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XI.

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Precipitating Factors -Poor insulin compliance -Lifestyle -Stress -Acute Illness Infection -Drug intake that affects carbohydrates Antibody destroys Beta cells (Autoimmune response)

Predisposing factors Age Genetics

Insulin Insufficiency
Decrease glucose utilization by muscle, fat and liver

Increase production of glucose by the liver

Increase breakdown of fat


Increase fatty acids and will be oxidized

Hyperglycemia
Acetone breath, poor appetite, anorexia, weight loss nausea

Increase ketonebodies (betahydroxybutyrate & acetotrexate)

Blurred Vission

Polyuria

Dissociate ketone ions into hydrogen ions

Weakness, Headache Bradypnea Altered mental status Abdominal Pain Mild Hypothermia

H2O & electrolytes excreted urine Hydrogen ions will bind to bicarbonate ions

Dehydration Na + and K+ deficits


Nausea & Vomitting, Abdominal Pain

ACIDOSIS

Increase Respiration

Serum pH, Serum bicarbonate pCO2 level

SHOCK, COMA, DEATH