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Toward the theory of Flying Wings

Translated from the German by Yoram Leshinski (Many thanks!) Aerodynamics From Lilienthal (1892) to Junkers (1910), the creation of lift was the leading thought that gave all constructs their form !ven the em"ennage should create lift #he making of airfoils for wings and em"ennage reflected the strong cam$er of a $ird%s airfoil, that Lilienthal had reali&ed and measured as $est for creating ma'imum lift #he creation of lift was em"hasi&ed in 18(2 through $) *agnus *agnus, who as an artiller) officer studied the flight of rotating "ro+ectiles in crosswinds, gave the correct e'"lanation for the "ro+ectiles missing the targets ,otation and crosswind gave a force "er"endicular to the flight direction- Lift #hat "henomenon (known toda) as the *agnus effect) can $e clearl) o$served on .cut. tennis $alls or .sliced. golf $alls / c)linder revolving on its a'is (with circular flow lines, whose s"eed is inversel) "ro"ortional to the radius) will $e $rought into a "arallel flow, so that the local s"eeds overla" /n as)mmetric flow line is created in regards to the hori&ontal, that means lift, a s)mmetr) remains in regard to the verticals, and so no resistance is created 0f )ou envision the image distorted through a mathematical trick, then from the circle )ou will get the Joukowski /irfoil #his transformation is also easil) achieved through drawing 0f )ou write the circulation then the lift is (discovered inde"endentl) $) 1utta and Joukowski)or when the stagnation "ressure, is introduced and su$stituted with where with and

#he flow lines of the rotating c)linder in a "arallel flow can $e easil) made visi$le through e'"eriments in a h)drod)namic tank , 0f instead of a rotating c)linder, a cam$ered "late is su$merged in the water flow, then the "icture of the flow lines, a little $it further from the c)linder or the "late, remains unchanged $ecause of s)mmetr) "rinci"les around the vertical, the lift can $e viewed as an effect on the c)linder a'is and also on the middle of a cam$ered "late, that is (0 2 of the airfoil #he lift is then "resent, even so the /3/ is &ero, its coefficient stated as c lo #he circulation $elonging to each cam$ering resulting through this, that the down flow direction at the trailing edge, in c)linder and "late, must $e the same 4ou can make it visi$le, with the same e'"eriment configuration, that a flat "late, or even $etter, one with a s)mmetrical airfoil envelo"ing it, will create the same flow line image (this will alwa)s take "lace when the lines are viewed a little $it further out from the c)linder area and the down flow angle is now through the given angle of the flat "late) /nchor on the s"ot of the c)linder a'is the "oint of 0 2( t (t 5 airfoil length) of the turna$le s)mmetrical airfoil, and )ou will also see that no moment is created, and it can $e "erceived that the lift affects at t 6 7 #his occur in all /3/, as long as the flow does not $ecome tur$ulent and detaches 0n t67 "oint the moment does not change when the /3/ changes (i e moment 5 &ero) #herefore, )ou call that "oint the 8eutral 9oint of the airfoil /lso in the "revious e'am"le, )ou can give the cam$ered "late, envelo"ed with a s)mmetrical airfoil, an e'tra /3/, through which the down flow direction and with it the circulation, and with it the lift, will $e increased /t the same time, the neutral "oint remains

inside t67, )et a moment e'ists in all /3/, c mo 5 cao : t67, in which t67 of the leverage arm of the &ero lift in t62 indicates to the neutral "oint 0 2( t 0n other cam$ered airfoil centre lines, c mo must $e calculated or in wind tunnel measured 0f )ou $end the centre line in the front (at the airfoil nose), the cao will $e raised, cmo sta)s small 0f )ou $end the centre line in the $ack, c ao is raised together with cmo #hrough com$ination this $rings )ou to a ;<form centre line, where c mo 5 0 and through this, a .fi'ed "ressure "oint. airfoil can $e constructed =ith that, the lift and the moment in two<dimensional flow are e'"lained, $ut a resistant is not )et evident /s said in the first cha"ter, 9randtl e'"lained this from the friction, which develo"s on the to" surface of a flow<surrounded $od), and is therefore called friction resistance #he flow "attern of the motionless c)linder in the "arallel stream is e'"erimentall) difficult to show, as the friction on the to" surface of the local s"eeds changes o""osite the theoretical, where$) the "ressure distri$ution shifts and, finall), even the se"aration of the stream follows Friction resistance to the c)linder to" surface and the friction of the air la)ers $etween the streamlines changes the "icture $ehind the $od) (the s)mmetr) is distur$ed), and there$) causes air resistance 3n the front side of the c)linder is the additional flow "ressure >" 5 ? in the center #he flow "ressure is reduced on $oth sides to &ero when the c)linder is raised u" to the angle of @0 degrees, thus the local velocit) is that of the free unim"aired flow /ccording to the Aernoulli law, the "ressure reduces itself u" to a c)linder angle of 90 degrees, since the s"eed rises #he "ressure field on the front of the c)linder can $e divided into its com"onents in the direction of the flow, which results, $etween the c)linder angle 0 to @0 degrees in "ressure com"onents to the rear, and from @0 to 90 degrees in suction com"onent to the front Aoth eliminate themselves "erfectl), so that half of the c)linder e'"eriences no "ressure resistant $etween 0 and B90 degrees Junkers was "erfectl) right to "ro+ect a thick a thick wing, the volume s"an<wise, laid out transverse to the flight direction / "ressure resistance does not e'ist #herefore, if one distorts the circle (c)linder) through the same mathematical e?uation and a s)mmetrical Joukowski airfoil develo"s, then on the rear side, the se"aration is "revented and with that, the resistance is e?ual to the friction resistance #hus the measurements resulted, with the accurac) of 1910, in air resistance inde"endent from the airfoil thickness #oda) we know that this fact is Fig. 1 0deal flow around a c)linder and accordingl) onl) "artiall) correct #he $oundar) la)er, the the theoretical "ressure flow, that doesn%t "roduce an) laminar tur$ulence and the mach num$er force com"onent in the flow direction 0n addition the e'ercise influence, where as the aforementioned "ressure flow is drawn in with su"ercritical, tur$ulent a""lies onl) in a certain area and doesn%t generall) a""l) 8evertheless, Junkers could $oundar) la)er and with su$<critical, laminar< se"arated flow, to which the flow "attern no longer fit reduce air resistance through the self<su""orting and with the vorte' formation resistance occurs #he wing and "revent the need of wires and struts #he thicker wing ended u" resulting in less c)linder can $e transformed mathematicall) and resistance #oda) there are hardl) an) strutted or gra"hicall) easil) into a airfoil, in which the flow $raced air"lanes left, there$) "roving Junkers% se"aration is avoided, and therefore no "ressure resistance occurs

develo"ment correct #he mach num$er, the relation of flight s"eed to the s"eed of sound, was stated with the resistant estimation 0f one imagines the front<"ro+ecting surface multi"lied $) the rate of v of the flight, then one receives a volume which, "er second from the front to the rear, must $e led "ast the air"lane #his occurs, as is ver) well visi$le on the c)linder in the h)drod)namic tank, at high s"eeds near the largest cross<section #here will $e, as stated a$ove, no e'tra resistance added to the friction 0f )ou think of the air as com"ressi$le (as is necessar) at high s"eeds), then the volume to $e trans"orted is multi"lied $) the densit) C and )ou receive mass #he trans"ortation of that air mass "ast the air"lane (from the front to the rear) is therefore different from the .volume trans"ort. 0n the "lace of the highest velocit) (connected with the $iggest negative "ressure $) the Aernoulli e?uation), the negative "ressure now also changes the densit) (reduced), so that, in order to trans"ort the mass of air, high s"eeds must again now $e increased #he "roduct C : v now $ecomes instrumental, and we have to e'amine if it has a ma'imum (whether there is a s"eed at which /t a higher s"eed the densit) decline will $e

larger, since it corres"onds with the s"eed increase and, with that, less air mass flows laterall) $) the air"lane 0t is easil) derived that the ma'imum e'isted and the a""ro"riate s"eed is that of the sound #his locall) occurring s"eed of sound, at further increase of the flight s"eed, makes the continuit) of the flow not "ossi$le #herefore the flight mach num$er, at which locall) the s"eed of sound occurs, is called critical and the s"eed range $eginning with it transonic (to a""ro'imatel) mach num$er 1 @) /t *ach 1 @, "urel) su"ersonic flow $egins #he transonic stream is still toda) in a research status 3n the other hand, the su"ersonic flow is eas) to calculate #he air"lane%s volume distri$ution "er"endicular to the flight direction (as found in a thick wing, "atented $) Junkers), loses its "h)sical foundation with the critical mach num$er Dowever, this is shifted $) the swee" of the wing to higher values, u" to a""ro'imatel) * 5 0 9 0n the su"ersonic range different laws a""l), since air is com"ressed, which leads to energ) loss Dere the Junkers "atent cannot $e a""lied an) longer Furthermore, it is "ractical to kee" the front<"ro+ecting surface small, that is, to la) out the s"ace in longitudinal direction /fter a suggestion from D *ultho"" (to me in 19((), it is $est to calculate the cross<sections of the air"lane as at * 5 1 #he factor .cte. is o$tained from the desired air"lane volume, the largest cross<section area s ma' (surface) in (02 of the total length of the air"lane E in the a$ove e?uation is set from <1 to F1 #he shift of the critical mach num$er $) the swee"<angle follows onl) a""ro'imatel) the factor , where as the swee"<

angle refers to the minimum airfoil "ressure, as is "h)sicall) necessar) #he influence of the wing< ta"ering on the shifting of the critical mach num$er is not )et investigated, $ut is, with an increase of the ta"ering, to $e e'"ected, which is es"eciall) "rominent in the delta wing / thickening of the wing around 12 diminishes the critical mach num$er around a""ro'imatel) 1 ( 2 3ne ma) conclude from this that the swee" is more effective For the "erformance calculation in the transonic flight it make sense to set the thrust in relationshi" to the front<"ro+ecting surface and so to define a cali$rated load #he thrust at travel height and the num$er of revolutions of the engines at travel s"eed are to $e considered #he thrust must $e divided $) sma' and one receives so the dimension da8 6 m 2 #he cali$rated load and the s"ace distri$ution according to the *ultho"" e?uation is, with that, o""osed to the Junkers "atent and $anishes the wing onl) air"lane into the su$sonic fl)ing range #he tail<less air"lane however, which re"resents onl) a

"artial solution in the su$sonic to the wing<onl) air"lane, is, in the transonic or su"ersonic, a must for flight "erformance and safe controlla$ilit) #he swe"t wing does not onl) shift the critical mach num$er to higher value 0t diminishes the resistance +um" near the s"eed of sound and reduces the lift colla"se, that the strait wing suffers #hat%s wh) an air"lane without swee" a$ove the critical mach num$er (or close to * 5 1) is uncontrolla$le ;ince in su"ersonic flight the flow is two dimensional, the side "ro"ortion can $e ke"t small =ith strong swee" )ou get the delta air"lane, which is controlla$le in the whole transonic area #he su"ersonic aircraft is therefore o"timal with regards to the resistance and for safet) reasons (controlla$ilit)) a tail<less delta air"lane #he wing thickness should $e, as is static<constructive necessar), as small as "ossi$le #he fuselage must haven the volume for the fulfillment of the mission, "refera$l) with round cross<section, in order to form a "ressuri&ed ca$in, which is unavoida$le with the travel heights in the stratos"here Junkers could not "ossi$l) foresee this develo"ment of aviation 1910 0t a""eared onl) after the end of the war, 197( and later, and can $e seen in the construction e'am"les of the .*irages. and .Goncorde., which re"resent o"timal configuration #he tail<less air"lane, which Junker did not "atented and did not use in his "ro+ects J1000 and H @8, was now the $est solution in the su"ersonic 0n the su$sonic area however the tail<less air"lane is a "artial solution of the wing< onl) air"lane and was "ro$a$l) understood as such, so that the flight characteristics and the controlla$ilit) could $e studied For "erformance com"arison to the tail air"lane the wing<onl) air"lane is to $e considered, as a""ro"riate for the mission #he attem"ts of different designers with tail<less gliders and sail<"lanes in the twenties have so their +ustification, also then when the wing was connected with struts to the fuselage and thus ha""ened what Junkers wanted to eliminate with his "atent #he flight characteristics ("articularl) in stretched flight) where with these sam"les further develo"ed #he strutted swe"t wing was also com$ined with tail air"lanes (falcon, su"er<falcon), although the strut force com"onent in the wing had to $e led over diagonals and secondar) s"ars, which generall) are not intended for it 0t is not to $e said that the tail<less air"lane is staticall) more difficult than a tail air"lane, $ut onl) that the tem"orar) solution with struts (in regards to the Junkers "atent) had led to illogical s)stems and that the, $) Junkers alread) 191I constructed, cantilever wings meant a large ste" ahead in the direction of the wing<onl) air"lane Lift distribution /ir resistance in the su$sonic region, in which from now on the wing<onl) air"lane is to $e seen, was clarified $) two messages in the Lifting =ing #heor) $) L 9randtl ("u$lished 1918) #he diverted induced resistance $ecomes a minimum, if the lift is distri$uted over the s"an in the form of a half elli"se, in the case of a given s"an and a constant weight of the air"lane 0f now the wing has the form of an elli"se, then (without washout) the lift coefficient is same in ever) "lace of the s"an Glose to the ma' lift a local flow se"aration can $ring a rolling moment around the longitudinal a'is of the air"lane, which the "ilot can $arel) ad+ust with the aileron, $ecause the whole wing is close to the ma' lift #he elli"tical wing was therefore s"arsel) used for reasons of the flight characteristics and "roduction #he wing ti" (according to the suggestion of /hl$orn) was made thicker, similar to the Janonia<;amen #hrough that the local coefficient of lift at the wing ti" is smaller than in the other "laces of the wing (even at elli"tical lift distri$ution), so that a flow se"aration is not to $e e'"ected there #ail<less air"lanes, according to the Janonia "rinci"le, can have elli"tical lift distri$ution #he lift was according to the mathematical derivative from the circulation of 1utta<Joukowski in wing s"an direction as constant, $ecause the created vorte' could not change L 9randtl e'"lained, in Jul)

1918 in Hoettingen, that the a$ove "ro$lem could not a""l) in three dimensions, $ecause the $ent carr)ing vorte' at the wing ti" induced on the carr)ing line of the vorte' center, in 167 of the de"th , a downward s"eed w 0n the model of the .horseshoe vorte'., w $ecomes infinite at the wing ti"s, which is "h)sicall) im"ossi$le 9randtl assem$led therefore the carr)ing vorte' from man) single vortices, each resem$ling a horseshoe, and "roofed- if varies the intensit) over the wing s"an ("ro"ortionall) to an elli"se), then the down<wash w is constant over the wing s"an, the wing ti" e'cluded De derived an e?uation, from which the induced down<wash can $e calculated and from it the resistance, which was this wa) calculated with the lift #he down<draft s"eed w of the vorte' center multi"lied $) the lift, re"resents an energ) "er second, hence a "erformance, that must $e e?uivalent to another force times s"eed, therefore resistance times airs"eed #he elli"tical lift distri$ution with constant down<wash over the wing s"an or constant ai(induced /3/), resulted in a minimum for this .induced resistance. #he e?uation from 9randtl, in the meantime, can not generall) $e solved /t the wing ti"s, for which 9randtl had re?uired that , the down<wash remains undetermined 4ou could kee" this &one small, "oint like, if first ascertained when , however, the down<wash at the wing ti" was

#wo different lift distri$utions result from it, those with "er"endicular

tangent at the wing ti" and those with hori&ontal tangent Gonse?uentl), different authors tried to descri$e the lift distri$ution "recisel) enough to $e acce"ted $) the scientist ;chrenk gave 192( the sim"lest solution, to take the average value $etween the de"th distri$ution and the e?ual area elli"se, which results in a good a""ro'imation and is still com"letel) sufficient toda) for the calculation of em"enage loads #his a""ro'imation had to fail, if the wing had a wash<out Li""isch, in 19@2, came u" with an a""ro'imation method (;"ort Fl)ing 19@2), in which the wash<out where included De also mentioned the lift distri$ution with &ero<tangent at the wing ti", later termed $) me (Dorton) as $ell distri$ution 0n 19@8 *ultho"" succeeded to se"arate the critical wing ti" and to give a solution to the e?uation for the determination of the lift distri$ution $) linear e?uations at certain "oints of the wing s"an (Lufo 19@8) (#hese "a"ers of Li""isch and *ultho"", as dissertation recogni&ed, would have $een enough to $e received with honour in ever) universit), however $oth were missing in the fulfillment of formalities of the curriculum, in order to receive acknowledgment )

Fig. 2 Lift distribution along the wing span. =ith a central angle , which indicates the coordinates from 00 to 1800 as 4 5 cos in s"an direction, and which descri$es the elli"tical lift distri$ution with cl t 5 c : : t : e : sin , can also define the $ell distri$ution with cl t 5 c : t : e sin@ 0n the case of a narrowing wing, in the e'am"le is the wing of the D 00 re"resented, )ou get without washout a .8ormal >istri$ution., which has less lift at the wing ti" than elli"tical wing with the same area, however $oth distri$utions have much more lift there, than the stretched $ell distri$ution =ith tail<less air"lanes, whose wing is arranged after the volume curve, the $ell distri$ution is necessar), to "revent to high lift values at the wing ti" ;ince the distri$ution of sin2 is theoreticall) not "ossi$le, was the D 00 after the c : t 5 c : t : e : sin@ curve constructed, with which in 4 5 1 a &ero<tangent is availa$leK contrar) to the elli"tical and normal distri$utions, with which at the wing ti" a vertical tangent occurs #he distri$ution of sin7 , that leads to larger induced resistance and those with sin2,( are also drawn in, since these have likewise &ero<tangents, the curve sin2,( remained however onl) an attem"t, $ecause the flight characteristics worsened and a larger a$ilit) was re?uired $) the "ilots $eing, even so the "erformance im"roved do to the smaller induced resistance De selected these "oints according to a central angle d (as cos d ), the elli"tical distri$ution was according to "ro"ortionall) to sin d =ith given chord length and local wash<out angels could so the lift distri$ution with sufficient accurac) $e determined and com"arative calculations showed that the differences were small o""osite the calculation "rocedures of Li""isch, which was onl) an a""ro'imation solution 3n the other hand, the local /3/ could, for an intended lift distri$ution with given de"th, $e determined, that is a total /3/ and a washout !'ce"t for the s)mmetrical distri$utions of the straight flight, )ou could also as)mmetricall) calculated the aileron deflection and the roll resistance, which was im"ortant for the air"lane la)out ;ince these calculations can toda) $e more easil) e'ecuted with com"uters, it is not worth it to go into greater detail with the method and onl) the results are shown, which were derived at different distri$utions (a""lied to the sam"le D 00 with a ta"er of the wing troot 6 tti" 5 8 L, as"ect ratio $26F 5 8 7 and ) =ith the designations of *ultho"" is the $ell distri$ution- cl: t 5 cte sin@d /lso was investigated cl : t 5 cte : sin7d and cl t 5 sin2 (d, as well as the normal distri$ution (without washout), and necessar) washout and induced resistance distri$utions for cl 5 1 0t results-

Distribution Form Normal Elli se sin $ell $ell $ell sin3 sin!

Lift Center 0.385 0.!"# 0.333 0.30&

Cwi/Cwi
ell.

YClmax 0.88 0.88 0.3% 0."& 0.!%5

Yaw

./. # #.33 #.5! #."3

negative negative ositive ositive 0

sin".5 0.35#

8egative )aw meant that an aileron deflection "roduces a moment around the vertical a'is o""osing the turn, which must $e $alanced with the rudder Fig. 3 #he necessar) washout (to give the D 00 the $ell distri$ution) is recorded in the a$ove gra"hs 0t is understanda$le that with a cl total smaller than one, "ro"ortionall) also the washout $ecomes smaller #he rudder kinetics has to ada"t to the gra"h in such a manner that with the rudder deflection the washout gra"h is "reserved for a modified cl total, thus with the rudder deflection a varia$le washout is arranged 1 8ickel has, in 1878 (#M$ingen >iss ), calculated >istri$utions, which resulted in a minimum of the induced resistance Nnfortunatel) without s"ecif)ing the resistance distri$ution and without the data which are necessar) for the a""lication #he occu")ing authorities had for$idden the aviation research at that time 0t would $e to $e welcomed, if toda) the work were concluded 0n the distri$utions of 8ickel is the vertical tangent 4 5 1 allowed, so that ?uite different lift distri$utions develo" than those for the $ell form / gra"h, which >r 1arl 8ickel gave the author (Dorton) in /rgentina, is shown (Fig L)

Fig. 4 Local lift coefficient at different lift distri$utions calculated for the wing of the D 00 at cl<total 5 1 0 4 indicates the center of lift in s"an direction Glose to it should, with increase of the /3/, the se"aration the flow of take "lace first, so that from the locall) decreased lift no moment will occur #he center of lift and the GH of the air"lane must corres"ond in '<direction, if at the whole wing cm0 5 0 and no rudder deflections e'ist #he elli"tical lift distri$ution has its ma' cl with 4 5 0 88, their center with 4 5 0,721, therefore it is ?uite unsuita$le for this wing sha"e #he $ell distri$ution with the ma' lift coefficient in 4 5 0,@I and center of lift in 0 @@ fulfills ?uite well this condition (small differences are controlla$le), if the wing ti"s with their rudders o"erate in strong flow #he wing ti" must $e well "rotected against flow se"aration, which the $ell distri$ution ensures at all ta"ers, u" to the triangle wing !ven if these distri$utions could not $e used, it can nevertheless $e said without closer investigation, that a calculation is necessar) of the negative c l values occurring at the wing ti", $ecause a se"aration of the current on the wing ti" lower surface (>unne) would influence the e?uili$rium and the controlla$ilit) 9articularl) with the ta"ering of the wing the danger e'ists, which must $e "ointed out !ven more flow se"aration is to $e e'"ected $) the use of Frise t)"e ailerons in which the de"lo)ed aileron leading edge is su""osed to do +ust that /ilerons, which are deflected in the same direction as elevators, are necessar), in order to change washout "ro"ortionall) to the lift coefficient, as >unne was first to show !ven with e'cessive ta"er can this s)stem "revent ti""ing and ensure controlla$ilit), even in the e'treme flight Aecause of the, towards the wing ti", diminishing lift, the reduced lifting vorte' trails off in single vortices in flight direction to the rear #hese induce a down wash at the "lace of the main vorte' according to the 9radtl%s lifting wing theor) 0n the case of a swe"t wing the segments differ from those

of the strait wing, so that with it shifts occur and the wing ti"s receive less down wash 0n addition, the lifting single vortices influence each other at the swee" $end (that is right and left), and there, through the local Fig. #he induced resistance distri$utions of all $ell distri$utions show "ro"ulsion at the wing ti" #his is favora$le with aileron deflection, since the 4aw changes its value around the vertical a'is, thus $ecomes "ositive 0f the rudder kinetics "reserves the $ell distri$ution at all cl< value, then the 4aw is avoided, or even "ositive, at all cl<value #his is, on the one hand, favored $) the "ilot, on the other hand a large "art of the rudder effect is there$) su"erfluous down draft, create a .lift hole. =hether the .u" wash. at the wing ti"s and the .down wash. at the root eliminate each other, could not $e "roven Dowever, different lift distri$ution than those of the straight non swe"t wing develo"s, with other lift centers of that of the half wing / 9o"e, due to wind tunnel measurements, gave the correction as such, that with c l total 5 1 a > cl : t is to $e deducted according to the formula > cl : t 5 2 (1 < )) (1 < cos +), where$) + the swee"<angle of the t 6 7 < line is #his em"irical formula gives a correction in such a manner that c l : t+ 5 cl : t1 < > cl : t !ven if the "h)sical $asis is not contained in it, nevertheless the e'"eriments in the wind tunnel confirmed the a""ro'imation 0f the lift distri$ution has a turning "oint (as with the $ell distri$ution), the vortices going off to the rear

Fig. ! 3"timal lift distri$ution according to 1 8ickel /t a given lift and longitudinal force the induced resistance is minimal

are stronger inside then outside #herefore the induction is so, that the down wash in the core of the vortices transforms at the wing ti" into u" wash ;tarting from 0 I of the half s"an outward the $ell distri$ution has u" wash and the additional distri$utions $) aileron deflection, which causes a moment around the vertical a'is, changes likewise it%s sign 0t is understanda$le that the "ilot, with the sam"le of 4aw, draws a conclusion on the lift distri$ution and thus on the GH of the air"lane =ith the reali&ation of 4aw thus can $ecome .$alanced. =ool tuff e'"eriment ("hotogra"hed at the wing end of an D 00) acknowledged that with .more correctl). "osition of the center of gravit) (thus $ell lift distri$ution) the =ool tuffs was "ointing in flight direction, even if there is no lift and thus no cross "ressure slo"e and no cross flow /lso, the "hotogra"hing of the =ool tuffs at the wing ti" served to determined the GH, that is the $alancing Fig. " =ith the .,o$ot., installedat the wing ti" of the D 00 , =ool tuffs could $e "hotogra"hed, which dis"la)ed the flow direction there =ith $ell distri$ution and local cl 5 0 a vorte' is not availa$le there, the direction of flow on to" and $ottom side are the same (#he sheet metal at the other wing ti" serves for the moment $alance around the vertical a'is #he as)mmetr) is caused $) the tu$ing and the Gamera ) =ool<tufts on the white<"ainted wing root were likewise "hotogra"hed, in order to make the center effect visi$le #his however was without success, since the current alwa)s fitted and so it could $e "roven

that the center effect results from the ai <distri$ution and not $) a se"aration of the flow Flaps Junkers $uilt in 192(, for the first time on the # 29 air"lane, landing fla"s in form of an au'iliar) wing, which divided, worked at the same time at the outer wing also as aileron #he ma' lift coefficient almost dou$led itself during o"timal au'iliar) wing "osition =ith the same landing s"eed one could thus almost dou$le the weight6s?f, or to $uild a wing onl) half as large with same fl)ing weight #his Junkers dou$le<wing, caused different landing fla"s s)stems to $e ignored, seemed to out<date the wing<onl) idea, $ecause the wing could, and had to, $ecome smaller 0n addition it $ecame o$vious that the occurring "itch<moment needed an em"ennage for the $alancing 0t is therefore understanda$le that Junkers, after the H @8 (which also had these landing fla"s), develo"ed the tail (.normal.) air"lane Ju (2, in order to use the "ossi$ilities that his au'iliar) wings invention $rought #oda) these dou$le< wings are not used an) more, although their advantages in relation to other s)stems continue to e'ist and the "ossi$ilities with Laminar airfoil were not )et sufficientl) e'amined #herefore, in the develo"ment of the wing<onl), landing fla" com$inations had to $e included, with which we dealt in the "receding sections 0t must $e still "ointed out however that the airfoils of the tail air"lanes at that time with a""ro'imatel) circularl) curved center line, after integration of the landing fla"s (that caused the ma'imum lift for landing), were changed to airfoils with small airfoil moments, which are also suita$le for tail<less air"lanes / su$stantial feature in the difference of the wing sha"ing of $oth $uilding methods was there$) omitted 8ow it had to $e "roven that landing fla"s are also usea$le with the onl)<wing #he >CL also announced a "atent for a fla" form, which "roduced no moment Dowever it was overseen that a lift increase at the wing root of the swe"t wing results in a $ackwards acting moment, that the airfoil moment of the fla" is however to"<heav) (thus o""osite)had $een ignored #here are "ossi$ilities, however, of com$ining the moments in such a wa) that the resulting moment $ecomes &ero /lso, the ta"er "la)s an im"ortant role, $ecause the "ointed wing with same landing fla" s"an has more wing area influenced $) the landing fla", than the rectangle wing (at the same time less surface at the wing ti" $urdened with small lift coefficient) #he "olar, which are measured with the a""ro"riate rudder deflections, are called e?uili$rium<"olar Later investigations resulted in that landing fla"s at the delta wing root are alread) sufficient, in order to raise the lift over the whole s"an #he induction causes that ai dro"s more strongl) towards the wing ti"s which therefore increases the effective /3/ Fig. # Landing fla" order of the DC$ #hese landing fla"s had a full moment $alance around the hori&ontal a'is of the air"lane 0n 197@, the DCc was assigned to the /erod)namic La$orator) Hoettingen from the ,esearch< 0nstitute, in order to make takeoff and landing measurements and determine the ma' lift, which is the $ase for "erformance com"arisons with tail air"lanes Dowever, since fla" foils have a smaller ma' /3/, landing fla"s in mid<s"an can cause "remature local se"arations and thus "revent the effectiveness of the fla" s)stem =ind tunnel measurements

$efore 197(, using such landing fla"s, led to the wrong o"inion that the delta wing was unsuita$le for landing fla"s 0t should $e "ointed out that the delta wing with a small fla" in the correct "lace (the wing root) increases the lift in such a wa) that it is suita$le for almost all aircraft designs, with the flight characteristics not $eing com"romised / strong ta"er is therefore, as stated, advantages 0n order to get a ?ualit) gra"h with ma' landing lift to resistance in the high<s"eed flight (to $e used as a )ardstick), one can refer the ma' landing lift to the air<surrounded surface (without fla"s), since the resistance in the high<s"eed flight is mostl) friction resistance =ith the wing<onl), the value 1 0 can $e easil) achieved =ith the tail air"lane, the fuselage and the em"ennage would have to $e added as surface Dowever, all these com"arisons have their draw$acks 0n this case, the $oundar) la)er is not included, which can have su$stantial differences in the drag coefficients at ,e)nold num$ers $etween three and twelve million during a laminar flow #he swee" does not "revent the laminar effect, as was shown with gliders

$otes to the theoretical basis of the interpretation of the % && =as it in the delta, with inner elevators, mainl) the local airfoil moment ,which at large airfoil length caused the control moment , an increased swee" had to take over now this function >uring the transfer of the elevators into the aileron at the wing ti"s, the local de"ths remained small with large ta"er, so that the second integral ($ecause of t 2) can $e neglected #he first, however, contains ', the distance of the wing com"onent (re"resented $) the t67 <"oint) to the GH For it to $ecome reall) effective, ', which is the swee", must $e large #he D 00, therefore, was su""osed to receive a stronger swee" and larger ta"er =hen the lift distri$ution considera$l) influences the altitude control, it is reasona$le to assume that the wash<out of the wing must change "ro"ortionall) with the lift coefficient For $alance reasons, the centre of lift must corres"ond with the GH of each half<wing in longitudinal directionK in addition, the wash<out changes with the rudder deflection For e'am"le, with cl 5 0 (, the com$ined aileron<elevators in &ero "osition and the wings have a rigid wash<out of ( 0 0f the "ilot wants to fl) now with c l 5 1 0, the elevator deflection must $e as large as the

$asic wash<out, thus (o ;o the term Caria$le =ash<3ut develo"ed 0n the ideal case, without chord moments, one has to multi"l) the lift distri$ution onl) with one factor, in this e'am"le 2 #he form and its GH remain unchanged / "rere?uisite for it is that the wing de"th at the end in the rudder area is small ($) ta"er or high as"ect ratio), or that the value $ecomes &ero, as for e'am"le with a

rotation of the whole wing ti" For a later "ro+ect, the D 000, the aileron<elevator would have to $e divided into several fla"s, which would have to o"erate with different deflection angles, in order to re"resent the necessar) wash<out form more e'actl) =ould one then transition to the half of the wing< de"th, thus receive dou$le the D 000 as"ect ratio (D 0C), then the local chord moment would have onl) one fourth of the value of the D 000 $ecause of the de"th s?uare, with which c m is connected #he altitude control, due to the wash<out change, would then $e more "ro"ortionall) to c l 0n other words, the distur$ance $) the local moments (caused $) the fla" deflection) will $e less significant For the D

00, with smaller as"ect ratio, another solution would $e a rotating wing ti" #he wash<out would then get a ste" $ut with the chord moment of the fla" deflection would e?ual &ero #hese

considerations "resu""ose a airfoil whose cma 5 0, throughout the whole wing 0n com$ination with the first "oint (the lift hole at the head of the swee") one could now $ring the rudders into neutral "osition and measure the s"eed of the air"lane, so that the c l can $e calculated and check the com"liance with the design lift coefficient 0n addition, one can go the other wa), calculate out of the design lift coefficient the s"eed, then correct the GH "osition in such a wa) that the flown and the theoretical s"eed corres"ond with the neutral rudder "ositionK this "rocess was later called .$alancing out $) the neutral rudder "osition.

Fig. ' #he wing<ti" of the D 00 #he wash<out ste" o$tained $) the deflected aileron is visi$le at 4 5 0 9( >uring flight testing of the D 0 the ?uestion came u" in 19@7- which form of the lift distri$ution should the new construction, the D 00, receiveO #he aileron )aw moments had $een the determining factor with the D 0 for the controlla$ilit) #he $ell lift distri$ution with the &ero tangent in ) 5 1 had resulted in a defined descending flow over the whole s"an and with that an induced /3/ From the turning "oint of the lift distri$ution to the outside the induced /3/ changed it%s sign, even so the lift remained "ositive =ith the calculation of the induced resistance distri$ution cl:t:ai in wing s"an direction the wing ends received "ro"ulsion =ith 4 5 0 I changed a i it%s sign, that was something newK one could use negative induced resistance for the com"ensation of aileron )aw 0f the aileron would $e enough from 4 5 0 I to 1, then the induced )aw moments would have the o""osite sign #hus the correction of the aileron deflection would $e reduced or even unnecessar) $) a full rudder deflection, the rudder could then $ecome much smaller ;ince the lift distri$ution form doesn%t change much $) varia$le wash<out during the elevator deflection, then this effect is attaina$le with all lift coefficients thus all s"eeds /ileron and rudders will then $e se"arate and inde"endent, as long as the $ell distri$ution (the turning "oint) was achieved #hat was the theor) of the lift distri$ution for the D 00 #he washout ste" at the transition from ailerons to the fi'ed, immova$le wing ti" (called ear) at 4 5 0 9( had a good affect on the )aw in the D 0 and it should therefore remain Aesides, the aileron< elevator, which reaches from 4 5 0 I to 0 9(, a""eared as ?uite small 0t was designated therefore from half the s"an and u" (4 5 0 ( to 4 5 0 9() 0t also resulted that wing washout needed for the $ell distri$ution $ecame smaller with larger ta"er of the wing com"ared with a small ta"er or with the rectangle wing #hus a large ta"er was not onl) advantages for the wing volume, $ut also for the necessar) washout #he calculation of the local c l load resulted, that with increased ta"er of t root 6 twing<

ti"s 5

8 L it reached a ma'imum at 4 5 0 @I #hat, however, is almost at the lift center, which is in the $ell at 4 5 0 @@ / se"aration of the flow starting at 450 @I should therefore hardl) resulted in a change in GH, at least it should $e controlla$le #hat means .;"in resistance. or at least controlla$ilit) in the e'treme flight #he disadvantage of the $ell distri$ution, an a$out @@2 higher induced resistance with same s"an com"ared to a wing with elli"tical lift distri$ution,had to $e acce"ted $ecause of the flight characteristicsK that is, in order to kee" same cwi, the s"an of the $ell distri$ution must $e around 1L2 larger than with the elli"tical distri$ution at a given wing area #he airfoil distri$ution over the wing s"an, however, is likewise determined $) the $ell distri$ution, as the airfoil at the wing ti" can $e s)mmetrical, $ecause there cl is alwa)s small, and even a triangle wing has near 4 5 1 a small cl #he se"aration of the flow is therefore there not to $e feared =ithin the range from 4 5 0 @ to 0 7 should the se"aration $egin, even at a cam$er of the airfoil middle line within this area is this fulfilled #he ma' cam$er can, at last, $e at the wing root 0t is o$vious to sha"e the wing linear from the root airfoil to the wing ti" airfoil and to use a fi'ed<"ressure<"oint airfoil at the root(cmo 5 0) =ith the formulas of Airn$aum for c aoand cmo the center line of the root airfoil was drawn and modified "oint for "oint in such a wa), until cm0 5 0 was achieved Attempt of a repetition( % )&* + ,olonia + Aeside the $uilding the D EC c and the D3 @@ there was a third attem"t to $uild Dorton t)"e in Herman) after the ;econd =orld =ar- it was the D E0C which was almost read) for flight at the end of the war #he motivating force in the /erod)namic /ssociation 1olon was ! Gilsik #he "ro+ect was "ursued in an e'tensive corres"ondence across the /tlantic awa) Lack of funds led after five )ears, in 19L(, for cancellation of the work /t this time the fuselage mocku" was finished =ind tunnel e'"eriments with models, $uilding of the devices and man) detail investigations had "receded 3riginall) the .Golonia. was su""osed to get the airfoil of the D 0C #hat%s how the D E0C was $uilt toward end of the war 19L@ the airfoil was changed to one with a larger laminar e'tension, unfortunatel) in vain ;"ecial features of this design were the wing narrowing near the center "iece, the small fins on the wing at L 70 meters of the half s"an and the rear of the fuselage develo"ed as the dive $rake ,oordinates of the % &&& root-rib. (#hrough multi"lication of @ (6@ 2( )ou get the coordinates of the D 00 )

0n Januar) 19L( the "ro+ect D E0C .Golonia. was given u", even though after thorough testing of the "rotot)"e in an im"roved version with 1( meters wing s"an could $e counted on having a lift6drag ratio of @8 to 70 #hese where e'cellent "erformances for that time for a 1(<*eter<Hlider with rigid airfoil

Engineering department

Chance Vought Aircraft


'tratfor() Conne*ti*ut

#itle !'cer"t from LHA<1L76/dvance ,e"ort

Ten .ears /e0elopment of the Flying Wing %igh-1peed Fighter


9a"er "resented $) the Dorten Arothers, Aonn $efore the Fl)ing =ing ;eminar, /"ril 17, 197@

Ten .ears /e0elopment of the Flying Wing %igh-1peed Fighter


A) Dorten Arothers, Aonn ,e"ort 8o LHA 1L7 /fter three )ears of fl)ing activities which were used to "re"are the $efore the glider e'aminations, and aside from worksho" "ractice for the theoretical $asis of air"lane construction, we decided in 1928 to go into the construction of all<wing air"lanes #he develo"ment stage of the model lasted five )ears, until enough confidence was gained to assume the res"onsi$ilit) for the construction, to stud) the flight characteristics of all<wing full<scale air"lanes #he construction of models, which was su""lemented $) continued designs of large air"lanes, after s)stematic stud), gave us the e'"erience for this full<scale construction #he results of the model construction ver) soon showed, the necessit) for o$serving ,e)nolds% laws of similarit) as the) are "resented in the recentl) "u$lished $ook $) F = ;chmit&, ./erod)namics of the fl)ing model. ("u$lisher Colkmann) /fter these relationshi"s had $een cleared u", s)stematic work, "articularl) in the field of flight characteristics, could follow 0t was shown at that time that the a""arentl) "ro$lematic sta$ilit) a$out the lateral a'is of tailless self<sta$ili&ing wings does not give rise an) "articular need for attention Furthermore, it was shown the center of gravit) location was "ossi$le in front of the G<"oint (see the work .;ta$ilit) consideration in swe"t $ack wings. in this re"ort) u"on which the calculations of the times were $ased #he models were usuall) $alanced at the G<"oint / rear location of the center of gravit) had the accom"an)ing t)"ical characteristics (.falling off.), a forward location of even 10 "ercent to 1( "ercent of the measure of swee" $ack had o$+ectionless flight characteristics For this reason considered the "ro$lem of sta$ilit) a$out the lateral a'is as solved, and turned our com"lete attention in the construction of models to the moments a$out the vertical a'is !ven toda) it is our view that the essential "ro$lem in the construction of air"lanes is the sta$ili&ing a$out the vertical a'is 3f course, the model flights were made onl) with glider models which, in order to fill the ,e)nolds% similarit) laws, had s"ans of @ ( to 7 meters and weights of 10<1(

kg Flights were tied to hill) countr) /fter the start of such a model, a$solute adherence to the course was necessar), and a turning meant contact with the ground against the direction of sus"ension at a large angle, hence fracture For this "ur"ose models have to $e $uilt in such a wa) that turning does not take "lace 0n contrast to the construction to full<scale models, the sail"lane model had to $e neutral in its moments a$out the vertical a'is in )awed flow #he full<scale air"lane, when in )awed flow, demands all weather<cocking effect of the side surfaces which lie $ehind the center gravit) #he sail"lane model in contrast, cannot, as alread) stated, turn like a weather vane, $ut must use the )awed flow to raise the de"ressed area 0n other words it must "ossess a "ositive rolling moment due )aw, $ut no )awing moment 0n 19@@ the real develo"ment $egan with the construction of the sail"lane of 12 m s"an at the "arental residence #his model .Dorten 0. was intentionall) so designed in its side areas that in )awed flow no moments resulted a$out the vertical a'is >irectional control was alread) then, as in all later t)"es, accom"lished through $raking of one wing #he fla" arrangements of the lateral control services, which when not actuated, form the surface of the wing, have $een develo"ed in various wa)s in the course of time #his de"ends and the control forces availa$le to "roduce the drag re?uired in each case, as well as on the effect of other distur$ances on wing, which the) evoke 3n all models arranged in such a wa) that the) created neither lift nor negative lift at the wing ti"sK that is, fla"s on the underside of the wing, de"ending on the method of attachment, were over<dimensioned $) 20 "ercent to (0 "ercent com"ared to the to" side fla"s *oreover, it was "ossi$le to "roduce the aileron $ehavior in the same wa) as is done in the conventional air"lane, that is, the maneuver and action are the same as usual /t that time we naturall) discussed the advisa$ilit) of such a steering a$out the vertical a'is, and found that e'istsK that is, we discuss the ?uestion whether the "roduct of flight time ' drag is smaller with this form of control than with the conventional arrangement 0t is clear that the rudders in the normal arrangement cause a relativel) small drag when dis"laced and that the lift com"onent "er"endicular to the surface, amounting to from ten to twent) times the drag, acts on the lever of the fuselage in the conventional air"lane and thus "roduces the )awing moment #he added drag caused $) the movement of the aileron in the conventional air"lane surel) is smaller, in general, and that other $raking fla"s at the wing ti"s, which a""ear in our models, where it is e'actl) this drag, acting on the lever of the semi<s"an, which must "roduce the )awing moment =hen the) are not dis"laced, however, these fla"s do not "roduce an) additional drag since the) form "art of the contour of the wing 0n discussing the "ractica$ilit) of this form of control the ?uestion now arises concerning the fre?uenc) of their use, in order to determine from this the "roduct of drag ' time /ccording to our test and counts in 19@7, one achieves a reduction in drag with his form of control of (02 to I02 of that of the surface controls on sail"lanes in thermal flights /ccording to later e'"eriences with "owered air"lanes this reduction increases to 9(2 0n these com"arisons the shortened high<s"eed flight condition is not taken into considerationK instead drag for the whole flight is considered For the "urel) high<s"eed flight conditions, however, the saving is 1002 0n contrast to the aileron develo"ment, the model .Dorten 0. showed an incom"lete vertical and lateral swing #he advantage of the fl)ing wing does not stand out so much in the case of the sail"lane as in the develo"ment direction of the high<s"eed fighter 0n order to su""l) advance work for this, "rofiles were develo"ed whose mean cam$er lines mathematicall) is a""ro'imatel) the .constant center of "ressure. t)"e 9rofiles of this t)"e which were tested, $rought out all their weaknessesK $e it in the distri$ution of thickness, which makes the statics un"leasantK $e it in the form which causes too high local velocities, or, as is "articularl) the case with /merican wing sections, where too little em"hasis is "laced on the flow +uncture at the trailing edge #hus there came into $eing after man) estimates, a mean cam$er line with a mathematicall) constant center of "ressure, which o$tains its cam$er for the "articular a""lication through a change in

the scale of the ordinates #he .teardro". which is "laced on the mean cam$er line unfortunatel) could not $e taken over either, since the "rofile forms from which a good flow +uncture can $e e'"ected, a""ro'imatel) the Joukowsk)<forms, $ecome so shar" at their trailing edge that their incor"oration does not a""ear "ossi$le #he other forms, however, are right awa) so $lunt, that the characteristic of the mean cam$er line is lost through the $ad flow +uncture at the trailing edge which is then to $e e'"ected #hus here too, satisfactor) com$inations had to $e found through suita$le com"romises *uch more "reliminar) work was necessar) order to make a "ro+ect of fl)ing<wing high<s"eed fighter (see a lecture on the as"ect ratio considerations of this "ro$lem in ,e"ort /@761 of the Lilienthal ;ociet), " L() #he design resulting from these considerations, the model .Dorten C. was com"leted in 19@( /ll attem"ts to interest the aircraft industr), or other national s"ecialists, in it, remained unsuccessful with the e'ce"tion of the >)namit Go #roisdorf, which is not an aircraft construction firm 0f we wanted to sta) in the countr), and this we considered necessar) for national reasons, we had to acce"t this offer =ith it we took over as a further "ro$lem, the use of fa$ric in air"lane control surface arrangements /s a result, in s"ite of good flight sta$ilit), $ad controlla$ilit) was encountered, so that we would not assume res"onsi$ilit) for flights $) other "ilots /fter the "artici"ation at the ,hoen sail"lane contest it was dismantled in order to make wa) for new constructions #he flight characteristics themselves were so good, that even then an instrument flight of @67 of an hour was made through clouds /fter the ,hoen sail"lane com"etition of 19@7 < at that time the .;ta$ilit) Gonsiderations in ;we"t$ack =ings. was com"leted P it was $oth logical to "rove the inde"endence of the lift slo"e distri$ution of the "latform, and its de"endence on the center of gravit) location in swe"t$ack wings, $) incor"orating an e'treme ta"er ratio of 1 to 10 For this reason alone the model .Dorten 00. was $uilt, again in the "arental house, since it was not "ossi$le to o$tain an) kind of hel" or worksho" facilities for this "ro$lem /fter more than a )ear%s construction time, the "roof could $e attem"ted, and the hundreds of "ilots and several thousand hours on this model alwa)s confirmed the correctness of these "rinci"les #he elevator and aileron arrangements of this air"lane, according to e'"erience, were $uilt in such a wa) to ever) air"lane "ilot and sail"lane "ilot even with the least fl)ing e'"erience (1 to 2 hours in the air) could fl) it without re<schooling, so that soaring on instruments, and cross<countr) flights u" to 270 kilometers (1(0 miles), followed re"eatedl) =ith this the aerod)namic "ro$lem was in itself solved 0n order to decrease the flight e'"ense the air"lane is e?ui""ed with a L0 horse"ower Dirth motor, with which it flew a$out 80 hours #he work was then interru"ted $) the draft Aefore this, all variations of the sail"lane and "owered air"lane were worked out as "ro+ects, and even the "rone "ilot "osition was treated #he resulting designs of the models .Dorten 000 and 0C. were set $ack, even though the) )ielded advantages in "erformance over the com"arison sail"lanes #he dou$le "ro$lem and the draft made construction ver) difficult, so that the twin<engined model .Dorten C. could not $e $roken in until 1<162 )ears later in *a) of 19@I #he flight results were satisfactor), even if (we were working with an all<fa$ric air"lane) difficulties arose the gluing of materials which would have $een shortened the lifes"an, and which further strengthened us in our search for a sho" were sim"le wood construction could $e undertaken #he air"lane itself was ?uickl) evaluated, and in a landing received damage which made it%s reconstruction seem im"ractical =e succeeded in the winter of 19@I<19@8 in constructing a sho" in which the air"lane could $e created anew in the mi'ed wood<steel tu$ing construction #his new craft has "roved itself $) man) hours in the air with various "ilots, and is e'tensivel) descri$ed in maga&ines #he real "ro+ect, the fighter air"lane, could not $e constructed with such sim"le means For this reason we $usied ourselves constructivel) in the field of sail"lanes #hus in 19@8, the old "ro+ect .Dorten @.,

sitting the "ilot in the fl)ing wing, was studied further #his model was re"roduced in a$out 20 s"ecimens $) the various glider clu$s, and is well enough known /t the "artici"ation in the ,hoen sail"lane com"etition of 19@8<19@9, the advantages of the fl)ing wings were shown, and re"eated altitude flights over L,000 meters (20,000 feet), and distance flights over @00 kilometers (18( miles) were made #he results showed that such flight characteristics had $een achieved that it was called the a""ro"riate tool for instrument flight #his was "artl) achieved $) constructing the elevators and rudders in a "articular wa) !ach one has two fla"s, of which the outer forms the function of clim$ing control and the inner "erforms the function of diving control A) means of the activation then, the function other elevators divided into its main actions, that is, with this arrangement at deflections of the diving controls the total incidence in the wing is maintained, and thus transcends the neutral sta$ilit) which necessaril) a""ears high<s"eed and diving flight with wing fla" controls /t the deflections of the clim$ controls, however, onl) the outside fla" deflects u"ward (the inside fla" onl) accom"anies it three or four degrees) so that the wing elements with large cords are not e?ui""ed with controls and conse?uentl) can maintain their full lift coefficients Gonversel) the wing ti"s, which $ecause of the control deflections work at lower lift coefficients, form a smaller fraction of the total area Gonse?uentl), the ma'imum lift of the whole wing for this control arrangement is high, although a .falling<off. $ecause of the ca decrease at the wing ti"s, is not to $e feared /t the deflections of the ailerons a differential action is effected $) this arrangement #he aileron deflection itself is, as we know, com"osed of diving control deflection on one side and of clim$ing control deflection on the other side, where the control fla"s must $e so dimensioned that a moment a$out the lateral a'is is not "roduced 0n the case of single<fla" control with differential transmission, this action cannot $e o$tained, and the "ilot will counteract the "itching moments resulting from the aileron deflection $) a "ushing of the control column, and thus will eliminate the differential action of the arrangement #he onl) "ossi$ilit) of reali&ing differential controls in tailless air"lanes lies in the two<or<more fla" s)stem Aut this arrangement also $rings with it to further advantage, es"eciall) for high<s"eed flight #hrough the method of actuation the transmission can $e selected in such a wa) that it is small in the vicinit) of the control stick neutral "ositionK that it is, relativel) large stick movements are accom"anied $) small fla" deflections, while with larger deflections the transmission ratio increases of its own accord #his transmission characteristic, which we have called ."rogressive controls. for short, will $e "resu""osed for the reali&ation of high<s"eed aircraft #hrough this and other e'am"les there arose the o""ortunit) to $ring construction to such maturit) that the res"onsi$ilities for the $uilding of high<s"eed com$at aircraft from constructive "oints of view could $e assumed at an)time 3ther e'am"les of construction of all<wing sail"lanes, for instance, a 9ara$ola for s"ecial "ur"oses, trans"ort sail"lanes for 1I "ersons with 27m s"an, arose incidentall) 0n the Fall of 19@8 we again su$mitted a design for a twin<engined air"lane which was first to $e "owered $) two /s 10c motors =e were referred to several industrial firms who, although the) were agreea$le to a "ersonal entr) into their factories, could not $e dealt with regarding the carr)ing out of the fl)ing<wing "ro+ect in the form which would $e necessar) for the reali&ation of such a "ro$lem #hus this "ro+ect, the .Dorten C00., also had to $e set $ack 0n 19@9 then, the o""ortunit) of working in the main direction of develo"ment was not o"en to us, so we decided to $uild a high<"erformance sail"lane with "rone "ilot%s "osition, the .Dorten C0. #hrough this arrangement for the "ilot it was "ossi$le to hold the wing thickness, and with it the chord of the root, so that with a 20m s"an, an as"ect ratio a""ro"riate to soaring was o$tained Dere for the first time the fl)ing wing had o""ortunit) to "rove that it $rings with it the "erformance advantages for even this "ro$lem Gom"arison flights with corres"onding conventional aircraft "rove the correctness of this "oint of view

#he work was again interru"ted $) the war until 1971, when in the Fall $) virtue of the announcement of a similar aircraft $) the 8orthro" Go , N;/, a re"air contract for our old twin<engined "lane, .Dorten C., was received and was added to our e'"eriences #his air"lane and shown interesting results in the increase of the ma'im lift, "articularl) through the arrangement of it%s landing aids 0t was "ossi$le, $) the use of cam$ered and s"lit fla"s, to sur"ass a total ca of 1 ( without slats, with and angle of swee"$ack of 72 degrees #he use of landing fla"s on swe"t$ack wings, and their action, )ields the $asis for "erformance com"arisons with conventional aircraft #he landing aids of the model .Dorten C., however were not )et sufficientl) develo"ed that the) could $e used for final com"arisons, and "arallel com"arisons on sail"lanes with cam$ered fla"s and retracta$le center slats (similar to the >uck) "ermit measurements of ma'im lift of 1 8, even though these e'"eriments were unfortunatel) carried out the wings with onl) 27 degrees of swee"$ack A) skillful use of these landing aid com$inations ma) $e assumed that even with 70 degrees of swee"$ack a ma'imum lift for the whole air"lane of 2 0 will $e attained, a value which toda) is "resent onl) a few conventional air"lanes 0n this connection the flight e'"eriences with the model .Dorten (. ma) $e interesting, which is sta$le even with full landing fla" deflection and makes "ossi$le $) dive<like a""roaches to the "oint of landing, and after "ulling out, s"ot<landing the air"lane in the narrowest of s"aces #he control characteristics with de"ressed fla"s, were here$) shown to $e ade?uate and the moment a$out the lateral a'is is not distur$ed 0t should $e mentioned that almost all or air"lanes are e?ui""ed with tric)cle landing gears and that the nose wheel in all cases is free<swiveling #hrough this arrangement of the wheels, for which the all< wing air"lane is well "redis"osed, the ground characteristics will $e a""recia$l) im"roved over conventional aircraft *an) individual e'"eriences have occurred in o"eration of air"lanes during the course of the )ears #hus, to give a few e'am"les, the flight of a sail"lane without "ilot%s cano"), through which a larger area of se"aration was created on the u""er surfaces 3n the flight under consideration, it was "ossi$le to land the aircraft without a trou$le, even though the landing s"eed was a$out 20 kilometers "er hour higher 0n another case a "iece of cowling from the to"side of the air"lane flew into the "ro"eller, in the takeoff of .Dorten C. and forced the "ilot to sto" one engine #he "ilot continued to clim$ on one engine without cowling and concluded his local flight, and even for lack of fl)ing e'"erience, turned towards the dead engine and landed smoothl) 0n another case an air"lane iced u" heavil) in clouds #he "ilot could not notice this until he left the cloud /ccording to his re"ort, the aircraft had at the leading edge a ( cm la)er of ice #he sole result was an increased rate of sink, $ut there was known nose heaviness, as is usual with straight wings #he loosening of the la)ers of ice on the swe"t$ack wing in such cases also leads one to e'"ect sim"lified methods of deicing #he studies undertaken so far aim at the develo"ment of the fl)ing<wing fighter #he) assume that the "ower "lants are availa$le which can $e $uilt into the wing, and that conse?uentl) in the nacelles will not $e necessar) !ven though the fighter air"lane with "ro"eller and reci"rocating engine has not )et $een created in this form, the "ro$lem can nevertheless $e considered as solved $) the e'"eriments and flight characteristics studies #his line of develo"ment will surel) come when it $ecomes necessar) to fl) economicall), and this is onl) the case with long<range air"lanes in time of war 0n order to o$tain criteria for the com"arison of "erformance with conventional air"lanes one must select a reference carefull) and determine the other ?uantities from it #he landing s"eed is fre?uentl) taken as this reference ?uantit)K that is, the wing loading is chosen de"ending on the ma'imum lift attaina$le, so that the air"lanes to $e com"ared have e?ual landing s"eeds #his t)"e of com"arison for the fighter "ro$lem, or even the long<range fighter air"lane, is not ?uite right, for the dis"osa$le loads amount to (0 "ercent of the fl)ing weight, and it is no "ro$lem to negotiate a landing with an air"lane thus lightened #he conditions are different, however, at the takeoff For this, aids have $een created in

the form of concrete stri"s, takeoff rockets, cata"ults, etc , which facilitate the takeoff 0t is, therefore, more "ur"oseful to introduce the s"eed of takeoff as the reference ?uantit)K that is, to select a wing loading de"endent on the lift coefficients attaina$le at takeoff #he landing fla"s and then are e'tended in takeoff "osition, and there is no reason wh) in this configuration the conventional air"lane should o$tain higher lift coefficient than the swe"t$ack wing ,efinements, such as .increase in d)namic head through the sli"stream of the conventional aircraft. or $etter .o"erating efficienc) of "usher "ro"ellers., "articularl) at the takeoff of fl)ing<wings, are not to $e considered here Aased in these assum"tions one can easil) estimate the advantage in "erformance of the all wing construction over the conventional air"lane Nnder similar conditions it manifests itself in a gain of s"eed of 8 to 10 "ercent, or $) an increase in useful load of a$out 20 "ercent #o name other advantages of this t)"e of construction the "ilot%s visi$ilit) is ?uoted, which corres"onds to that of a "ul"it, $ut without the distur$ance of the usual engine nacelles Further the "ossi$ilit) of using $raking "ro"ellers should $e "ointed out, which could $e actuated without tail $lanketing, and it should $e also mentioned that a swe"t$ack wing without "rotrusions is suited toward warding off ca$le $arriers, $alloon $arrages, etc #his develo"ment, and its effects on armament, can now $e surve)ed down to its smallest conse?uences, and shows that the advantages of the fl)ing wing com"ared to the conventional construction, in this arrangement lies with the limits given / different status o$tains for the develo"ment of a high<s"eed fighter or fighter<$om$er with +et "ro"ulsion, which now im"ends, $ecause of the develo"ment of corres"onding tools !ven more than in the "revious "ro$lems, the reference ?uantit) must here $e taken as the s"eed of the takeoff #he "erformance of +et "ower "lants at the start and at low s"eeds is $ad >is"osa$le loads are large #he landing s"eed here reall) no longer offers a reference ?uantit) Aecause the "erformance of the "ower "lants increases with the increasing s"eed, and on the other hand the s"ecific fuel consum"tion decreases with increase in s"eed, the aerod)namic develo"ment of the nacelle is im"erative as a "resu""osition for the econom) of +et "ro"ulsion ;ince studies $) Ausemann show that the swe"t$ack wing has advantages at high *ach num$ers, and it will $e even "ossi$le to o$tain s"eeds with the swe"t$ack wings which the straight wing cannot achieve $ecause the local a""earance of sonic s"eeds, swee"$ack $ecomes necessar) for high<s"eed flight #he conventional air"lane as a swe"t$ack wing air"lane shows "oor flight characteristics in low s"eed flight, since $een here the swe"t$ack wing is not .free. $ut .$ound. (see .;ta$ilit) Gonsiderations and ;we"t$ack =ings. in this re"ort) *oreover, the conventional air"lane would have to show nacelle $odies on the wing, which, as can $e seen from the a$ove mentioned stud) $) Ausemann, does awa) with the advantages of the swe"t$ack wing #he fl)ing wing, therefore, has to $e "resu""osed here #he working out of a corres"onding "ro+ect shows that the single seat fighter with two #L<"ower"lants and 1000 kg of ammunition results a 70 to 7( m2 wing area is taken at the smallest construction #he installation of the "ower "lants and fuel as well as armament, landing gear, and "ilot in the wing alone, "resu""oses a 1@ "ercent "rofile thickness at the root, were the outer "anel can, of course, $ecome thinner #he s"ace for a ma'imum of 7<o$m of fuel "er "ower "lant would $e created in the outer wing, of which, $ecause of takeoff weight, one would onl) use half at first =ith this the o$+ective would $ecome- 1000 kg $om$s < 1000 k"h (L2( m"h) ma'imum s"eed and 1000 km radius of action 0n summar) it ma) $e said that the form of the high<s"eed air"lane cannot $e determined from the "oint of view of giving the o"timum sha"e to a given s"ace, as for instance in a s"indle<like fuselage #his fuselage, it is true, has the least drag, $ut it does not "roduce the lift necessar) for flight and must $e e?ui""ed with wings and control surfaces #he necessar) s"ace, therefore, is to $e sha"ed in such a wa) that it has an ade?uate L6> ratio for all "ossi$le flight conditions 0f, in addition, the sha"e has the ?ualit) of avoiding as nearl) as "ossi$le the local velocit) of sound at high *ach num$ers, a direction

of develo"ment is o$tained which must, for "ractical reasons, $e created

1olutions for the 2ell-1haped Lift /istribution


3einhold 1tadler
Appendi4 A1 Appendi4 A2 Appendi4 A3 Appndi4 A4

his formula now has to $e solved for the $ell sha"ed lift distri$ution+E,u. 00-0&.

+E,u. 00-0%.

For this the term is s"lit u" in several "arts, which can $e integrated se"eratel) #he calculation is descri$ed in the Appendi4 A1 #he final solution isor +E,u. 00-08.

#his gives the re?uired calculation method for the geometrical twist transformed, using e?uation (!?u 00<0@)-

, which can $e

+E,u. 00-0/a.

+E,u. 00-0/b.

Appendi4 A1( 1olution of 56uation 77-7"

+E,u. 00-0%.

#he integration is transformed into a set of terms, which can $e solved se"eratel) /n integrata$le solution was first "resented $) >r *artin *aurer@, *unich, in 199( and confirmed $) the solution of >r 1arl 8ickel, Frei$urg i Ar , 1998 #he solution of >r *aurer is $asis for the here descri$ed calculation+E,u. 0#-0#a.

+E,u. 0#-0#b.

+E,u. 0#-0#*.

#he following transformations can $e used+E,u. 0#-0".

+E,u. 0#-03a.

+E,u. 0#-03b.

#his leads to a new formula for the integration (!?u 00<0I)+E,u. 0#0!.

;olutions for the integrations are given in *ultho"", res"ectvel) Aronstein7+$ro. "%5.

+1ul. 0/.

!?uation !?u /1<07 now gives+E,u. 0#-05.

and from this+E,u. 0# 0&.

+E,u. 0#-0%a.

+E,u. 0#-0%b.

+E,u. 0#-0%*.

#his gives the re?uired solution, which can $e now written as e?uation !?u 00<08+E,u. 00-0%.

or

+E,u. 00-08.

Appendix A2: Halfspan Center of Lift for the Bell-Shaped Distribution


23e formula for total lift is +2ru*4enbro(t.5 +2ru. 5.!".

For a s6metri*al lift (istribution onl6 t3e 3alfs an ma6 be use(5

wit3

+E,u. 00-0#.

8f t3e s anwise *ontrol oints are arange( along a 9*entral-angle9 following terms *an be written5 an(

similar to t3e 1ult3o

- ro*e(ure) t3e +1ul. 0%.

23is gives t3e following solution for one si(e +3alfs an.5 wit3 +E,u. 00-0".

+E,u. 00-03.

23e rolling-moment

of t3e 3alfwing is5 +E,u. 0"-0#.

23is gives now +E,u. 0"-0".

0**or(ingl6 to $ronstein +$ro. 35&. t3is gives5 +E,u. 0"-03.

23e 3alfs an *enter of lift is t3en5

Appendix A3: So e Co ents on the Bell-Shaped Lift Distribution

8n man6 *ases t3e (is*ussion about t3e bell s3a e( lift (istribution *on*entrates on t3e aero(6nami* oint of view. For t3e swe t fl6ing wing) t3is (istribution 3as some a(vantages) but brings some (rawba*4s wit3 res e*t to erforman*e. :nfortunatel6) one ver6 im ortant oint is misse( in all t3is (is*ussion) t3e mat3emati*s. 0**or(ingl6 to ;eimar <=;2EN) t3e bell s3a e( lift (istribution was alrea(6 use( on t3e < 88) long before 1ult3o resente( 3is *alv*ulation met3o(. 0n exa*t solution of t3e +unswe t. lifting line was onl6 available for t3e elli ti*al lift (istribution + ) n>#. at t3is time. For arbitrar6 wing la6out onl6 a roximate met3o(s as '*3ren4 or Li is*3 were available. 0 solution for ot3er fun*tions seem ossible) but were not resente( at

t3is time. 0 solution of 3ig3er or(ers s3ow t3at t3e lift (istribution a**or(ingl6 t3e ower n>" is 36si*all6 not ossible. 8t re,uires an in(efinite twist at t3e wing ti . Next ossibilit6 is t3e ower n>3) an( tr3is is t3e bell s3a e( lift (istribution. 23e re,uire( wing twist in*lu(es t3e in(u*e( angle of atta*4 w3i*3 follows a sim le fun*tion . 2wist at t3e ti is t3e +negative. same on as at t3e root. 23e re*onstru*tion of t3is solution was tri*46 but for a mat3emati*ian li4e ;. <orten ossible. 8t enables a fast met3o( to *al*ulate t3e re,uire( basi* twist) ma4ing t3e la6out in(e en(ent from a met3o( li4e 1ult3io ?s. :nfortunatel6 we miss t3e final verifi*ation t3at ;eimar <orten 3as use( t3is sim le met3o(. 23e surviving *al*ulations give no (es*ri tion 3ow t3e twist was (erive(. Nevert3eless) t3e twist fits well wit3 t3e bell s3a e) at least for some of t3e air lanes. 'tress *al*ulations t3en were erforme( using t3e well establis3e( Li is*3 met3o(. +C. ;. '20DLE;) /&-0#-#5 rev. 0#5 /8-0#-05 rev. 035 //-0#-0"

Appendix A!: "eo etr# to the Bell-Shaped Lift Distribution

'e3ne5 @ing 'e*tion 0xle Nullauftriebsri*3tung5 Dire*tion for Aero Lift Flow

The /esign8 ,onstruction and Flying of a Flying Wing


2y Art 9resse
/51&:$ #he design of a Fl)ing =ing is a different aerod)namic challenge than for a conventional "lanform #he ke) issue is longitudinal ("itch) sta$ilit) /lmost as im"ortant is )aw sta$ilit) and control 0 will deal with the "itch "ro$lem first #he "ro$lem arises $ecause there is no conventional hori&ontal sta$ili&er For conventional configurations the e'istence of that sta$ili&er wa) $ehind the GH reduces the sta$ilit) "ro$lem to a matter of ad+usting the relative incidence of the wing and tail and the "osition of the GH =hether or not the wing is sta$le $) itself is unim"ortant For a fl)ing wing the "itch sta$ilit) of the wing alone is of "rimar) im"ortance Cirtuall) all conventional wing sections, when right side u", are unsta$le A) the same token the same sections fl)ing u"side down are sta$le $ut not ver) efficient Aecause of these "eculiarities, a good "art of the aerod)namic design involved selecting airfoil sections and the determining the re?uired twist or washout #he other "art was the "lanform or la)out of the com"lete wing 0 used the com"uter for much of this "rocess #he necessar) calculations can $e done with a hand calculator $ut the com"uter s"eeds u" the "rocess immensel) and makes changes a "iece of cake For the design "ur"ose 0 needed several ma+or software elements #he) are1 / source of airfoil section coordinates 2 / wa) to anal)&e the sections to determine how the $ehave at the low s"eeds (,e)nolds 8um$er) that our models fl) at @ / wa) to estimate the "erformance of the com"lete wing 7 /nd finall) a wa) to draw the wing ri$s or tem"lates that will $e re?uired

A&3F;&L 15,T&;$1 #he Nniversit) of 0llinois >e"t of /eronautical and /stronautical !ngineering has "u$lished a large num$er of airfoil sections ;ome these have $een tested in their low s"eed wind tunnel (a fellow clu$ mem$er, ,on Ao&&onetti has contri$uted a model wing for this "ro+ect) #he airfoil sections are availa$le on the 0nternet1 Niuc stands for the Nof 0llinois at Nr$ana<Gham"aign and 9rof ;elig is the chairman of the /""lied /erod)namics Hrou" #he file to download is .coord9L0@07 tar g&. =hat to do ne't is a $it involved which 0%ll descri$e later A&3F;&L 15,T&;$ A$AL.1&1 #he airfoil section anal)sis 0 used is $ased on 8/;/ #* 80210 ./ Gom"uter 9rogram for the >esign and /nal)sis of Low ;"eed /irfoils. $) ,ichard !""ler and >an * ;omers , /ugust 1980 !""ler is6was a "rofessor of aeronautics at the Nniversit) of ;tuttgart in Herman) and is the guru of the sail"lane design folks ;omers works(ed) at 8/;/ Langle) #he com"uter "rogram develo"ed in #* 80210 has $een reworked for use on a 9G $) a com"an) called ./irware. and is called ./irfoil<ii. #he com"an) is located at 93 Ao' 29( Ganton, G# 0L019 /s stated in the title the software works $oth in the design mode and the anal)sis mode 0n the design mode )ou s"ecif) a desired velocit) distri$ution over the wing (determined $) guess and $) goll)) and the "rogram gives )ou $ack a wing section, including the coordinates 0n the anal)sis mode )ou "rovide section coordinates and the "rogram gives $ack the aerod)namic "erformance (lift, drag, moments etc +ust like in a wind tunnel test) #here is other software availa$le at the uiuc location on the 0nternet (for a "rice) For all 0 know it ma) $e the same as /irfoil<ii 0 am not a$out to s"end more mone) to find out 0 have tried ./irfoil<ii. and it works fine 3-/&<5$1&;$AL W&$: A$AL.1&1 Nltimatel), 0 selected the method develo"ed in 19@I $) ,a) /le'ander at 8/G/2 and ada"ted it for use here 3&2 =L;TT&$: #he ri$ or tem"late "lotting was done with a software, software called .Gom"ufoil@. #his is a rather well known at least to the sail"lane weenies 0t can $e made to acce"t the airfoil section data that is downloaded from the N of 0llinois #he same data was loaded into >esign Gad which 0 used to do the overall design of the fl)ing wing #he software comes "reloaded with a lot of airfoils including, 0 $elieve, some of those in the N of 0llinois list #he software has "rovisions for modif)ing the airfoils and out"utting coordinates #hese revised coordinates can then $e fed $ack into /0,F30L<ii to get its characteristics 0 used this feature to e'amine refle'ed trailing edges which is a wa) to get sta$le sections for a fl)ing wing /51&:$ =3;,5/>35 #he airfoil coordinate data that 0 used are availa$le on the 0nternet at the N0NG source cited earlier under the filename .coord9L0@07 tar g&. #he downloaded file is a list of airfoil id num$ers that can $e clicked on to get the coordinate listing #his listing does not give an) clue as to what the airfoil looks like ,ight ne't to the : dat file is a : gif file $) the same name A) clicking on this filename )ou get a

"icture of the airfoil 0 selected the file .e@2( dat. and .e@2( gif. #he accom"an)ing one line descri"tion sa)s that this is a fl)ing wing airfoil #his is a$out as good a clue that the file "rovides as to what the airfoil is good for #here is no aerod)namic "erformance data Aoth of these files can $e saved to disk and6or "rinted out 0 saved them to a flo"") for further use #o see what the files look like after the) have $een saved and )ou a no longer in )our 0nternet $rowser a viewer is needed For the data file the viewer (and editor) must $e /;G00 editor, the >3; .!ditor. works fine or the =indows .note"ad. editor is 31 also For the gif file, .Cue9rint<9ro. which is a useful shareware gra"hics viewer, is suggested #he data shown in this column was im"orted using the standard =ord9erfect .gra"hics . menu Aecause =9 does not acce"t : gif files 0 had to re<save the file as a : "c' file #his mani"ulation can easil) $e done in Cue9rint<9ro #he airfoil coordinates are shown $elow 0n order to use the coordinates to "lot the airfoil in >esignGad some more mani"ulation is re?uired 0n the .Files. menu of >esignGad, select .File Gonvert. #he in"ut filename is (in this case) e""l@2( t't #he in"ut file t)"e is .'). and the out"ut file t)"e is dw2 Ae sure to edit e""l@2( t't to remove the header which names the airfoil t)"e >esignGad does not recogni&e the te't and will return an error if it is left in 0f )ou neglect to s"ecif) where )ou want the converted file to go )ou will have to look for it Nsuall) it goes in the director) that >esignGad is in 4ou can now load the file into a >esignGad window in the usual wa) For some unfathoma$le reason when )ou do this into an em"t) window the airfoil shows u" as a small s"ot one unit wide in a screen that is several hundred units wide ;et a "oint on the s"ot and .&oom. with a factor of a$out 100 and the airfoil shows u" as a reasona$le si&e /t this "oint )ou have an airfoil that can $e mani"ulated for air"lane design "ur"oses For airfoil "erformance we need to get the coordinate data into ./0,F30L<ii. #he interesting feature of the "articular airfoil that 0 chose is the slightl) refle'ed trailing edge #his has considera$le effect on the sta$ilit) of the airfoil 0t is found on most sections that are used for fl)ing wings 0n order to calculate the airfoil "ro"erties the airfoil coordinates for all of the sections of the wing are re?uired .Gom"uFoil. "erforms this task 0t also has the ver) useful ca"a$ilit) to .loft. the intermediate ri$s when "rovided the root and ti" ri$ coordinates and "ut all the s"ars and sheeting cutouts in the right "lace /s )ou might imagine this is an enormous time saver for ta"ered wings 0 chose old faithful Glark<4 for the root section and the !""ler @2( as the ti" section to illustrate the "rocess 0t would $e hard to find two more different sections to tr) to loft together 0t turned out that this com$ination leads to worka$le design For "reliminar) design 0 selected a wing with an 80. s"an, an as"ect ratio of eight, an area of 800 s?uare inches, a ta"er ratio of 162 and a swee" of 20 #his gives a root chord of 1@ @@@., a ti" chord of L LLL. and a mean chord of 10. #his also turned out to $e a worka$le configuration and $ecame "ermanent 0 had the "rogram generate all twent) one ri$s for a 2. s"acing #he "rogram will "rint out the ri$s full scale with most an) "rinter 0f the ri$ si&e is too $ig for a sheet of "a"er it will tile the out"ut which can then $igure % $e "asted together /s noted a$ove 0 used the airfoil coordinates @ing 0irfoil 'e*tions generated $) the "rogram to get the airfoil aerod)namic "ro"erties 0 onl) used three of the sectionsK root, 27. and 70.(ti") s"an stations 0t turned out that onl) three sections ade?uatel) descri$e the "erformance of the wing =here intermediate data are re?uired the) can $e gotten $) inter"olation #hese three sections are shown in figure 1 #he ./irfoil<ii. "rogram re?uires the in"ut airfoil coordinates in a ver) s"ecific format 0t must $e /;G00 without ta$s and in two arra)s of ten columns each as shown in earlier 0n addition the arra) must start with the coordinates of the trailing edge, work forward over the to" of the airfoil to the

leading edge then over the $ottom, and $ack to the trailing edge 0n the te't 0 s"lit the arra) into two "arts for s"ace reasons For in"ut to .airfoil<ii. the file must not $e s"lit in this manner ) #he num$er of coordinate "oints must $e divisi$le $) 7 #he trailing edge is listed twice, at the start and at the end / t)"ical listing will have L9 (L8F1) lines .Gom"uFoil. "uts a num$er of e'traneous elements in the file which have to $e removed e g .eof. characters, ta$s and la$els 0f this is not done "ro"erl) ./irfoil<ii. will re+ect it /irfoil<ii is a F3,#,/8 "rogram that originall) re?uired the old 0A* card for in"uts #he author did a minimal amount of work to ada"t the code to an interactive 9G "rogram that that runs in >3; Aecause of this the in"ut routine is tedious and not intuitive $ut once set u" it is acce"ta$le #he out"ut of the "rogram is two forms #he visual out"ut is a gra"hics "lot on screen #his can $e "lotted immediatel) if )ou live in the old =indows @ 1 or >3; world 0 found to m) chagrin that gra"hics driver in =indows 9( will not acce"t the out"ut for "rinting 0 have not $een a$le to find the author of the "rogram to see if he has written an u"grade Fortunatel) the "rogram also has a ta$ular out"ut of all of the results in minute detail #his ta$ular out"ut can $e co"ied to a s"read sheet where the data can $e mani"ulated and "lotted 0 used Lotus $ut an) s"read sheet should work as well 0t should $e noted that the out"ut is an /;G00 file without an) s"ecial characters #he ta$les are s"ace delimited which, if there are no te't characters, allows the num$ers to $e acce"ted as num$ers (and not te't) 0 ran /irfoil<ii for the three airfoils shown in Figure 1 0 then mani"ulated and mi'ed the ta$ular results so $igure 2 that 0 could "lot the data in a conventional "lot for aerod)namic data $ut with the data for all three on the same gra"h #his allows for a visual com"arison of the data variation along the s"an #he Lift Goefficient for the three sections are shown in figure 2 #he to" curve is for ,i$ 0 (root ri$) and the others are in se?uence #he curve for the ti" ri$ (ri$ 70) dis"la)s some strange characteristics *ost interesting are the $reaks in the curve at $oth high and low angles of attack the other is the $reak in the slo"e at a$out L angle of attack 0 do not know whether to attri$ute these anomalies to the refle'ed trailing edge or to the strong "ossi$ilit) that the calculations fail at the low ,e)nolds 8um$er at the ti" (,e52(0000) 0t ma) in fact $e a com$ination of these "ro$lems ;ections with refle'ed trailing edges are known to have "oor "erformance (as do ordinar) airfoils such and the Glark<4 when u"side down) their chief advantage is the "ositive moment a$out the aerod)namic center which makes the solution to the sta$ilit) "ro$lem a $it sim"ler for fl)ing wings #he data for ,i$ 0 (Glark<4) is ver) close to the e'"erimental data for the root ,e)nolds 8um$er (,e5(00000) #his gives me some confidence in the results for the other sections #he lofted section (,i$ 27) falls where it should, midwa) $etween the root and ti" and is well $ehaved 0f )ou e'amine the "rofiles closel) )ou can see the start of the develo"ment of the refle' #he ke) is the curve of the lower surface of ri$ 27 #he lower surface for the Glark<4 is essentiall) flat from the 202 "oint to the trailing edge For the com"lete wing calculations the onl) data of im"ortance from these curves is the 0< interce"t "oint and the slo"e of the straight "ortions of the curve #he nonlinear "ortions of the curve are much more difficult to deal with anal)ticall) for the com"lete wing (in other words too damn hard) and not reall) needed for determining the "itch sta$ilit) of models

$igure 3

#he other section "erformance "arameters are the >rag and 9itching moment Goefficients #hese are shown for all three sections in figures @ and 7 0n figure @ the drag is "lotted vs angle of attack 0n the working range of angle of attack (<2 to F( deg) the drag for the three sections is virtuall) identical (e'ce"t for the anomalous $ehavior of ri$ 70 at the e'tremes) 0t is also almost constant in that region at a$out 0 01 #his is in accord with first order theor) #he moment coefficients a$out the 2(2 chord "oint "resented in figure 7 are roughl) constant for small angles of attack 0f the) were calculated a$out the aerod)namic center the) would $e constant (8ote- the ri$s start with 0 at the to" and work down) /gain e'ce"t for the e'tremities the curves $ehave as e'"ected For the com"lete wing the num$ers that 0 need are the constant moment a$out the aerod)namic center #o get these 0 "lotted the moment versus lift and took the value of moment at cl50 for each of the ri$s se"aratel)

$igure !

;ome comments on the software are in order #he .com"uFoil. software is e'cellent and "rovides much more ca"a$ilit) than 0 have used so far 0n "articular it draws all the ri$s including cutouts for sheeting, s"ars, leading edges and +ig alignment holes with washout if desired 0t contains a ver) large li$rar) of wing sections and a "rofile generator for 8/G/ sections 0t is availa$le from the author- / demonstration "rogram is availa$le at his we$ site .htt"-66ourworld com"userve com 6home"ages6com"ufoil6. #he .airfoil<ii. "rogram has limitations at low ,e 0t calculates the $oundar) la)er thickness using the velocit) and "ressure distri$utions $ased on no $oundar) la)er (1st a""ro') #he $oundar) la)er effects the "ressure and velocit) and strictl) s"eaking the calculations of the velocit) and "ressure should $e re"eated with the sha"e changed $) the .dis"lacement thickness. For a "recise solution this is re"eated until no more change is noted ;uch a "rogram is availa$le from 9roof >rela at *0# #he license for the "rogram to non commercial users is Q(000RRR /nother "rogram called .9anda. is availa$le from >eskto" /eronautics 0nc 0t has a we$ "age and searching for the name will get )ou there 0 have talked to them and used their demonstration "rogram which is availa$le on the 0nternet 0n terms of accurac) it seems to $e no $etter than .airfoil<ii. 0t uses the same first a""ro'imation for the $oundar) la)er 0t is easier to use in the sense that it is interactive 4ou can change the sha"e of the section on the screen with the mouse and watch the "ressure and velocit) distri$ution "lots change with little dela) 0f 0 had not alread) s"ent a $unch of mone) for .airfoil<ii. 0 "ro$a$l) would go for .9anda. $ut as it is 0 got all 0 needed from .airfoil<ii. / $ig "ro$lem is that there is no technical su""ort or u"dates that )ou would ordinaril) e'"ect #he wing data "resented a$ove a""lies onl) to wing sections /nother wa) to look at it is that the) a""l) to wings of infinite as"ect ratio 0 don%t know how to $uild such a wing so we have to find a wa) to ad+ust the data to account for the fact that a real wing is finite Like ever)thing else in this world this will $e an a""ro'imate solution #he earliest reference that 0 have that treats this "ro$lem is a $ook $) D Hlauert7 "u$lished in 192L and re"u$lished "eriodicall) ever since #here have $een numerous e'tensions of Hlauert%s work #he one that is classic and is the $asis for what a""ears in most earl) te'ts is the "reviousl) cited work $) ,a) /nderson at 8/G/ /nderson%s "a"er is suita$le for almost an)thing that we design in the model world 0 sa) almost $ecause it falls a"art com"letel) for things like the fl)ing lawnmower and other ver) low as"ect ratio fl)ing machines 0t also has "ro$lems for swe"t wings $ecause of the .cross flow. or flow along the wing which increases with swee" angle 8evertheless for swee" angles of u" to around 20 it gives reasona$le results 0 struggled for $it for a wa) to "resent the calculations in some intelligi$le $igure &

and $rief wa) and gave u" #he method involves length) s"readsheet arra)s using num$ers that are e'tracted from /nderson%s "a"er #his would take more time and s"ace than can $e +ustified Ariefl) the method adds u" the characteristics of each section (as determined $) airfoil<ii) #he angle of attack of each section is modified $) the local circulation (also known as downwash) to account for the "resence of the rest of the wing .Lifting line theor). "rovides the $asis for estimating the downwash 8ote- the downwash is a result of the vorte' flow around the wing which can $e made visi$le $) smoke or condensation that man) of )ou ma) have o$served in full scale aircraft 0t is interesting to note that none of this would ha""en and air"lanes would never fl) if it were not for the $oundar) la)er which generates the skin friction drag (Look u" >%/lem$ert%s 9arado' as an e'ercise for the reader ) #he result of these calculations is the lift and moment coefficient curves for the com"lete, finite wing with the dimensions 0 used last month to generate the airfoil sections / sketch of the "lanform is shown in Fig ( #he aerod)namic data are shown in figures L and I 8ote that the curves do not e'tend into the nonlinear or stall region 0t ma) not $e a""arent $ut the whole reason for this e'ercise is to make sure that the final wing is sta$le in straight and level flight A) that 0 mean that when "ut into a level flight attitude it will continue that wa) for some time without immediatel) falling off into a s"iral dive or some other wild g)ration From the moment curve in fig L, 0 alread) know that the configuration is sta$le in "itch $ecause the slo"e of the curve is negative (it $igure ' slo"es u" to the left) #his means that if the wing is distur$ed in "itch the moment increases in the "ro"er direction to return the wing to the starting angle =hat is missing is "ro"er location of the GH so that the moments are &ero and the lift is su""orting the weight #o determine this 0 needed to know the weight (gravit)) 0 also needed to know the cruise s"eed of the wing (or alternativel) a .design lift coefficient.) ;trictl) s"eaking if 0 were doing this .$) the $ook. 0 would determine this using the thrust availa$le from the engine com"ared to the thrust re?uired $) the drag !nough is enough, a good $igure ( ol% ;=/H will get around these "ro$lems ever) time #o $egin with 0 "icked a light wing loading of 18 o& "er s?uare foot Nsing the dimensions on fig 1 this works out to a gross weight of L 2( "ounds ,easona$le lift coefficients for straight and level flight range around 0 1 to 0 @ #he formula for lift is- L5GL/C26@87 for lift in "ounds, C in m"h and / in s?uare feet For the two values of GL the e?uation gives C5@8 and L( m"h res"ectivel) #hese are a $it high $ut not unreasona$le #he onl) wa) to change them is to decrease the wing loading or increase the wing trim GL For the moment at least 0 will go with these #he moment coefficients G*corres"onding to the a$ove lift coefficients are < 08 and < 2 res"ectivel) #he formula for moment is *5(G*/C26@87) (mac) where mac is the mean aerod)namic chord, in this case 10 @I. (For some reason this dimension got lost in the translation from >esignGad to =ord9erfect and is missing on the figure ) 9lugging in the moment coefficients and the corres"onding s"eeds gives <@ (9 and <7 18 "ound<feet for the low and high s"eeds res"ectivel) #he negative sign indicates that these are nose down moments and the) are a$out the 167 chord "oint of the root chord ($) definitions that 0 used in the original e?uations that 0 didn%t show) #his nose down moment must $e counteracted $) a nose u" moment of the weight of the wing acting at the GH /t this "oint 0 had not decided where the GH would $e $ut 0 have com"lete O control of its location when 0 do the detail design #he "rocedure is to "ick the desired GH so that the air"lane trims out the desired s"eed and then tr) to $uild it so it falls at that "oint 0f it doesn%t work out that is what those little lead weights are for #he e?uation for the GH location is 12(*6=eight)5'GH, where * is in "ound<feet, =eight is in "ounds and 'GH is in inches #he negative sign indicates that the

GH should $e aft of the 167 chord "oint /gain "lugging the num$ers gives L I@. and 8 0(. for the low and high s"eeds res"ectivel) #hese are the locations shown on the "lanform in fig 1 #he change in the "itching moment $etween low and high s"eed was a little $it disconcerting *ost high "erformance aero$atic air"lanes (model or full scale) e'hi$it little or no trim change with s"eed (desira$le) ;"ort "lanes $oth model and full scale are generall) designed to "itch u" when the s"eed increases 0n this case 0 had a design that tucks under as s"eed increases (think a$out itR) #his was not goodR #he onl) eas) wa) 0 could come u" with to reduce this tendenc) was to change the twist or washout (increase itO) 0 had to do a little re"rogramming to investigate this "ro$lem #he "ro$lem is easil) cured of course $) a $it of u"<elevator (elevon) trim #his solution is e?uivalent to increasing the twist of the wing (more washout) #hat is nice $ut<<how muchO #he s"readsheet develo"ed for the initial calculations had twist included as a fi'ed num$er =hat was needed was the same s"readsheet with twist as a varia$le "arameter *aking this change was not a $ig deal 0t took a$out an hour do it and verif) the results #he results are summari&ed in Figure 8, which "lots the trim GH "osition as a function of airs"eed for a range of twist angles #he original la)out had a twist of <( (the triangle s)m$ol) #he desired curve should $e at or a$ove the hori&ontal line (the curve la$eled with the diamond or < L 7@ ) #he hori&ontal curve was arrived at $) cut and tr) 0t re"resents the neutral case where if s"eed increases (as in a dive) the air"lane will continue in the dive with no tendenc) to recover For the case where tw5 <Io as the s"eed increases in the dive the nose will tend to rise, which increases the angle of attack, which increases the drag, which slows the "lane down $igure ) etc 8ote that this effect is fairl) sensitive to the angle of twist 3ne degree makes a su$stantial difference #his has two im"lications 3ne the $uilder had $etter $e accurate #o a certain e'tent an) inaccuracies can $e accounted for $) trimming out the air"lane during the first few flights (if it survives) #he other im"lication is that the design twist can $e changed in flight $) the wing twisting under the flight loads on it #he fl)ing wing configuration is notorious for its fle'i$ilit) "ro$lems $ecause of the increased moment arm of the ti" caused $) swee" #his twist under load is resisted $) the torsional stiffness of the wing Digh torsional stiffness can achieved $) full) sheeting the wing #his was not desira$le for weight distri$ution reasons #he .><tu$e. method works almost as well and was selected here #he remaining aerod)namic design "ro$lems are the sta$ilit) in roll and )aw 0 will take care of the roll "ro$lem $) ar$itraril) using a few degrees of dihedral #he )aw sta$ilit) is not so easil) $rushed aside 0n a conventional la)out the )aw sta$ilit) is "rovided $) the fin at the end of a long fuselage #he si&e of the fin (including the rudder "art) is not too critical since the fuselage $ehind the GH itself acts as a fin For the fl)ing wing it would $e nice if 0 could avoid "utting an .ugl). stick and fin $ehind the wing $ut that is what usuall) is done /nother "ossi$ilit) is turned u" winglets at the ti" of the wing /fter diligentl) reviewing all of the aero te'ts that are on m) $ookshelf 0 find onl) two that are remotel) useful 3ne of these has $een referred to $efore( and it in turn refers to a much earlier work $) HrantL (Hrant%s $ook is a classic and is in the .must read. class for an)one interested in the technical histor) of modeling ) Aecause the .Genter of Lateral /rea. (GL/) "rinci"le of lateral sta$ilit) referred to in the references re?uires that $oth the GH and the GL/ $e determined and these in turn re?uire a la)out of the air"lane in some detail 0 am going to do the detailed la)out first and mani"ulate it to get the GH and GL/ .right. =ower =arameters !lectric "ower was new to me so 0 looked to the 0nternet for some hel" 0 found a useful $it of software

called .*otoGalcI. #his is shareware and the "rice was Q@(N; 0t is a simulation that calculates the "erformance of electric s)stems (motors, gear$o'es, controls and "ro"s) 0t has a large data$ase of motors and other com"onents that can $e selected to for a s)stem 0t is well worth the "rice for designers 0 decided to tr) to si&e an electric s)stem that would $e roughl) com"ara$le to the @0 cu in glow engine #he stum$ling $lock is that the electric motor out"ut is e'"ressed in watts and the glow engine is defined $) dis"lacement whereas 0 reall) needed the "ower #o make a long stor) short 0 assumed that the glow engine s"ecific "ower is 2 D96cu in ("ossi$l) too high) For the @0 engine the "ower would $e ) 0 L D9 #he electric e?uivalent of this is 77I watts measured at the $igure * shaft /n e'act re"lacement for the glow engine is "ro$a$l) not "ossi$le $ut 0 +o,er +ara eters should $e a$le to get a reasona$le a""ro'imation 0 ran the *otoGalc "rogram using an /stro Go$alt 0( I# SL0( (there are man) others in the data$ase "rovided) #he "rogram allows a range of num$er of cells and "ro" diameters and "itches and gear ratios #he out"uts are /m"s, =atts<in, =atts<out, !fficienc), ,9*, #hrust, *9D and running time 0 used a gear ratio of 7-1, "ro" diam range of from 11. to 1(., "itch range of I. to 10. and num$er of cells from 8 to 1( #he "rogram out"utted 1@8 "ossi$ilities for each cell si&e For this "arameter 0 used 1 I /D and ( /D #he com$ination that came closest to the 77I watts out"ut that 0 assumed for the glow engine 1@ cells with a 17'10 "ro" running and L0(I ,9* 0t ran with an efficienc) of 80 L2 and consumed 72 am"sR Nnfortunatel) it onl) ran for 2 ( minutes Nsing (/D cells the results were almost the same $ut the running time increased to I ( minutes #he weight of the cells is a serious "ro$lem 8icad cells weigh roughl) 1 ( o&6/D #his results in a weight for the 1 I/D cell s)stem of 2 1 l$s and for the (/D s)stem of L 1 l$s not including the weight of the motor and controlsR #hese weights were too high for this first go around 0 com"leted the design using the 7L glow engine 0 ma) reconsider and redesign it in the future for electric $ut some of the flight "arameters will have to change if it is to get off the ground 3ne of the interesting $ut sometimes frustrating as"ects of design es"eciall) when doing it $) one%s lonesome is that fre?uentl) occurs that some additional data is re?uired that re?uires a diversion #his has ha""ened once $efore and now it is a$out to ha""en again Aefore 0 could do a detailed la)out 0 needed to know what is to $e .laid out. 0 alread) had most of the airframe stuff $ut what a$out the insidesO #he driving item was the "ower "lant 0f a design .team. had done this +o$ there would have $een a 9ower 9lants gu) who would have all the necessar) data lined u" for the detailer to add to the la)out /s it is 0 had not even selected the t)"e of "ower "lant 0 want to use much less do 0 have all of the dimensional and weight data Aoth conventional glow engines and electric motors were candidates for this a""lication #he $ig ?uestion was .what ;i&e.O #o answer this ?uestion for the glow engine without resorting to a lot of detailed calculations 0 used a figure 0 have had in m) files for some )ears #he "lot is shown in Figure 9 ,unning the num$ers for m) wing and a @0 and a 7L cu in engine 0 got a wing cu$ic loading of I L o&6cu ft and engine dis"lacement loadings of 1@ L and 20 8 l$s6cu in for the 7L and @0 cu in engines res"ectivel) 0f these "oints were "lotted on figure 2 the) would lie in the .scale.<.trainer. region 0 sus"ected that the @0 engine would $e marginal for takeoff on our grass stri" so for glow "ower 0 selected a 7L Aesides 0 alread) had one of those and 0 could weigh all of the "ieces for that setu" /5TA&L5/ /51&:$

$igure %Flying Wing ,onstruction =lans

Figure 10 is a thum$nail of the final structural design 0t would $e nice if the e?ui"ment could $e housed in the wing without the ugl) central ."od. $ut not "ossi$le /s it is the "od is "rett) crowded /s 0 noted earlier 0 could have gone either with glow or electric "ower 0 settled on glow $ecause of the $atter) si&e and weight #he entire control is with a single control surface in each wing #he) are controlled with one servo each #he servos res"ond to aileron and elevator in"uts that are mi'ed $) the transmitter

=hile 0 was com"leting the drawing 0 also did a weight and $alance =ith a full 8 o& fuel tank the revised estimated weight was ( (( "ounds #his was well $elow the L to L ( l$s that 0 "ulled out of m) ear for the initial aerod)namic design #he GH came out at L 79. aft of the mid ri$ 167 chord reference "oint #he desired value is L 2@. #wo o& of lead in the nose will fi' that small discre"anc) 0 also moved the "osition of the Genter of Lateral /rea (GL/) rearward $) adding to the fin area #he distance of the GL/ aft of the GH is now a$out 1 2( inches #his is not much $ut it will have to do for the time $eing #hose of )ou who read ./ir and ;"ace. from the ;mithsonian ma) have read the article on the 8orthro" Fl)ing =ing "rogram of the late %70s 0 found the article terrif)ingR ,;$1T3>,T&;$ 3ne of the nice things a$out fl)ing wings is that once )ou finish the wing the air"lane is almost com"lete #he construction is relativel) straightforward and since the em"hasis of this discussion is design 0 do not cover the details 0 will $e ha"") to res"ond to ?uestions via email F&$AL /5TA&L1 Figure 11 shows the com"leted with the covering and all the insides com"leted 0 covered the =ing with ;ig .;u"ercoat. mostl) $ecause 0 had some left over from a long forgotten "ro+ect 0 find the .;u"ercoat. easier to a""l) than .*onocoat. mostl) $ecause it shrinks more and at a lower tem"erature #he slightl) lower weight is insignificant 0 "refer the .fa$ric and do"e. covering $ut 0 went with the film t)"e for weight reasons #his is in s"ite of the fact that 0 find thefa$ric and do"e easier to a""l) al$eit more time consuming 0 e'"ected the visi$ilit) of the model in flight will $e a "ro$lem !'ce"t for the to" and $ottom , the ."resented area. is small and at an) distance the model will $e difficult to see #o hel" this a $it 0 covered the $ottom with midnight $lue and the to" with cu$ )ellow #he fins hel" some in the side view $ut the) are ugl) and if 0 can get awa) with it some da) 0 will remove them #he are held in onl) $) some ta$s of covering material

Figure 11 Finished, ,ead) to Fl) /s it turns out the weight is a non<issue #he final all u" em"t) weight is 7 l$s 9 o& less muffler #his is

well $elow m) initial .guess. of L ( l$s and a later revision of ( (( 3n to" of this the center of gravit) fell well within the limits calculated for sta$ilit) =0#D3N# A/LL/;# /fter a few false starts 0 figured out how to "rogram m) Futa$a transmitter for .elevons. 0t works as advertised Dowever as the initial flight tests showed that more so"histicated "rogramming was re?uired FL&:%T T51T&$: #he first successful flight of the Fl)ing =ing took "lace on Fe$ 2I, 1998 =itnesses "resent were Ao$ 4ount, 9at Freeman, >ave ;tudenick and several other clu$ mem$ers Ao$ 4ount assisted in the test #he events, attem"ts and ad+ustments leading u" to this successful flight are descri$ed $elow Flight test ?1 9reflight checkout 31, Gontrols set at ma'imum deflection in $oth directions #he control deflection at the in$oard end of the elevon was a$out @67. #a'i test 31, controlled well on ground /ccelerated smoothl) and tracked 31 to liftoff Liftoff normal, clim$ normal to a$out 20 to @0<ft altitude /t this "oint angle of attack increased leading to an a""arent stall /ircraft tum$led over nose u" several times and into the ground 8o recover) "ossi$le >amage minimal 8ose cone re"aired /nal)sis- $ehavior s)m"tomatic of fl)ing wings in stall region caused $) over control and lack of "itch sta$ilit) in stall ;olution- decrease control deflection to "reclude inadvertent stall /dd u"thrust to engine ("usher) to hold nose down /dd nose weight to increase "itch sta$ilit) Flight test ?2 Aehaved as $efore on ground #ake off as $efore, no "itch u" or "itch insta$ilit) noted $ut aircraft rolled right which could not $e sto""ed with left aileron Grash caused minor damageP$roken "ro" and $ent landing gear /nal)sis- 0nsufficient roll control due to reduced aileron mode deflection ;olution- 0ncrease aileron mode deflection without increasing elevator mode deflection #his re?uired some cogitation since the two controls are cou"led #he desired effect was o$tained $) "utting the elevator on .low rate. and aileron on .high rate . 0n retros"ect this seems rather o$vious $ut at the time it was not clear how the rate switches work in the elevon mode #he manual did not "rovide a clue 0 also added e'"onential to the aileron control to "reclude over control (0 ho"e) 0n addition 0 added a differential to the .aileron. mode to minimi&e or eliminate an) adverse )aw #his is a known "ro$lem with high as"ect ratio wings /lthough 10 is not a "articularl) high as"ect ratio, 0 did notice what seemed to $e "ronounced adverse )aw on the second flight #he flight was ver) short so 0 am not sure it ha""ened 0 used a$out @ to 1 differential using the ./#C. mode in the transmitter 0 had no idea what is the .correct. differential to use so this was an e'"eriment Flight test ? 3 #he weather this morning was "artiall) cloud), tem"erature in the high forties with wind from the

south (cross wind, what else) at from 0 to ( knots, a $eautiful da) for fl)ing 0 had set u" the controls $efore leaving home so there was little to do $ut fuel u" and fl) #he first attem"t was little more than scurr)ing a$out the runwa), $ut it would not lift off even with full u" elevator ;itting on the ground the aircraft was slightl) nose downR =ith the "itch control surfaces so close to the cg fore and aft the) did not generate enough moment to raise the nose wheel off the ground Ao$ 4ount noticed that the nose wheel was $ent rearward somewhat (not corrected from the "revious test attem"t) #his leads to the nose down attitude and also a tendenc) of the nose wheel to .dig in. to the rough turf #his was easil) corrected with some gentle metal $ending #he ne't attem"t was successfulR #he aircraft tracked down the runwa) with no noticea$le effect of the crosswind / touch of u" elevator and it was air$orne /lmost no trim changes were re?uired to get a straight and level flight at a$out half throttle #he aircraft is ver) sensitive to "itch control as e'"ected /$out three notches of u" trim caused nearl) vertical flight attitude For this first flight 0 stuck to straight and level flight and gentle turns /s far as 0 could tell the aircraft went where it was "ointed which is the desired situation 3nl) ver) small control movements were re?uired to achieve this situation /t no time did 0 let it get near stall attitude #his is the $ad condition for fl)ing wings since the) tend to tum$le when stalled 0 have alread) demonstrated this on the first test flight /fter a$out five minutes of this 0 landed the aircraft using a rather flat long a""roach !ven with this, the low sink rate at idle throttle resulted in a high a""roach ,ather than tr) a go<around, 0 killed the engine and landed safel) al$eit a $it long Nnder the conditions and constraints of this flight test the aircraft e'hi$its good flight characteristics with no vices e'ce"t for the minor re?uirement that the takeoff attitude $e "arallel to the ground or slightl) nose high 0t remains to $e seen what ha""ens in some of the more violent maneuvers that we su$+ect models to #here was no noticea$le adverse )aw so the differential settings must have $een at least a""ro'imatel) correct #he control settings that "roduced these results areGhannel 1 /ileron mode /#C51002 !E95<(22 >6,58(2 /#C(u" surface)51002, (dn surface)5@02 Ghannel 2 !levator mode /#C51102 !E9502 >6,5702 /#C (u")51002, (dn)5@02 For this test 0 set the aileron on full rate and the elevator on low rate 3ationale 0n the case of a conventional "lanform the various control surfaces are all a$out the same distance from the a'es through the cg a$out which the) "rovide control (ailerons from the roll a'is, elevator from the "itch a'is etc ) #hus the surfaces "rovide roughl) the same res"onse a$out each a'is 0n the case of the fl)ing wing the same surfaces control $oth roll and "itch Dowever, the distance to the "itch a'is is much less than the distance to the roll a'is /erod)namic control surfaces are velocit) control devices, that is, the) cause the control surface (and whatever it is attached to) to move with a linear velocit) that

is "ro"ortional to the deflection /ngular velocit) (which is what we notice from the ground) is linear velocit) divided $) distance of the control surface to the a'is of rotation #herefor the short distance of the "itch control to its a'is leads to ver) sensitive "itch control in com"arison to the same deflection for roll control 0 ho"e this makes sense 1ome ;bser0ations #he "rogramma$le transmitter reall) demonstrated its value with these control "ro$lems 9roviding elevon control with different throw for the elevator and aileron modes along with e'"onential and differential ailerons would $e a nightmare to do mechanicall) #he Futa$a manual does not descri$e these com$inations and is rather dense in an) case $ut an hour or two e'"erimentation got me what 0 needed 0 was ver) fortunate on the first two flights that the) were not catastro"hic 0%m not sure that if the) resulted in total loss of the aircraft that 0 would $e enthusiastic enough to start from scratch 0t might $e o$served that 0 should have $een smart enough to work through the rationale $efore the first flight and avoided all the "ro$lems Nnfortunatel) 0%m not that smart (=e grow too soon old and too late smart ) /t least 0 learn from m) mistakes 1ubse6uent Acti0ities #he design of .*od 1. descri$ed a$ove was followed $) .*od 2. which has the following s"ecifications' an ;oot C3or( 2i C3or( 'wee ;oot 'e*tion 2i 'e*tion 2wist Di3e(ral @eig3t Cower /39 "09 #09 "0 (eg +"5B *3or( line. #5B Clar4 Y #5B E ler 3"5

#0 (eg total aero(6nami* " (eg 8 lbs "-='35s) " *6*) us3- ull

#he la)out of this design is much the same as for *od 1 $ut the as"ect ratio is L rather than 8 for *od 1 Nsing the control lessons learned from *od 1 resulted in a com"letel) successful first flight #he onl) .disconcerting. feature of $oth designs is their ver) low sink rate at idle "ower which makes them difficult to land in a &ero wind condition ;"oilers will $e used in an) future design

,opy of letter from Flight Lt. 3.,. Forbes


May 21, 1950 Dear Hollis: Thank you for your letter of last Sunday. Immediately after! I "ot your letter, I tele#honed Ha$krid"e %ir&raft 'td. $ho re#aired the Horten! to ask them to fi( the &enter of "ra)ity atta&hments for you. Ho$e)er, the Horten is no$ some$here in #a&kin" &ases on its $ay to you, as far as I &an find out. %ll I &an do us to ha)e the #ro#er atta&hments made, and I e(#e&t one to *e sent me tomorro$ mornin" to )erify if it is the &orre&t ty#e. If it is I+ll ha)e t$o made $ithout delay , only a matter of days , and shi##in" o)er to you *y air. They should rea&h you *efore the Horten, I re&kon. The ty#e of releases you re-uire are definitely not the ty#e $hi&h released automati&ally *e&ause they mi"ht release at inter)als and this $ould not *e satisfa&tory. The manual ty#e is not so &riti&al. %t the end I+ll #ut a )ery rou"h sket&h to sho$ you ho$ to *uild u# the release me&hanism. If I had the e(a&t measurements here I $ould do it for you, *ut is not a diffi&ult .o* on&e you see the release fittin"s and method of atta&hment. /ou ha)e to atta&h the releases on the main s#ar on the e(tremities of the &enter se&tion , *oth at, as near as #ossi*le, the same an"le so the one le)er in the &o&k#it o#erates the release hooks the same amount and it at e(a&tly the same time. This is all &ommon sense and $e #erfe&tly o*)ious to you see the $hole outfit. I *elie)e I ha)e on the 0eihe the only real &enter of "ra)ity atta&hment in e(isten&e. The hook is situated a*o)e the skid on the fusela"e, makin" an an"le *et$een a line dra$n from the hook to the &enter of "ra)ity and the hori1ontal of 20 de"rees. The is the o#timum an"le as far as safety is &on&erned. I ha)e had a laun&h to 3400 feet on o&&asion and 2000 feet is normal. In &ontest flyin" I only use aero,to$in" $hen it is laid do$n in the re"ulations. I #refer to sit in my ma&hine and takeoff $hen I feel it is the o##ortune moment, and literally no time at all I+m at 2000 feet. If I fail on the first attem#t I &an land *a&k at the takeoff #oint and *e immediately off a"ain. The time $asted aero,to$in" is ama1in" &om#ared to $in&h to$in", then I am suffi&iently old,fashioned in some $ays to )ie$ aero,to$in" the same $ay as a "ood ya&htsman )ie$s

a ya&ht $ith a 5,2 en"ine installed , as a means of "ettin" air*orne, I mean. 6o$, mu&h nonsense has *een $ritten a*out &enter of "ra)ity laun&hin" and one of the $orst arti&les on the su*.e&t $as $ritten *y one of my 7erman instru&tors in 7ermany, and #ossi*ly the one to $hi&h you refer as ha)in" a##eared in 8Sail#lane and 7lider8. There is no dan"er at all from #ilot or "lider #oint of )ie$ if the elementary #rin&i#les are o*ser)ed. %t no #osition e)er on takeoff should a #ilot *e una*le to land after a &a*le *reak or #o$er failure. In other $ords at ea&h #oint on the &lim*, es#e&ially at the early sta"es, he should *e in su&h a #osition that if anythin" "oes $ron", his air s#eed and an"le of &lim* are su&h as to ena*le him to land strai"ht ahead $ithout trou*le. The same arti&le in 8Sail#lane8 stressed the dan"er an"le as far as strainin" the ma&hine is &on&erned. This is #erfe&tly true, *ut it is so easily o*)iated *y the introdu&tion of a $eak link link in the "lider end of the &a*le. It is a##arent that any strain felt *y the ma&hine in rou"h air &onditions is felt e-ually $ell *y ea&h #oint alon" the &a*le. If the $eak link is the &orre&t *reakin" strain that must *reak *efore stru&tural dama"e &an result of the "lider. In the &ase of a normal "lider I re&ommend a 1.4 7. $eak link and for the Horten 1.3 7. link. This is *ased on the ma(imum all,u# $ei"ht of the ma&hine in -uestion. If these fi"ures are adhered to, and if the ma&hine &onforms to normal %ir 9e"istration :oard re-uirements stru&tural dama"e &annot #ossi*ly result, irres#e&ti)e of an"le or rate of &lim*. The te&hni-ue I su""est for ;. of 7. takeoff in the Horten is to hold the sti&k &entral and allo$ the *uildu# of s#eed to lift the ma&hine off the "round. Hold the ma&hine off the "round and #arallel to it until a*out <0 k#h air s#eed is rea&hed. =ase the &ontrol sti&k *a&k "ently, maintainin" air s#eed on the &lim*. The $in&h dri)er should *e #ro"ressi)ely throttlin" *a&k until at the ma(imum hei"ht the $in&h has literally sto##ed #ullin". %t this #oint the "lider is flyin" strai"ht and le)el at <0 k#h and the &a*le is released $ithout any tension on it. This, *y the $ay, is almost $ord for $ord out instru&tional #atter at the s&hool. /ou $ill *e! re-uire d! to hold a sli"ht for$ard #ressure on the sti&k at the moment of lea)in" the "round to #re)ent assumin" a sudden &lim*in" attitude, due to the lo$ #osition of atta&hment. >or landin" I su""est use s#oilers as re-uired on the a##roa&h, kee#in" a 55,?0 k#h on the &lo&k. 0hen almost on the "round ease this s#oilers and hold off a*out three or four in&hes from a "round and allo$ the ma&hine to settle on it as the s#eed falls off. %s soon as you tou&hdo$n kee# the sti&k $here it is and #ull s#oilers fully out. /ou+ll find that this the #od $ill in)aria*ly tou&h first if you land at the stallin" s#eed and this is the ni&est $ay of landin". It

falls "ently onto his skid and #ulls u# literally si( or se)en yards. /ou mention Hanna 9eis&h. She is a )ery "ood friend of mine and s#ent all of her )a&ations $ith my $ife and me the last t$o years in 7ermany. 0e still &orres#ond re"ularly. I for"ot to mention the o#eration of the under&arria"e last time I $rote to you. Do not #ush the le)er for$ard after "ettin" air*orne, *ut .ust #ush in the kno* $ith your ri"ht thum* and let the le)er fly for$ard. If you do this the $heel falls &orre&tly. If you #ush the le)er for$ard manually it does not o#erate &orre&tly , at least it did not $ith me. >or landin" .ust #ull the under&arria"e handle *a&k until the s#rin",loaded #lun"er &li&ks home. I hate like Hell to ha)e to land $ithout the front skid fully do$n@@@ There is )ery little room in this ma&hine, #rimarily *e&ause it $as *uilt around Horten+s test #ilot $ho $as only a*out 5 feet 3 in&hes tall. Ho$e)er if it fits it $ill fit you okay. I ha)e an %meri&an A*ser)er ty#e #ara&hute $hi&h slin"s )ery lo$ on the *a&k , .ust on your *ottom. The *ase of the #ara&hute fits a re&ess on the hood. % small #a&ked seat,ty#e #ara&hute should fit e-ually $ell *et$een your knees and *ottom. I also for"ot to mention that $ould fittin" the hood you ha)e to o#erate the le)er in front, under left, to lo&k it home. This le)er also o#erates the safety harness. I+m only tellin" you these details to sa)e your time to ha)in" to find them our for yourself. /ou ask a*out doin" a fe$ ho#s first. I su""est you "o to an airfield first to ha)e aero,to$ to a fe$ thousand feet to a&&ustom yourself to the flyin" the thin". The only #art of the fli"ht $hi&h mi"ht *e likely to dama"e ma&hine is the initial takeoff and only then if really &arelessly &arried out. 0hy, then, #re.udi&e this *eautiful ma&hine *y ho##in" itB Mu&h *etter to "et off the "round for the first time and really "et used to it. I didn+t reali1e the &limati& &onditions $hen I asked you a*out flyin" the 0in" $hen I "et a&ross. Af &ourse it $ill *e im#ossi*le *ut, any$ay, thank you for the offer. I am sorry to hear you+ll $on+t *e takin" #art in the 6ationals this year, *ut I kno$ *y *itter e(#erien&e ho$ mu&h it &osts to kee# a family, &ar, and sail#lane. Still, I mana"e someho$, and I &urtail the other a&ti)ities to flyin" in &ontests. It is all "rand fun and I meet su&h mar)elous #eo#le. Clease let me kno$ $ho+s flyin" in S$eden this year from your #art of the $orld. I kno$ Caul M&;ready is flyin" a 0eiher, *ut $ho else is flyin" $hatB My $ife is no$ in ;hi&a"o and is or"ani1in" for me my tour of the States at the end of the year. I shall &ertainly look you u# if it &an #ossi*ly *e arran"ed. The only reasons for his t$o,month tri# are to )isit my #arents,in,la$ $hom I ha)en+t met yet, and, of &ourse, to

)isit :isho#, $ith ho#es of flyin" there if it is all #ossi*le. %lso to study &onditions in the States $ith a )ie$ to settlin" there $hen I lea)e the %ir >or&e , if I lea)e it@ /ou seem to *e $orried a*out ho$ to "et the Horten from Detroit MI, to 5alley ;ity. 0hy not aero,to$ itB, and &all in here and there at )arious air sho$s $ith it, and let it earn its kee#B It is a money s#inner and al$ays attra&ts *i" &ro$ds. This is only an idea for it is $orth. Cerha#s you &an assist me, sin&e your *usiness is my ho**y. I am a keen #hoto"ra#her *oth still and mo)ie. %t the moment I ha)e three or four reels of %"fa &olor mo)ie film $hi&h I .ust &annot "et #ro&essed in his &ountry. There are shots of a Standin" 0a)e at home in S&otland, one or to #ersonal shots and one $hole reel of the Horten in fli"ht. ;ould you #ossi*ly #ro&ess them for me, or if not, "i)e me the address of a firm in the states $ho &ould do it for meB I $ill *e mu&h o*li"ed if you &ould, that mi"ht *e a hel# to you to see the films *efore you a&tually fly the Horten. I &annot tell you $hat they $ill *e like as I didn+t take them and the $eather for #hoto"ra#hy $as dreadful. If you+re interested, I use a 'ei&a 3&, a Su#er Ikonta and a 9ollefle( for the still #hoto"ra#hy, and a Siemens 1? mm mo)ie $ith a set off four lenses. The latter is an e(&ellent &amera and I+)e had some mar)elous results $ith it. In &on.un&tion $ith this I ha)e a Deiss Ikon #ro.e&tor. 6o more for no$, *ut I $ill "et those t$o releases off to you as soon as #ossi*le. /ours Sin&erely, Ea&k >or*es C.S. I .ust &annot dra$ you a #i&ture of the release me&hanism, *ut I+ll "et an a&&urate dra$in" of that fitted to the other one, $hi&h is e(a&tly the same in e)ery res#e&t as your one. This $ill not take lon" I #romise you. Ea&k

,opy of letter from 2lac@burn and :eneral Aircraft Ltd.

12th May, 1950 Dear Mr. :urtton: /ou $ill ha)e re&ei)ed my &a*le of May 11th as follo$s:, 8Horten fli"ht tested "reat su&&ess May <th , sto# , $ill ad)ise shi##in" date8 and naturally you $ill $ish to ha)e more am#le information as to $hat has *een ha##enin" o)er here $ith the Horten I5 "lider and I feel I+m #ro*a*ly the *est #erson to su##ly this information. The air&raft $as assem*led at the ;olle"e of %eronauti&s at ;ranfield last $eek *y Mr. H.=. :olton of the Ha$krid"e %ir&raft ;o. 'td., Denham. Mr. :olton has maintained a life lon" interest in "liders and is one of the *est en"ineers of its field. He "a)e his undi)ided attention to the ri""in" and assem*ly of the Horten I5 and $as e(tremely &areful on the &ontrol ad.ustments. 0hen the air&raft rea&hes you I $ould stron"ly ad)ise that the indi)idual ad.ustments are not &han"ed, sin&e the air&raft flies #erfe&tly as ri""ed. The #ilot for the o&&asion $as >li"ht 'ieutenant >or*es, ;hief >lyin" Instru&tor at the 9.%.> 7lider S&hool at Detlin", Maidstone, Fent and he made t$o #erfe&t fli"hts and $as &om#letely satisfied $ith the air&raft. Moreo)er he said that $as a thousand #ities that it $as lea)in" the &ountry for %meri&a and I should think it is .ust a*out the most effi&ient "lider in the $orld and one $ith $hom ne$ re&ords are *ound to *e &reated. In&identally the air&raft to$ed off *y a Moth. In )ie$ of the hi"hly su&&essful fli"hts, durin" the &ourse of $hi&h suffi&ient o*ser)ations $ere made to satisfy the :ritish 7lider %sso&iation, the air&raft $as immediately dismantled so as to *e a)aila*le for the trans#ortation &om#any $hi&h is handlin" the #a&kin" and shi##in" for formalities. I ho#e to ad)ise you a fe$ days as to the shi##in" date and anti&i#ated arri)al date of arri)al in Detroit. The air&raft is, of &ourse, sensiti)e on the &ontrols, sin&e the lon"itudinal, lateral, and dire&tional deri)ati)es ha)e )ery lo$ )alues. ;onse-uently, )ery small mo)ements are re-uired to maneu)er the air&raft. >or*es states that it turns )ery ni&ely on aileron a##li&ation only and that at the ;.7. #osition as flo$n the stall is strai"htfor$ard and inno&uous. >or information you $ill find the follo$in" fi"ures useful:, 0ei"ht em#ty 5?0 #ounds 0ei"ht as flo$n <20 #ounds 7ross affe&ti)e #ro.e&ted $in" area 2001 s-uare feet Cro.e&ted $in" s#an ??.42 feet

Standard mean &ord len"th 3.03 feet distan&e of -uarter standard mean &ord #oint aft of datum 4.220 feet ;.7. as flo$n 4.54G feet aft of datum H 1?I S.M.;. ;.7. em#ty 4.<?G feet aft of datum H 23I S.M.; The datum referred to is the leadin" ed"e of the $in" on the &enter line of the air&raft and su&h is the most for$ard #oint. The &hara&teristi& of some tailless air&raft of the ;.7. is too far aft is a #eriodi& lon"itudinal os&illation, $hi&h is only &ured *y for$ard mo)ement of the &enter of "ra)ity. %s stated earlier this #arti&ular air&raft flies #erfe&tly and there is no hint of su&h os&illation, neither $ould $e e(#e&t it $ith a 1?I S.M.; #osition of the &enter of "ra)ity. I en&lose some &o#ies of #hoto"ra#hs, taken on the o&&asion of the test fli"hts, $hi&h are not )ery "ood, *ein" #urely amateur efforts. The o&&asion $as one of )ery "reat interest to the students of the ;olle"e of %eronauti&s and it $as indeed a )ery #retty #ie&e of flyin". /ours Sin&erely, >.>. ;ro&om*e!.

GMeasured normal to the $in" hin"e from a(is.

.he Horten H / Series 0ltra Light $l#ing 1ing Sailplanes


Albion H2 Bo,ers 3ASA Dr#den $light 4esearch Center 5d,ards CA Soaring Societ# of A erica Soaring Ho ebuilders Association .ehachapi6 CA Septe ber &-(6 %**)

;"anload Distor) 3"timum s"an load develo"ment Aell<sha"ed s"an load Dorten ;ail"lane Distor) !arl) ;ail"lanes Digh "erformance sail"lanes Later (/rgentine) sail"lanes Foot<launched sail"lanes Dorten D Ec /nal)sis

nalytical 1pan Load %istory

=randtl Lifting line theory ,irculation 1pan load &nduced /rag <un@ ;ptimum 1pan Load 5lliptical 1chren@ Appro4imate <ethod Accomodate taper8 twist8 and surface deflections <ulthopp 1implified theory Addition of control points ,oincident with circulation 0orte4

2ell 0s. 5lliptical 1pan Loads


<un@A$ic@el

5lliptical span load ;ptimum <inimum induced drag %orten 2ell-shaped span load 1ub-optimal induced drag &nduced thrust at wing tips pro0erse yaw with roll command

+<itteleffe@t+
Artifact of span load appro4imations 5ffect on span loads

increased loads at tips decreased load near centerline >pwash due to sweep is unaccounted for

,alculation <ethod B<ulthoppC


Taper Twist ,ontrol 1urface /eflections ,entral /ifference Angle /r. 5dward >denDs results sinnBEC n F 2. ( ad0erse yaw n GH 2. ( pro0erse yaw as n increases8 induced drag increases n H 3 near optimum

>densD 3esults
1pan

Loading and &nduced /rag


5le7on Configuration I II III I5 5 5I 5II 5III IJ J JI Cn8a ,.0020<0 .00155? .002<22 ,.0190?0 ,.015<30 .001942 .002223 .004529 .005402 .004132 .005455 Span Load *ell *ell *ell elli#ti& elli#ti& *ell *ell *ell *ell *ell *ell

5le0on ,onfigurations &nduced .awing <oments

5arly %orten 1ailplanes


D0

Gontrol surface la)out #wist distri$ution

D 00

!levons Aell ;ha"e ;"an Load

D 000

0m"roved 9erformance 0m"roved Dandling 9ilot 9osition

%igh =erformance %orten 1ailplanes


D 0C

Digh as"ect ratio Digh "erformance !'tensive testing *a' L6>- @I (design), @2 (>F;), 29 (*;N)
D C0

!'treme high as"ect ratio 9erformance ham"ered $) structure Dorten .mini<tail.

Later %orten 1ailplanes BArgentinaC

D ECa (0 /e @7 Glen /ntu) #wo<seat tandem ;im"le control s)stem

D EC$ (0 /e @7m Glen /ntu) ;ingle seater (.mono"la&a .) Digh "erformance

D ECc (0 /e 71 Nru$u) #wo<seat side<$)<side ;im"le control s)stem

>ltra Light %orten 1ailplanes


% ) =iernifero 1eries

< Da LE0lita =ne manufa*ture( Flown extensivel6 Non-bell s an loa( Frise elevons

< Db

Never *om lete( $ell s an loa(

< D*

Design stu(6 <ig3 erforman*e

Elevon Design C3ange

%orten % )c Analysis

/irfoil /irfoil *ean Gam$er #wist >istri$ution (,einhold ;tadler) 9rofile >rag Gom"onents Local lift coefficients !levon deflections Local ,e)nolds num$ers 9roverse6/dverse "rofile )awing moments

%orten % )c Analysis

Corte' Lattice /nal)sis ;"an loads (longitudinal trim T ass)metrical roll) 9roverse6/dverse induce )awing moments acce"ta$le handling ?ualities

"roverse6adverse )aw Force vectors on ti"s (twist T u"wash) @20 "anels 70 s"anwise 8 chordwise
Center

1ymmetrical 1pan Loads

Longitudinal Trim

!levon #rim GH Location

Assymetrical 1pan Loads

3oll ,ontrol
Glda (roll due to aileron) Gnda ()aw due to aileron)

CL 2/&& .%%! .58" .3/0 .#/8

Cl .0#38! .0#38! .0#3!5 .0#38! .0#3!5

Cn .00055 .0003% .000"# .00003 -.000#5

induced com"onent 9rofuile com"onent #otal Ghange with lift

Gnda6Glda GL (Lift Goefficient) 0ncreased lift increased Gl$ increased Gn$: >ecreased lift decreased Gl$ decreased Gn$:

Airfiol Analysis
9rofile Gode (>r ,ichard !""ler) Fla" 3"tion (elevon deflections) *atched Local Lift Goefficients (local angles of attack) 9rofile >rag 0ntegrated Lift Goefficients *atch 9rofile results to Corte' Lattice ;e"aration differences in lift

=erformance Analysis

*a'imum L6>- @1 9 (does not include "ilot drag) *a'imum sink- 89 1 f"m (doesn not include "ilot drag) L6> 9enalt) Aell vs !lli"tical /ssume same as"ect ratio wing area airfoils *a' L6> ($ell)- @1 9@ *a' L6> (elli"tical)- @L 98 U1@2

,oncluding 3emar@s
Aell ;"an Load "roverse )aw induced drag "enalt) 0m"ortance of Gnda6Glda 3"timi&ation of sinn (u"wash distri$utionO) !ffect of GL on Gn$: Gnda Gom"onents D Ec has ver) high "erformance for an ultra light sail"lane

#hanks- Aruce Garmichael, >r 9aul *acGread), ,einhold ;tadler, Hregg *ac9herson, Juan *anuael *ascarello, ,uss Lee, Heoff ;teele, >oug Aullard, >avid Lednicer, Jan ;cott, >r >avid *)hra, >r 1arl 8ickel

3eferences
Dorten, ,eimarK adn ;elinger, 9eterK with ;cott, Jan (translator)- .8urflugel- the ;tor) of Dorten Fl)ing =ings 19@@ < 19L0.K =eisha"t CerlagK Hra&, /ustriaK 198( 8ickel, 1arlK and =ohlfarht, *ichaelK with Arown, !ric (translator)- .#ailless /ircraft in #heor) and 9ractice.K /0//K 8ew 4ork, 84K 1997 Jacher, Dans- .*itteilungen- Flugtechnischen Fachgru""en und /r$eitsgemeinschaften.K FFH< >armstadt, 1977 H)org)falv), >es&o- .9erformance /nal)sis of the Dorten 0C Fl)ing =ing.K Gongress of the 3;#0CK Gologne, Herman)K June 19L0 Dorten, ,eimar- .Lift >istri$ution on Fl)ing =ing /ircraft.K #echnical ;oaring, Col 10 8o 7 9randtl, Ludwig- ./""lications of *odern D)drod)namics to /eronautics.K 8/G/ ,e"ort 8o 11LK 1921 *unk, *a' * - .#he *inimum 0nduced >rag of /erofoils.K 8/G/ ,e"ort 121, 192@ ;chrenk, 3skar- ./ ;im"le /""ro'imation *ethod for 3$taining the ;"anwise Lift >istri$ution.K 8/G/ #* 1910, 1970 *ultho"", Dans- .*ethods for Galculating the Lift >istri$ution of =ings (;u$sonic Lifting ;urface #heor)).K /,G ,* 2887K 19(0

9arl $ic@el

Frei$urg den 11 Iuly 1''" ;chlier$ergstrasse 88 ><I9100 Frei$urg i Ar F 0IL1 < 70 @1 (9 H!,*/84

;n the importance of the correct ,.:. location in flying wings


0 would like to dedicate this lecture to the memor) of 3obert 9ronfeld. De was one of the most successful and famous sail"lane "ilots in the late 20s and @0s De was killed nearl) e'actl) ;o )ears ago while testing a fl)ing wing #he reason for this accident was most "ro$a$l) a wrong G H location of his tailless glider Aefore 0 come to the histor) of 1ronfeld%s fatal flight, 0 would like to treat this su$+ect of the G H location a little more general For sim"licit), in the following onl) swept bac@ flying wings are regarded Dence, e g fl)ing "lanks are notconsidered Tail-hea0iness Let%s first assume, that our fl)ing wing is tail-hea0y8 i e that the G H is too far $ackwards Dence, in e?uili$rium flight we need additional lift at the $ack for the $alance of "itching moments >ue to the $ack swee" and to the location of the elevons at the ti"s this lift has to $e added at the wingti"s, hence, $oth elevons have to go down there < see the sketch 8ow, this is a ver) unwelcome situationFirst( #his additional lift ma) lead to separation of the flow at the ti" and, hence, to wingtip-stall with a su$se?uent roll-o0er which ma) result in a spin. 1econd( 0f this flow se"aration ha""ens simultaneousl) at $oth wingti"s, then a .rearup-stall+ ma) result, which is es"eciall) dangerous near the ground Third( 0f this flow se"aration ha""ens simultaneousl) at $oth wingti"s, then a .rearupstall+ ma) result, which is es"eciall) dangerous near the ground Forth( Aoth elevons down means that the wing has negati0e twist. ;uch wings with negative washout, however, have a tendenc) for spiral instability. #his ma) not $e as dangerous, $ut it is un"leasant during instrument flight Fifth( #his negative twist unfortunatel) am"lifies the unfavora$le ad0erse yaw8 which is a nuisance for an) fl)ing wing #hus control around the vertical a'is is weakened 3""osite to "o"ular $elief tail<heaviness gives no ad0antage for the performance. 0f the lift distri$ution of the wing is chosen o"timal for the correct G H "osition, then tail< heaviness gives more induced drag, i e a loss

$ose-hea0iness 3$viousl) in this case ever)thing is reversed /ssume, that our fl)ing wing is nose hea0y8 i e if the G H is too much in front #hen, in e?uili$rium flight we need less lift at the $ack for the $alance of "itching moments >oe to the $ack swee" this negative lift has to $e "ut at the wingti"s, hence, $oth elevons have to go u" there < see the sketch #he conclusion from this is now o$viousFirst( #his negative lift "revents the separation of the flow at the ti" and sto"s, hence, an) wingtip-stall. #herefore, noroll-o0er should $e o$served and a spin-proof aircraft can $e e'"ected R 1econd( ;ince no flow se"aration at the wingti"s occurs, also no +rear-up+ stall should $e o$served Third( Aoth elevons u" means that the wing has positi0e twist. ;uch wings with "ositive washout, however, have a tendenc) for spiral stability while circling. #his is es"eciall) im"ortant and "leasant for sail"lanes, es"eciall) during instrument flight Let me tell )ou, as an e'am"le, m) own e'"erience while fl)ing the %orten % &&&f ("rone "ilot "osition) 0n 1971 0 entered a cumulus cloud with this shi", even that m) turn<indicator was not working /t that time 0 had not nor have 0 now < an instrument flight rating Aut 0 had trust in the words of %einJ 1cheidhauer who had told me- .In the cloud keep the stick completely back and well centered . . . and wait until the !round appears a!ain". 0t worked, after a rise of 1000 meters 0 came out on to" of the cloud #he Dorten did the constant circling herself never fl)ing faster than I0 km6h Gom"letel) safeR =ith which other sail"lane of that time would that have $een "ossi$leO =ith noneR Fourth( A) this "ositive twist the ad0erse yaw is dam"ened or even com"letel) annihilated #his strengthens the control around the vertical a'is Fifth( #here is, however, a "rice to $e "aid for all these ver) favora$le flight characteristics- 0f the lift distri$ution of the wing is chosen o"timal for the correct G H "osition, then nose<heaviness gives more induced drag, i e gives a loss 0f the nose< heaviness is ver) large, then this loss ma) also $e ver) su$stantial 8ow )ou ma) ask- "#hy would anybody in his ri!ht mind mo$e the c !. of a flyin! win! too much backward %". 0 have seen this done ver) often, it ha""ened twice during the last two )ears with a disastrous result in one case #he .normal. reason for doing so is the o$servation, that the elevons are in .u".<"osition during .normal. flight #he o$vious reaction is then- .&h. the airplane is nose'hea$y otherwise the ele$ons would be in neutral position". #hen, the G H is moved hack, then wingti" stall and6or lateral insta$ilit) occurs, then the "lane goes into a s"in or an other un"leasant flight situation and ver) often crashes

0f moving the G H $ack is wrong, what should then he done in such a caseO =h), the solution should $e o$vious to an) aeronautical engineerWhen the flying wing in normal flight has the ele0ons up8 then the fi4ed twist of the wing8 the build-in wash out8 is too small and should be increased R Aut, whenever 0 suggested this remed), then invaria$l) came the re"l)- .#ell but this would deteriorate the performances of the airplane". #his is trueK $ut flying with the ele0ons up deteriorates the performance e0en more R Aut, )ou know, no$od) ever did $elieve me RRR /nd so, fl)ing wings again and again have $een fl)ing with G H aft and crashed

$urflKgel =apers
A 3etrospecti0e( Flying Wing /esign &ssues
Albion %. 2owers $A1A /ryden Flight 3esearch ,enter8 5dwards8 ,A /a0id A. Lednicer Analytic <ethods8 &nc.8 3edmond8 WA
=resented to the members of The Wing &s The Thing BTW&TTC on 1eptember 278 1''"8 at :illespie Field in 5l ,aLon8 ,A. /l Aowers whose "resentation for the da) would $e an engineering and historical anal)sis and "ers"ective of fl)ing wings, including designs $) 8orthro", Li""isch and Dorten /l started with a little $ackground a$out himself De $uilt the usual $alsa models when he was )oung and a$out the time he should have gotten into radio control models a new movement was $eginning in ;outhern Galifornia #his resulted he his first $am$oo and "lastic hang glider, which his father ?uickl) cut u" into si' foot chunks Dowever, his father did go out and $u) some aluminum tu$ing and $uilt a .real. hang glider from an original set of Fle'iFlier "lans /l flew hang gliders until a$out 19IL when he moved into sailing, sail"laning and college /fter college he went to work for 8/;/ where he is toda) #he "a"er he was "resenting toda) was not solel) his work 0t was a colla$oration with >avid Lednicer as a co<author #he) had $een friends for a while $efore discovering the) were $oth fl)ing wing nuts and took the o""ortunit) of the fl)ing wing s)m"osium to "ut together this "a"er /s an introduction, /l commented that the num$er one thing )ou need to think a$out when )ou have a conventional air"lane is that )ou have a tail that serves one function and wing that serves another =hen )ou "ut these elements together )ou end u" with having to make com"romises #hese are in "erformance, sta$ilit), control and structure, or how do )ou "ut all the "ieces into one worka$le unit and what is the configuration )ou are left to work with #here are things like "lanks, .$oards.,

swe"t (fore or aft) wings, deltas, etc De went on to "resent a short chronolog) of wing designs $) Dorten, Li""isch, 8orthro" and the ;A<1@ as a recent e'am"le, +ust to la) some groundwork for the rest of the "a"er

#he first com"romise to $e discussed is "erformance 0t%s reall) im"ortant to understand "rofile drag 4ou look at the "olar for lift to dragK the drag $ucket and minimum drag De showed an e'am"le of a laminar drag $ucket that has a "oint where drag dro"s off shar"l) indicating there are significant amounts of laminar flow develo"ing #he new com"uter airfoil design "rograms can come u" with larger drag $uckets, in fact )ou can design them so the entire o"erating range is within the $ucket Dowever, )ou have to know what that o"erating range is and $e ver) careful in how )ou select it, $ecause if )ou get outside of what the airfoil can handle )ou can face severe "ro$lems and their conse?uences

/ high L6> airfoil ma) not $e the $est airfoil for )our air"lane, since there are other com"romises that come along which can kind of contaminate what )ou have to do #hese are s"anload and trim issues 8e't )ou look for the "itching moment and there are two wa)s )ou can go with this 3ne is with

a s)mmetrical airfoil which has no "itching moment, $ut somehow )ou have to trim it to "roduce "ositive lift Dowever, if no "itching occurs then )ou have a &ero lift airfoil which is not ver) useful #he Dorten and Li""isch a""roaches were to use cam$ered and refle'ed airfoils, the refle' to hel" control the "itching moment caused $) the cam$er #he good news is )ou end u" with a low "itching moment and it ha""ens at some "ositive lift coefficient which is ver) $eneficial #he ne't thing to look at in airfoil selection is skin friction Laminar flow is usuall) a good thing and tur$ulent flow is sometimes good and $ad 4ou want to avoid laminar se"aration and minimi&e the amount of tur$ulent flow )ou have to have #his gets into $oundar) la)er control issues and most aircraft we see have natural transition "oints on the wing De then moved on to discuss interference drag which is hard to understand since it is ver) configuration de"endent #his is drag created at corners and other intersections of surfaces like winglets or the fuselage #he air flow doesn%t +ust flow through the corner, $ut rather it $uilds u" a circulation region #his is "utting energ) into the air to make it use this swirling motion and that energ) is coming from the vehicle that is "roducing the flow and this is drag

#here is another t)"e of drag created $) lift, which is induced drag 3ne wa) one to look at this is through the lifting line theor) "ut forth $) Ludwig 9randtl De thought )ou could descri$e a wing as a series of vortices /ir goes over the to" faster and along the $ottom slower and along with this )ou have the motion of the airfoil through the air Aut given this condition, if )ou remove the motion of the airfoil through the air, what do )ou have left overO 0t turns out what )ou have is this faster motion going forward over the to", $ut the motion on the $ottom is going slower so )ou su$tract it out as a constant, so )ou a result )ou can think of as a little $it of motion going $ackwards #his is called circulation and it is ver) difficult to calculate, $ut there are some a""ro'imations which hel" to arrive at a solution 3ne of these was ;chrenk%s a""ro'imation since it accommodated ta"er and twist of a normal wing and it would also com"are control surface deflections #he one thing it didn%t do for )ou was the effect of swee" #his came u" later ver) strongl) for the Dortens $ecause the) found with their swe"t wings the) couldn%t find ever)thing that was going on #he affect of swee" was called the middle effect $) the Dortens and it influenced their designs over the )ears =ith more modern techni?ues availa$le through the introduction of digital com"uters in the %L0s and %I0s, circulation calculations can $e done much more ?uickl) eliminating the need for a""ro'imations Gom"utational fluid d)namics (GF>) has now $een introduced, $ut /l commented that, although not readil) advertised, it is still an a""ro'imation of what is actuall) going on, es"eciall) in the tur$ulent flow region 4ou can%t descri$e the flow motion of the air in a tur$ulent region due do

its chaotic characteristics and the need to average it all out ;till talking a$out "erformance, /l moved on to lift and s"anloading Ludwig 9randtl said if )ou can descri$e what this induced loss can $e , then what is the minimum induced loss )ou can get, or the o"timum solutionO !lli"tical s"anloading was found to $e the minimum induced drag that could $e o$tained and this was the acce"ted theor) for almost 80 )ears ;ome recent develo"ments have shown that "ure elli"tical is not reall) ?uite the o"timum due to the effect of drag on the s"anloading 0t can $e calculated, $ut it is com"letel) configuration de"endent, however, for all "ractical "ur"oses the) look elli"tical and elli"tical is still o"timum

#he Dortens came u" with a $ell sha"ed s"anload distri$ution #he $ell curve shows a download at the wingti"s $ut a lot of lift near the centerline and this has a drag "enalt) associated with it #he further )ou get from the elli"tical distri$ution the more drag "enalt) )ou have to incur, so )ou have to consider the com"lete configuration 0f )ou have a conventional design with a tail, it has to have a download in order to trim the air"lane, and that download has to $e included in the induced drag calculations 0t can $e com"ensated for $) the designer $) looking at the far field wake and how it rolls u" and whether it has an) discontinuities that can cause additional drag #hese discontinuities caused $) control surfaces and other design im"erfections need to $e minimi&ed to achieve the lowest drag com"onent ;wee" in the fl)ing wing is analogous to a tail in that it allows for trimming the aircraft 0t also allows for ad+ustments to the dam"ening as descri$ed $) 0rv Gulver a$out 10 )ears ago ;wee" also allows for

"utting fla"s on the aircraft which can $e used for increasing the lift, $ut )ou need to $e a$le to trim for the effects of the fla" during de"lo)ment #here are three wa)s to go with this, one of them not $eing ver) desira$le #his is the adverse fla" affect where the nose goes over in a tuck as the fla"s are "ut down and is one of the "ro$lems that 8orthro" never ?uite overcame in his designs /l related a stor) a$out Ao$ Doover tr)ing to takeoff in the 89<* on !dwards 12,000% runwa) with the fla"s down #he aircraft +ust wouldn%t come off the runwa) so he thought ma)$e he had some t)"e of trim "ro$lem and retracted the fla"s in an effort to solve it #he instant the fla"s came u" the aircraft lea"ed into the air, so o$viousl) there was a trim "ro$lem associated with the fla"s and the overall wing design 0n modern times, designers have figured out )ou can actuall) use fla"s on a swe"t fl)ing wing to )our advantage 4ou can make the fla" work as a trim device, and 0lan 1roo integrated them in a wa) that the nose goes u" and the aircraft slows when the fla"s are "ut down #his can $e seen in the Aright ;tar ;=0F# Gonversel), )ou should $e a$le to make it $alance out so that )ou get no "itching moment as in the Flair @0 #his is an e'am"le of having a clear set of criteria in mind $efore starting the design of the aircraft /l then moved on to sta$ilit), not sta$ilit) /8> control De +oked a$out a gu) in his office sa)ing it should $e sta$ilit) 3, control since )ou can%t have $oth De went on to descri$e the differences $etween static sta$ilit), neutral sta$ilit) and d)namic sta$ilit) 4ou can have a d)namicall) sta$le s)stem where there is enough dam"ing to remove an) oscillations that ma) occur and return the aircraft to a trimmed condition 4ou can have neutral sta$ilit) where the oscillation doesn%t dam"en $ut it also doesn%t grow and get worse over time 0t%s the d)namic insta$ilit) that gives )ou the $iggest headache since )ou can $e staticall) sta$le and end u" with something like flutter and have the whole thing come a"art in ver) short order De went on to cover the five classical modes of sta$ilit), the first two $eing longitudinal #here is the short "eriod (1arl 8ickel calls it "ecking) where when )ou "ut in a "ulse the aircraft%s angle of attack tries to come $ack 4ou cannot afford to have d)namic insta$ilit) here since there is no reaction time to correct the condition $efore it might $ecome destructive #hen there is the "hugoid t)"e which lasts a longer time, ma)$e u" to one or two minutes 0t can $e d)namicall) unsta$le since )ou have "lent) of time to recogni&e the condition and correct for it $efore it $ecomes a real "ro$lem #here are three directional modes #he first is roll control which is the result of a standard roll in"ut that sta$ili&es into a constant velocit) movement #hen there is dutch roll, also known as the dihedral affect, where the aircraft gets hit $) a gust and rolls $ack #his can $e dam"ed or undam"ed and ma) have more affect on fl)ing wings, such as was seen on the 8orthro" wings #he) weren%t reall) unsta$le, $ut rather the) had a limit c)cle that means the oscillation would $uild u" to a certain si&e and then +ust sta) there #he last mode is s"iral which can $e sta$le or unsta$le #here are a lot of aircraft that are unsta$le in this mode, $ut $ecause it $uilds u" so slowl) it is controlla$le and not a real "ro$lem, like in a Gessna 1I2 #he Dorten 000 was s"irall) sta$le as demonstrated when it went into the clouds during a contest at ,hVn #he "ilots (;cheidhauer and Alech) sim"l) held the stick in a constant "osition and the aircraft continued in a controlled manner until coming out of the clouds For the sail"lane "ilot there are two new modes that need to $e considered #hese concern the attachment of the tow ro"e which affects $oth the longitudinal and lateral modes De noted these modes had not reall) $een descri$ed until a$out five )ears ago and there still is no "h)sical flight data for them #here has $een some ground testing and measurements taken, $ut flight data is +ust now $eginning to $e gathered for anal)sis ;ta)ing with sta$ilit), he went on to talk a$out linearit) #his is where the restoring force is "ro"ortional to the dis"lacement 8ear the outer, ragged edge of the envelo"e )ou can get non<linearit), like stalls #here are fi'es for some of these non<linearit)%s so )ou can get the aircraft to work like )ou

want it too >evices like fences, fla"s, vorte' generators and tur$ulators can $e "laced on the airfoil to ad+ust for the "ro$lem Dorten "ut large wing fences on the D Ea to hel" the elevon control authorit) /l then moved on to the area of control De related this to making crosswind landings where )ou would need a @<a'is control s)stem #he Dortens used a $lended surface where the) had multi"le trailing edge surfaces that all moved in "itch or roll, $ut the) didn%t move "ro"ortionall) to each other Dowever, what )ou notice a$out the s)stem is that no matter what trim angle of attack )ou use all the control surfaces have some deflection since )ou can%t choose a trim angle of attack where the) are all at &ero when tested (the aircraft was out of rig) 8orthro" was an airfoil aerod)namicist and what he did was use the middle surfaces for "itch and roll, and the out$oard surfaces trimmed onl) in "itch and s"lit to act as drag rudders 0f the stick is "ulled all the wa) $ack what )ou have done is induce mechanical washout in the middle section and washin at the ti"s #his is a good reci"e for loosing the ti" and having a stall6s"in "ro$lem 3ne of the solutions was to tr) and "ut slots out towards the ti"s, which hel"ed the stall "ro$lem $ut not that of s"in Dowever, when the airflow over the slots se"arates it does so with a lot of h)steresis and a small decrease in angle of attack doesn%t result in airflow reattachment 0t takes a large change in the angle of attack to get the flow to reattach #his was a characteristic of the t)"e of slots that he used #he good news was, of course that it hel"ed the stall #he ne't thing on his agenda was adverse )aw /s most sail"lane "ilots know this is the effect )ou get when in"utting a roll to right and having the nose move towards the left $ecause of the aileron%s deflection Dorten had "ostulated that if )ou use a $ell sha"ed lift distri$ution )ou wouldn%t have this "ro$lem, and this has $een "roven to $e the case #his is $ecause the ti"s are loaded down so )ou end u" with a little $it of "ro<verse )aw /nother solution is to "ut verticals on the surface, $ut now )ou have additional "rofile drag from the surface and interference drag from the corners and +oints /nother thing )ou can encounter is control force reversal 8orthro" overcame this "ro$lem $) using a h)draulic control s)stem Dorten never seemed to have this "ro$lem throughout his designs, $ut /l didn%t have an answer as to wh) this was the case Dorten had o$viousl) found something that worked, $ut a""arentl) it%s not discussed or defined in his works De now moved on to trim, which will also have an effect on the drag "olar "erformance Dere he was working from information in 1arl 8ickel%s $ook 0f )ou have a sta$le air"lane, such as a fl)ing "lank, when )ou deflect the elevator down the drag "olar goes u" along with the lift coefficient, e'ce"t )ou are trimming the nose down #hese reactions are one of the reasons fl)ing wings have "erformance "ro$lems 4ou can have a unsta$le aircraft that can $e made to "erform in the $etter "art of the "olar $) using an artificial control s)stem (active flight controls) 0lan 1roo has done this with an ,G model that was 82 unsta$le, $ut one of the other "ro$lems he encountered was getting actuators that were fast enough 3ne of the advantages of this t)"e of control s)stem is that )ou can make the lift distri$ution what )ou want it $e through control surface movements unavaila$le with a manual control s)stem 8ow he moved into the area of structures =hat can )ou $uild versus what to do )ou want aerod)namicall) 0deall), in order to carr) the load, )ou want something that has a thick center section and thin ti"s #his has adverse affects aerod)namicall) on airfoil thickness and chord and the stall comes sooner due to the thin ti"s #a"er ratio is one method for hel"ing solve this "ro$lem and 8ickel and =ohlfarht favor a low ta"er design since )ou can get ver) close to an elli"tical s"anload distri$ution 3$viousl) Dorten favored the high ta"er ratio, $ut this has it "ro$lems with ti" stall that need to $e overcome in some other fashion /n elli"tical "lanform is another wa) of controlling the ta"er ratio 0deall) )ou want to $uild a s"anloader where the local lift distri$ution carries the load as much as "ossi$le, in other words, "ut the load where the lift is #he Dortens understood this conce"t when the) $uilt some cargo carr)ing gliders where the ammunition storage $a)s were evenl) distri$uted across the

s"an 0t ended u" fl)ing at nearl) three times its gross weight due to this distri$ution method 3nce )ou have )our s"anloader, the ne't issue $ecomes one of the s"ar thickness ratio #here is some evidence that )ou can get energ) e'traction from a ver) fle'i$le s"ar, fle'i$le in $ending not torsion, when "assing through gusts #hen )ou have the controvers) $etween monoco?ue or s"ace frame construction and whether or not the skin or the s"ar carries the load Location of the fore and aft s"ars are also a function of the aerod)namic design and can create a com"romise $etween low or high as"ect ratio wings de"ending on where the "ilot is located in relation to the s"ars 8ow it is all coming together, $ut it is also where the headaches $egin, "erformance 4ou have to "ick a s"anloader, elli"tical or $ell, $ut most "eo"le don%t think a$out "icking one or the other since the) "ro$a$l) alread) have one in mind $efore starting their "ro+ect 0f )ou use elli"tical then )ou use ta"er and twist at )our design "oints to control the s"anloading #his elli"tical s"anloading causes adverse )aw in roll, $ecause )ou have a fairl) large load out at the ti" as soon as )ou deflect the aileron to lift the wing 0t increases the s"anload locall), increasing the induced drag and )ou end u" going the wrong wa) #he first thought is to "ut verticals like winglets which can $e good things, some of the time 3f course )ou now have the "rofile, induced and interference drag mentioned earlier and )ou cannot control the angle of the winglet other than the toe<in #his toe<in angle corres"onds to a certain s"anload and lift coefficient, and this should coincide with the ta"er and twist design "oints For sail"lanes this $ecomes more difficult since the) o"erate over a wide s"eed range throughout the flight, versus something like a "assenger +et that has them set for o"timum "erformance at cruise where the s"end most of there time /l felt that Dorten, with his $ell sha"ed s"anloader, was willing to suffer some of the induced drag to "revent adverse )aw without having vertical surfaces, a design com"romise 9hiloso"hicall), he $elieved the Dorten sat down and figured this would $e more advantageous than having verticals =hen Dorten received his 9h > , his teacher was Ludwig 9randtl who came u" with the elli"tical s"anload distri$ution, )et Dorten threw out the idea and "roceeded with his own design theories 3ne of the things /l felt didn%t ha""en during the earl) )ears of fl)ing wing develo"ment was a cross< fertili&ation of ideas $etween the various designers #here wasn%t a great deal of discussion $etween the designers, and this was "artl) due to the large distances se"arating them and the lack of ?uick trans"ortation #here are com"romises to $e made and the designer has to understand this right from the start For instance, 8orthro" used linear twist at certain design "oints and straight lined ever)thing in<$etween which was ver) sim"le and eas) De used a s)mmetrical airfoil which caused most of his trim "ro$lems, $ut it was laminar flow with &ero "itching moment at &ero lift #here was another issue on the 8orthro" designs concerning "ower"lant sta$ilit) #he "ro"ellers on the EA<@( were a sta$ili&ing influence on the design since the) were aft of the center of gravit) 3n the other hand, the +et engine intakes in the leading edge of the 4A <79 caused a $ending of the airflow forward of the GH and created a desta$ili&ing influence #herefore, 8orthro" had to "ut the vertical tails on the 4A<79 to hel" recover some of the directional sta$ilit) ;ome "eo"le said the verticals were to re"lace the lost area of the "ro"eller shaft housings, $ut /l indicated the verticals contained significantl) more area then what was lost from the nacelles /l felt that John 8orthro" full) understood the conce"t of s"anloading since he located $om$ $a)s along the wing out to the aileron $reaks De also "ut some heav) electric gun turrets far out on the wing De used a monoco?ue stressed skinned construction which was a $eautiful design 0n contrast, the later model Dorten designs with their $ell sha"e lift distri$ution were giving awa) "erformance and drag, $ut had minimal adverse )aw #he ?uestion is whether or not this was a good com"romise, and Dorten thought it was since he wouldn%t have to use verticals Dere is where /l

wished Dorten and 8orthro" could have gotten together and discussed airfoils Dorten didn%t have access to the same t)"e of airfoils as 8orthro", and therefore use Hoettingen models which were not anal)ticall) designed like the 8orthro" laminar flow sections Dorten did tr) to use a 9<(1 laminar flow airfoil on the D 0C$ which su$se?uentl) s"un and crashed killing the "ilot #he *ustang airfoil was designed for higher s"eeds and ,e)nolds num$ers than a sail"lane, therefore, were not com"ati$le #his e'"erience turned Dorten off to laminar airfoils for the rest of his career, mainl) $ecause he didn%t understand how the) worked Dad he $een a$le to sit down with 8orthro", it might have $een a different stor) Dorten, in turn, might have $een a$le to hel" 8orthro" with flight control selection and configuration, $oth designers there$) $enefiting from the e'change /l went on to talk a$out the ;A<1@ /lthough it "erforms well, he noted it had some handling "ro$lems #he) used an o"timum modified elli"tical s"an at their design "oint since the) included winglets 0t had low ta"er with twist for s"anload control of the lift distri$ution #he winglets also used rudders which hel"ed in modif)ing the design "oint and used a large radius in designing the +oining "oint to minimi&e interference drag /lthough the control mechanisms are ver) com"licated, the) allow for ver) good control surface selection to o"timi&e "erformance 0n order to overcome an) flutter "ro$lems the) $uilt u" a unidirectional, monolithic car$on fi$er s"ar (one "iece) #his controlled the $ending moment and then the) used cross<"l)s in the skin to "rovide the necessar) torsional stiffness #he results of all this stiffness to control "ossi$le flutter gave them an overstrength s"ar that tested at 1L ( Hs without failure

/t this "oint /l talked a little $it a$out the $lended wing $od) aircraft "ro+ect started $) 8/;/ Langle) a few )ears ago #his is sort of how /l got interested in fl)ing wings and s"anloader aircraft De covered the "ro$lem of how $ig the s"an has to $e in order to have sufficient airfoil de"th and chord to handle u" to 800 "assengers 3ne wa) >ouglas overcame the "ro$lem was to have a large center section that ta"ered ?uickl) to winglet ti"s /s he e'"lained earlier this t)"e of design leads to ti" stalls, $ut in this case the use of active flight control s)stems would $e a$le to overcome the "ro$lem 3ne of the unusual things a$out >ouglas% design conce"t was the use of $oundar) la)er control to "rovide the engine air 0n this wa) almost the whole wing%s surface $ecomes an engine inlet (sucking air through a "erforated skin) while at the same time maintaining the laminar la)er over a larger "ortion of the wing De mentioned the "ro$lem of air"ort infrastructure and its im"act on the design considerations since the "assenger gate s)stems can onl) handle aircraft with a limited amount of s"an #hen there is "assenger acce"tance if )ou tr) something like folding the wings to kee" the s"an within the desired gate limitations 0lan 1roo at ;tanford has $een involved in the "ro+ect and $uilt two

different ,G models for testing, one of which is a$out 2@% in s"an and will $e instrumented for future testing 3ne of the $igger "ro$lems that ma) need to $e overcome is the "ressuri&ation c)cling and, how long a structure that is not a tu$e will last #he thing that /l wanted us to get from this "resentation was that )ou%ve got integrated s)stems and ever)thing is a com"romise 0t could $e $oundar) la)er control instead of engine inlets, or what )ou do for s"anloading 3"timal "erformance is not alwa)s "ossi$le, and "erha"s not alwa)s desira$le, and sometimes )ou have to com"romise on sta$ilit) or the control s)stem For control s)stems, he felt the Dorten designs offered some of the $est com$inations and that Dorten reall) knew what he was doing in this res"ect N"on com"leting the formal "art of the "resentation, he showed some color slides of com"uter aided "ictures of "ressure distri$ution, skin friction coefficient and laminar flow on several different t)"es of fl)ing wings, like the 89<* and Dorten 0C (S2() which showed the middle effect mentioned earlier (see note $elow) De also showed some slides of what is ha""ening in /rgentina at this time in tr)ing to restore the Dorten D 0Cc Nru$u, and a few historical shots of Dorten%s work while in /rgentina ((ote) This section was titled "*istorical +lyin! #in! ,ircraft ,nalysis -sin! the ./,01& 2anel Method" by 3a$id Lednicer. /lides for the (4'M and *orten I. included pressure isobars and skin friction coefficient distribution in color and a wake roll up slide for the *orten. Graphs included those for) semispan fraction (win! twist)5 6 mean aerodynamic chord5 lift coefficient5 semispan fraction (circulation distribution) and5 induced dra! coefficient.)

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