Islamophobia and racism According to the view that became hegemonic in central European countries, modernity is related to the

Enlightenment, the French Revolution, liberal ideas, and the development of human rights. Such Eurocentred view, however, obscures the coloniality side that has been associated to modernity from the beginning. In what has been traditionally called “the est!, modernity is the geopolitical opening of Europe to the Atlantic , but it is also the moment when the “invention! or “invasion! of America ta"es place, simultaneously to the expulsion of the “Moors“ and #ews from the Iberian $eninsula and the beginning of the Indian genocide. In times of “endless war on terror! and the standardisation of structural ad%ustments, associated to new forms of colonialism in Asia, it would be an irony, to say the least, to recognise a re&emergence of those two foundational issues of modernity under today's cloa" of reinvigorating Indian peoples' struggle and Islam as counter&hegemonic actors. hile that implies recognising the possibility of “other! or “alternative modernities! (other narratives), thus widening that Eurocentric “monoculture of the mind!, it is necessary to verify how much racism, colonialism, and patriarchalism are embedded into this “modern! version. Islamophobia, that is, aversion, discrimination, or pre%udice towards Islam and Islamic people, in its several hues, is an opportunity to underscore obscure points in that tra%ectory.

First, because it poses the need to rethin" “ estern! and “Eastern! views. *rientalism is, in its origin, the ac"nowledgement of an epistemic privilege of the est, seen as developed, rational, and human, opposed to the East, aberrant, inferior, underdeveloped and despotic. A privilege resulting from ma%or blindness+ for over seven centuries, today's Europe was a mostly Islamic region of high intercultural socialisation. At the roots of the Renaissance, ,ree" and Roman sources were accessible only through -uslim.Arab languages. /he original blindness, therefore, was an “imperial! difference.

Second, because it forgets the large process of colonisation carried out by European countries in the 01th century, where the division of Asia and Africa, “hygienisation! as a process to develop medicine, and e2ploitation of bodies and natural resources were the other side of the development of race notions 3 then biological 3 as an assertion of superiority by a colonising Europe. It was the “wind! of development and emancipation coming to “barbarian! areas. A “colonial! difference e2posed, nowadays, with the arrival of Islamic communities coming from former colonies+ no wonder colonial legislation from the time of the Algerian ar has been used to counter unrest in France's banlieus in 4556.

/hird, because subtle racism has been mas"ed by the process of “secularisation!. *ther cultures should therefore assimilate the standard seen as “universal! in the public space, even though autochthonous spaces were preserved “in private!. In such terms, colonisation is also stabilisation of religion in private as a way to stabilise, through it, oppressions and fears in the private space. /hat process of “colonialism! is visible when,

because the concept of racism has been changing its biological configuration and assuming a comprehensive view that also reconciles etymological. epistemological. but at the same time it obscures the fact that nations have always been plural. /he emergence of the “European <nion! is a regrouping of distinct national identities. Europe has always been . 6th. or constitutes racism. as a result of which cultural diversity was generating processes of homogenisation. because the creation of the 7ation&State was based on the formula *ne State : *ne 7ation : *ne . and. sociological. after the feminist. spreads. considering that =ra8il's .ourt's interpretation when it understood that racism. on Sept. /hat “racism! aimed only at s"in colour and referred to “blac"s! too" on distinct connotations. And women's oppression is once again sent to the “private realm!. gay. that implies. national or ethnic ancestry or origin. distinct tra%ectories in the struggle for human dignity are ignored. 455C). It was the State that thought itself “monocultural! (and often also mono&religious). and 9ueer movements themselves presented in Europe proposals to publicise demands. colour.onference underscored such concerns and commitments at the international level when it ac"nowledged that “slavery and the slave trade! were “appalling tragedies in the history of humanity!. ?4.hristian.onstitution “repudiates racism! internationally th (Art. and anthropological concepts. racial discrimination. /he Durban . or attitude that encourages. one the one hand. including islamophobia (e2plicitly mentioning the issue of castes in India). Section EIII) and provides that it is criminally non&bailable and imprescriptible (Art. anti&Semitism and islamophobia are e2amples (>. ethnocide. And it e2tended protection to contemporary forms. @ . and stabilisation seen as eternal. creed. of which 2enophobia. there is not an Islam to put European identity at ris". in the country's legal order. -in. 2enophobia and related intolerance! (Items 04 and 0C of the Declaration). at the same time as it sustained that “colonialism has led to racism. a specific and historical form of “feminism! is stressed. the need 3 in negative terms 3 to prevent any conduct. the latter even prevailed for a longer period). but also Islamic (historically. religious e2pressions are to remain “private! (that is. /herefore. the issue of islamophobia poses conceptual.@4@. /herefore.ulture. Second. Fourth. hat surfaces is precisely the e2istence of a European Islam 3 as European as . =uddhist. one the other hand 3 in positive terms 3 ta"ing relevant and possible measures to eradicate such practice. hen new racisms or “racisms with a new face! are discussed.RS. First. and religious emancipatory possibilities are demonised (forgetting that the tragedies of 7a8ism and Fascism were e2pressed in secular terms and came from that same Europe). =ut it also implies recognising that social differences and . Section FGII). practice.hristianity 3 and a multiculturalism that in fact used to be too assimilationist and monocultural. 0B. animistic. /hat was =ra8il's Supreme Federal .under the prete2t of preserving “laicity! (in the cases of /ur"ey and France). and political practice challenges in =ra8il's conte2t. ethnological.orrAa. includes any distinctions “regarding restrictions of race. de&politicising female emancipation is the other side of colonising emancipatory struggles under the secular standard of human rights). inspired by the alleged superiority of one people over another!. -auricio .

there would not be “origin&based pre%udice! (the “blood drop! and segregation pattern).e. where most -uslims are $alestinians (who came after the creation of the State of Israel) or Syrian or Gebanese who came after the First orld ar and were associated in the national imagery to “/ur"s! (because of the *ttoman Empire).Argentina) reinforces the stereotypes of criminal organisation and terrorism. i. /hus. . *rientalist (according to the “us&and&the&rest&of&the&world! view and Afghan women's “salvationism!). a double process of subordination. because those specific mar"s ma"e it harder to struggle against islamophobia. 7ot ma"ing it an issue was seen as a proof of non&e2istence. *racy 7ogueira pointed out the distinction of pre%udices compared to the <nited States+ in =ra8il. It is not about %ust occasional specific racial discrimination (which could be a hypothesis in the cases of -aghrebian or “. that is. archaic religion. but rather a “brand&based pre%udice!. Rio de #aneiro. $arana. /hird.. =ra8il was able to go from overt racial discrimination of blac"s in the slavery period to a nation pro%ect based on “whitening! as a form of European modernisation to. %ust as the %ihad becomes “wholly war! and Islam is a “bac"wards! or “pre&modern! religious. according to him. there will be distinct anti&racism struggles and therefore actions are always conte2t&oriented.rande do Sul) invisibility by social scientists also implies the lac" of awareness of the most serious cases of Islamophobia. and the south of Rio . boasting to have a “racial democracy! (which preserved discrimination structures without ma"ing them visible). ta"ing =ra8il as an e2ample. It is characterised by “social mar"s!+ the veil or "erchief in its distinct forms associated the image of Islamic (and therefore. the e2istence of a -uslim community in the so&called triple border (=ra8il. in the following years (and until the 01?5s). an “internal colonialism! would be a different ingredient for subordinations). for distinct racisms. religious (a non&modern.olonialism probably plays a distinct role to be carefully e2amined in future investigations+ the connotation of Islamophobia in Europe is distinct (the idea of “invasion! by Islamic communities within metropolises) from the one that might occur in societies that have been colonised (that is. /herefore. a “concern! often pointed out by the <SA to =ra8ilian authorities. submissive) womenH a beard or a turban (although it might be Si"h)H induces a connotation of -uslim. associated to certain social configurations and representations. /he very uprising of Islamised blac"s in the 01 th century in the state of =ahia (“the so&called <prising of the -alAs!) was ignored for a long time. which by and large lac"s better studies on its Islam. . In =ra8il.hierarchies are constituted differently in distinct conte2ts and might ac9uire new meanings along history. In =ra8il. as opposed to the secular and lay standard of modern societies). Fourth. and whose population is concentrated in areas of strong European immigration (the largest communities are in the states of Sao $aulo.erman blac"! communities). but also ethnic discrimination (association with Arabs and “their! social signs). fanatic. for instance. and a non&racialist discourse was synonymous with absence of racism.$araguay. terrorist. Islamophobia seems to be associated to that "id of discriminatory pattern. And here a distinction should be made regarding other racisms+ the presence of the gender issue. dangerous. because that implies realising that.

-ay that remind us that the struggle against racisms is also a painful ritual.hief of *ffice at =ra8il's @ th Regional Federal . $erhaps struggles against Islamophobia deserve that we e2ercise our “sociological imagination! in a different approach. namely. >ence the answer to the 9uestion 3 ould -uslims be an ethnic.RS). which can only be gauged in conte2t.ourt. . . according to distinct environments 3 universality. according the specific situation.Jsar Augusto =aldi holds a -aster's Degree in Gaw (<G=RA. "inship 3 be made absolutely invisible. in the cosmology of the “SaterA -auJ!. =ut it has to start. it would be pertinent to remind that. >e is a doctoral candidate at the $ablo *lavide <niversity (Spain) an wor"s as . And with distinct answers. according to the country and even within one country. Renovar. 455@). family. in the =ra8ilian states of $arK and Ama8onas. /hese seem to be the relevant remar"s from a distinct racial conte2t. youth will put their hands inside a fibre glove with ants that then sting them (“waumat!). where racism is often so subtle that it might live side by side with anti&racism appearances and. Islam and Indians were partially involved./hat range of discriminations of different hues. hile in the constitution of modernity. >e is also the editor of “Direitos humanos na sociedade cosmopolita! (Ed. according to the perspective of “coloniality! (at least when it comes to “America!). or religious minorityI 3 includes several issues to be solved. racial. might be precisely what now characterises the forms ta"en by Islamophobia. =ra8il.

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