He who knows this verily obtains [the realization of] all his desires[since. it is intermediatebetweenthe two extremeelementsof the monosyllable om. and [beingthus illumined] he is in harmony [samdna.sandhyd.must be accomplished]. of l. U. 'support' for attaining to knowledgeof former playing the part of the latter. utteredby the organsof speech in their normal position.asthat would carry us too far from the subjectof the presentstudy: by the [supreme]syllableOm. the effects that is to sayon Om and on AtmA. the third matrd. [in such a way that] represented the conditions lof Atmal are the mdtrds lof Om]. just asthe dream stateis intermediate. it is the connection lapti.between waking and deepsleep]. for he beholds the manifested universe as the product of his own knowledge. but it will not be possible commentary.asvaishvdnara is the first of the conditionsof Atma and the basis starting from which metaphysical realization. which cannot be separated from him].the seatof which is in the stateof deep sleep. for the human being. of all by] R. the seat of which is in the dream state. the first mdtra. the primordial soundA. Thijasa.We will now give the translation of this final portion of it with a complete to accompany the text. and also because it is the beginning fadi.because it is the elevationfutkarsha. of a more exaltedorder than the grossstate]and alsobecause it participates in both [ubhaya.

4 into rediscovered.by concentrationin of manifestationof his being are where all the states personality. 'Self' or his own the final term (of all things. Cf. of the manifestedand the unmanifested. who is supposedto be the author of the formula we havejust quoted (transposing the sense in order to apply it to'UniversalMan'). aswell asbecause tor is the measure ascontainingthe synend [of the monosyllableOm.the third is the attainment of the supra-individual statesof being.s and absolute As for the effectswhich are to be obtainedby meansof meditation (upasana) upon the monosyllable Om. but nevertheless 'dimensions'or special limitative conditions.o. and finally the fourth is the realization of the'supremeIdentity'.8-tz. conceivedas the deierminani'. also Chhandogya t t. and not in the individual state. considered conunmanifested the that thesisof all sounds. even of the principial determinationwhich is Being itselfl. Concerning the meditation on Om and its effectsin various orders.the geometricalfiguresthat are a straight line' a semi-circle(or to the three mdtrd. and that the latter so to speaklosesitself in the final nasalsound of rn. it can be said truly that'man is the measureof all things. particularlySaint Paul. without howeverbeing but on the contrary prolonging itself indefinitelS evenwhile aitogether. if by'measure' is meant a determinationby specialconditions of existence. and afterwardin itself and independently of its matras. wascertainly very far from havingattainedto this conception. we will merelyremark that in Hebrewthe divine nameEl is relatedto in the Hindu tradithis symbolism in particular.characte rized' Iamatra.3 and he becomes is the of which pure Being ence.I1O MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA SYMBOLICAI REPRESENTATION OF ATMA 111 the two other matrds.'transformed' permanent 2.in the sameway and in principle. Were it not to involvetoo lengthy a digression.This aspectof Being is described theologyit is the in Christian Himself'. it goeswithout sayingthat the Greek sophistProtagoras.rporrd respectively rather an element of a spiral).as in a mathematicalratio the denominait is the of the numerator]. and a point.u-. the supreme 'Self']. whereas. that is to say the of devtid state It will alsobe noticed that the point is the primordial principle of all unmanifested.2 identicalwith the essarily of truth the measureof this whole [that is to saythe aggregate 'three worlds' or of the different degrees of universalExistthe 'determinant']. 4-5. asthe locus EternalWord considered Dragon likewiserefersto it.that assuredly is Atma [in Itsell outsideof and independently of any condition or determinationwhatever.. for us. .relativelyto the three worlds.the third. further indications can he found in the PrashnaUpanishad tJpanishad v . unconditionedtherefore]: it is actionlessfavyavahArya].synthetically modes:the latter can indeedbe considpossible with its diverse from which it wasnever eredasreturning into the unmanifested.of thosethings which are insofar asthey are.Furthermore.r Cor. one cannot speakof a'measure'of the unmanifested. the formless unfolding. the first symbolizesthe complete unfolding of manifestation.ineach of its threematrasto begin with.that +l tt is only in this stateof universalization. to sap metaphysically.as will be readily understoodby thosewho know the relationshipexistingbetween'Universal Man' and the Divine Word (cf. by subsists who or'He as Svayambhil tion symbolismof the the Far-Eastern possibilium. which can only attainto a stateof the'Self' and not to Paramatma. which may be described in the following manner:the first is the full developmentof the corporealindividuality. the secondis the integralextensionof the human individuality in its extra-corporeal modalities. strictly speaking.he only meant to express by it what the modernswould call a radical 'relativism'.a state of envelopmentrelative to that still developedor manifested. r5) 5.abounding in Blissand without duality lshiva Advaital: that is Omkdra [the sacred monosyllable considered independently of its mdtrdsl. In order to understand the s)'mbolism we have just indicated it must be borne in mind that the soundsa and u are combined in the sound o. r"uyih"t this makesof the point a natural symbol of pure Being' it would be possibleto enter 3. we will only add that theseeffectscorrespondto the realizationof different spiritual degrees.s . He who knows this enters verily into his own 'Self' by meansof that same'Self' [without intermediaryof any order whatsoevetwithout the use of any instrument such as a faculty of knowing. the whole of the manifested tains. possibilities).On the other hand. without any trace of the developmentof manifestat ion lprapancha-up ashama]. suppressed becomi"g indistinct and imperceptible. unmanifested the Ih. in its own order the true and indivisible unity' in geometricalfigures. distinguishedsavein a contingent and transitory manner: the and the end is necfirst causeis at the sametime the final cause knows this is in who He principlel. it implies somethingquite different.the second. MaryQukya Upanishadt.. . nature concerningthe linguistic of a considerations interesting into a number of 'ontological subject' and 'universal expressiongiven to Being. and of those things which are not insofar asthey are noti that is The Fourth is'non. like thosedefining each stateof manifestation.for in applyingit to the individual human being.F7. although.representing is the principle of all statesof manifestation.

appears suffrciently well definedby the fact that it is the statein which we find ourselves at the presentmoment.which must needs modalitiesof that individuality. and in the other case because it is an essentially unified and'non-distinguished' state). in rhat case.that is to sayto the considerationof the consequences for that being of death or-to explainmore precisely what we mean by that term-of the dissolution of the compound which we have been discussing and which constitutesits actual individuality. It should be observed moreover that when this dissolutionhastaken placethere is strictly speaking no longer any human being left. are strictly and essentially involveadmitting that the subtlestatecomesto doesnot necessarily moment of bodily deathand simply asa result an end at the precise of the thereof. In all .THE POSTHUMOUS EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BEING n3 L7 THE POSTHUMOUS EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BEING So FAR wE HAVE BEEN coNSIDERING the constitution of the that it on the assumption human being. three are regardedas contributing to make up the subtleform (whereas one only correspondsto each of the other two conditioned statesof Atma. the solecase where it is still possibleto call the being in a certain sensehuman arises when.of course. that go to make up as a compound of the variouselements subsists of its individual life. its nature.it remainsin one of thoseprolongations of the individuality to which we have alreadyalluded.that is to sayduring the continuance which properly to emphasize the fact that the states It is necessary belongto the individual as such. the possibilities corresponding to it having completed the whole cycleof their development).afterbodily death.eventhough we confine our viewpoint to the realm of purely human possibilities only.on the contrary. and this is a further clear proof of the complexity of the statein which the'self' usesthis form as its vehicle. among the five envelopesof the 'Self'. that only the extra-corporealmodalities of the integral of human stateare includedin it and not the other individual states states of the living man. for its part. in the one casebecause it really is only one particular and determinate modality of the individual. we havenow to turn to the questionof what is commonly called 'posthumous the evolution'of the human being.aswell asits differentstates.a phasethe for by the intermediof which is quite naturallyaccounted existence true that it ate position occupiedby the subtle state.it thereby acquiresa precisemeaning solelyby contrastto the latter statewhich. in a particular senseand in certain may be necessary to envisage. although the individuality is no longer completefrom the standpoint of manifestation(sincethe corporealstateis henceforthlacking.It is. that is to sayto the extra-corporeal but such a prolongationis in no wise identicalwith the subtlestate asit existedduring earthly life.but alsothe subtlestate(provided. This the being).we shall seelater on that a passage being into the subtleform takesplaceat that moment.asis obvious.that is to saynot only the grossor corporealstate. but this passageis only a transitory phasein the reabsorptionof the individual facultiesfrom the manifestedinto the unmanifested.a prolongationand evenan indefinite prolongationof be referredto the subtle. since it is essentially this compound which constitutes the individual man.it will have been observedthat. and this complexity must always be borne in mind if one is to follow the descriptionof the differentaspects from which it can be envisaged. It must in fact be clearlyunderstood that under the single heading of 'subtle state' we are obliged to include extremelyvaried and complex modalities. cases at least. Furthermore. nevertheless certain of its psychic or subtle elementssubsistwithout being dissociated. however. takenasa starting-point and term of comparison. the human individuality. it is for this reasonthat we have taken care from the very beginningto point out that the term'subtlestate'should always be understoodrelatively to the corporealstate.

if one were to placeoneselfoutside the specialviewthe interconnectionof the point of a given statein order to observe with one another. Theseconsiderationsrelatingto birth and death are moreoverapplicableto the point of view of the'macrocosm' aswell as to that of the'microcosm'.it is grated in the totality of a more comPrehensive accordingto the that'specification'. they that apparent once at becomes of state.for of their development the in modalitiesare regardedas constituting.readersmay nevertheless cycles. or the transition from one to the point common to both states is alsotrue.2 The expression'posthumous evolution' callsfor certain reservations. our views upon thesequite recentidealsof tunities for expressing 'progress' which.l Finally. In the first place. l. it would be possible to apply theseterms but only in this sense.but pertains exclusively itself subjectto the lirniting conditionswhich define that domain.death being conceived as the dissolution of 'evolution' clearly cannot be the human compound. particularlyimportant to add (that is to sayin usedthe exPression in which we have already sense suchasthe human speof attachmentto a definitespecies the sense upon a being. being takento define in what respectit is used and within what limits. in order to becomesomething so be to ceased has merly human it becamehuman by passbirth else. possibilities. Indeed. given a of modalities various the ferent plane. In this sense. asapplying solelyto individual man.it would be seenthat they constidifferent states death to one statebeing at the tute strictly equivalent phenomena.which has almostconverted We havealreadyhad ample opporit into a synonymfor'progress'. sametime birth into another. the samemodification is either death or birth accordingto the stateor cycleof existsinceit marks the exact encein relation to which it is considered.a the word'evolution' but we arewell awarethat in modern language hasacquiredquite a differentmeaning.IL4 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE POSTHUMOUS EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BEING 115 the being cannot anylongerbe calledhuman sinceit has other cases passed out of the state to which that term appliesand into another thus the being which was forstate.it is to sayas changes are modifications which correspondanalogicallyto one another. but it is 'transformed'. the possibilities constitutingit subsistin principle in a permanent manner. it may truly be it reallydisappears said that on re-enteringinto the unmanifested or ceases to exist qua individuality: it is not annihilated(for nothing that is can cease to be). thus conditions general cies. and what is here true for differentstates wherethose state. though gather some this is not the placeto enlarge on this theme. This must obviouslybe true. there is no questionhereof the analogical transpositionthat makespossible the conceptionof 'Universal Manl 3. as we havealreadyexplained.togetherwith all the other possibilitiesof the being. through ing from someother state into the statewhich we at presentoccupy. It will be apparentthat in the presentcontextwe are using the word'human' only in its precise and literal sense. . sinceit no longer belongsin any way to the human species.so many secondarycycleswhich are interespective cycle.in the sameway that. beyond all measure. it would be pointlessto repeatourhere. Moreover.which imposescertain constitutingits specificnature)is valid only within a givenstateand cannot be appliedoutside it.3 'involution' an from the particular point of view of the individual.it cannot be saidthat this entailsa destructionof the individualiry in the unmanifested. and indeed. being the beginning and the end of a cycleof individual existence. sincethe individuality existsas such only in manifestation. nevertheless.since understoodhere in the sense we are concernedon the contrary with a reabsorptionof the individuality into the unmanifested this would amount rather to state. because. on a difother.have had the effect of completely corrupting the present-day Westernmentality. by expandingthemselves and'evolution'.In other words. to the two phasesthat are distinguishable in every cycle of manifestation. Besides. 4. being vidual state. reducedto these proportions. the word of an individual development. sinceit is only too liable to give rise to a number of ambiguities.We will merely recallthat'progress'can only validly be selves carealways spokenof in quite a relativesense. cosmic theory of the affect idea of how the implied consequences For this reasonthe being that has passed into a different stateis no longer human. that if birth and death areunderstoodin their widest sense.either individual or otherwise. sincethe principle in relation to this indiis in no wisea transcendent species to the same domain.etymologically theseterms'evolution'and'involution' signify nothing more nor lessthan'development' and'envelopment'. it no longer retains anything in common with that 2.

In themselves exist outsidethe realm of human individuality. cannotbe appliedto it in anyway whatsoever. temporal or otherwise. metaphysical of a particular order and which can only be applied to possibilities point The'devolutionary' limits.such a stateis not among those which are of particular interestfrom the metaphysical point of view since. there can never be any question 'evolution' or of involution' in any Sense whatever.if we feel obliged. that hasa more an expression to adorn with the name of 'scientific'ring to their ears. thus. as will be apparentlater.as concernsthe being regardedin itself and in its totality. the following may be said: if nonhuman statesare spoken of as situated 'before birth'or'after death'.or in other words in a mode of succession which still belongsto time (since we are not concernedwith a statesubjectto conditions other than our own). are in no wise temcannot be situatedchronologically. poral statesand consequently this is true. so long at leastas it is intendedto preserve meaningwhich for the words'before'and'after'the chronological the statesin question. if one stateis the consequence of another. even indefinitely. In this respect it may be remarkedthat.asoccursin deepsleepand in ecstatictrance. the beinglosesthe notion of time when its consciousness hasquit the individual realm.there is a sense in which the notions of anteriority and posterioritymay be appliedquite independently of the point of view of succession. exceptin the in the West. certain outside is not transposable to and it is not possible of view doesnot admit of universalization 'evolves' between two of the realbeing assomethingwhich conceive 'progresses'. this is primarily because they appear so in relation to human individuality.in order to conveythe idea of a passage to make a reservationpreservbut eventhen it would be necessary ing the full relativity of the term since. leavingasidethis last case. may be situatedin 'perpetuity] that is to sayin temporal indefinitude. eventakenin the widestpossiblesense.on the contrary.its either of identity being in no wise alteredby particular and continessential gent modificationsof any sort. sincethey are states which lie outsideits sphereand which do not concernit as an individuality.we are referring to that order. that is to sayof sucthat is in question. A further reservationshould be made with regardto the use of it is only from the particularpoint of view the word'posthumous': of human individuality and insofarasit is conditionedby time that one can speakof what is produced'afterdeath'and likewiseof what took place'beforebirth'.it goes As for the unmanifested outsideall succession. onceit is no longer temporal succession without sayingthat it liesquite state. like ancient thought 'progress'. to refer to that state. which aretruly unmanifested. but the time in question no longer has anything in common with the time in which bodily existence is carried on.it is true. Furthermore. the being.At plete ignoranceof the most elementarymetaphysical 'evolution'of of the sense particular in a might speak the most one to a higher state. time no longerexistsfor it.1T6 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE POSTHUMOUS EVOLUTION OF THE HUMAN BErNG tt7 beganto be spokenof toward the end of absolute'progress'which are pleased the eighteenthcentury and which our contemporaries 'evolution'. sothat the notions of anteriority and posteriority. quite limited in scopeand devoid of any sinceit belongsto that categoryof ideas significance.in which the various statesare interconnected and determine one another.could not admit this notion of that we havejust givento it.from that point of view it is the possibilityof passing beyondindividual conditions which must alwaysbe borne in mind rather than the possibility of remaining in them indefinitely. such conceptionsare devoid of meaning and show comprinciples.Easternthought. Howeverthat may be.this prolongation of human existence preserves for the being the possibility of obtaining'Deliverance' without passingthrough other individual states. Mention must still be made of the casewhere the posthumous statetakesthe form of a simpleprolongationof the human individuality: this prolongation.however.even of those stateswhich include among their conditions someother mode of duration. even during its lifetime. in a fixed definite points or which direction. so long as it remains in either of these states.it may be saidto be posteriorto .at the sametime logicaland ontological. cession. Furthermore. but it is alsomost important to realizethat it is not the individuality which entersthesestatesor which passes through them successively. it is chieflyfor the sakeof taking into accountall possible cases and also because. moreover. that is to sayasan ideaof relativesense secondaryimportance.if they they normally convey. which can only affectone or another of its conditionedstates.

6. that a translationinto a vernaculartongue.thesefunctions being inseparable from life itself. sincethe order is now reversed. Chhandogya Upanishad vt. an understandingof which springsmost immediwhich it relates. texts Eastern of interpretation the in fact very often happenswhere is concerned.to be intelligible.however. that this cessation doesnot always necessarily imply total suspension of bodily sensibility. 7. without as which the summarywould remain practicallyincomprehensible.accompanied in its turn by ull the vital functions [the five vayus. its nearest pretation'.the greaterthe dangerof losing the spirit.T 5. this is a truth of grasping.metaphysically. equivalentwould thereforebe'explanation'or'interble from the other. . where traditional texts are concerned. Colebrookehas given a summary of this kind in his EssaTs rv). forth in the following chapters. being applicableonly within a particular given actual succession state. It can even be said.8.which are modalities of prana and thus return into an undifferentiated state]. a literal translation from and the more one strives an Easterninto a Westernlanguageis usuallyimpossible. followedby the remainder of the ten externalfaculties[the five facultiesof action and the five facultiesof sensation.should correspondexactlyto a commentary written in the actual languageof the text. Speech is numberedthe last when thesefacultiesare considered in the order of their development.2-4. a lack of through simply purely and of metaphysics.here and there we shall the commentart' and alsoto comment upon it in its turn. it must thereforebe the first in the order of their reabsorption. speech.the activity of the externalorgans coming to an end before that of this inward faculty [which is thus the final term of all the other individual facultiesin question. AdhyayaN. manifested outwardly by meansof the corresponding organs. 2.in this connection. just as it is their starting-pointand common source].though it is not distortedby a sysof the Hindus (Essay is extremely tematicprejudicesuchasis only too frequentamong other orientalists. The foregoingremarkshavebeenmadewith a view to forestalling 'posthumous evoluany tendenciesto attribute to the expression of a more to useit in the absence tion (whereit is thought advisable term and in order to conform to certainhabits of expresadequate which it doesnot and could sion) an importanceand a significance to to study thoseprocesses We will now Proceed not really possess.The first Padaof this fourth Adhyayadevotedto the examithe fruits of which will be set nation of the meansof attaining Divine Knowledge. but not identical with thoseorgans themselves sincethey separate from them at this stage]lis reabsorbed into the inward sense fmanasl. defectivefrom the standpoint metaphysicalinsight. on the Philosophy 6. the point of view of is perfect simultaneitybetweenall the states. In such a manner of speakinguseis being made of the temporal symbolism which servesto expressthe entire theory of cycles. which philologistsunfortunatelyseemincapable 1B THE REABSORPTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL FACULTIES WHrN A MAN is about to die. This latter facultythereuponwithdrawsin the sameway into the'vital breath'[prana]. to keepstrictly to the letter. but his interpretation. that there be remembered it must always although. which constitutes a kind 1.lF|r 118 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA it. the ately from all and from their traditional follows is taken from the Brahma-Sutrass havein mind the commencommentary(and by that we especially point out that it is not a literal we must but tary of Shankaracharya). The exposition which foregoing considerations.2 we may add.that in Arabic the word tariumah the one being looked upon asinseparameansboth'translation' and'commentary'. It may be remarked. to summarize it necessary find translation.furthermore this sameretreatof the inward sense is alsoto be observed in deepsleepand in ecstatic trance [accompanied by completecessation of everyexternalmanifestationof consciousness].

separates from the organism and is reabsorbed in the'living soul'. although it is outwardly manifested in respiration.the are only awareof externals.when this 'living soul' is about to retire from its bodily form.the second conditionof AtmAl composed of the five tanmatrasor supra-sensible elementaryessences [just asthe bodily form is composed of the five bhltas or corporealand sensible elementsl.38.but underthese if one may describe of organicconsciousness.a The'vital breath'. besides. play no part in the manifestations of states is in the ordinary it normally it as with in communication since. are ableto presenta simwhen they are ableto manifestthemselves.which is. distinguishingitself from the doesnot 3. ter.that is to saya possibility.I2O MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE REABSORPTION OF THE INDIVIDUAL FACULTIES T2I it so. between factors assignableto statesthat are respectivelyhigher and lower in relation to the human state. It may be noticed that prdna. Nor havethey 'subconscious'and the 'superconscious'. no longer existsin the in point of fact. in itself. that is to say of manifestedexistence in the grossstate]. centerof the human individuality. . owing its origin to the individual confrom the latof which it is a kind of reflection. after death. lookedupon asluminous]. a differentconnection. |ust as.a physiologicalfunction. out of which they all issueand into which they are all reabsorbed]at the final moment [of life in the ordinary senseof the word. the referred cases transferredinto a different state.the'vital breath'issaidto retire into the Light. quite independentof its actualexercise. The organicconsciousness but their chief error is to think that they call the'subconscious'.the individual consciousness being having been of the consciousness real to.accompaniedsimilarly by all the other functions and faculties [already reabsorbedinto it and subsisting there as possibilitiesonly.This organic consciousness in the true senseof the word.wherethere is nothing different from the'Self']: and it is this'living soul'which [asthe reflection of the'self'and central principle of the individualityl governsthe whole body of individual facultiesIregarded in their integrality and not merely in their relationshipwith the bodily modalityl. Consequently[by reasonof this passage into the subtle form. 3. the living being. which does not mean to say the igneousprinciple 'Self'so 5.7 it withdraws. which is compared to a fiery vehicle.3 persistence of certain more or less dissociatedpsychic elements. it amounts to no more than a mere illusion of consciousness' to thosewho of consciousness but it can still presentthe appearance in the sameway that. aswe havealreadyexplainedin ilar and no lessillusory appearance. but it participates consciousness therein in some manner.eventhe most completeanaesthesia alwaysprevent the external symptoms of pain. aswe sawwhen studyingTaijasa. is really consciousin some degreeand what only appearsto be so.althoughthis distinction is in fact purely illusory from the standpointof absolute reality. and the reasonfor this is easilyunderstood. A faculty is properly a power.sinceit would obviouslybe meaningless to say that respiration.s As a king's servants gather round him when he is about to go forth upon a journey.in an individual luminous essence [that is to say in the subtleform. long asthat individuality enduresassuch.in a surgicaloperation.into a subtlestate [in contrastto the grossstate which is that of externalor corporealmanifestation and of which the cycleis now completedso far as concernsthe individual in question]. without evenbeing ableto make a distinction betweenwhat collectionof elements.We will remind the readeroncemore thatprAna and its various modalitiesbelong essentially to the subtlestate. having now revertedto the state of indifferentiation whencethey had to go forth in order to manieffectivelyduring life] retiresin its turn into the fest themselves 'living of the'Self' at the particularmanifestation soul' l1lvAtmA. is in reality distinct from the latter. 7.separated sciousness. we havejust mentioned naturally entersinto what 4. 6. properly so calledwill the individual consciousness circumstances beingno longer of this sensibility.6Accompanied thus by all its faculties[sinceit containsthem and preserves them in itself aspossibilities]. in distinguished between the genuine other words.which is really a supra-individual to which we are alluding is not a state.evenso all the vital functions and faculties[externaland internal] of the individual gather round the 'living soul' [or rather within it. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad rv. the psychologists when all they have really done is to give it a a thing have sufficiently explained the most heterogeneous under that heading they have assembled name.

722 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE REABSORPT/ON OF THE INDMDUAL FACULTIES 723 with an individualized exclusively [sincewe are really concerned reflection of the intetligible Light. support or one go from to is an immediate transition.in practice. of obtainingthat'Deliverance' but it impliesthe possibility directly from the human state. as we have alreadyremarked. that the necessary .but without immediateUnion Brahmabeingthereuponattained]is the fruit with the Supreme of simple meditation fupdsana. sivelyto a statewhich is beyond all change. beyond which a continuation of in the individual human statemay still haveto be taken into account. that is taken to mean that it will not need to pass different from the human state. Brahma-Sutas It is indeedtrue that in order to be fully effective immortalthe case.8 from ignoranc in which An important comment is calledfor here as to the sense in fact have we understood: to be is question in the immortality excluapplies that the Sanskritword amrita pointed out elsewhere by the correwhereas. since they likewise concern the human individuality.2.this withdrawal or this abandonment perignorant the to alike form [as describedso far] is common son lavidvdn\ and to the contemplativeSagelvidvanl up to the point at which their respective [and henceforthdifferent] paths branch. but it is not in that the expression is to be understoodhere. through further conditioned states or to traverse of manifestation. and Easternsense.which. sincea traveler said through city to another even though he may passsuccessively cities. the characteristically religiouspoint of view stops short at the considerationof a secondaryrycle.r-7. really means 9. underrelative that might be supposed actuallyhoweverthat is not stood accordingto the Westernsense: rv .whereby immortality would be rendered 'individual effective.causingeverything that is then containedwithin it to return to the principial stateof This is whv the name'deferred non-manifestation. by which it is sometimes translated. 8. however. it would thus amount to cession.carriedout during life without having been accomPaniedby any effective realization of the althoughthe individualbarriersresulting being'shigher states].is its widest acceptation. This must not be taken to mean. This is not yet'Deliverother cycles ance'.are not entirely destroyed.this nevertheless with what we havejust remarked.and immortality famrita.l0 Deliverance'or 'perpetual' 'eternal'.sinceit may appearinconsistent immortality only is meant. The Greek word cicilvrog and not for it is derivedfrom si6v (the sameasthe Latin aevum).and especially about the conceptionof the'Last fudgment'which is closelybound up with it.that is to saythe limitative conditionsto which the being is subject.in the prolongation of which the being is maintainedfor the whole duration of the cycleto which that state perpetuityproperlyso called). 10. all the more so since.e belongs(which constitutes the being is thus enabled to take part in the final'transformation'whichwill be accomplished when the cycleis completed. e lavidyal muy not yet be completelydestroyed. intermediate several one or of the bodily Furthermore. way that. in the metaphysical can only be obtaineC individual and otherwise. beingabsolutely independent mode of sucof anypossible it is identicalwith Eternity itself.consistingin tradition calls'longevity')under gation of life (what the Far-Eastern degreetransposed'but which a certain to are which conditions alwaysremain more or lesssimilar to those of terrestrialexistence. but this would require a more complicatedand lengthyexplanationthan can be undertakenhere. and when it is saidthat the beinghasvirtually attained immortality.It must be that sense realizedthat the idea of death is essentially synonymouswith a changeof state. this existence would not be possible if the cycleto which that statebelongswerebeingconsidered in its integrality. extension of the mean an merely Westerners word sponding prolonindefinite an possibilities of the human order.in such a beyond all conditional states. an abuse of language to makethis word applyto temporal'perpetuity' or to the indefinitude of any type of duration.which meansan indefinite rycle. sincethe barriers'.actually realized. and which moreover implies a principlesof all five elementsasits combination of the essential imply this withdrawal necessarily nor does vehicle]. and this was also the original meaning of the Latin saeculum(French siecle). Now in the presentinstancethe statedescribedis still an individual stateand it is saidthat immortality can be obtainedtherein. ity. that is to saya reflectionthe nature of which is fundamentallythe sameasthat of the mental faculty during corporeal life. Much could be said on the subjectof the translationof this final transformation into theologicallanguage in the Westernreligions.

we will. and it is associated.7r |24MANANDHISBECOMINGACCORDINGToTHEVEDANTA 'Deliverance (krama-mukti) is given to this possibility' by degrees' is only obtainedby meansof intersincein this mannerDeliverance and not in a direct (conditionedposthumousstates) mediatestages which we shall discuss and immediate manner.ashasjust been explainedlthe spirit [which. without attaining effectivepossession of the higher statesof his being] remainsattached to the subtleform [which may alsobe regarded asthe formal prototype of the individuality.which is reproduced in inverseorder in the return to the unmanifested. with the vital faculties[in the stateof reabsorption or principialcontraction which hasalready beendescribed].come back to this'salvation' and the metabetweenthe religiousnotion of difference to the essential 'Deliverance' physicalnotion of 'deferredDeliverance' is the only kind that can I 1. in this subtleform. 'external' conceptions' and for whom nothing exists beyond to ordinary and questionwhen referring human individuality. attaining'Deliverance' samepossibilityof not attaining it. prr. virtual even obtained casewhere a being. from the fact that its condition still belongsto the individual order. is stilljtvdtmA] of that personwho has practicedmeditation [during his life.consequently.l 19 DIFFERENCES IN THE POSTHUMOUS CONDITIONS ACCORDING TO THE DEGREES OF KNOWLEDGE as we have transposition may not be effectedfrom the religious point of view. sinceit is also must passon immortality. sinceit has left the corporealform and sincemoreover the subtleform must subsistafter the body from having preceded it in in manifested the order of development mode. this does not howevermean that this subtleform must in such a case be exactly .ally speaking. not having possibilityof the same enjoy course will of it which in state. So long asit is in this condition [still individual. the'glorious and the dead' of the'resurrection of speaking when explained alr.ti.ady by thosewho cling this transpositionis not effected bodyl fut. and this can only be the subtle form.if one as in the human state. It goeswithout sayrngthat moreover does not which beings. into anotherindividual it' the exPress may so but also. however. It is admittedlynecessary that there should still be a form in which the being can clothe itself. as in other cases I lateron. human of majority vast for the be envisaled to consider the necessary mean that all will attain it indiscriminately.subtlemanifestation representingan intermediate stagebetweenthe unmanifested and the grossmanifestationand playing the part of immediate principle in relation to the latterl.

eachof which terminatesin a pralaya. the case referredto corresponds to a'reintegrationin passive mode'.likethe cyclethat more particularlyconcerns us hereand reallyconstitutes but one moment of the samsdra.The human individuality. comprisingboth the gross and the subtlestates. for it is containedin Hiranyagarbha pre-exists to be develone of the possibilities of the manifestationof the rycle. the return into the undifferentiatedstate)of the manifested worlds (of the actualcycle.asis the case which are subject it can in no wise be so in the non-human states. in the sensethat it is not yet a stateof the being of which it is destinedto The beingmay remain thus [in this sameindividual condition in which it is attachedto the subtleform] until the outward dissolution [pralaya. there of its bodily modality. just as there is a return from that stateto the individual condition. and the sameconsideration appliesby analogyto the bodily germ. as we have explainedbefore. mental. There is a certaincontinuity betweenthe different states the more so betweenthe various modalitieswhich go to make up the samestateof manifestation.that is to say. being at the given up by the also are consequently of the word.2neiof accountattempt to picture it as a kind of just because it body for the as a'mould' looked upon ther must it be to be the formal prototypeof the individuality at the oriis declared tenwe know only too well the Westerner's gin of its manifestation. even so there can be a return to anothercycleof manifestation for the beingwho is only united with Brahma in passive mode. even in its extra-corporealmodalities. eventhen.This is preciselywhat is meant by the comparisonwith deepsleepasit occurs in the life of the ordinary man.to avoid any possiblemisunderstanding. it requiresall the ignoranceof a'neo-spiritualist'to wish to'localize'the extra-corporealmodalitiesof the individual and to supposethat the posthumous in space. acting as the vehicle of the human being in the dreamstate. not yet existing. Eventhe psychologists existsoutsidethe spatial vidual thought.asrepresenting only virpre-existence is then its but that manifestation.726 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA DTFFERENCES rN POSTHUMOUS COND/TTONS t27 the same as it was during bodily life. that is to saythe whole domain of human individuality regardedin its integralityl. Moreover. but to quite different conditions. the ordinary sense that the'mental faculty'. on) at leastit escapes 'double' the body. for they continue to be associated understoodin moment of death.and all 1. in this respect. Universal manifestation viewed as a whole is often referred to in Sanskrit by the term samsdra.we will repeatonce again.so that we feel it imperativeto warning.but.3 many how and representations grossest the to resort denry to seriouserrors can arisein this way. In other words and to usethe language of certainWesternesoteric just schools. moreover. offer everypossible of the being.can be defined as that condimerely as concerns tion in which the beingis limited by a form. but it shouldbe underdetermined as spatial and stood that this form is not necessarily in the particularinstanceof the bodily state. of course the oped during tual. that the interconnectionof thesecyclesis really of a causaland not a successive order. .As to the from time (although subtle form. are situatedsomewhere states 3.the only mode which reallyimplies a taking possession by the being of its absoluteand final state. all expressions drawn by analogy from the temporalorder must be treatedaspurely symbolical.or indirecognize themselves 2. are Thus the disintegrationof the body involves from their relation to bodily existence.aa dissolutionin which it is plunged [togetherwith the totality of the beingsin those worlds] into the bosom of the Supreme Brahma. in an altogethergeneralway and not the human state. the only kind they are ableto understand. by the disappearance be affected must needs apart for reason existing which have no elements and other psychic. sincethat being is not actuallyin the corresponding state.as a human individual. it may be united with Brahma only in the sameway as in deep sleeplthat is to saywithout full and effectiverealizationof the 'Supreme Identity']. this prototype moreover from the beginning individual birth. if one regardsit asalso pre-existing in a certain sensein the ancestors of the individual in question. condition.whereas genuinemetaphysical realization is a'reintegration in activemode'. not to spaceand time.lWe havealreadyremarkedthat the individual condition itself. 4. if it does not altogetherescape is carried existence in which bodily suchtime is not the sameasthat and that is why one must on no from space. showing that the result obtained by the 'Deliverance' being while in the human state is not yet or true immortality and that its caseis in the final instancecomparable (although with a notable differenceas to the conditions of its new becomethe subtleform. with the body and theseother elementsaswell.ever sincethe origin of mankind on this earth. as we mentioned before. temporal. It is this subtle prototype and not the bodily embryo which in Sanskrit is referred to by the word pinda. that is to sayof statesor degrees of existence.it includesan indefinite seriesof cycles.

it remains. . It is only sensible to is it assimilated quality insofar as specific animating heat [its the igneousprinciple]6 so long as it inhabits the grossform. bodily death into anotherindividual state. at leastvirtually.nr I28 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA DIFFERENCES rN POSTHUMOUS CONDITIONS Lzg cycle) with that of the being who.has passedafter there is this case. 5.is achieved ality. remaining attachedthereto. finds itself for the whole duration of the cycle 'incorporated'S which is considered so to speakin Hiranyagarbha.which must be regarded In both cases to the subtle form. from the faculties] of those who are presentwhen it separates body [after the'living soul'has withdrawn into it]. order canhave from the very fact of which no action of a sensible upon the indinor form. with which he is identified (in an immediatemanner). If 'Union' or the 'supremeIdentity' has only been realizedvirtually.Deliverance. apart from which there can only be an imperfect and purely symbolicalknowledge]does not pass [in successive model through all the samestages of withdrawal [or of reabsorptionof the individuality from the stateof grossmanifestationto the stateof subtle manifestation.'as we shall seepresently. Neither is it affectedby combustion or any other treatmentwhich the body may undergo after death lwhich is the result of this separation. so that it is only through the communication of its propertiesthat the body can also be describedas alive.sincethe statein questionhas nothing corporealabout it. But he who has obtained [before death.and even beyondit. on this subtle any further repercussion which.which thus remainsin the human individual state.'Deliverance'takesplaceimmediatelyat the very moment of death. not having been obtained during life in the in the posthumousprolongationsof the individubody.and which was warmed (and quickened) by it so long as it dwelt there [sinceit is preciselyin the subtle form that the principle of individual life resides.residesafter death] is. by reason of the tie which exists betweenthesetwo forms insofar as they are the expression of states of the samebeing. it doesnot affect the perception [or the external consequently.He proceedsdirectly [into this latter state. immortality then becomes effective. asjlva-ghAnA. which is life (jtva). this animating warmth.but this . from being virtual.where individual conditions are at length entirely suppressed].Vaishvdnara is then one of the namesof Agni.consideredin this caseno longer as the first of the conditions of Atmd. instead of remaining until the pralaya in the prolongationsof the human state.that is to sayprecisely up to the moment of deathl. if it is only regarded asthe principle of manifestation] into Union [already realized. although this may not come about until the very end of the rycle: of which we havealreadyspoken. [in comparison both with the bodily or grossform] imperceptibleto the senses spatial the it is outside asto its dimensions[that is to saybecause condition] and asto its consistenry [or its particularsubstance. with the different modalitieswhich this implies. represented as an inward fire. This subtleform [in which the being.by condition of existence subjectto that special is delimited in the hierarwhich the true sphereof Hiranyagarbha chicalorder of Existence. as previouslydescribed.as we have alreadyexplained. is no vidual consciousness through its longer connectedwith the bodyl. 7. As we have explained before. as soon as it [the subtle form] has left it [although the other sensible qualitiesof the corporealform still subsist without any apparentchange]. which we have used here to illustrate our meaning by meansof the picture that it callsup.the differencebetweenthesetwo cases will be discussed in greaterdetail further on. but as the 'Regent of Fire. which becomes cold (and asa resultinert asan organicwhole) in death. must not be takenliterally. during life in the bodylT with the supr emeBrahma.tuphysical realization.just asa river the [hererepresenting 6.therefore. this is the'deferred Deliverance' asfivatma attached the being. This word.Besides also the casewhere the realizationof higher statesand evenof the 'supreme Identity'.and designates one of his functions and particular aspects. is sometimes identified with Vaishwanara. alwaysunderstoodas separation from the bodyl true knowledgeof Brahma [implying effectivepossession of all the statesof the being through -. which is not madeup of a combinationof corporealelementsl. can also take placeduring life itself if 'Union' has alreadybeen realizedfully and effectively. and then to the unmanifested state.

as changeless sagemoreover implying no changefor the being itself [of the kind implied in the intermediate stages. without limiting conditionsof the beingl and. beyond all limit.13O MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA DIFFERENCES IN POSTHUMOUS COND/TIONS r31 at and all manifestations]. of Enoch. Prashna lJpanishad vr.whence the 'transformation' appearsas a 'destruction'.Name and form (ndmarupa.symbolizPrinciplel. since they still belong to 'becoming']. without however its being possibleto say on that accountthat it hasbeenabsorbed by the stone.absorbedl on obtaining'Deliverance'. is looked upon as the'destroyer'. parts or the was subform form [in the manifestedstateand insofar as that ject to quantity in its various modes].being'undivided'.This water is in fact'transformed'on contactwith the stone. the being is on the contrary dilated.which necessarily include a variety of modifications. Brahma-Sittras rv. sinceit clearlycontinuesto belongto the corporeal order).weighed. I l.12 viewed from the standpoint of absolute realitp which alone remains for it.we haveelseand Elijah.divided) of word for word to this order (except vision (Dan.where. through all states current of existence current] of that its mouth [which is the end or final term becomesidentified [by intimate penetration] with the wavesof the seafsamudrqthe gatheringtogetherof the waters. namely the determiand its subin its essence manifestation individual nation of the ashasbeenpreviouslyexplained)alsocometo an end [as stance.8 in principle and in their suprasensible [all considered human the of the sixteen component parts lshodasha-kalahl m7nasand the ten faculform [that is to saythe five tanmatras. Several commentatorsof the Brahma-Sutras. Mundaka Upanishad rtI.Moses. 8. That is why Shiva. found in permanentmode. 12. It may evenhappen. . it has evaporated into the atmosphere. Commentaryof Rangandtha on the Brahma-Siltras. rr:zo): the Mene.Insteadof being left behind by the being in the normal way.u-Pharsin (counted. where it remainsin a stateimperceptibleto sight.in exceptional without leavments is effectedin such a way that the bodily form itself disappears ing any perceptibletrace.they are all to be this paspossibilitiesl.10 unconditioned forth in the absolutely that the transpositionof theseelecases. His in the Supreme ing the totalizationof possibilities vital facultiesand the elementsof which his body is composed essence]. evena supra-individualstate. I0.8. into the unmaniand action].2.' cal formula:'But thou hastarrangedall thingsby measure (Wisd. The principal modesof quantity are expressly and number and weight.the being is in no wise. Tekel.in this connection. whereas in reality he is the'transformer'.z.5.by transposition.so that properly speakingthere is no death. earthly the composed which therefore. it passesover in its entirety either into the subtle or into the unmanifested state.signifring 'passage outside form']. members.since.sincethe being is henceprincipialstate]. passcompletely ties of sensation festedstate lavyakta. 5:25-28)corresponds Belshazzar's that the first two terms are inverted).at least in the relativesensethat it has lost its visible form (though not all form. of Sol.ehe is set free from the conditions of individual existence [aswell asfrom all other conof ditions applyingto a specialand determinedstateof existence any sort. whererecalledthe biblical examples named in the following bibli9. compareit to the disappearance of watersprinkledupon a burninghot stone.ll similarly. although it may seemso from the point of view of manifestation. if one may use such an expression (which exactly translates the symbolismof steamfrom waterspreading itself indefinitely through the atmosphere).actually. in order to bring out the nature of this'transformation'morevividly [we takethe word in its strictly etymological sense. sinceit has effectively realizedthe fullnessof its possibilities.8-16.accordingto the commonestinterpretation.

one from another.haveno common measure no therefore. precise at the the beingwho.nt " order from their own.having withdrawn into its own dwelling place [the centerof the individuality. this discontinuitywill be of exactlythe sameorder.the outward forms are properly speaking. It should be remarked.there is no relationshipsuch as existsbetweendifferent conditioned states. and the unconditioned statethat is its term.and may be comparedto the useof cerwhich are tain appropriate means.moreover.sincein all cases.whereinit dwellsby reasonof its being.everythingthat enjoysa positiveexistence must thereforebe rediscovered in the Unmanifest.However.r.are alonetaken into account. beforecontinuingour exposition of the posthumous modifications which the human being can undergo. stitutesasit werean advance is gradual (krama-mukti). and this illusion is possibleevenwith regard to stateswhich are actually only modalities of the human state. really identical with Purusha. such as those of Hatha-Yoga.that all these states.. and the which is'Deliverance'.as we sawat the beginning.by way of indicating the esientialprinciple. betweenthe state of the 'undelivered'and that of the . as has already been explained]. and the disproportion between the means and the end correspondsto no more than the disproportion that exists betweenthe individual state. whole of manifestationbeing strictly nil in comparisonwith the which betweenthe states Infinite.SOLAR RAY' AND THE to of what happens ro the examination Wr uusr Now RETURN moment of death. effectiveas a preparation. An analogy might be drawn betweenwhat we havesaid here and what could be said in like manner from the point of view of Catholictheologyconcerningthe clearly understood that 'Deliverance'when realized.by the suppression of the limiting (thereforenegative) conditionswhich are inherentto all manifestation. The 'living soul' [jivatma].h is of quite difi.1 it is intendedto realize l. which alone absolute that state matter how exaltedcertain of them may be when comparedwith it would still seemthat by obtainingthem the being the bodily state. and it is this which allowsof a transpositionof the individual into the Universal.described symbolicallyasthe heart.R RAF' L33 20 THE CORONAL ARTERY . separate to certain higher statescontrue that the passage it is nonetheless it but in that case toward'Deliverance'.takenas the basisfor that realization. this holds good they may be in themselves. howeverconsiderable which those differences so long as the various conditioned states.we will confine ourselves to saying. It hasseemed advisable to draw attention to this point itt order to preventany misunderstanding or erroneousinterpretation. It is by reasonof his very nature and of the conditions governing it that the human individual requiressuch'supports'asa starting-poini for a realization that extends far beyond them.will always imply a discontinuityin relationto the statein which the beingwho obtainsit finds himself and that. is and unconditioned. to is no nearer its final objective.they might be taken for the goal toward which the being must ultimately tend. no matter what that statemay be.{! THE coRoNAr AR?ERTAND Tnr. . 'sorl. with the vital faculties reabsorbed into it [and remainingthereas possibilities.delivered' being.that everything that is contingentinsofar as it is a manifestation(exceprif it be a question of purely negativedeterminations)ceases to be so when viewed as a permanentand immutable possibility. and theseeminentlycontingentmeansproducea resuli *hi.althoughwidely separated in everyrespect from the corporeal modality. in essence and independently of its conditions of manifestation. of a journey and forming so many intermediatebut not the stages beforereachingthe to traverse which it is necessary states conclusive final goal. We cannot developherea general theory concerningthe efficacyof rites.from which it is separated only in sacraments: in the latter also.supports. it is evident that the differences go to make up manifestationmust likewisebe nil in Its Presence. looked upon from the point of view of the latter.although there is certainly no possible meansand the'Union'which thesecontingent between comparison But it must he by using them as'supports'. not being'delivered' represented symbolicallyas has to passthrough a seriesof degrees. The sameis true even for stateswhich are so far superior to the human statethat.. with being still relativeand conditioned.

it is moreoverquite obvious that. it is thereforenumbered among those psychic .while sushumna. We would remind the readerthat herewe are not concernedwith the bodily containingthe air that we any more than with passages arteriesof the blood stream. 6. Upanishad 4. and that is alsowhy it is not represented by any bodily organ.This symbolism is identical with that of JanusBifrons of the Romans. so that the apparentdestructionis truly a'transformation'.the one turned toward the past and the other toward the future. ft is said furthermore that pingalA correspondsto the sun and iQa to the moon. 8. all relation betweenthis and the subtle form has not yet been broken off in the phasewe are now examining. sinceno opening existsin that that althoughthe region of the organism. the apex lthat is to saythe most elevated lotus] portionl of this subtleorgan [pictured asan eight-petalled through which the soul must and illuminatesthe passage shines2 namely' about to be described]. on its left. wherein the organismis represented as the Hermetic athanon this science. there are two this ndd1.which is conditionedby time in the strictestsenseof the word.a to the solarplexusl3 issuefrom luminous]s one arteries lnadrs. breathe. good during physiological It. Besides otherswhich play aparticularly important part (notably as regards 2.apart from the different terminology employed. form (so long as the latter is linked to the bodily form). 6.if the individual is a Sagelvidvdnl.sincein describingthe latter it is still possibleto which held speakof the various subtle organs accordingto the correspondence life.the frontal eyecorresponds to the presentwhich.sincethere is no questionhere of sensible the intelligibleLight.On the other hand. and when succession is transmutedinto simultaneity. The nerve plexuses. and does not extend beyond the limits of this particular and restricted modality of human individuality. these then are related respectively to the two ndds in question. is calledpingald:the other.but when one risesabovethis contingentpoint of view. comparable to the geometricalpoint without dimensionsin the spatialorder. from the point of view of the manifested.it is a reflectionof higher states]. are symbolicallydescribed As for the crown of or againas'lotuses'(padmasor kamalas).is relatedto the'third eye'. there cannot be any duct passingthrough the crown of the head.by virtue of the samecorrespondence we havejust mentioned. but whose real face. the sun and the right eye correspondto the future. closelyresembles H atha-Yo ga. the moon and the left eye to the past. and the vital center [asthe spokes through the crown of the one of these lsubtle] arteries passes of to the higher states to correspond head [the regionconsidered the being insofar as their possibilitiesof communication with aswas seenin the descripthe human individual are concerned. sincethey lie outsideour presentsubject.although in some cases may havebeen forgotten. situated on its right.this is another of those words which must be understoodsymbolifire. the one that gazes on the present. it should be observed previouswithdrawal of fivatma implies that the bodily form hasalreadybeenabandoned.'human alchemy'. Therefore it is a grave error to speak here of 'remembrance' as Colebrooke has done in the essays we mentionedpreviously.even when viewed in the human state.7 but we can only point out theseconnectionsin passing.8 the soul of the Sage. Clearly.16.and it would doubtless of a similar order (the tonpracticesdependingon considerations find elsewhere the deeperreasons sure of Catholic priestsfor example). Katha Upanishad the correspondence in the subtleorder with respiration.their counterpartsin the subtle 3. is neither of the two that can be seen. being in the center. rv.in Westernlanguage. 4.likewise subtle and of a wheelissuefrom its hub]. In the aspectof this symbolismwhich refersto the temporal condition. as'wheels'(chakras) the head.asa result of knowledgeacquiredand of consciousness of the meditatedpath [consciousness belongingessentially to an extra-temporalorder. now we have seenabove that the sun and the moon are describedas the two eyesof Vaishvanara. is a faculty relatedto corporeal existence alone. calledsushumna.and consequently in the practicesof Hatha-Yoga): the one.havea special connectionwith what might be called. It should alsobe pointed out that the principal nddis.r-2. pass[to attain the various states the crown of the head.q I34 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE coRoNAL ARTERTAND THn 'soLAR RAr' g5 I an illusory manner].it plays an important part also in the Islamic traditions concerningthe to be possible posthumousconditionsof the human being. all things abidein the'eternal present'. or. that is why a singlelook from this third eye destroysall manifestation (which is expressed symbolicallyby saying that it reduces everythingto ashes). is but an imperceptiblemoment. in the corporealorder.the presentis seento contain all reality (just asthe point carrieswithin itself all the possibilities of space). By this passage fsushumndand the crown of the head where it finishes]. Brihadaranyaka 5. that is to sayto the frontal eye of Shiva. to be more exact. but rather of a modification of cally. is called ida.who had two faces.memory. and another region of the organism [correspondingphysiologically A hundredand if he is ignorant lavidvanl. 7.6 Vaishvdnarahitis of tion of the members which occupiesa central position. since.

Such'incantation'has nothing whateverto do with the magicalpractices to which the samename is sometimes attachedin the west. as in the opening passage of Genesis)and if it be rememberedthat Ruahhalso denotes air. Knowledgecan be theoretically . The preference for summer. symbolicallyas long as it only amounts to a more or less externalformaliry but effectively when it is conferredin a genuinemanner on one duly qualified to receiveit. whatevermay be the outward means. nor with a religious act such as prayer. extendfrom the artery to the sun [as an indefinite prolongation by meansof which communication.initiation itself is alwayslooked upon as a'second birth'. by reasonof its symbolism. "You must he born anew.who waitedfor the return of this favorableseason for his death. The ray which is connected with the coronal artery is alsocalledsushumnd. 12. sagefrom the Gospel: . ..as we explainedearlieron. which is identical with the spiritual Sun itselfl.i (mudrds).lO The contactof a ray of the [spiritual] Sun with the sushumnd is constant. . that thesecircumstances are alwaysdevoid of any influence upon the posthumous condition of the being. if it be preferred. or. this time considereduniversally: this solar ray is nothing else than a particularization.words or musical sounds (mantras).he cannot seethe kingdom of God. in the contemplation of Brahma.86 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING To THE VEDANTA THE coRoNAr ARTERr AND rnn'sotl. and which have as their effect the production of rhythmic vibrations causing a repercussion throughout the indefinite series of states of the being. 6. z.. . so on. he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. the transcendentPersonality. accordingto which it standsfor Mula-Prakriti. 13' The word'incantation' as usedhere must be understoodas referring essentially to an aspirationof the beingtoward the Universal with the objectof oitaining an inward illumination. has accomplishedthe rites [relative to 'incantation']13 as prescribed by the veda. Wateris looked upon by many traditions as the original medium of beings.la but it concerns thosewho havefollowedthe observances taught by the sa\khya or the yoga-shdstra in accordance 11. an emanationfrom the spiritual Sun. truly. suchasis to be met with in all initiatic as well as religious rites.symbolic figures (yantrasl and.but they haveonly to be considered in certaincases. This. by which the multiple manifestedstatesof the being are linked to one another and placedin communication with Atmd. dvija)ewith the spiritual Grace in this vital center[relatively lPrasadalof Brahma. apart from any other consideration.which resides to the human individual concerned]. emitted from this Sun.and. this pas'. g7 endowed [by virtue of the psychicalregenerationwhich has made of him a man twice born. 6.as an exampleof which the caseof Bhishmais cited.that it travelsby night or by day.5.so long asthe body lasts[asa living organismand vehicle of the manifested beingl: the raysof the Iintelligible]Light. should be sufficientto show that there is no questionhere of a ray of the sun in the physicalsense (for in that case uninterrupted contact would obviouslybe impossible)and that the reference can only be to the sun in a symbolicalsense.in winter or in summer. . Tiuly. 14. unlessone is born anew.whoeveris'born of water' becomes a'son of the Virginl and thereforean adoptedbrother of Christ and His co-heir of the'Kingdom of Godi On the other hand if one realizes that the'spirit' in the text just quoted is the HebrewRuahh (hereassociated with water asa complementaryprinciple. 9. water is UniversalPossibility itself. we havethe idea of purification by the elements. eithervirtual or effective. it is along this route [described as the path of the'solar ra)r']. which is Brahma Itself. is established between the individualitv and the Universal]. . unlessone is born of water and the Spirit. and moreover.however. The conceptionof a'secondbirthl aswe havealreadypointed out elsewhere. by transposition. all the methods in questionarerelatedexclusively to the realm of metaphysicai realization. Chhandogya Upanishad vut.R RAr.psychicregeneration is very clearlyrepresented by baptism.Cf.a'polarization' of the supra-individual principle Buddhi or Mahat. 10. relativelyto the being in questiorr. escapes [freesitself of every link with the bodily condition which may still existl and entersa solarray [that is to say symbolically. reciprocally [in reflectedmode].and who has consequently acquired [at least virtually] the perfection of Divine Knowledge. Chhandogya Upanishad vnt. is one of those which are common to all traditional doctrines."'(lohn T3-7). We say 'virtually' becauseif this perfection were effective. in a higher sense.rtur.12 Everything that has just been said is completelyindependentof temporal circumstancesand of all other similar contingencies which accompany death.ll reachthis [subtle] artery. that can be employedas accessory supports of the inward act.that is not to say. which moreoverwe can but indicateherewithout further development.which are dissociated as a direct consequence of bodily death. 'Deliverance' would by that very fact alreadyhavebeen obtained. .in Christianity in particular.doesnot concernthe sagewho. Do not marvel that I said to you. I sayunto you. elementswe mentioned above. such as g.

is effectedby following the way marked by the path of this ray and retracingit (according to its reflected direction) back to its source. Brahma-Siltras . rv . waning () perfect. in constantcommunication with a ray of the spiritual Sun.ls upon which the effects the restrictionreferred It goeswithout sayingthat. that a descriptionof this sort can apply to the posthumous statesto be passedthrough successively both by thosebeingswho obtain'Deliverance' on leavingthe human state and alsoby thosewho. whilst the latter follow the 'Path of the ancestors'(pitriyana). leavingthe bodily stateafter a preparationcarriedout in conformity.When we remember. that the former follow the of the Gods' yana). starting from the end of the coronalartery (sushumna) and proceeding. however. sequent 2L THE DIVINE IOURNEY OF THE BEING ON THE PATH OF LIBERATION journey to be carriedout durTHn nTvTAINDER of the symbolical ing the process of gradual liberation. the half year when the sun ascends toward the north.it will be evident that there must be two different itinerariescorresponding it is to thesetwo different cases. which is identicalwith that very destinationitself. 15. in the latter case. in fact. up to the final destinationof the being.waxing moon. 'Path (devasaid. will be required on the contrary to passinto other statesof individual manifestation. At what time those who tend toward Union [without having effectivelyrealizedit] quit manifestedexistence. Fire.138 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA of the year are not with which the time of day and the season of the being liberation but have [for the mattersof indifference. day-time.Smoke. O Bharata.2.even though the correspondingrealizationhas as yet only been partially accomplished. either never to return or destinedto return to it.night. I will teach thee. the nature of the means employed at the startingcould haveno influenceof any kind on its subpoint of realization condition. with the methods referred to] an effectiveaction as elementsinherent to the rite [in which they interveneasconditions to be obtaineddepend]. afterthe reabsorptionof the human individuality.Thesetwo symbolical itineraries are summarized in the following passage from the Bhagavad-Gltn. light. for one that has effectively individuality. it is under theseluminous signsthat those go to Brahmawho know Brahma.r7-2r. at the attainment short have stopped that to beings to only applies of the human extensions to of realizationcorresPonding of degrees the limits of transcended individuality.

that is to say of the beings asthe generators who areregarded belongingto the precedingcycle.which is concernedwith the effectiveidentification of the center of the individuality. of which the sucof the actual cycle.moreover.as we have alreadyremarked. and furthermore. by the one they go to return no more [from the unmanifestedto the manifested]. the half year when the sun descends of the is under theseshadowysignsthat there passto the Sphere 'attain the lunar light'] those who later will Moon fiiterally. it moon.2 tain parallelswhich we havepointed out before.which neverexistedsave in illusory mode (the illusion being inherent to the condition itself). 4. while deva-ydnanaturally indicatesthe in.it is premost generalsense. ceases for the being from the moment it attainsabsolute reality.the one bright. a distinction correspondingto that between the deva-ydnaand the pitriydna.this Sphereof the the'cosmicmemory'. and the personalityaloneremainsin its fullness.principially within itself. sinceno being of any kind can passthrough the samestatetwice. since it is the posthumous states that are under consideration here. z3-26. .with the very center of the entirebeing. on-the pitri-ydna.the Sphereof the Moon determinesthe separationof the higher (non-individual) states from the lower (individual) states.ro.the starting-point and the finishing-point are necFor a further . It is for this reasonthat it is sometimessaid symbolically'even (cf' Ariosto' there recovered is earth this on lost been has that that everything Orlando Furioso). the litanies of the Virgin in the Catholic liturgy) and Janua Inferni.swhere all the faculties have previously been reabsorbed into the 'living soul' Qlvatma). everythingelse. which certainwriters. containingall its possibilities in their permanent.dwellingplaceof the Universal Brahma. it follows that on that path the being is not setfree from form. the manent Pathsof the manifested other dim. 5.unmanifestedstate. the latter no longer existsfor the being in question.lana or Diana is none other than the femaleform of Janus.3-7. Bhagavad2. we will confine of the Veda. explicitly deal to necessary be would it developmentof this subject Gta v w . Upanishad in the West' 3. here. that is to sayfrom the individual condition understoodin its since.rruiily to be found in the same order of existence.however.we must again point out that the process in question only appliesthereforein the casewhere that identification has not been realizedduring earthly life nor at the moment of death:once it has been achieved.|4oMANANDHISBECOMINGACCORDINGToTHEVEDANTA THE'DIvINE JouRNEy' oF THE BEING t4l toward the south.owing to that causalsequence of the term origin is the this cessionof cyclesis but the symboh leading to Path pitri-yAna. It is in the Sphereof the the very essence Moon that forms which have completedthe full course of their the and it is therealsothat arepreserved developmentaredissolved.aswe have explained elsewhere when pointing out the ineptitudeof the'reincarnationist' theoriesinventedby certainmodern Westerners.alsoconsiderto contain the root of the nameJanusitself . return [to fresh statesof manifestation]. Accordingto cerciselylor.which definesindividuality as such. with the theory of cycles. it is sufficientto recallthat eachcyclebeing in reality a stateof existence. All that we havejust said can also be relatedto the symbolismof Janus. toward assimilationthereforewith of the intelligible Light.by the other they go to return I againIinto manifestation ]. l. The samesymbolismis expoundedin greaterdetail in various PasTo deal first with the pitri-yana.the individuality disappearstogetherwith all limiting and contingentdeterminations. Brihaddranyaka vt. that distinction.Theseare the two perworld ljagat).z.since the being is from that moment quit of the individual condition. sincein the caseof form as of germsof forms asyet undeveloped.r statesof the being. there is in fact no longer any'living soul' distinct from the 'Self'. ydnais derivedfrom the sameverbalroot i. Ciceroin particular. hencethe doublepait playedby the Moon as lanua Coeli (cf. sages to remarking that it doesnot lead beyond the Sphereof ourselves the Moon. the old form left off by a being not yet set free from individuality and the new form which it puts on necessarily belong to two different states(the passagefrom the one to the other taking place in the sphere of the Moon.'to go' (Latin ire).4 we shalldwell at rather greaterlength upon the deva-ydna. It must be clearlyborne in mind that this reference is to the integralindividualiry and not to individuality reducedto its corporealmodality alone.3it is on this accountthat it Moon represents is the appointed abode of the Pitris. wherethe point commonto both cycles is situated).16. higtr. seechhandogya upanishad v.

w. 'deities') or distributors of the day. also v. AlexandrianGnostics. the Ruler of which is varunatt (ur.'the last part'. This waxing period of lunation is calledpurva-paksha. Ganesha. meet with the namesof elementsin the enumerationof thesesucsinceall the this can only be in a symbolicalsense. as for the Heavenr. representing the totality of formless possibilities.aswe remarkedabove. all thesequestions. Heaven.5-6. cessive stages. although some philologists.then. analogicallpthe lightning flashes beneaththe rain-clouds)._ sentingthe formlessstates. is subjectto 'generation'and this sublunaryworld. Upanishad Brihaddranyaka first partl and the 7.in its relationshipwith the of would giverise to developments temporal divisionswe havejust beendiscussing. a mutation from which the beingwill henceforthescape. which is here reprein sentedin its entirety by the Earth (which. they correspondto the Huris of the Muslim paradise. Kaushitah Upanishad 6. is indeed clearly the same thing as the 'upper waters'spokenof in Genesis. To use the language of the Greekphilosophers..as found in various texts of the being which follows the deva-ydna.and from what has been said concerningthe Sphereof the Moon and its significance. Theseexpreswaning period is called uttara-paksha.7of the six months when the sun is climbing northward and finally of the year. to the Realmof Air (Vayu). 2. in faci.6 ing left the Earth (Bhu.is at the representing too far afield. It may be noted. reallyrepresentsthe'current of forms' of the Far-Eastern tradition. sametime known asthe'Lord of deities'. and Aristotle in particular. the latter is the symbol of ignora nce(avidyd)while-knowledgeis an inner'illumination'. of the month.bywhich is meant herethe Realmof Fire (Tejas).t and vI. that is to say the corporeal world or the sphere of gross manifestation).wherehowever it doesnot remain like thosefollowing thepitri-yana. since.e It passes next into the sphereof the Moon (Chandra or soma).iot wheel.can perhaps Westerntraditions. which represent the totality of formal possibilities. It would be interesting to establishthe concordanceof this symbolical description with similar descriptionsgiven by other traditional doctrines (cf. the greatestinterestand also to most instructive comparisonswith some ancient which can find no placehere.|O abovewhich is the Realmof water (Ap).called Oripuvoq. for no very obvious reasons. 10.and not asreferringto which are literally applicableto the corthesedivisionsthemselves.p. 11. (waxing period or first half of the the bright half of the lunation lunar month).. in passing.that is to sayto a fixed axis around which the rotation or mutation of all contingentthings takesplace(it should not be forgotten that vdyu is essentially the 'moving' principle). we might saythat it will have escaped from'generation'(yweorg) and'corruption' (90opa). which we meet with againhere in the Hindu symbolism. which also symbolizetheseformless possibilities.meantwhen they taught that the sublunaryworld alone 'corruption'.the Thenceit passes porealstateonly.all of which is to be taken asreferringto of thesedivisionsof time (the'moments'spothe correspondences into the extratransposed analogically ken of in the Bhagavad-GnA) corporealprolongationsof the human state.is PrithvT): 'subtle reality. In the Hindu tradition.rc.15. they are necessarily incorruptible. . again on another be takenup Ruler of which (called by the same name) directs it toward the sphereof the sun (surya or Aditya). havecastdoubt on this identity. that this name is plainly the sameas the Greek otpcrvoq. It must be carefully noticed.that is to saythere is no longer any dissolution or disintegration possible for the being which has attainedto thosestates. is first conducted to the light the Ruler (archis). and emerges from the upper limit of his kingdom through a passage rikenedto the naveof u. for example the Book of the Dead of the ancient Egyptians and the PistisSophiaof the but this would take us aswell as the TibetanBardo-Thddol)..l2 as opposed to the lower Waters. This word vidyut also comesfrom the root vid. moreoYer.8 t3. terms that are sFnonymouswith'birth'and'death'whenthese wordsaremadeto applyto all the siates of individual manifestation.'the are also used in another connectionwith a sionspilrva-pakshaand uttara-paksha to an objection totally different meaning:in an argument they refer respectively and to its refutation. in a specialsignificationof d Vakhvdnara of which is Agni.butwhence it mounts to the regionof the lightning (vidyut).lo. The Apsards are the celestial Nymphs.ry. and this para_ dise(RidwAn)is the proper equivalentof the Hindu Svarga-.his symbolism.hu. 12. Chhandogya Upanishad v . the referenceis to different modalities of the From the Realmof Fire the being is led to the different kitgstate'. bhltas properly belongto the corporealworld.r-2. one can also understandwhat thosephilosophers.Ey' oF THE BEING r43 According to the Vedic symbolism. that is the cosmicregionwhere 9.The reference here is to the higher or celestial waters.of doms of the rulers (devatds. occasion. alsocalle that when we that name.after havthe tlpanishads. Knowledge.f I42 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THn'DIvINE /ouRN.by reasonof the connection betweenlight and sight. there can be no further concernwith the latter when once the being has transcended the Sphereof the Moon. in its form it is very closeto vidya: the flash of lightning illumines the darkness. aselement. 8.

Centerwhere Prajapati. such as form the basisof all symbolism.seeBrahmaIv. tain variations are to be met with affectingthe number and the order of enumerationof the intermediatestations.in virtue of the analogical correspondences which interconnect all the statesof the being.in dealing with interpretationsof the kind here referredto. this Svarga indicated ascanbe explainedby the identification is still conditioned.stretchingfrom Earth to the Heavens. in the foregoingnote. sincethe beingthat journeysthrough them is no longer subjectto space). but not a final one.rTIndeed.and it is identified with Svarga.r-6. actualized cerIn the varioustextswhere the'divine journey' is described. of undifferentiated primordial state who.naturally adaptedto the specialconditions of the corporealand human state. and elementary Realmswhich are symbolically describedas so many regions(only symbolicallyhowever. is the principial manifestationand of Brahmaltself in relation to the whole cycleor direct expression to which the human statebelongs.and especially astronomicalphenomena.this region corresponds in the scheme because.the remainder of the journey is carried out through the intermediateluminous region Antariksha. 17. has alreadybeen pointed out. a sort of translationof the correspondingprinciples. are never looked upon by the traditional doctrines otherwise than as a simple meansof expression.however. For this description of the various phasesof the deva-ydna. but only their lesselevatedportion.it still retainscertain ties with that state so long as it has not attained the absolutely is not fully that is to sayso long as'Deliverance' unconditionedstate. Indra. this is really to reversethe true relationship. but rather the universalprinciples which these bodies representafter their own fashionin the sensible world.3. moreover.lsBesides. though in a different form.but they are of slight importance and more apparent than real.its interpretationwill be facilitated by all the illustrationswe havealreadygiven. belonging purely to the corporealrealm. which is the description of the sevenmembersof Vaishvanara). and although formless. sinceit is the one from which the being setsforth. to the realm of of the'three worlds'. therefore in the formless.in this connection. In that contextwe said that it is the medium in which forms are elaborated. are in reality but 16. Lastly.even at the risk of repetition. for it. It will againbe noticed. by taking the symbol itself for what it represents. Natural phenomena in general. 15. including in certaincases the manifestations of theseprinciples in different orders. it is because their laws argfundamentally nothing but the expression of thesevery truths in a particular domain. the sign for the thing or the idea signified. wherebythey symbolizecertaintruths of a higher order. the intermediateregion in question is situatedbeyond the Sphereof the Moon.or who believe that the doctrines in question are only intended to describe anc explainphenomena just as a'profane'science might do.'Lord of producedbeings'. the different worlds (Lokas).if one now understands by that word not the Heavensor higher statesas a whole. because it is absolutelyessential for the understandingof thesematters. here. on the whole. 13.|44MANANDHISBECOMINGACCORDINGToTHEVEDANTA THE'DtvrNE JouRNEy' oF THn BErNG r45 the germs of the whole of formal manifestation are elaborated.this method proved necessary in order to avoid breakingthe threadof our expositionby too many digressions.l6There is one point howeverwhich must be emphasized once again.although in principle only.It must be clearlyunderstoodthat when mention is made. for eventhough it hasbeenset free from form and individuality.r3 the here representing Realmof Indrara occupiedby Ether (Akasha. as resides.how a knowledgeof certain hierarchical relationships makes it possible to apply one and the same symbolism at different levels. that are referredto. and also when establishing concordances with other doctrines.among which a considerable number of those analogicaltranspositions will havebeen met with. Slttras embark upon a more detailed explanation of all this symbolism which will be.It is still necof existence degree essaryto take this state into account. of the traditional as a faithful expression regarded and can thus be our intention to is not it doctrine upon this question.planetary Spheres. the foregoing is the resultof a generalcomparisonof thesetexts account.which has been mendifferentapplication. We will takethis opportunity to apologize for havingso multiplied the footnotesand for having allowed them to occupy more spacethan is usual. and if they do in fact symbolizesuch truths. subtle manifestation. clear enough as it standsto anyone who hassomelittle familiarity with Easternconceptions (we might even say with traditional conceptionsin general)and their usual modesof expression.on the contrary.for example. 14. of the spheres of the sun and of the Moon.It can thereforebe seenhow great is the error of thosewho imagine they havediscovered'naturalism' in thesedoctrines.whosename means'powerful'. is a higher state.in the though with a somewhat tioned already. spiritual the uP to equilibrium). . is alsoknown asthe Regentof Svarga. it is neverthe sun and the moon asvisiblebodies.

therefore.'place'.because and to the corporealworld.maybe deferreduntil the pralaya. In the strictest 'virtual sense. Heaven.Purgatory' and Hell are likewise states' being in that casealso taken symbolicallyto rePresent describedas'places'. It is for this reasonthat the spiritual Center referred to aboveis still only the center of a particular state or of a certain degreeof existence. But.u. asregards the resultsof that identificationdo not extendbeyondits particular which are still condidomain. a kind of that we havealreadyexplainedand with the approach(in the sense restrictionswhich should be appliedto sucha manner of speaking) 'supreme Identity'. which is howeverindispensable. of thesestatescan be obtainedthrough The effectivepossession identification with the principles which are described as their respectiveRulers. as its final term.ls the theory of cycles)is natural to express ism which so often serves enough and in sufficientlygeneraluse as to be unlikely to confuse anythingbut the of understanding ur. evenwhen they reachbeyond it.y.it is worth noting that in the Catholic doctrine. as commonly understood. they are therefore not the sameas thosetranscendent states to which there is no other means of access exceptpure metaphysical knowledge.the deva-ydna.and yet it is through it alonethat the relativesense in 'immortality' justified which religion usesthe word is and that a kind of link or transition can be established betweenit and the exclusively. there is precisely the samedifference 'immortality' 'salvation'. that to which the being as a human being belongedand continuesto belong in a certain manner. a as uPon looked be theoretical. being in its completeand total universalization.le lg.whereas the Kshatriya. they wish to imprison the whole of reality.this last expression lies outside the religious viewpoint.This remark is especiallyapplicable to the 'mystical states'. preParation.r. only constitutes a preliminary stage. which we definedpreviously. eachof theseprinciplestakenin itself and separately. between or understood in the religious (the only sense sense normally taken into accountin the West).the being may remain in the cosmic order until the pralaya without having possession in which true attainedeffective of the transcendent states metaphysicalrealization properly consists. by the pass all to of first have ization of this Identity.because its total universalizationin supra-individual mode is not actually accomplished.it will nonethelesshaveobtainedthat'virtual immortality'. and from the very fact that it haspassed beyondthe Sphere of the Moon (that is to sayemerged from the'currentof forms'). within earth this on limited to existence which.It is at this point precisely that conceptions which may properly be calledreligiousstop short: as theseconceptions alwaysrefer to extensions of the human individuality.146 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE'oIvINE /ouRNEY' oF THE BEING r47 This spatialsymbolism(like the temporal symboldifferent states. . The Sanskrit wordloka is identical with the Latinlocus. the statesto which they give access must necessarily preservesome connection with the manifested world.but thenceforth.one can only speak here of immortality' and. thosewho areincapable realize the never will people most grossly literal meaning.and 'Deliverance'. being situatedin space. such a misconception 'neo-spiritualist' theories that have made their could only have arisen in the in the modern West.theory should only for the correspondingrealization. and this is also the reasonfor sayingthat in such a condition the bonds of individuality are not yet completelysundered. which is that of krama-mukti.s have for preferencepursued the study of the statescorrespondingto the various stages of the deva-ydna as well as of the pitrivdna. and.'reintegration in passive mode'. tioned states.Actually. the ultimate goal attainableby the toward the the realmoreover. and this identification operatesin every case is not merely on condition that suchknowledge through knowledge. for there is never any questionof theseposthumousstates even in the most external interpretation of this doctrine. by the most naive of illusions. as regards the posthumousstates. asthere is betweenmysticalrealizationand metaphysical realization accomplishedduring earthly life.as already transition from eachstageto the next only becoming possiblefor the being who has obtained the correspondingdegreeof effective knowledge. in the presentcase.for thosewho stated. such their conceptionsare irremediably workings of a symbol. It is important to observehere that it is to the immediaterealizationof the 'supreme Identity' that the Brahmins have always attached themselvesalmost Thus. so that the obtaining of such states. appearance 19.

'qualified' (saguna) and. when it is said that the final goal of the Brahma is not the Supreme the World of Brahma(Brahma-Loka). for going. This stage corresponds to the conditionof Prdjfia.a traditional doctrine purely metaphysical suchasthe Hindu doctrine.but by such a transpositionthey lose is bound this character because religiouscharacter. the return thenceto anothercycleof manifestationis still possible.but. admitting that religiousconceptionsare capableof a transposition by meansof which they receivea higher and deepermeaning.but it is no longer attachedby any speciallinks to the human stateand to the particular cycleof which that stateforms a part. andthis state.the being is no longer in the subtle state. It is this which is the nearest equivalentof the 'Heaven'or 'Paradise' of the western religions(in which.up to and including the Brahma-Loka. 23.and we havein fact previouslyremarkedthat the being which has attained'virtual immortality' finds itself so to speak'incorporated' by assimilation into Hiranyagarbha. in that it is identical with that of the Latin creare. ity of identificationwith the centerof the total being. but such a doctrine to cannot attribute to them an importance equal to that assigned if one them by thosedoctrineswhich go no further (the perspective. The word kdrya. . of Judeo-Christian guagecameto be employedfor the expression Hiranyagarbha. the idea of creationasunderstoodnowaits original sense. it retainsa certainconnectionhoweverwith the order of universalmanifestation.first principle of the whole of manifestation. their specifically has entered the one which up with certain limitations. 22.and so on through differentdegrees up to the SupremePrinciple. under its aspect of JanuaCoeli). they should be understoodas meaning all the statessuperior to the Sphere of the Moon (which is itself sometimes lookedon asthe'first Heaven'.At this stage. it is able to situatethem in their exact place in the total hierarchy. and only attacheditself to the word when the Latin lanconceptions. Here againwe are applying the fundamental analogybetweenthe 'microcosm'and the'macrocosm'.is after all but the vanishing of so many'separative'illusions.asit does.for scriptures the reasonthat this meaning is alsopresentin the sacred upon which they are based. 'that which in the future: the addition of the suffix 7a to mark an accomplishment to be made" since7c is going (or which is is to be made' to be still more exact. alteringwith the point of view).148 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE'DIvrNE /ouRNEy' oF THE BEING r49 in which the sameterm is undersense absoluteand metaphysical All this.On the other hand.it but only its deterwhich is intended. we may also include Islam).not immediatelyat all events. sincethe being is set free from individuality (as distinct 2I. This identification of one aspectwith another higher aspect.andit is the beingwho does not proceedbeyond this condition that is describedas united with Brahma.which doesnot placeitself at the point recognizethe of view of the Western religions. 'divine journey' is Thus. this term thereforeimplies a certain notion of 'becoming'.not evenin the purely principial sense. who is Brahma of the Will (Shakri) asthe'effectof the productive such.'that a modification of the root i. simply meant'making'. outside of order.evenat the time of the pralaya. moreover. principle of subtle manifestationand thus of the whole domain of human existence in its integrality. in reference considered which provesthat the latter word.when a number of Heavensare considered(which are often represented by planetary correspondences).zr Howjust asthe centerof eachstateof a being containsthe possibilever. of which Ishvara is properlythe principle.does not prevent us from stood by Easterners. and it must needsbe so. does nonetheless by existenceof the stateswhich are more particularly envisaged those religions. days is of Jewishorigin.'to go'.with is derivedfrom the verbal root kri.considered When Brahmais mentioned Principle'(Kdrya-Brahma). in this case.in the manner of deepsleep only.20 Supreme in this caseHe must be regardedin the first placeas identicalwith 'to make'.in which it may remain until the end of the cycle (Brahmd existing as Hiranyagarbhafor that cycle only). beyond them.which certain initiations representas a seriesof veilsthat drop awayin succession. is what is most usuallymeant by the Brahma-Loka. 20. seeingthat these states effectivelyconstitutepossibilitiesof the being. as mination as Brahma. but is in the unmanifested.so the cosmic centerwhere Hiranyagarbhadwellsis identified virtually with the centerof all the worlds:z2that is to saythat for the being that has passed beyond a certain degree of knowledge Hiranyagarbha appears as identicalwith a higher aspectof the 'Non-Supreme'23 which is Ishvaraor UniversalBeing. presupposes that whateverit appliesto is only to be which necessarily Concerningthe root kriwe will point out to manifestation. may so put it.'effect'.

3. 'deliveredi 'transforming' his action that they are The word pashuis often given a specialmeaning. For in truth this thought be transhere must "sensible" word the for ft.28 'liberated' 'supreme The Identity' is thereforethe finality of the being. obtained 27.comprising (or the possibilithe possibilitiesof manifestation)and Non-Being of the other. the victim being moreover'delivered'bythe sacrifice itself.ideaswhich are only intellireligiouspoint of view. 'Self' (Atma) fully realized human state) is thus is the 'undivided' in its own nature and is then.-I 15O THE VEDANTA MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE'DIvINE JouRNEy' oF THE BEING t5t can from what occursto one following the pitri-ydna). it befitshim not. but this abodecannot be directly attainedby thosewho haveonly meditatedupon Brahma through the medium of a symonly having in that casea bol (prat1ka). 30.to denotean animal victim in a sacrifice(yajna. which.by and the manition betweenNon-Being and Being. Shivais calledPdshupati. who havefailed to graspthe real significance havesuggested some of the sun through only taking it in its purely physicalsense.30 Such is the nature of complete Liberation.which however. being the since different' be necessity of ogy with the human state.7-16. . is essentially a meanscalculated to establishcommunication with higher states. by analdescribed so mad (mdnava-loka).in the case only be a formlessand supra-individualstate.and in such a casethe true goal is no longer 'unqualified' say is to Being but the SupremeBrahma Itself.'Doesthis not conveythe impressionthat it is merelya matter of escaping old ageand attaining a corporealimmortality suchas is soughtby certain contemporaryWesternsects? 28. is precisely that the abodeof Brahma(or of Atma. purely apparent them. . statein Westernlanan'angelic' termed be man to that of u Dirro (or what might to the'world of return is a there pitri-yana the o1 end the at on the contrary. lnthis connection. of the being freed from the conditions of individual human existence as well as from all other particular and limiting (upadhi.27 spheresof the particular statesof existence. identicalwith Ishvara).which thereforemeans. the suprasensible and meaning] literal its to confined not and posed anal.even in summary fashion.from the secondof thesetwo terms is derivedthe word pashu.2e When the man (or rather the being that was previously in the 'delivered'. Symbolically.rr.the liberatedman existsbeyond the world of the sun. . and one ties of non-manifestation). eachmeditation (updsana) definite and limited result.that is. We would howeverremind the readerthat metaphysical immediateprinthe with identified unmanifest (insofar asthe latter is not merely in a total sense understood be can Being).24 'Deliverance'is about to be obtained directly from the where still more is implied over and abovewhat hasjust been human state.at leastvirtually so.d to in the presentinstance'26 *ni. (having chaitanya as its attribute).s). the proper meaningof which is'bond'.f.or medha).f. is only ciple of manifestation. that cycle Finally. and which is far removed from Westernideas of 'redemption' or'expiation' and othersof a like nature. individual or supraindividual. that both Being(or @ir{una) Brahmiin Its total Infinitude. Cf. two terms does not permit of any real comparison between to the agree26. 'By very strangeinterpretations."pounded on the subject of the unconditioned state of It is what i.ydga. from the fact that it is united to the Supreme Essence. guage).but he specifies this consciousness manifests the divine attributes (aishvarya)as transcendent faculties. Universal described.with ihe object of calling further attention the ?ieafrom a quote again once we will Passage ment of the different traditions. 29. Brahma-Sutras w . any living being bound by such con'the it is by Lord of beingsin bondage'.thatis to sayto an individual condition.a correlacase.2s the teachingthat we havealready with ing them both.roita [or the manifestedworld. than further no goes one fested (even if in the latter case betweenthe exists that disproportion the metaphysically since one. To theseconditionswords suchasbandhaandpdsha.5-7. but we cannot think of expoundinghere.although it must passed' already it has which through can neverreturn to a state Non-Being'like the 25. taken in that sense.etymologically. 4. accordingto Audulomi. immense of Mulryi'd-Din ibn al-Arabi:'This tiseon unity (Risalat-al-Aftadiyah) whose soul is vaster thought lof the'supreme Identity'] is only befitting to-him whosesoul is only him for As unmanifested]' and than the two worlds [manifested but does not Being' Universal attains who one worlds two the [namely as vast as the sensithan greater is passbeyond it].r. In any Principle.a theory of sacrifice.or betweenthe unmanifested can only be a Being).applying the sametransposition] just asit is beyondall the third condition.. gible from the specifically w. Brahma-Sutras . conditions which are looked upon as so many bonds. Supreme the with identified it is *ir.ogically both taken together" world [or the unmanifested. because ditions.in this uncondiin this sense the spiritualSun'(which is Atma in its tioned state)is even'beyond from the condition of a it is said that sucha being has passed 24. On this point the orientalists.principle of the while alsoat the sametime containbeyond them both therefore. are applied. an omnipresentconsciousness in addition that the teachingof Jaimini is identical.thus Oltramare writes rather naively: its risings and settingsthe sun consumes the life of mortals. in accordance AtmA.

forthebeingwhoenjoysit.are still conditioned.notalways with conditioned' although ure d. that is to saythat final liberation of the beingof which we havejust spoken and which is the ultimate goal toward which the being tends.Thepossessionofsuchstates.. withstanding their Juirui.]1|ffi:tilJtffitltllli'i.the can find no which order.but the fruit' not of action the simple reasonthat it is the.sincethe points of view of modern philosophy are the very negation .whichareidenticalwiththevarious.which. Theseremarks apply to the supra-individual states aswell asto the individual states.y 1*..'" oilreward' must supra-individual states)."gi.asforthosewhosecon(metabeen putiiul. on no account be westerri-i-J.whereasall the other states. and even the degreeof pure Being itself.which 22 FINAL DELIVERANCE 'DnrrvrRANcE' (Moksha or Mukti).rewa. We are alluding here to the philosophicaldoctrines of antiquity and of the Middle Ages.which must under no circumstances be regarded as the Supreme Principle. so that Infinity cannot be attributed to Being. though primordial and principial.Heavens. It is through Being that all things in every mode of universal existencesubsist. that is to say subject to certain limitations which define them.r.'no"-"'f"-t'-uttording therefore to the one or to the other' rn*o una'ireuis arrr-n described isitserr and kinds. It is herethat one may observe the metaphysicalincompleteness of the Westerndoctrines.although it is beyond all existencein the strict sense of the word.Iike that of of which it is notion of but of Knowledge."t. for . . namely beyond all manifestationboth formlessand formal.and Being subsists through itself.turi*.d..3lbutwithoutbeingabletoarriveforthwithatperfectUnion tance"32 thing as'Delive is one and the same (Yoga).. although active templation (dlryana)has only purely been has incomplete)' or physical realizatio"'"-ui"ing passive(asinthecaseofWesternmystics)'they:ljoycertainhigher states.1-yto the moral the corollary. making them to be what they are and characterizing them asdeterminatestates.rg rt":.differs absolutely from all states which that being may havepassed through in order to reach it. to whether it concernsPara-Brahma as'supreme'o.*. still implies a determination. but to determine oneself is nonetheless to be determined and therefore limited in some respect.in which some degreeof true metaphysics is nevertheless present:lstopping 3l. constitutes.merit' attachedto this u.in spiteof the differencesin their respective conditions.evenof those..moreover.152 VEDANTA ACCORDING TO THE MAN AND HIS BECOMING throughthefullnessofDivineKnowledge.apersonalandPermanentacquisition. thererore or 1.il".quiritiorr. no matter how exalted.it determinesall the states of which it is the principle and is only determinedby itself. ortwo . since it is the attainment of the supreme and unconditioned state. is an iJ.is nonetheless alreadya limitation.it must be admitted.

sense that is to sayin in any statewheresomeform of distinction remains. tendencyto deny that which lies outside their sphereand which.up to and including we haveattributed to that word from the beginning. 'without is prapancha-upashlma. it must be determined by some other condition. i i of Prajfia (or in the posthumousstatecorresponding to that condition).and contingent result. since thesestates are formless. always therefore. if distinction (vishesha) be taken in the sense applicable within the manifested states. It might be saidthat everyaspectis distinguishable from the othersin a certain respect.2 we thereforefind here a kind of principial distinction.which. were it so. Beingis one. and do not refer to the esoteric genuinelyand fully'initiatic'.would no longerbe possible. 'substance' since the first distinction is that of 'essence' and or of Purushaand Prakriti. in itsell it amounts strictly to ence). is only a partial. to in mistakeit for the end is to continuein illusion. eachone of which is coextensivewith Being.is described assavishesha. evenin the formlessorder. is not 'Union' in the full senseof the word. is beyond'separateness'. is precisely the most from the viewpoint of pure metaphysics. important part of all.to the conceptionof the Trinity: eachDivine Personis God. j t t .Besides.and even union with UniversalBeing. but is not the other Persons. could not bc was that a character possessed they as completc limited in this way. nevertheless. but that separation has nothing really positiveabout it.or rather it is metaphysical Unity itself.although none of them is really distinguishable from Being. exceptinsofar as we conceive them as such:yet at the sametime they must be in some way distinguishable for us to be able so to conceive them. 3. question. any trace of the developmentof manifestation'. in the non-individual states. In the individual states.which is not a distinction in the sensein which the word appliesin the sphere of manifestation. and let. since the finite.3pure Being.and that all are BeingItself.the only one by ordinary peopleduring their earthly existeffectivelypossessed true that. all the degrees individual order. metaphysical rally. but which is its analogical transposition. since He is the immediate determining principle of distinction: only the unconditioned stateof Atmd. in the condition accordingto the mode in which it is accomplished and the above statementis as true of conceptionsof a pseudttof metaphysics.it is nonetheless supreme state.I54 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FINAI DELIVERANCE I55 short at Being. as usually happensin such cases. to speakmore accurately.they remain incompleteeventheoretically(without which they leaveout of accountaltogether). the return to a cycleof manifestation. that is to sayit is still only a meansand not an end. referringto realization. that is to sayas'implying distinction'. thus nature. sinceall the states in the illusory themselves are Being. it is impossible for the universalizationof the being to becomeeffective. separation is determinedby the presence of form. they exhibit an undesirable and. our presentremarksonly apply to doctrinesthat are known to the'profanc' traditions of the West.In manifestation. distinction implies separation. That which existsat the levelof pure Beingis therefore'non-distinguished'.on the contrary.but must on the contrary havebeen metaphysically thesetraditions howeverhavc under the twofold headingof theory and realization. and although this result may appear immense by comparisonwith the individual human state (and aboveall by comparisonwith the corporealstate.in Christian theology. although these aspects are not effectuallydistinguishedin it. so long at least world.asIshvaraor universal Being. becoming indefinite through the extensions that is to say through the developmentof its own Possibilities. it is for this reason that even in Being itself a multiplicity of aspectsmay be conceived. while the to relation nothing in of which it is capable. It is true that Beingis beyondall distinction. in anothersense thereis still present an elementthat is'distinguished' 2. secondary.a resultof this kind is only of valueby way of preparation for'Union'. neverbeen known to any but an elite far more restrictedin numbers than in tlrc Easterncountries. sinceit is only a mode of limitation. Ultimately. but unity embraces multiplicity within itsell sinceit producesit by the mereextension of its possibilities. In Scholastic philosophy the samemight also be said of the 'transcendentals'.which is beyondBeing. which constituteso many attributesor qualificationsof it. remainsnothing in comparisonwith the Infinite. their whatever sion of higher states. This can be applied. Natustamp as of those in which the negation is frankly expressed. to the belonging not those including of Existence. Brahma. the taking possesThe acquisition or.

we repeat. is. . namelyto'non-duality' negative explained. Besides. insofar as they are expressible.so to speak. t Upanishad 6. in human language. one is beyond multiplicity and beyond of this supremestate Unity as well. presupposes of necessity the realization of what we have 'Supreme alreadytermed the Identity'.thatis to saybeyond caste of earthly existence(ashramas). for Knowledge.eand moreover. guages haveno alternative Deliverance.8 Deliverance. 8.within this spherea distinction suchasthat of meansand end can amount to no more than a mere figure of speech.It can alsobe favoredby the practiceof well as of various particular stylesof meditation (harda-vidydor but it must be understoodthat all such meansare dahara-vidyA). both action and its fruits are equally transient and'momentary'. whereas on the contrary Knowledgeis permanent and final.156 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FrNAr DELTVERANCE r57 their personalities) thereby (vishishta): in Beingall beings(meaning are'one'without being confusedand distinct without being seParated. carriesits own fruit within itself. Rdmanuja. it aloneloosens the bonds of passion 7. Furthermore. it.inverselythat Knowledge. unavoidable no doubt when one wishesto express thesethings.or who havebeenprevented from doing so. even principial.for that reason. Chhandogya different ashramas or regular stages of life]. fundamentallythe sameasHatha-Yoga. none of the usual distinctions any longer apply to such a being from the moment that he has effectivelytranscendedthe limits of individuality.If therefore Deliveranceis looked upon as a consequence of Knowledge. which helpsa man to reachhis destinationmore easilyand more rapidly. it must be specified that it is a strict and immediate consequence.from that of Shankarachirya. is only effectiveinsofar as it essentially perfectKnowledge of Brahma. 4. This is most clearly affirmed by Shankaracharya in the following terms: Thereis no other meansof obtaining completeand final Deliveranceexcepting Knowledge. although at the sametime it cannot be said that there is confusion either. haveacquiredtrue KnowledgeconcerningIt IKnowledge which.eventhe word Union is undoubtedlyimperfect. and the sameapplies to its fruit. and yet. to be perfect. by maintaining their attention perpetuallyconcentrated Brahma fin and fixed on the Supreme which consiststhe one and only really indispensable preparation].and that is why recourse (advaita).eventhough he hasnot yet arrived at the final goal. for the and especially natures.the man who has reacheda certain degreeof realization is (varna) and beyondthe stages calledativarnashrami.unlike action. In this is to be found the chief differenceseparatingthe point of view of who maintainsthe principial distinction. on the scienceof rhythm and its correspondences orders. Theserites are in every respectcomparable aswe havealready under the generaldenominationof dhikn they are mostly based. Deliverance and total and absoluteKnowledgeare truly but one and the samething.5 as certain Patafljali.and. Brahma-Siltras nt. in conformity with their respective 4.'bysuperaddition' totalizacomprisedin the absolute are necessarily their possibilities as must only be considered tion of the being). who transcends by the Muslims to those classed 5. or at leastequivalentto it. for only preparatoryand havenothing essential evenwithout observing man can acquiretrue Divine Knowledge the rites prescribed[for eachof the different human categories. but we are obligednevertheless it evokes lanWestern the Yoga.can be obtainedby a final goal in themselves-Deliverance.but which. Thus. 9.Such are also the rites called vrata ('vow') and dvdra ('gate') in the otherunder different forms all this is wise partially heterodoxdoctrine of the Pishupatas.6 about them. since term the useof it for the translation of to offer. as constituting no wise in and even'accidental'results and accessory we say. aswe havealready form. in all the various mentioned.36-38. if it be said that Knowledgeis the means of Deliverance.aBeyondBeing one cannot speakof distinction of any kind.likewise called'supreme'1. it must be addedthat in this casemeansand end are inseparable. with the help of the observances rites. which is not distinct from Knowledgeiself.7 and indeed many examplesare to be met with in the Vedaof personswho have neglected to carry out such rites [the function of which is comparedin the Veda to that of a saddle-horse.but without which he is ableto reachit all the same]. implies then.because to make the idea of Unity. suchin virtue of obtaining theyogi (or rather by him who becomes of indicatedin theYoga-Shdstra it). in the absolutetranscendence can anylongerbe appliedevenby analognone of theseexpressions must be had to a term of ical transposition.together with the faculties and powers which it (because with all all states implies.

Brahma-Sutras N . . Thus Oltramare. we will not saythe possibilityof inacreal difference which hasbeenexplainedhere. which is simply an indefinite prolongationof individual life transposed into the subtleorder and extendingto the pralaya. To go further and to free oneselfentirely from the conditionsof life and duration which are inherentto individuality.but eventhe gnere curacFin this identification.it can only bear fruit within its own domain.l2 all the more urgent to state this explicitly since orientalistscon'salvation' properly is speaking stantly confusethe two together. taking individuality here. though still transitoryand conditionedstates: The self [Atma.evenif it compriseda realization renderingit truly effective. whether understood in its general senseor as applied specially to the performanceof ritesl. In the latter casethere is no longer even occasionto considera passage at death through various higher. cannot under any circumstances in other words.r-4. our previousremarkson the subjectof life. which is only partially and in certain respects true). ll. by its own splendot shinesafar [through everydegree existence]in an undivided state [penetratingall and illuminatits brightness ing the totality of the being]. insteadof remaining simply theoreticalas is in practicethe case(unlessthe'mysticalstates'canbe said to represent such a realization.being the fruit of cannot be identifiedwith'Deliverance'.moreover. which is that of human individuality. not being opposedto ignorancefavidyaf. we confess that we cannot clearlyseethe needfor this subtlety. will be found applicablein this instance. but ignorance as light disperses darkness. Hiranyagarbha. sinceany more exaltedaspect of the'Non-Supreme' lies outside individual possibilities. It is hardly necessary to point out that theology. as the sun spreads I abroadwhen the cloudshavescattered. Atma-Bodha('Knowledgeof the Self'). either'nonsupreme'and leading to Ishvara.rocannotremoveit. mingling itself with the clearlake [without howeverlosing itself in it in any *ay] conformsitself in everyrespect therewith. 'salvation' 13.Beatitude [Ananda) cannot be obtained.all distinctionand all'separateness' of him who has attained the perfection of Divine Knowledge [Brahmavidya] and who hasconsequently obtainedfinal Deliverance. As Knowledgedisperses soonasthe ignorance born of earthlyaffections [and other analogousbondsl is banishedIand everyillusion with it]. for we do not for a moment premoreover. aswe havealreadyexplained.without seeming to suspect.r4 or 'supreme'and conferring immediate Deliverance. and identifiesitself with It.Thus it is not through action that it is possibleto transcendindividuality. represents but one stagein the process of krama-mukti. just as pure water.thereis no otherpath but that of Knowledge.ls 14.Hence it follows immediately that'Salvation' in the religious sense givento the word by Westernpeople. which is in fact inseparablefrom action.4. 15. 12. This accordsperfectlywith the western conceptionof immortality'. of what sort. however)is not definitely excludedfor the being that has not passed beyond this stage. The common expression'towork out one'ssalvation'isthereforeperfectly accurate. to the Supreme [spiritual] Light which is Brahma.l3 the attainmentof the Brahma-Loka.T 158 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA FrNAI DELTVERANCE 759 to which the individual being is [and of all other contingencies subjected].the possibility of a return into a stateof manifestation(supra-individual. Some would like to translate avidya or ajfidna as 'ignorance'.l A most important point to note is the following: action. on quitting its bodily form Iand without passing through any intermediatestages]. ascends. would always be included in its entiretyin this'non-supreme'Knowledge.in its integralextension. since there can be no further question of havingdisappeared] fivatma. tend that the consequences of action are limited to the corporeal modality only. Action fkarma.without Knowledge. for example. in an undivided and conformable manner. and it is certainactions. no matter liberatefrom action. the'Self' of lAtma].translatesMoksha by the word from beginningto end in his works.All this. andwe will further specifu that by Brahma-Loka must here be understoodexclusively the abodeof 'nescience' rather than 10.

obtained virtually).vTDEHA-MUKTT AND IIUAN-MUKTT 16r 23 VIDEHA-MUKTI AND IIVAN-MUKTI is propwhich hasjust beendiscussed. which is one and the samething. and more particularlywith the human statein all its modalities. The following..nothing can enter into opposition with absolute totality. Commentaryof Bhavadeva-Mishra on the Brahma-Sutras.'says Aniruddha. before death. even from a theological viewpoint. of time. is in immediatecontactwith the primordial principle of the Universeand in consequence [secondarily]with the whole of space. It is also most justly said: the superhumanbeinghas no longer an individuality of its own.Besides.the totalization of the being would therebybe renderedimpossible. sinceit is only aspermanentand immutablepossibilitiesthat they haveto be takeninto accountmetaphysically. Lord of many states by the simpleeffectof his will. fore from deferredand gradualliberation (krama-mukti). the most exoteric interpretation of the 'resurrectionof the dead' is enough to show that.Knowledgebeing already thereit must be distinguished the terminationof earthlyexistence. moreover. DnrrvrnANcE. unconditionedstate.2 'The yogi.at least accidentallyand under particular conditions. as has alreadybeen said. there can be no irreducible antinomy between'salvation' and'incorporation'. leavingthe others empty of life-giving breath [prana).asthe Westernreligionsconceive eranceand'salvation': (that is to say assured be nor even cannot be effectivelyobtained. and of everythingincluded therein. only the prodigiousinadequacy of Westernconceptions in regardto the constitution of the human being could render such an illusion possible.3 l.there may action can also always be incompatibility between certain modalities of one particular individual state.tlly effective. the yogi occupies but one of them. that is to saywith manifestation. in the presenceof which all particular things are asif they werenot. in the earthly living and the dead man (taking these expressions differencebetweenDelivIn this we note a further essential sense). the latter. a Taoisttext. This restriction is indispensable. for if there were an absoluteor essential incompatibility. in the case 'out of the bodily form' erly speakingliberation achievedwhen (videha-mukti) and obtained in an immediate manner at the virtually perfectbefore moment of death. it matterslittle whetherthesestates are actually manifested or not. It must be clearly by genuine realizationof the to Deliverunderstoodthat the body cannot constitutean obstacle ance any more than any other type of contingency. 2. it will be perfectlyfree.and it must also be distinguishedfrom liberation obtained by the yogi no virtue of Knowledge during his actuallifetime Qlvan-mukti). whereasthere can no longer be anything of the kind once and aboveall with the we are dealing with supra-individualstates. it. 3.sinceit is the perfectrealization(sadhana)and totalizationof the being. the transcendent man .and only this moreover could give rise to any astonishment at the fact that Deliverance may be accomplished during life on earth aswell asin any other state..besides. that which is attained through be lost through action.by that is to say longer only virtual and theoreticalbut f. 'supreme Identity'.expresses the sameideas:'It [the beingwhich has reachedthe state where it is united to the universaltotality] will no longer be dependenton anything.lTo view things otherwiseis to attributeto one specialmode of manifestationan importance which it could not possess and which evenmanifestationin its entirety cannot claim.like so many unusedinstruments.the possession of every state. Deliverance or Union. In relation to the betweenall the statesof supremegoal there is perfect equivalence so that no distinction any longer holds good betweenthe existence. implies 'by superaddition'. he is able to animatemore than one form in the sameway that a singlelamp is ableto feedmore than one wick.. sinceno modality can remain unincluded in the final realization.

r. The mentioned here is the which is in fact indefinable.]-62 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA vTDEHA-MUKTT AND /. 'alone'. 'extinction'. This is the in Hebrew. againthe Pax Profundaof the Rosicrucian denotesthe'real presence'ofthe Divinity.zr. which orientalistshavemisinterpretedin so many ways. Frenchtranslation by FatherWieger.which cannot lead them beyond the limits of their individuality. which are the elementsthat constitute and characterizeindividuality. he is calm and serene like the torch beneathan extinguisher. the conditionsof the presentera (corresponding to the Kali-Yuga)are such that the greatmajority of men become attachedto action and feeling. which is by no meanspeculiar to Buddhism as is commonly supposed. (Lieh-Tzu. for no longer has any action of his own. 7.pzu).which denotesreflectiveand concentratedthought. considered in his concentration within himself.this term.the terms Nirvrixi. he contains all stateswithin himself and is not containedby any one of them]. we have where this sheddingof name and alreadymentioned the texts of the Upanishads form is expresslyaffirmed. the passions 4.It is neither therein. Nirvdna is the supra-individualcondition (that of Prdjfia). it cannot exist otherwisethan in it is only for othersthat the appearillusory mode.8 not in the popular and literal sense of the word but as one who. in the spokenof in negativeterms.as well as from that of the meaning itself (for manana.and Parinirvrini are also employedin the samesense. In the Islamic esotericdoctrine the corresponding terms arefand. tradition. . Strictly speaking ancespersistthus without externalchange.'extinction of changeor of action'. The words'formerly' and'nowadays'refer to the different periodsin the cycleof terrestrialhumanity. sincehenceforth.4 Atma with the'Self' Iunconditioned Tranquillitysand possesses which he is identifiedl in its plenitude. Nowadaysthe exercise not yield the sameresult. these affectand concernhim no more than doesall the rest appearances of universalmanifestation. although some people have connectedit with the term manAna.being absolutelyunconditioned so that it can only be pleasures which are born of perishableexternal objects [and which are themselves but externaland accidental modifications of the beingl. while Parinirvdna is the unconditioned state. knowing all things [and thereby being all things. This is the region of the'Lower Waters'or formal possibilities. been said abovedispenses sincehe has The yogi has nothing further to obtain subsequently.r: FatherWieger'stranslation. Shankaracharya's Atma-Bodha. The yogi or jivan-mukta is in fact liberated from both name and form (ndmarupa).literally'extinction of the extinction'.fyAN-MUKTT 163 that liberation acquired Moreover. 'Great Peace'(As-Saktnah)of the Islamic esotericdoctrine. or 5. that is to saythe'solitary one'.which is the sole permanentand imperishableobject.it is always importance they attach to the corporeal state. can only properly apply to individual thought).but as absolutetotality].andfandal-fanai. if not outwardly.:23).6 in the fullnessof his own essence [which is no longer distinguished from the SupremeBrahmal. the word Sheklnah. One simply becomesestablished and equity is preferred. or the'Light of Glory' in and by which.derivedfrom mana. nor to any of the other accidents or bonds of manifestedexistence.and what has just us from further remarkson this subject. (that passing beyond is to say a actually realized'transformation' form) within himself. During his in the body he is not affected by its proper[apparent]residence ties any more than the firmament is affected by that which floats in its bosom [because. and which is not different from the'Self']. in reality.it would be a mistaketo suppose is more when the being is quit of the bodily form (videha-mukti) completethan liberation'during hfe' Qlvan-mukti). Formerly one tended taken nor given.he is alsocalledMuni.chap. since they are now incapable of limiting or conditioning him. literally means'extinction of breathor of disturbance'. are here taken as denoting the contingent modificationswhich go to make up the 'current of forms'. it matters little to him persists in the manifested thereforethat a certainformal appearance world. referring to the samesubject'Peacein the void is an indefinablestate. having crossedthe sea of passions.and not for him.the'beatific vision' is brought about (cf.for him. not distinctively. This makesit possibleto understandthe real meaning of the word Nirvdna. and rejoicingin Bliss lAnanda. 8. 6. The root of this word Muni appears to be the sameasthat of the Greekp6vog. 'void' 'fourth state'of the Ma4QukyaUpanishad. the Sage he is one with the Nl' (ChuangTzu. 'glory accordingto Christian theology. p77). the statethereforeof a beingthat is no longersubjectto any changeor to any modification. but this is most unlikely from the standpoint of etymologicalderivation. he remainsimmutable.s.chap.T Thus thereis no spiritual degree superiorto that of the yogi andit is evidentthat therecannotbe.if certainWestasa resultof the excessive ernershavemadethis mistake.which does of goodness toward it. the And here is another Thoist text of God' in the alreadyquoted text of Rev.Having renouncedthose has not evena name of his own. unaffectedby contingencies. is united with The yogi.still lessto the Supreme and unconditionedstate.

This stagecorrespondsto the 'concealed Dragon' of the Far-Eastern symbolism. more accurately speaking. comparableto embryonic potentiality.if one may so call it. nor any extra-principial diversity whatsoeverto subsist in the Supreme in'Non-Duality').balya. rg:24. or of of BrahmachAri first three being the states or'anchorite'). which alsomeans'isolation'. Kaivalya. sistsin ascribingto a thing attributeswhich do not reallybelongto it. since Knowledgein itself is strictly personaland incommunicable. and this'void'is alsoin reality the absolutefullness. Another frequently used symbol is that of the tortoise which withdraws itself entirely into its shell.l3The first of thesewords meansliterally a state 'non-expanit is a stageof to that of a child (bala):ra comparable sion'. undifferentiated simplicity. on the Brahma-Sutras 13. as being the only condition in which Union can genuinely be realized. the possessor of Knowledgeis qualified to communicateit to others or. like one who mistakesl0 piece of rope for a serpent.who. ativdrndshrami. To this ordet for instance.but which completes the foregoing(sinceit implies both reabsorption and plenitude).whoever doesnot receive God like a child shall not enter it. name Sannydsin and who is perfectrealization(sadhana) that is to sayto the man who has achieved we haveexplainedbefore.as w.in ascending ditya. it explainswhy Dante placedthe TerrestrialParadise on the summit of the mountain of purgatory. and mauna. Atma-Bodha. realizingby their unification an which con9. 17. order.164 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA vTDEHA-MUKTT AND /lvAN-MUKTT 165 'perfect Solitude'. 18. to awakencorresponding possibilities within them.Luke r8:16-17). whereall the powersof the being are concentratedas it were in one point. this term is oftenemployedas an equivalentof Moksha:kevaladenotes the absoluteand unconditioned state which is that of the'delivered'being (mukta). realizesthe state of does not allow any distinction betweenouter and inner. to be strictlyaccurate.l6 A further stageis calledpanditya. This againis t}re'void' referredto in the Thoisttext quoted a little way back. an attribute indicating the teachingfunction. is also sometimesextended. in order to rise to the Heavens (described asthe'Kingdom of God' in the foregoing Gospelquotation).'(Matt. .The Pdnditathereforepartakes more especially of the character of Guru or'SpiritualMaster'. Commentary 'Let the children come to me. This is the Shaykhof the Islamic schools. that is to say 'learning'.17 but he may be in possession of the perfection of theoreticalknowledgeonly.which fullnessof his being.belongs'falseimputation' (adhydsa). 16. but obviouslythe Togl 15.47-50.. t t ditioned universalityl. if that Knowledgebe fully effective. or the human state. producesand sustains imagining first that he is the individual'living soul' fjtvatmal. thesewords from the Gospels: the kingdom of such belongsthe Kingdom of Heaven. that is to sayat the exactpoint wherethe being quits the Earth.but his fear is dispelledby the certitudethat but Atma Itself lin Its unconhe is not in realitythis'living soul'. it is properly speaking a modification the essence of the being to which it is attributed. the Murld is the disciple. Cf. and for this reasonit is necessary to take into account. Such an error is called vivarta.. The stateof Sannydsa 'student the sacred disciple science'. I 1. of a Guru. We havedescribed the threeattributesmentionedaboveasrepresentingso many stages preparatoryto union. is none other than ledge. but the or'householder'and of Vanaprastha.and has For him the illusion of (avidya) which by the ignorance with it everyconfusionengendered that illusion.likethe Hindu Brahmachdri.as a still further and final stage.ls In a sense which is somewhat different. also calledMurabul-murtdin. .mauna or the stateof the Muni.as in the presentcase. 'separateness' finally ceased to exist. for to 14. of Grihastha to the Sadhu.pantheyogi:r2thesethree attributesare. of some afraid [through belief in the existence man becomes a being other than himself].efor. 10.18 and which at the sametime expresses the ideasof 'perfection'and'totality'. of which all the traditions speakand which Thoismand Islamicesoterismmore especially stress.. Shankaricharyanames three attributes that correspondin a way of Knowthe possessor to so many functions of the Sannydsin. Unity (or aswe shouldsay. sinceit is only from this primordial statethat it is possibleto escape the limits of human individuality in order to rise to the higherstates. it alsomeansthe return to the'primordial state'. and which in no wise reaches of an which thereforeonly affectsthe personwho thus attributesit in consequence illusion. This is the 'edenic state'of the fudeo-Christiantradition. This return is in fact a necessary stageon the path leadingto Union. Shankaracharya's (the is strictly speakingthe last of the four dshramas 12.4.There is yet another expression.

This identity is similarly affirmed in the Islamic esotericteachingconcerning'the manifestationof the Prophet'. Finally. sinceit is inexpressible and cannot be the object of any distinctiveknowledge: it is however easyto seethat we are concerned herewith nothing lessthan Union itself or the'SupremeIdentityi obtainedin and through complete and total realizationof what other traditions call 'UniversalMan'. It is alsoworth noticing that thesethree attributes. like the man' (chen-jen) of Taoism. gle idea.Sarasvati or Vdchis that of Brahma. and'Posterity'.Pdrvatl 'She who is difficult of is that of Shiva. of a sinsamething.Similarly.and Beauty'.the remainingtwo. Thesetwo longationsof the individual through all his modalities. that is to saypAnditya and mauna. speakrecapitulates and sums up the other three. Lakshmiis the Shaktiof Vishnu.2larethe'GreatWisdom'and the'PerfectSolitude'.Pdrvatl is also called Durgd. the exact equivalent of the theory we have just tradition: this is mentionedis alsoto be found in the Far-Eastern 'four Happinesses'.and Goodness'. since he possesses Thesethree attributesare implied moreoverin what is calledaishyarya.ryAN-MUKTT 167 eachone of them a forwho hasreached the supremegoalpossesses all statesin the fullness of his essence. is alsoidentical with'UniversalMan'.166 MAN AND HIS BECoMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA vTDEHA-MUKTT AND /. that is to say approachlIt is interestingto observethat somethingcorrespondingto thesethree Shaktisis to be found evenin the Westerntraditions: thus. whereas the two otherspertain to the realm of Thoism.taken in the sameorder. the first two being'Longevity'. in the true sense of the word.22 21. which of the refer on the contrary to the higher and extra-individualstates 19. standingthe nature of the ical r ealization. 'transcendent for the yogi.for spond respectivelyto the three Shaktisof the Trimurti: if it be 'primordial of the understoodthat the fundamentalcharacteristic state'is'Harmony'. of perfectmetaphys assecondary consequences Furthermore. 'prefigured' by the first three dshramas.le tiori. importancefor undermaunato PdrvatlzoThis point is of special 'powers' that pertain to thej|van-mukta. which implies their completeattainment. these 'four Happinesses' attain their fullnessin a'fifth'. . 22. Strength. who had beenthe recipientof someesoteric teaching(rather elementaryin character however) from a Rosicrucian source.hereWisdom is Sarasvati.is simply perpetuity of indiwhich consists in the indefiniteprovidual existence. of the individualHappinesses thereforeonly concernthe extension ity and they are included in the restorationof the'primordial state'. especiallyby being. Strength is Pdrvatl. in Masonic symbolism the three chief pillars of the Templeare'Wisdom. for'Beauty'and'Goodness'arefundamentallybut two aspects 'Harmony'. and Beauty is Lakshml. This explainshow it is that the two first'Happinesses'fallwithin the province of Confucianism. the theory of the which. Leibnitz. which is preciselythe idea of conceivedby the Greeksand Plato. which contains them all principially and unites them synthetically in their singleand indivisible essence: no name is ascribedto this 'fifth Happiness'(any more than to the 'fourth state'of the MaryQukya Upanishad).namely they correparticipationin the essence of Ishvara.the fourth are in a senserespectively (to be understoodherein its most usualsense).it will immediatelybe apparentthat balyacorrewhile panditya correspondsto Sarasvatland sponds to LakshmT. that of the Sannydsa so to dshrama.just as the final stateof the yogi that havepreviouslybeentraversed as embraces'eminently'all the particular states so many preliminary stages 20. as has alreadybeen remarked. describesthe three principal divine which comes to exactly the attributes as being'Wisdom. Power.

Cf.common to all.a He is without [distinct] qualitiesand actionless. but this affirmation. all things as The yogi. translation by FatherWieger.and in name. Atma-Bodha.It must thereforebe admittedthat the consequences of this ideaof identificationby Knowledge. in such a way that they are really nothing in relation to the Principle]. himself is all things [sincetherecan no longerbe anythingwhich is'other'thanhimselfor thanhis own'Self'1. and that apart from Atma there is nothing. 2. while he himself dwells in absoluterealityl.without any distinction of outer and inner] and thus. aboundingin Bliss.25. without volition [applied to a definite act or to determined circumstances]. without form.is 'SupremeIdentity'.by the eyeof Knowledge llnana-chakshus. in spite of the reservationsalwayscalled for on account of the difference betweenthe respective points of view. . with the exception)as we have said before.just as earthen vessels receivedifferent names.In grouping togethera selectionof passages we shall not feel constrainedto follow the order of the text too strictly.s imperishable not subject to dissolution. chap. for It bears no name of Its own' (chuang Tzu.expressly reveals a fair measure of agreement on this point betweenthe Aristotelianand the Eastern doctrines. all things is the Principle.althoughthey arebut different forms of earth'. differing simply [in the words of the Veda) in attribution. ffixI serveat the same time asa conclusionto the presentstudy. through Knowledge. have continued quite unsuspected in the West. moreover.with all beings [inasmuchas they are no longer distinct from himself] into the all-pervading Essence [which is Atma]. of certain strictly initiatic schools.2 and thus he perceives in the samesense as above]that he [or conceives.as far as metaphysical realizationis concerned.e When the accidents [formal and otherwise. He knowsthat all contingentthings [the forms and other modalarenot differentfrom Atma [in their prinitiesof manifestation] 'things ciple]. whose intellect is perfect. 'ways of thinking' upon which we have laid stresson other exist betweencertain occasions. or affected in any way whatsoever by anything other than himself. the Muni [taken here as a synonym of the yogi) enters.in his book llepi Yrfiq declaredthat'the soul is all that it knows'. accident.sincethis other is non-existentor at least experiences but an illusory existence. of which Infinity is the proper attribute.in the caseof Aristotle and his successors. this sentence [On the SouI). 'Above 4. containing and penetrating all. and immediate'sensing'] discursively. immutable.a term which can be renderedfairly exactlyby'intellectual not rationallyand intuition']. It should be noted in this connectionthat Aristotle. eternallyfree and pure Iunable to be constrained. 3. of ideascannot be exactlythe same in a Sanskrit in general. which exercises dominion [akshara. p$7). SeeChhandogya Upanishad vt. 5.r.the only one by which It can be characterized. seemsto have remained purely theoretical. we will once again quote and has realizedthe describingthe highest his remarkson the subject.which had no point of contact with all that usually goesby the name of 'philosophy'. he perceives [or rather conceives.the logical sequence that by reasonof the differences text and in a translationinto a Westernlanguage. only over the manifoldl. including subtle manifestation as weil as gross manifestation] are suppressed [theseaccidentsonly existingin illusory mode. in from this treatise l.reached.4-6.THE SPIRITUAL S?HTE OF THE YOGI: THE SUPREME IDENTITY 769 24 THE SPIRITUAL STATE OF THE YOGI: THE SUPREME IDENTITY of the actualstateof theyogi To crvE AS EXAcr an ideaaspossible 'delivered in this life' (jtvan-mukta) who. Shankaracharya:l possibilitiesto which the being can attain. contemplates abiding in himself [in his own Self. but by a direct awareness that everythingis Atma. the'actionless activity'of the Far-Eastern tradition.

it is in translation. He is Brahma. without duality. 9.abounding in Bliss. free. It is'That by which all is manifested. continually abounding in Bliss. no felicity to be desired.e He himself pervades his own eternalessence [which is not differBrahmal. action llnanendriyasand karmedriyas].p395)' all beings. the Real. by which all things are illuminated[participating in Its essence according to the degree of their reality].being identified with which.pronouncedin the Ved-anta to be absolutelydis(and which.zz. that is why It is disseminated throughout all things [without division.and after the attainment of the Knowledgeof which there remainsno knowledgeto be obtained. We would againcall attention to the fact that this irreciprocityof relationship betweenBrahma and the World involvesthe formal condemnationof 'pantheism'.without extension [beingindivisibleand without parts]. He is Brahma.in which all things are united [beyondeverydistinction. invariable[in his essential pure.5-9). and througheverywhere He is Brahma. there is it were and as distinctive knowledgeis thenceforthtranscended annihilatedl. 'the SupremeBrahma. Ubiquity is here taken as the symbol of omnipresence we have alreadyemployedthis word above. aswell asof immanentism'under all its forms. without origin [being eternal]. He is [in the very words of the Vedal which is eternal.puf€. incorruptible.dispersion.but which is not Itself mademanifestby their light.which is diffusedeverywhere the exterior and interior of differentiation] and which pervades he is incorruptible. but which is Itself manifested by nothing. without [determined]qualities.the Light of which causes the sun and all luminous bodies to shine.6 the same in all things [no modification affectinghis identity]' immutability]. imperishable.chap. .justasfire intimatelypervades a white-hot in which in the sense 6. He is Brahma. He is Brahma.T7O MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA THE SP/R/TUAL S?I{TE OF THE YOGI: THE SUPREME IDENTITY I71 [without He is like Ether lAkashal. Thereadermay usefullyberemindedhereof the Taoisttext quotedearlieron at greaterlength:'Do not inquire whether the Principle is in this or in that. impassible.bywhich [according to the Veda.which once beheld [by the eye of Knowledge].(ChuangTzu. areproduced life inward the sense faculties the of and sensation [jlva). Weiger's 8.which by any being perceived [but not howeverasan objectperceptible perceive to further nothing [since all kind of faculty]. He is Brahma. without shape. on the contrary. [uncondiknowing [without that Knowltioned] Principleof all existence. no modification [such as birth or death] is experienced. of which thereremainsnothHe is Brahma.s] the manifested world [in the subtleaswell in the gross orderl.he is things simultaneously.which is disseminated everythingis It and outside is nothing out all things [sincethere in space. and the elementsftanwhich compose matrasandbhnta. 7. evenprincipial]. containedin Its Infinity]:7 in intermediate necessarily that which is aboveand in that which is below [that is to sayin the totality of the three worldsl.which is without size or dimension [unconditioned]. upon which all actionsdepend [and which is Itselfactionlessl. without assignment or attribute of any kind. no object is contemplated.indivisible and eternal.is tinct from that which It pervades not distinct from It or at leastonly distinguishes itself from It in illusory mode)8 continually abounding in Bliss and without duality.' accordingto a text that we havealreadyquoted (KenaUpanishad r. and Isimultaneously] ent from the Supreme he contemplatesthe whole World [manifestedand unmanifested]as being [also]Brahma. single [in Its absoluteperfection].afterthe possession after the enjoymentof whoseBlissthere remains ing to possess. edge implying any distinction of subject and object' which would be contraryto Its'nonduality'] and without end. He is Brahma.or differentiationof anysort]. without duality. lmanas).

derivedfrom the rootmri. The exclusionof any sort of pantheisticconceptionis here reiterated.in order to evokethe idea aspect of the principial indifferentiation. like the apparitionof water [mirage]in the desertlmaril). distinction of placeand time is illusory. place.I72 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA TIIE SPIR/TUAL STATE OF THE rOGI: TIIE SUPR EME IDENTITr t73 itself outwardly lby iron ball.like gold which is purified in the fi. and (at the sametime also reveals through its heat and luminosity].) 14. This wordmaril.' 'Every 13. . abounding in Bliss.l0 and apart from Brahma Brahma resembles thereis naught Ifor. and region entirely lacking in of which can be taken asa support of meditation. and by Knowledge [principial and supreme] . He who hasmadethe pilgrimageof his own'Self'. it is said that the true Rosicru'in cians meet the Temple of the Holy Ghost. and shines in its own splendor. and he attainethEternalBliss. everything that appearsto exist apart from It cannot exist [in this manner] savein illusory mode. naught [veritably] exists by any faculty whatsoeverl or conceived apart from Brahma. dispels the darkness[of ignorance veiling the single absolute reality]. he knoweth all things [in Brahmal.13which is everywherel4[and always. if therewereanythingapart from It. it pervades all.it is said that shortly after the Thirty Years'warthey left Europeand withdrew into Asia. It could not be infinite]. Fatherwieger's translation. 'to die'. in which neither heat nor cold are experienced[no more than any other sensible or even mental impression].and then burning with the fire of KnowLight]. is identity with the Supreme its essential ledgeIrealizing deliveredfrom all accidentsIor contingent modifications].appliesto anybarren 11. Brahma is contemplatedas alone real.or time [or any particular circumstanceor condition].in the Westernesoterictraditions.calledBrahma-pura].p1oZ.t2 of the When the Sun of spiritual Knowledgerisesin the heavens it heart [that is.but the eyeof ignorance aboundingin Bliss. which procuresa lasting felicity and a final deliverance from all disturbance[or all modification]. discernsIt not. tion which are so generalin the West. chap.without duality.a pilgrimage not concernedwith situation. which is everywherelIt must be clearlyunderstoodthat the Rosicrucians in questionhavenothing in common with the numerousmodern organizations which haveadoptedthe samename. The eye of Knowledgecontemplates pervadingall things. envelopes all and illumines all. at the centerof the being. it is difficult to accountfor certain errors of interpretawith such clearstatements. Brahma as It is in Itself.re. 12. discoversIt not. manifestingitself to the senses not the World.rr of all that is heard[and of all that is perceived Of all that is seen. We haveseenbefore that gold is looked upon as being itself of a luminous nature.in the immutability of the 'eternal present'].the uniform more especially to water. a sandydesert. the conceptionof all possible things (comprised synthetically in Universal Possibiliry absolute and total) is effectedwithout movement and outside timel (Lieh-tzu. not the sensible and The'Self'beingillumined by meditation[whena theoretical therefore still indirect knowledgemakesit appearas if it were receivingthe Light from a sourceother than itsell which is still an illusorydistinctionl. such a one is actionless. even as a blind man perceives light. faced 10. Similarly.3.

GENERAL INDEX Adam Kadmon 40 t 3 Alexandrian(s) 59 n 4.36 ns9&lt.151 Janusr4Ln4 IanusBifrons85 n7 Jewishtradition 83n5 .fi9 n3 62.28. 90 n5 16. r4z n8 tradition 49 n7.143 t66 nzo Hartmann 98 n5 Hebrew 5o n8 Hermeticphilosophy7 nr Hermetictradition r4 n6. 85n9. tr8 n7 Aristotelial 29.4r. 17. n7.Leon 22nr n5 dhikr 90 D4.r43 n9. r4z n8 al-Insdnal-kamil (seeUniversal Man) +o Aniruddha 16r Arabic 8r n6. Buddhismt3.93nro.11o India 9. Aristotle 32.t63n6 Cartesiandualism z4 Cartesianism 41 Christ 136n9 n3 nto. t63n8.37 Colebrook43 nlo. 99 n7. L39.83 Islamictradition Itihasas37 ng Jaimini11. 73. r48 Iogic 14n5 symbolism 143n11 n3. n8 n6 Confucianism167nzr nr6 Dante 165 Daudet.156 d'Olivet.53. Hindu: 17. 46 nz. r8 n8 Blavatsky.41 n5 n3.Fabre6z nz Druids 93 nn Egyptians40 n2.65 ny Islamicesoterism3r. 59 148 doctrinet8.4o-4r. 11o Christian18.64nro. 7z ny 76 t 67 nzz n5. t 6z n9.32.18n9.P. r4z n8 Egyptiantradition 93 nLz EmeraldTable 4n6 Elijah r3o n8 Enoch r3o n8 fana fi3 n6 tradition 40 n3 Far-Eastern GreatArchitect of the Universe 40 n4 Greek(s) 9 flZ. 89.r42 H. 99 n9. 52. 93 nr2 Islam(ic)59 n3.48.16. 93 nt o.169n3 athanor85 n7 Audulomi r5r r3 Badarayana Bhagavad-Gtta 37ns9 &ro. t 65. n4.r49 n2r.

25. L5rn27.:-34 avidya \22.4t.y6 advaita-v\da 4z Agni 37nlo.to4n7 Taoism12n3.62..5r.86 aishvarya 64 ng.6o-62. ro4. r58. r5z Apsard r43nn apti ro8 apyaya rct archist4z dshr am a nr z. t8 n8 Oltramare t7-t8. Shankarachdrya 30.y7.t7o akhanda rcz akshara8r.54. 49. 96'98 INDEX andaja 7t angushtha-matra 38 anna 7o-7r annamaya-kosha 89 n3 ansha47 Antariksha84-85.H. r55. r58.t67 Thoist38nrr. t65.36. t68-t69 avayava 7r avidvan t22.25. 1L3.7r.83n4. tzrr 129.t5o nz6 Mtiller. 49 n7 Kanada n Leibnitz 58 n 2.8t-82.74.95 dnandamaya-ko sha 67-68.82n3. 64. r44.155 Erigena44 nrc Scotus Sephiroth 76 ng r3. r43 apAna69 Apara-Brahma74 n5.13o avyapadeshya rc3 avyavaharya 1o3.. 84 n7. 57-59. t29\6. Rosicrucian(s) nt'4 ry3 n9 Ruahh136 St Denysthe Areopagiteto4n8 SaintThomasAquinas76 nt Salvationr58 Sanskritt9. 166nzo Mahabharata37 ng doctrines165nr8 Mahayana Masonic symbolism t66 nzo Mazdaism 93 nt2 Manicheans24 n3 rz n3 Melchizedek Mosesr3o n8 Mu[yi'd-Din ibn al-'Arabila nt2. 165 Theosophismzr Theosophists4. t 66 nr 9 r y7. 169 alakshana rc3 amhtra 8t. 7o.176 MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA Kabbalah36 n7.62. 67. nr 168 22. 92.73 t56 n4. 164 avyakta 43.95. t7o n7 nr5.ul balrya 6o balav balyat64.72. 46. ul n4. r58nr3 Orphic tradition 93nn Patafljali 156 Platoj6 n7.163 dnandamaya 68 n2. 99-1OO.S. 82n3.t66 . 8r-82. r58-t59.72nt. 47 n3. Universal 167 Vaishnavite15 Vijflana-Bhikshu+8 Vyasau Wang (King) 40 n3 SANSKRIT dbhdsa 49 abhimdna6o abhyantara6o achintya rc3 ad 7o ddhidevaka83 adhikan ry adhyLsa64 adhydtmika 83 ddi rc9 Aditya 43 adrishta rc3 advaita74 n5.56 Rdmdnuja Ramayana37n9 16zn5. 164ntz Atma 24-25.31nt. zz Thibaut r5 Man 4o.too Scholastic(s) n2 nlo.63-65.t68 Shaiviter5 n5 Shekinah:.4o n3.65.47 u8.t64.rc7 nt8.33-34.t44 antaryaml rco anumana14n5 Ap Son8.15-16.17 Olcott.85 n9. 4t. n2.r43 nro. 166nzo. 136.t66 nzo 11rn4 Protagoras n4 13fr4. 85-86. D 4. t7-r8.102-111. t6r n3. ro4 n6.t42 agrdhya rc3 aham 6o aha7kAra43. 94-97.89 n3.15. r5r.106 nt4. t 64 ashvattha sandtana 46 nz ativarnashraml ry7 n7.3t. ur amrita pz an 69 n7 ana 69 Ananda67.96.166 ajfiana r58nro Akasha 33. 78-79.95 n1.6z S pi noza 42fl 7.66.53n2.68 ns4a5.t62. rr5 n2. 164.r5o-r51.98-99. 106. Max 13.

TO THE VEDANTA ACCORDING 178 MAN AND HIS BECOMING bandha yr nz9 Bhu 84-45,r42 Bhrtni 84 bhuta 43,54,6L-63,6546,7o,89, t2r,r4z,17r Bhuvas 8Sn9 Brahma 9,3o-33,3617,40,52, 63-4j,68,72-78,8o,85,93, r29,86ro2,1oj-ro9,122,],27, r37, l3g, t4t, r44,148-r5r, rSS, \57,15g,163,Vo-V3 Brahma 49 n7, Sg,g3,,r4&-r49, 166trzo Brahmachdri t64 ntz,t65 nv Brahma-Loka 48-149, 158 n Brahma-M|mansd Brahman93n11 Brahmdnda49 n7,93 Brahma-pura33,36,t72
Brahma-Sutras t3,15,30,63,65,

SANSKRTT rNDEX r7g jtvq-ghdna 93,128 jivaja 7t jivan-mukta 16rn3, 166,168 jivafl-mukti 16o-167 ii,Atma $,46,49,5V6o,67-68, 78,82r,3,91,9511'2,120,125, '28,83-134, r4r, 159,164 JfiAfla D,65,68 lfiana-chakhus fi8 jfrAnendriya6+Vr jyotis 37 Kah,aly fi5 Kali-Yuga t6z n5 kama 9r kamala 84 n3 karana74,96 kArana-sharira 68,79,96,too karma rr, 65,r58 Karma-Mimamsa t karmendriya64,r7t kartritva 64 karya74,93,97,t48 nzo Karya-Brahma 48 kevalat66 kosha67 krama-muktin4,r32,r47,75gr6o kri 48 nzo Kshatriya 46 nry kta 98 LakshmT 66 laukika 9r linga-shar\ra69,79, 89 loka 9r,t45-r46 Maha-Moha 76 no Mahat 43,57,58, roo, 136
mahattara toz

146 deva-yana 139-142,1441115, Dharma 4o,76n8,86 dhAtu 81n4 dhyana 6o,t5z dish 8+ drish g Durga 166n2o dvara $6 dvija 96 gandha 6t r.42rl8 Ganesha ghana 93nt4 ghrana 66 Grihasthat64 nn

man rr manana :163 nB manas 43,54,61-66, 68,86, 88, 99,ro5 nslo&12,1r9,r3o,163 n8,121 manayo 4o,83rr4 mdnava-lokago nz4 manomayo69 manomaya-kosha 68,94117 mantra 137nr3 Manu 4o,93 maru r72 mabo 6t matra 8t,ro8-rrL
mauna 64-t67 maya 67 MAyA 43,76 ns9&12 mayamaya 9t

guha3z guna 44-45,58 Guru t64-r65
Hamsa 49 n7

u8, r3r Brahma-Vidyan,19,r59 Brahminst46 nry Buddhi 43,49, 54,57-60, 62, 6566, 68,86,92,99-loo,136 buddhtndriya 64 chaitanyayr chakra$4n3 nn 65,to5 chakshus Chandra 43 Chaturtha rc3 Lnffan|wt 12 Chit gS,g8-gg c hina8 6 ,9 8
^ 1 .

harda-vidyary6 Hatha-Yoga 90 i4,132,r35,156 n5 Hiranyagarbha9z-93,to9'L26 n3, tz8, t49 hridaya 3z i t4t n4, r48 nzo

idass
idam 6o Indra 44 n6,65,86 indriya 43,55,63 64, 68,74 Ishvara19,24,30,59,
n 5 , 1 O O ,1 O 5 ,1 4 9 , 1 5 1

mdydvi-rupa76 medha r5rn29 Mlmamsa n-l: miti to9 Mokshar53,r58nr3, 165 mri rTznt: mudra 87 nB mltkha84 n7 mukhya-prana65,84n7 mukta 65 Mukti y3 mula 43 M[rla-Prakriti 43,97,96 n 9 Muni t63,t65,t69 milrti 59 nadi 88-90,r34-r35 namarupar3o,16rn3 nara 83n4 Narottama 83n4 nlrguna 19,64,74 n5, Lso Nirukta 36 n7,65 nt4,68 n4
Nirvdna 99 n8, 163n6

Ishvara-Vidydry iva 47 n3 jdgaritasthana8z jagat 4o jardyuja 7t jtva y, rz8, t7r

dahara 33 dahara-vidyary6 darshana 9-u. Deva 58,t5onz4 devatar4z

18o

MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA

sANsKRrr rNDEx samana69,to9 samprasada 99 samsaraD7 n4 samudra t3o sandhi8o nr sandhya8o, ro9 g5n9 Sandhyd-upasana Sdnkhya rr, 42-43,47-4g, 5t_52, 66, 54,57 , 6o- 6r , 97 Sannyasa t64 nn, t66 nt9 Sannyasr 64 Saraswafi t66 sarva 70oSat 45,98-99 sattva 45 savishesha 79,75,155 shabda6t Shakti75-77,r4g, 166 sharlra13n4,68 n4 Shdrirakary Shariraka-Mtmamsa g Shiva 59,t3t nr2, r35,t5r n29., t66 n20 shodashd-kalah ryo shrotra65,ro5 nrz Shruti 13.-14 Smriti 13-14,37 n9 Soma43 sparsha6r stha 8z nr sthana8z nr sthilla-sharira 69-7o,79, g9 sukshma-sharira, 69,79, g9 Silrya 43 sushumnar34-t36,r32 n rt, 139 sushupta-sthdna 95 sushupti65 sutra 3o svapiti 65 svapna-sthana 88 Svar 84-85 Svarga84,t43-r44 Svayambhu uo n3 svedaja7r nt2

rgr

nirvishesha ry Nirvritti 163n6 nri 83n4 O m 77 ,8 r,8 5 n 9 , ro 8 -ru Omkara 77-78, rtr oshadhi7t pAda 66,78,8r,roz,ro8 padma g4 n3 Pdndita 65 panditya 64-t67 pani 66 Para-Brahma74 n5, t52 paramartha9t paramhrthika 9z ParamdtmT4 nt3, 24-25,46, 52,
1 O 5n 1 1 , 1 1 1

Prakriti 39,4r-44,48-5r, 53-54, 63,65,75n8,77 nr5,97, 57-58, rc4 n7,95 99,lO1, pralaya rz7-t28, t 46-t47, r4g, r5g pramanaL4n5 prAna 64-65,69,84,90,1o5n 12,
L7g,L27 n5, 16r

parinama 48 Parinirvdna63 n6 Parinirvritti 63 n6 Pdrvatl 66 pasha151 n29 pashu r5t n29 PAshupatas $6 Pdshupatiryr nzg payu 66 pinda 93 nr2,n6 n3 pingald s5 pippala 46 Pitri 4o Pitri-yana r3g-t4r, r43, 146nr9, 150 prabhava rcr Pradhana 43,48 Prajapati40,r44 Prajfia 95-101, ro5-ro6,ro9,L49, t55,t63 n6 Prajfidna95 n2,98 n5 Prajfiana-ghana95

pranamaya 69 pranamaya-kosha 69,94 nry prapancha86 Prapancha-upashama ro3,111, 155 Prasadag6 prafibhasika 9t pratika ryr pratyaksha 14n5, 6o pratyaya-sara to3 pravivikta 88 nt Prithvt (or Prithivt) 62,r4z Pumas39 Purdna 43 pura 36 puri-shaya 36 puru 36 n7 Purusha 36-44, 46-5t, 54,57-59, 63,65,67,75 n8, 83 n4, 97, 99,
1 O 1n 1 1 , 1 3 3 , 1 5 5

tad 6r Taijasa88-94, 1o9,121 tamas45 tanmatra43,54,6t-63,65 n6, 6g, 89,l2t, t3o,77l tat 6t tattva 42-43,48,54,6r Tejas36,62,88-89,r42 Tiibhuvana49 n7,g5n9, 1otnll trikdla 77 Trimilrti 58-59,roo, 166 Turiya 1o2-to3 tvach 65 ubhaya rc9 udana7o udbhijja 7r upddhi ryr upama 47 n3 Upanishadtz-r3, r5-r7, zo, 3c,, 34 n3,142, t6r n3 upAsanA 85n9, rtr,rz2,t5t upastha66 utkarsharc9 uttama 39,46 Uttara-Mlmdmsd t unara-paksha4z vd 69 vAch 66,105 n12, t66 nzo Vaisheshika n Vaishvdnara 8z-87,g9,94, tog_ rog,r29,734-135, r42,r44 Vanaprastha t64nn varna 157 n7

Purushottama46-47, 49, 52, 75 n8 Purva-Mimamsd t Pilrva-paksha4z rajas 45 r asa6\7rnL3 rasana66 rupa 6t SaccidAnanda 99 sadhanar6yr64nn Sadhu164nn saguna 19,64,74-75, r48

I82

MAN AND HIS BECOMING ACCORDING TO THE VEDANTA

varsha7r Varuna t43 vfrta 69 84-86,u9' Vayu 49 n7,62,65,69, t43 Veda9-t,L7,43,46,49 rr7,7r,8r, 168,lL7o-L7r L4o,L57, 137, Vedantar, 7-8, 13,zi.,29, 42, 5Lt7t 52,67,7r-72,8t, vi 68 n10 vid g n2, 143 videha-mukti fio-r67 vidvan r22,r34 vidya 9 fl2,143n1o vidyut t43 vijfiana 58,95n2 vijfidnamaya 68-69 68,g4 nr7, 95 vijfidnamaya-kosha n2 Viraj 9,85,92-93,to9 y5 vishesha vishishtary6

Vishnu 59,83n4,t66 nzo vishva 8z n3 Vishvakarma 40 ns1&4 nro 164 vivarta vrata y6 vydhriti 85n9 vyakta 96,ro4 vyhna 69 vydvahdrika9t, ya r48 nzo yaga 5rnz9 n29 yajfia 157 yana t4]-n4 yantra t37 nB Yoga3t,9a 14,:.52,156 t37,t56 Yoga-Shastra t6r-t6 4, r66-t7 3 gi 156, Yo yoni rct yonija 7r Yuga8o n1, 90 n4

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'I'inte anJ IZS l.$ {-'. r h e y d i r c c t t h e ro rhc ./ies n and antlrrop-rology. tltc Vc.' No lir.Tb rhis dey.i rhat [{induism Nlultil'lcSr.0r(/r.0gS4 G935 2001 c. Before Gudnon.Jan rraditic'tn. . emPhasizing thc necd for affilierion rvirh rt revealed rc:rr.gtt'. r i r i n g s .{ rhc' frrnr:rsies of thc remains.rrc. J '{ . and rl-ris work has bcen called rhc Iirsr reliable exposition of Hindu rneraphysics in :rny Wcstcrn languagc.v . l r i l c e c k n o w l c d g i n g r h c f i n a l i d e n t i r y o f a l l s p i r i r u .{crn worl. r n dr v h i c h r e p r e s e n r sr h e i n . ttt tfu StuJy o. r l p r r h s a s r h e y a p p r o a c h r h e rc . Cu6non hel.l h. t h c H e l l c n i c a n d J u .'.rre. Tfu World'sRc/igroir. rhe Wesr'-simagc of Hinduisrn w. Coomirrirswamy.r. lrc sis c t r l r r r r c . w h o s e cnc Gudnon (1886-195r) cririrluc of rhe nro. H c r r n c r i c i s r n . randc'rm imprcssions r'r{'mcrchanrs. F-luston Srnith. rrn.s prlrysics. wlrose rask it l" rradirion thrt [r. s u n rr n i t o f ' s p i 1 ' 1 1 1 1 ra is Gu6non's ccntral exposirion oi Mrur rnrt/ I lr.1. { e i c .. fot H i s e x r c n s i v cu . l t s h i s r o r i c a l a n d c o s m o l o g i c e le s p c c r so f F l i n d u i s m i n f u r r h e r d c r a i l . inrperialisrs. { C h i n e s c .. unr. t1 lizrttiotr.l scriprures lacking rredirior-ralcomtnenrarl. brings cogerher rhc r. r d i r i o nc v c n u .orksin rhis genrc:'l'hc Synrltolisno.. crf'fLcB. u r L { i r ) c l u d i n g . a r c a p r o v i d e n t i a l r r c : l s u r c . K.-lvenrtrrcrs.n o w f i n a l l y a v e i l a b l ci n E n g l i s h .l frrsraglinsr rhc shifring slnds of inrellc'crualfashion. .lcr':rlso r r ' . 1 i s p r c r 1 5 1[[' ' t A.l qD .ingu.which can in sonle ways funcrion as a kcy ro cvery orhcr rradirional forrn.l'rbr Cros.ls a hodge-podge of rransl.il mere- ane-ll'bc ro his orher rrvc-r conrp'rrrnion grcat \.nc ctf rhe besr (if not Theosophical Sociery and rhcir ilk..tx5s culturcs r .l' thc Hin'lu Dttctittcs.r h e C h r i s r i a n a n d I s l .{cc1''cs1l*. n eo f r h e g r c a r l u n r i r r a r i e so i t h c t w c n t i c r h c e n r u r y . ffi . . and .ly rhen rvircn he u'as alive..rks of-Rorc Ourttrott J-l:cCollccrcJ rinre.lucilt'ttr G u 6 n o n r r e . r l s o A l c h c r n y .'rrrq. .\.luistn ancJ Inrro.rny civilizeric'rn d e s e r v i n gt o b e s o . and cornprehensivc cxprcssion of rraditional rlrctaphysics we possess.Tl-ris rexr is a verirlble bible of rradirional merephysics rhc Brirish Ra_y.rsLtccn rhc essential firundation of ev ro cxpouncl rlrc universul mcrap'thysical fitr.w a s c ' . proftrund.'liable E.s embraccs thc mosr ancienr.vriringsoFone of rhe greatcst proprlrersof our l.trroccnrric consrnlcrions of rhe oricntalists.1. In his Stu. an cxposirion enrirely fi'cc f}om rhc modcrnizing .clof rcligious prexis. r n r i c . lrlail turl l{l-sBcconrirrg rhc besr) exprosirions of rhc do.r r c ) v e rhc nroclcnr sccker: u'hile poinring ceaselesslyro rhc p'rglcnniel u'isdom fctund in .rnd Wesrernizing rcndencies rhat {irst infilrratcd rl're Indien subconrinent under and hrve nor yer abarc. whose voicc is cvcn nrr'rrcimporrJnt rod.Vt.i IJciolrrrq (r.:rrines of rhe Vcdanra. a n d o t h c r e s o t c r i c c u r r c n r s .rirer in modcrn Europc is nrore signihcent tlren Rcn6 Cudnon. Hin. fi'egrnents of doctrine reporred by Jesuirs and orher missionaries. r n g i n g f i ' o r n r l r c S h r r r u r r i s r i c r o r h e I n d i a n a n .rs srotr.

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