UNIT 1
GRAMMAR
1.-PERSONAL PRONOUNS (PRONOMBRES PERSONALES)
SINGULAR English 1st 2nd 3rd I you he/ she/ it yo tú/ usted él/ ella/ *ello TO BE (‘ser; estar’) Simple present / Negative form English Spanish Spanish 1st S I am not I'm not (yo) no soy (yo) no estoy (tú) no eres; (tú) no estás (usted) no es; (usted) no está

you are not 2nd S you aren’t 3rd S

PLURAL English 1st 2nd 3rd we you they

he/ she/ it is not (él/ ella/ *ello) no es he/ she/ it isn’t (él/ ella/ *ello) no está we are not we aren’t (nosotros/ as) no somos (nosotros/ as) no estamos (vosotros/ as) no sois (vosotros/ as) no estáis (ustedes) no son (ustedes) no están (ellos/ as) no son (ellos/ as) no están

Spanish nosotros/ as vosotros/ as ustedes ellos/ as

1st P

Nótese que en inglés, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en español, hay tres géneros (masculino, femenino y neutro) para el pronombre personal de tercera persona del singular. La traducción que ofrecemos para el pronombre personal neutro de tercera persona del singular (“it”) es “*ello”. 2.-THE VERB “TO BE” (EL VERBO “TO BE”)
TO BE (‘ser; estar’) Simple present / Affirmative form English Spanish 1st S I am I'm (yo) soy (yo) estoy (tú) eres; (tú) estás (usted) es; (usted) está (él/ ella/ *ello) es (él/ ella/ *ello) está (nosotros/ as) somos (nosotros/ as) estamos (vosotros/ as) sois (vosotros/ as) estáis (ustedes) son (ustedes) están (ellos/ as) son (ellos/ as) están

you are not 2nd P you aren’t

3rd P

they are not they aren’t

1

TO BE (‘ser; estar’) Simple present / Question form English Spanish 1st S am I? ¿soy (yo)? ¿estoy (yo)? ¿eres (tú)?; ¿estás (tú)? ¿es (usted)?; ¿está (usted)? ¿es (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿está (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿somos (nosotros/ as)? ¿estamos (nosotros/ as)? ¿sois (vosotros/ as)? ¿estáis (vosotros/ as)? ¿son (ustedes)? ¿están (ustedes)? ¿son (ellos/ as)? ¿están (ellos/ as)?

2nd S are you? 3rd S 1st P is he/ she/ it? are we?

you are 2nd S you're 3rd S 1st P he/ she/ it is he's/ she's/ it's we are we're

2nd P are you?

you are 2nd P you're

3rd P

are they?

3rd P

they are they're

A diferencia de lo que ocurre en español, todas las formas verbales en inglés han de estar acompañadas por un sujeto explícito, ya sea un pronombre personal (“I”, “you”, etc.) o uno o varios sustantivos (“John”, “Paul and Ane”, etc.)
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DAILY
1.-GREETINGS (SALUDOS)

SPEAKING

Hello! My name’s Isabel. What’s your name?

My name’s Nuria

Isabel:
Isabel:

Hello! My name’s Isabel. What’s your name? ¡Hola! Me llamo Isabel. ¿Cómo te llamas? My name’s Nuria. Me llamo Nuria. How old are you? ¿Cuántos años tienes? I’m thirty-six years old. And you? Tengo treinta y seis años. ¿Y tú? I’m thirty-nine. Tengo treinta y nueve. Hi! ¡Hola! Hi! How are you? ¡Hola! ¿Cómo estás? Fine, thank you. And you? Bien, gracias. ¿Y tú? Fine, thanks. Bien, gracias.

Nuria: Nuria: Isabel: Isabel:

1

Nuria: Nuria: Isabel: Isabel: Alicia: Alicia. Isabel: Isabel: Alicia: Alicia: Isabel: Isabel:

How old are you? I’m thirty-nine

I’m thirty-six years old. And you?

Hi!
Hi! How are you? Fine, thank you. And you? Fine, thanks

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CIVILIAN
1.-CARDINAL NUMBERS I (1-30) (NÚMEROS CARDINALES I [1-30])
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

VOCABULARY

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four twenty-five twenty-six twenty-seven twenty-eight twenty-nine thirty

Examples:
English I have three cars. George is twenty-six years old. My brother spent eight days in London. Tengo tres coches. George tiene veintiséis años. Mi hermano estuvo ocho días en Londres. Spanish

1

2.-ORDINAL NUMBERS I (1st-5th) (NÚMEROS ORDINALES I [1º-5º])

English 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th first second third fourth fifth

Spanish primero/ a/ os/ as segundo/ a/ os/ as tercero/ a/ os/ as cuarto/ a/ os/ as quinto/ a/ os/ as

Examples:
English The Fourth of July is the American Independence Day. The second day of the week is Tuesday. His first last name is Pérez. Spanish El cuatro de julio es el Día de la Independencia estadounidense. El segundo día de la semana es martes. Su primer apellido es Pérez.

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C. Sergeant Staff Sergeant Warrant Officer Sergeant Major officers Second First Captain Lieutenant Lieutenant Major Lieutenant Colonel Colonel generals Brigadier 2.. He is twenty-four years old and she is twenty-three years old.DESCRIPTION OF MIGUEL AND TERESA (DESCRIPCIÓN DE MIGUEL Y TERESA) Miguel and Teresa are a couple.READING COMPREHENSION 2.-RANKS (EMPLEOS MILITARES) TERMS 1 all rank and file Private Corporal Full Corporal Corporal Major N. He is a biologist and she is an economist. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) How old is Miguel? 2) What are they? 3) What is her telephone number? 1.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. they live at 13 Telephone Road.O.O. tropa suboficiales -12Spanish recluta temporary officer conscript soldier professional soldier generals Spanish oficial de complemento soldado de reemplazo soldado profesional oficiales generales Major General Three Star General Four Star General Five Star General . They are students. They are in Granada. This is the first time they live together.C. His telephone number is 4-8-6-7-1-5 and her telephone number is 7-6-9-1-6-4.-VARIOUS (VARIOS) English English recruit all rank and file N. MILITARY 1. Miguel is a sportsman but she is not.

destinado a la Compañía de Fusiles. I _____ _____ a soldier. How old _____ you? f) _____ _____ nineteen _____ old. -13- a) Are you a student? b) _____ she Patricia? c) _____ they Spanish? d) _____ I nice? e) _____ we friends? 3) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD. Mi Brigada. mi Brigada? Staff Sergeant: Yes. why did you join the Army? Second Rifle Platoon. I am not a _____. first Squad. it _____. a) Are you a student? b) No. soy el Soldado Juan Ramírez Martínez. a) Hello. What is _____ name? d) _____ _____ _____ Hellen. Sir? Soldado: Yes. come in This is the Private Juan Ramírez Martínez. I _____ Charles. . What is your name? b) My _____ is Patricia. This is the Private Juan Ramírez Martínez. g) Are you a soldier? h) No. 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE CORRECT FORM OF THE VERB “TO BE”. primer Pelotón. My name is Cristina. Segunda Sección de Fusiles.MILITARY CONVERSATION Private: Soldado: May I come in. come in. Brigada: Sí. g) _____ old are _____? h) I am _____ years _____? i) What is your telephone number? j) My _____ number is 5-6-2-8-4-5. first Squad Staff Sergeant: What’s your post given to you by the Sergeant? Brigada: ¿Cuál es el encuadramiento que te ha dado el Sargento? Private: Soldado: Second Rifle Platoon. you _____. why did you join the Army? Brigada: De acuerdo. Staff Sergeant: OK. Sir What’s your post given to you by the Sergeant? OK. e) _____ I your friend? f) Yes. Sir? ¿Puedo entrar. c) Hello. assigned to this Rifle Company. assigned to this Rifle Company. k) Is your telephone _____ 5-6-2-8-4-5 l) Yes. Sir. Porque siempre me ha gustado este tipo de vida y me encanta servir a mi patria en el Ejército. Private: May I come in. entre. Because I always liked this kind of life and I love serving my country in the Army 1 EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE CORRECT WORD. ¿por qué entró en el Ejército? Private: Soldado: Because I always liked this kind of life and I love serving my country in the Army. they are. e) I am twenty-two years old. c) Are they Paul and Mary? d) _____.

f) ______________________________. a) What is your name? a) What's your name? b) My name is Michael. c) What is your telephone number? c) ______________________________? d) My telephone number is 4-5-6-3-7-5. d) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. f) She is twenty-four years old. e) I am thirty years old. a) six + ten a) Sixteen b) five + nine b) __________________ g) 25 1 g) h) 3 h) __________________ __________________ c) one + three c) __________________ d) thirteen + nine d) __________________ e) two + eight e) __________________ f) three + three f) __________________ g) four + ten g) __________________ h) eleven + twelve h) __________________ i) twenty + ten i) __________________ j) twenty-four + one j) __________________ -14- 5) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING CONTRACTIONS.4) REWRITE a) 14 THE FOLLOWING CARDINAL NUMBERS BY USING WORDS. e) ______________________________. . a) Fourteen b) 30 b) __________________ __________________ c) 28 c) __________________ c) 3rd c) __________________ d) 16 d) __________________ d) 4th d) __________________ e) 13 e) __________________ e) 5th e) f) 11 f) __________________ __________________ 7) HOW MUCH DO THESE COUPLES OF NUMBERS ADD UP? WRITE THE SOLUTIONS WITH THE CORRECT WORD. 6) REWRITE a) 1st a) First b) 2nd b) THE FOLLOWING ORDINAL NUMBERS BY USING WORDS.

English terms 1) Recruit 2) First Lieutenant 3) Conscript 4) Non-commissioned officer 5) Staff Sergeant 6) Full Corporal 7) Brigadier 8) Colonel Spanish terms a) General de Brigada b) Teniente c) Cabo Primero d) Coronel e) Recluta f) Suboficial g) Soldado de reemplazo h) Sargento Primero/ Brigada 9) PUT a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) THE RANKS IN THE RIGHT DECREASING ORDER. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ 1 ____________ Three Star General Lieutenant Colonel Warrant Officer Corporal Sergeant Major General Second Lieutenant Captain Five Star General Private 1 -15- .8) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H).

y a continuación el objeto poseído sin artículo. del femenino y del neutro singular es "a". There is a student. (Él) tiene una pregunta. 2. como ocurre en español. se omite aunque se conserva el apóstrofo : a) Si el poseedor es un sustantivo en plural acabado en "s": English these girls' mother Spanish la madre de estas niñas El artículo indefinido no tiene plural. Cuando se usa el genitivo sajón. ¿Hay alguna pregunta? No tengo ninguna pregunta. Examples: Se forma añadiendo al nombre del poseedor una "s" precedida de un apóstrofo. el singular y el plural: En inglés para expresar posesión o pertenencia se puede emplear el genitivo sajón.1. Is there any question? I don't have any question. la forma "some" para oraciones afirmativas y "any" para oraciones negativas e interrogativas: Examples: English I have some questions. pero se cambia por "an" delante de "h" muda y de vocal cuyo sonido no sea [ju:]: Examples: English a girl a boy a dog an arm an hour a human being Spanish una chica un chico un perro un brazo una hora un ser humano English the mother of the girl la madre de la niña the girl's mother the hats of these men los sombreros de estos hombres these men's hats Spanish 2 La "s" del genitivo. Hay un estudiante.-POSSESSION (POSESIÓN) El artículo determinado "the" es invariable. y en su lugar se usan adjetivos indefinidos. Jesús’ friend el amigo de Jesús -17- . en los siguientes casos.-SAXON GENITIVE esta única forma se usa para el masculino. Spanish Tengo algunas preguntas. el orden de las palabras en the boy el chico la oración se altera y se coloca el poseedor en the girls las chicas primer lugar seguido del apóstrofo y la "s". these boys' pens los bolígrafos de estos niños b) Si el poseedor es un sustantivo singular acabado en "s": English Moses’ law Spanish la ley de Moisés There are some students. el (GENITIVO SAJÓN) femenino. the boys los chicos Examples: El artículo indefinido para las formas del masculino.-ARTICLES (ARTÍCULOS) 2.UNIT 2 GRAMMAR 1. He has a question. Hay algunos estudiantes. Para expresar English Spanish posesión también puede utilizarse la preposición the girl la chica "of" (‘de’).

hers. sustantivos que denotan persona. indistintamente del del genitivo: género y número del objeto poseído: Examples: English Bess's table Spanish la mesa de Bess her houses sus casas (de ella) su casa (de ellos/ as) sus casas (de ellos/ as) nuestro coche nuestras manzanas their house their houses our car Spanish el gato de Mary el libro de mi hermana el rabo del perro SINGULAR English 1st 2nd Spanish el coche de mi cuñada la casa de Mary y Peter English 3rd his. its suyo/ a/ os/ as mine yours Spanish mío/ a/ os/ as tuyo/ a/ os/ as suyo/ a/ os/ as (de usted) our apples Examples: English her house Spanish su casa (de ella) El genitivo sajón se emplea con nombres propios. The tables are hers. el genitivo se forma con el último sustantivo: Examples: 2 English my sister-in-law's car Mary and Peter's house PLURAL Spanish nuestro/ a/ os/ as vuestro/ a/ os/ as suyo/ a/ os/ as (de ustedes) suyo/ a/ os/ as 2.: Examples: English Mary's cat my sister's book the dog's tail 2. indistintamente del género y número del objeto poseído: Examples: English Spanish Este coche es mío. si el poseedor es un sustantivo Nótese que el adjetivo posesivo en inglés monosílabo terminado en "s". PLURAL English 1st 2nd 3rd our your their Spanish nuestro/ a/ os/ as vuestro/ a/ os/ as su/ sus (de ustedes) su/ sus This car is mine.3. -18- .Sin embargo. El gato es suyo (de ella). These oranges are mine. The cat is hers.-POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES (ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS) SINGULAR English 1st 2nd 3rd my your his. Las mesas son suyas (de ella). se conserva la "s" concuerda con el poseedor.-POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS (PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS) Si el poseedor es un sustantivo compuesto o bien son varios poseedores. sustantivos que denotan seres animados. her. its mi tu/ su (de usted) su/ sus Spanish 1st 2nd 3rd ours yours theirs Nótese que el pronombre posesivo en inglés concuerda con el poseedor. Estas naranjas son mías. etc.2.

-REGULAR PLURALS (PLURALES REGULARES) El plural de los nombres en inglés se forma añadiendo una "s" al singular: Examples: English Spanish plato/ platos tejado/ tejados 2 TO HAVE (‘tener’) Simple present / Negative form English Spanish 1st S I have not I haven’t (yo) no tengo you have not 2nd S you haven’t (tú) no tienes (usted) no tiene plate/ plates roof/ roofs 3rd S he /she /it has not he /she /it hasn’t (él/ ella/ *ello) no tiene 1st P we have not we haven’t Los nombres que terminan en "s".-THE VERB “TO HAVE” (EL VERBO “TO HAVE”) TO HAVE (‘tener’) Simple present / Affirmative form English Spanish 1st S I have (yo) tengo TO HAVE (‘tener’) Simple present / Question form English Spanish 1st S have I? ¿tengo yo? 2nd S have you? (tú) tienes (usted) tiene ¿(tú) tienes? ¿(usted) tiene? 2nd S you have 3rd S has he/ she/ it? ¿tiene (él/ ella/ *ello)? 3rd S he /she /it has (él/ ella/ *ello) tiene 1st P have we? ¿tenemos (nosotros/ as)? 1st P we have (nosotros/ as) tenemos 2nd P have you ? (vosotros/ as) tenéis (ustedes) tienen ¿tenéis (vosotros/ as)? ¿tienen (ustedes)? 2nd P you have 3rd P have they? ¿tienen (ellos/ as)? 3rd P they have (ellos/ as) tienen 4. "ss". "x" o "z" forman el plural añadiendo la sílaba "es": (nosotros/ as) no tenemos Examples: English Spanish clase/ clases caja/ cajas reloj/ relojes (vosotros/ as) no tenéis (ustedes) no tienen you have not 2nd P you haven’t class/ classes box/ boxes 3rd P they have not they haven’t (ellos/ as) no tienen watch/ watches -19- .3.1. "sh".-PLURALS (PLURALES) 4.

Sin embargo.-IRREGULAR PLURALS consonante también forman el plural añadiendo (PLURALES IRREGULARES) la sílaba "es". Cuando la "y" está precedida por vocal al para formar el plural simplemente hay que añadir "s": Examples: English sky/ skies body/ bodies boy/ boys day/ days Spanish Hay nombres que siempre se emplean en plural: Examples: English trousers Spanish pantalones sweets cielo/ cielo cuerpo/ cuerpos niño/ niños scissors día/ días caramelos thanks gracias tijeras -20- .Los nombres terminados en "o" precedida de 4. si la "o" está precedida por una vocal forman el plural Existen algunos nombres en inglés cuyo añadiendo solamente "s": plural es irregular: Examples: English potato/ potatoes Spanish patata/ patatas Examples: English ox/ oxen Spanish buey/ bueyes hero/ heroes héroe/ héroes child/ children niño/ niños duo/ duos dúo/ dúos man/ men hombre/ hombres Algunos nombres de origen sajón terminados en "f" o en "fe" cambian la "f" en "v" antes de añadir la terminación "es": Examples: woman/ women mujer/ mujeres tooth/ teeth diente/ dientes foot/ feet pie/ pies 2 English calf/ calves Spanish ternera/ terneras mouse/ mice ratón/ ratones elf/ elves duende/ duendes goose/ geese ganso/ gansos leaf/ leaves hoja/ hojas person/ people persona/ personas Los nombres terminados en "y" precedida de consonante al formar el plural cambian aquélla en "i" antes de añadir la terminación "es".2.

this is my friend Miguel Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Nice to meet you Miguel: Miguel: 2 CIVILIAN 1.DAILY 1. Miguel! Nuria. Miguel! ¡Hola. Nuria: Nuria: Hi. Encantado de conocerte. Nuria. ¡¡Buenas tardes!! Es la una de la tarde.-INTRODUCTIONS (PRESENTACIONES) SPEAKING Good afternoon!! It's one o'clock Alicia: Alicia: Good morning! Good morning! ¡Buenos días! Good afternoon!! It’s one o’clock. Miguel! Nice to meet you. Hi. Nuria. this is my friend Miguel. éste es mi amigo Miguel.-COLOURS (COLORES) VOCABULARY English Spanish English Spanish black white red blue yellow negro blanco rojo green pink purple grey verde rosa violeta gris naranja marrón azul orange amarillo brown -21- .

-ORDINAL NUMBERS II (6th-25th) de aparecer junto con adjetivos que denoten su (NÚMEROS ORDINALES II [6º-25º]) luminosidad (un color claro.-DESCRIPTION (DESCRIPCIÓN) COMPREHENSION 2. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) How old is Pedro? 2) What is Pedro's favourite sport? 3) Who is Beckham? 4) Who are Antonio. Pedro has a football T-shirt but he hasn't any trainers. Juan and Rubén. some tennis balls. his name is Pedro and he is eight years old. He likes some sports but his favourite sport is football. -22- .La mayoría de los colores son susceptibles 3. a Real Madrid football player.-CARDINAL NUMBERS II (30-100) (NÚMEROS CARDINALES II [30-100]) 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 thirty thirty-five forty forty-five fifty fifty-five sixty sixty-five seventy seventy-five eighty eighty-five ninety ninety-five one hundred 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 2 READING 1. a yellow bicycle. He plays football with his friends Antonio. He has lots of toys: a football. Juan and Rubén? This is Miguel's little brother. Carlos.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. a pair of skates and a blue radiocontrolled car. Their idol is also Beckham. Carlos. His idol is David Beckham. un color oscuro). En inglés estos adjetivos son "light" (‘claro’) y "dark" (‘oscuro’): English Spanish Examples: English light red dark pink Spanish rojo claro rosa oscuro 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelfth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twenty-second twenty-third twenty-fourth twenty-fifth sexto séptimo octavo noveno décimo undécimo duodécimo décimo tercero décimo cuarto décimo quinto décimo sexto décimo séptimo décimo octavo décimo noveno vigésimo vigésimo primero vigésimo segundo vigésimo tercero vigésimo cuarto vigésimo quinto 2.

MILITARY TERMS 1.-IN THE BARRACKS AND GENERALITIES (EN EL CUARTEL Y GENERALIDADES) English barracks main gate mess cuartel puerta principal mesón. saludo sueldo sentry Air Force Navy -23- salute . cantina Spanish lorry weapon support company compañía de armas de apoyo rucksack headquarters battery armour squadron courtyard crest boot camp sleeping bag rucksack lorry on duty on leave promotion outpost military parade march past inspection parade drill parade sentry base flagpole dormitory Navy Air Force equipment salute salary batería de plana mayor escuadrón acorazado patio de armas metopa [de una unidad] campamento de reclutas saco de dormir mochila camión de servicio de permiso ascenso puesto avanzado formación desfile revista ejercicios de orden cerrado centinela base military parade 2 inspection parade march past drill parade mástil de la bandera nave de dormitorio Armada Ejército del Aire equipo saludar.

i) Paul: That is right! I _____ a student too. John! g) John: _____ to _____ _____. Paul. soy el centinela de la puerta principal el próximo sábado. this _____ my boyfriend.MILITARY CONVERSATION Are you on duty this weekend? Yes. Paul! h) Anna: John is twenty-five _____ old. thank _____. Sí. f) Paul: Nice to _____ you. Did you already clean your rifle? ¿Has limpiado ya tu fusil? Yes. 2 Yes. tomorrow there’s an inspection parade in the battery. mañana hay una revista en la batería. I’m the sentry in the main gate next Saturday. he _____ a student. a) Anna: Hello. I’m the sentry in the main gate next Saturday Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Private: Soldado: Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Private: Soldado: Are you on duty this weekend? ¿Estás de servicio este fin de semana? Yes. John. And you? e) Anna: _____. c) 20:00 c) ______________________________ b) 15:00 b) ______________________________ a) 10:00 a) Good morning d) 23:45 (bed time) d) ______________________________ -24- . WATCHES. tomorrow there’s an inspection parade in the battery Did you already clean your rifle? EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING 2) WRITE THE SUITABLE GREETING ACCORDING TO THE THE CORRECT WORD. Sí. Good morning! b) Paul: Good _____! c) Anna: _____ are you? d) Paul: Fine.

d) 1 d) __________________.3) WHAT ARE THE COLOURS OF THE FOLLOWING NUMBERS? d) 13 + 54 d) ______________________________ a) 6 a) Number six is blue. a) Mary's book a) The book is hers. b) ______________________________. h) 1 3 h) __________________. a) 45 + 23 a) Sixty-eight e) Your note book e) ______________________________. k) 15 k) __________________. b) 17 b) __________________. e) 12 + 15 e) ______________________________ f) 17 + 10 f) ______________________________ g) 9 + 57 g) ______________________________ h) 25 + 8 h) ______________________________ 5) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. e) 3 e) __________________. f) f) 20 __________________. c) 24 + 10 c) ______________________________ -25- g) Anna's doll g) ______________________________. b) 13 + 8 b) ______________________________ f) Michael's ball f) ______________________________. c) 7 c) __________________. 2 b) Peter and Paul's dog i) i) j) j) 9 __________________. 11 __________________. c) Laura's house c) ______________________________. g) 29 g) __________________. d) My car d) ______________________________. 4) HOW MUCH DO THESE COUPLES OF NUMBERS ADD UP? WRITE THE SOLUTIONS BY USING WORDS. .

d) ______________________________ d) ______________________________ e) My mother / dog.6) WRITE SENTENCES BY USING THE NEGATIVE FORM OF THE VERB “ TO HAVE ”: (1) HAVE NOT / HAS NOT ( FULL FORM ) (2) HAVEN ’ T / HASN ’ T (ABBREVIATED FORM). b) What is the colour of the sky? b) ______________________________ c) What is the colour of the sun? c) ______________________________ d) What is the colour of your dog? d) ______________________________ e) What is the colour of your mother’s hair? e) ______________________________ f) What is the colour of your hair? f) ______________________________ g) What is the colour of the snow? g) ______________________________ a) Peter / computer. g) That was (2ª pl) _______ class. you are _____ capitalist. d) Those are (1ª pl) _______ teachers. I saw _____ dinosaur. a) What is the colour of your tie? a) My tie es red. a) Peter hasn’t a computer.) father. 8) ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. g) ______________________________ g) ______________________________ 9) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH AN INDEFINITE ARTICLE (A OR AN FORM). 10) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). c) ______________________________ c) ______________________________ d) Andrew / girlfriend. c) _____ travel agent gives you information about hotels. f) That was (2ª sg) _______ girlfriend. h) I had _____ amazing experience last night. English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) on leave drill parade dormitory salute on duty armour squadron barracks promotion -26- Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) cuartel escuadrón acorazado de permiso ascenso ejercicios de orden cerrado saludar o saludo nave de dormitorio colectivo de servicio . e) Those are (1ª sg) _______ pencils. e) You are not _____ worker. a) These are (1ª sg) my keys. e) ______________________________ e) ______________________________ f) I / bag f) ______________________________ f) ______________________________ g) Louise / a pair of shoes. a) My neighbour is a photographer. 2 7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE SUITABLE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. a) Peter has not a computer. b) ______________________________ b) ______________________________ c) Julian / house. and this is (3ª sg mas. f) He goes to _____ concert. b) That is (3ª pl) _______ house c) This is (3ª sg fem) _______ boyfriend. d) Mr Smith is _____ old man. b) I have _____ very bad night. b) Hellen and Michael / newspaper. g) I have _____ day off.

“it”) que añade una "-s" o la sílaba "-es" (se aplica la regla de ortografía del plural de los sustantivos).-NEGATIVE FORM (FORMA NEGATIVA DEL VERBO) TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple present / Negative form English Spanish I do not walk (yo) no ando 1st S I don’t walk you do not walk 2nd S you don’t walk (tú) no andas (usted) no anda 3 PLURAL English these those Spanish estos/ as esos/ as aquellos/ as 2. Esto ocurre con todas las personas.27 - . "do not" (“don’t”).-AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA DEL VERBO) TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple present / Affirmative form English Spanish 1st S I walk 2nd S you walk (usted) anda (yo) ando (tú) andas THAT 3rd S he/she/it walks 1st P we walk 2nd P you walk (él/ ella/ *ello) anda (nosotros/ as) andamos (vosotros/ as) andáis (ustedes) andan 3rd P they walk (ellos/ as) andan THIS La forma del presente simple se forma quitando la partícula "to" al infinitivo (“to walk”. ‘yo ando’).UNIT 3 GRAMMAR 1. que se forma con "does not" (“doesn’t”.-DEMONSTRATIVES (DEMOSTRATIVOS) SINGULAR English this that aquel/ aquella/ o Spanish este/ a/ o ese/ a/ o 3.1. salvo en el caso de la tercera persona del singular. ‘andar’. “I walk”. Es invariable para todas las personas excepto para la tercera persona del singular (“he”.-SIMPLE PRESENT (PRESENTE SIMPLE) 3. PAST PARTICIPLE AND GERUND (FORMAS IMPERSONALES DEL VERBO) English INFINITIVE to walk Spanish andar he/she/it does not walk 3rd S he/she/it doesn’t walk (él/ ella/ *ello) no anda we do not walk (nosotros/ as) no andamos 1st P we don’t walk you do not walk 2nd P you don’t walk they do not walk 3rd P they don’t walk (vosotros/ as) no andáis (ustedes) no andan (ellos/ as) no andan PAST PARTICIPLE walked andado GERUND walking andando En inglés la forma negativa del verbo se forma con el auxiliar "to do" en forma negativa.2.-INFINITIVE. “she”. 3.) .

.. "midnight" (‘medianoche’).) a quarter to five (cinco menos cuarto) half past five (las cinco y media) noon (mediodía) midnight (medianoche) Como se ve en el cuadro. o'clock" (son las/ es la . Spanish Es la una y media.. A excepción de la expresión "It is .... en inglés para decir la hora se utilizan las expresiones: "o'clock" (‘en punto’). (Son las.Examples: AFFIRMATIVE English I eat Spanish (yo) como (tú) andas (vosotros/ as) andáis (usted) anda (ustedes) andan (él) bebe (ella) ama llueve (nosotros/ as) conducimos (ellos/ as) nadan English I don’t eat NEGATIVE Spanish (yo) no como (tú) no andas (vosotros/ as) no andáis (usted) no anda (ustedes) no andan (él) no bebe (ella) no ama no llueve (nosotros/ as)noconducimos (ellos/as) nadan you walk you do not walk he drinks she loves it rains we drive they swim he does not drink she doesn’t love it does not rain we don’t drive they do not swim 4. "noon" (‘mediodía’). "half past" (‘y media’). .) (Es la.. Son las nueve en punto. It’s.28 - “o’clock” “to” “past” .. It is twenty to ten. "to" (‘menos’). It is nine o’clock.-THE TIME (LA HORA) five o’clock (cinco en punto) ten to five (cinco menos diez) ten past five (cinco y diez) a quarter past five (cinco y cuarto) 3 What time is it? (Qué hora es?) It is.. Son las diez menos veinte.. "past" (‘y’)... en punto) la cifra que indica las horas se pospone a la cifra o expresión que indica los minutos: English It is half past one.

Alicia! How are you? 3 Bye! I’m very tired Maybe.. Nuria: . see you soon! Tal vez… ¡Vaya. De nada. You are welcome. ¡Vaya! ¡No me funciona el reloj! Muchas gracias.. pero hoy Nuria: me he levantado a las cinco y media. Nuria! Hi. Me suelo levantar a siete en punto.DAILY 1. You are welcome Oh! My watch doesn’t work! Thank you very much Yes. Maybe… Oh.. Toma somníferos.29 - . Nuria! ¡Hola. Nuria! Hi. es muy tarde! ¡Me tengo que ir a casa! ¡Adiós.-HOW ARE YOU? (¿CÓMO ESTÁS?) Hi. it is too late! I have to go home! Bye. but today I got up at half past five. Are you sure? ¿Estás segura? Yes. Oh. I’m not fine. it’s too late! I have to go home! Bye.. Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Hi.. Alicia! ¿Cómo estás? … I’m not fine… I’m very tired. Why? Really? Take some sleeping pills I usually get up at seven o’clock. I’m. Son las cinco y media.-THE TIME (LA HORA) SPEAKING What time is it? Are you sure? It’s half past five Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: What time is it? ¿Qué hora es? It’s half past five. I am 2. Sí. Oh! My watch doesn’t work! Thank you very much. but today I got up at half past five Lately I don’t sleep very well.. hasta luego! Bye! ¡Adiós! Alicia: I usually get up at seven o’clock. Why? ¿Por qué? Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Really? ¿De veras? Lately I don’t sleep very well… Últimamente no duermo muy bien… Take some sleeping pills.. … No estoy bien… Estoy muy cansada.. see you soon! . Alicia! How are you? ¡Hola. lo estoy.

My cousin got married last year. I do not get along with my mother-in-law. Spanish Mi abuela es la madre de mi madre. Mi hermano es muy agradable.-FAMILY AND RELATIONSHIP (LA FAMILIA Y PARENTESCOS) VOCABULARY English husband wife father mother parents son daughter children brother sister aunt uncle cousin grandmother grandfather grandparents granddaughter grandson grandchildren nephew niece brother-in-law sister-in-law daugther-in-law son-in-law mother-in-law father-in-law Spanish marido. No me llevo bien con mi suegra. esposa padre madre padres [padre y madre] hijo hija hijos [hijos e hijas] hermano hermana tía tío primo/ a abuela abuelo abuelos [abuelo y abuela] nieta nieto nietos/ as sobrino sobrina cuñado cuñada nuera yerno suegra suegro husband and wife grandfather and grandson 3 mothers and children Examples: English My grandmother is my mother´s mother. esposo mujer.30 - .CIVILIAN 1. Mi primo se casó el año pasado. My brother is very kind. .

My grandmother likes singing and my grandfather likes painting. AUNT UNCLE GRANDFATHER GRANDMOTHER FATHER MOTHER SARAH BROTHER COUSIN 2. READING 1. In Great Britain people have lunch at midday. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) What are my parents' names? 2) How old is my brother? 3) Who are my aunt's sons and daughters? . His name is Richard and he is seven years old.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.31 - .-MY FAMILY (MI FAMILIA) COMPREHENSION 3 I am Sarah.2. My father's name is Paul. I am my grandparent’s granddaughter.. One day I hope I get married to a nice man (my husband) and have lots of children. En Gran Bretaña la gente almuerza a mediodía. My mother’s name is Anne. My parent's brothers and sisters are my uncles and aunts. I invited some friends for dinner. My mother's parents are my grandparents. Spanish Normalmente tomo huevos para desayunar. I have one brother. Their sons and daughters are my cousins.-MEALS I (LAS COMIDAS I) breakfast (desayuno) to have breakfast (desayunar) lunch (almuerzo) to have lunch (almorzar) lemond (limón) orange (naranja) potato (patata) fruit (fruta) vegetable (verdura) fish (pescado) meat (carne) tea time (hora del té) to have a cup of tea (tomar una taza de té) dinner (cena) to have dinner (cenar) milk (leche) eggs (huevos) dessert (postre) Examples: English I usually have eggs for breakfast. I have four uncles and five aunts and I am their niece. Invité a algunos amigos a cenar.

He’s just arrived. He’s just arrived.32 - . He’s commanding the 2nd Rifle Platoon He looks very young Private: Soldado: . What’s that unit? Who’s the commander? It’s the second Rifle Company of the 3rd battalion Captain Mayoral That´s right. Se acaba de incorporar.MILITARY TERMS 1. and the deputy? Lieutenant Gálvez. Va a mandar la segunda Sección de Fusiles. He’s commanding the 2nd Rifle Platoon. arma cuartel general de brigada cadena de mando jefe jefe de compañía oficial segundo en el mando líder brigade division corps commander company commander deputy officer 3 army leader MILITARY Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: CONVERSATION What’s that unit? ¿Cuál es esa unidad? It’s the second Rifle Company of the 3rd battalion. Es la segunda Compañía de Fusiles del tercer Batallón. El Capitán Mayoral. and the deputy? Bien.-UNITS AND COMMAND SCHELONS (UNIDADES Y ESCALONES DE MANDO) English fire team task force escuadra agrupación táctica Spanish squad section platoon battalion task group grupo táctico battalion group company task force company battalion regiment company/ squadron team branch brigade headquarters chain of command subgrupo táctico rama. Who’s the commander? ¿Quién es el jefe? Captain Mayoral. Parece muy joven. El Teniente Gálvez. That´s right. He looks very young. ¿y el oficial segundo en el mando? Lieutenant Gálvez.

3 . d) (JOHN) Paul is my… d) ____________________________. g) Peter is Alex and Emily's… g) ____________________________. f) (WILLIAM) John is my… f) ____________________________..EXERCISES FAMILY TREE (ÁRBOL GENEALÓGICO) Alfred Joan William Hannah Joshua Bob Caroline Peter Mary Alex 1) FILL EACH Emily Susanne 2) FILL EACH John Paul OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS ACCORDING TO THE FAMILY TREE. g) (JOAN) Mary is my… g) ____________________________.. d) Alex and Emily are John's… d) ____________________________. e) (HANNAH) Peter is my… e) ____________________________. b) Joan and Alfred are Joshua's… b) ____________________________. j) Alex is Peter's… j) ____________________________. k) (PETER) Emily is my… k) ____________________________. .33 - a) Caroline is Joshua and Peter's… a) Caroline is Joshua and Peter's sister. j) (CAROLINE) Paul is my… j) ____________________________. i) Bob is Peter's… i) ____________________________. c) Mary is Alex and Emily's… c) ____________________________. i) (PAUL) Joan and Hannah are my… i) ____________________________. b) (PETER) Mary is my… b) ____________________________. OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS ACCORDING TO THE FAMILY TREE. e) Susanne is Caroline's… e) ____________________________. f) Susanne is Mary's… f) ____________________________. c) (MARY) Peter is my… c) ____________________________. h) (ALFRED) Emily is my… h) ____________________________. k) Hannah is Peter's… k) ____________________________. a) Alex and Emily are my cousins. h) Joan is Paul's… h) ____________________________. a) (JOHN) Alex and Emily are my.

a) (Aquellos) Those boys are my friends. “THESE”. c) 02:15 c) ______________________ g) They go to (aquella) _____ city. At half _____ seven I go to work by _____. e) I go to bed at _____ and I watch _____. “THAT” OR “THOSE”. a) 12:00 a) It is twelve o´clock/ It is midday/ It is noon b) I live with (estos) _____ boys.34 - .3) MATCH TIMES 1) TO 5) SENTENCES A) TO E). 6) FILL d) 19:40 d) ______________________ EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD OF THE BOX. . f) My father says (estas) _____ words. 3 b) 13:45 b) ______________________ e) (Esos) _____ cats are wild. c) (Esa) _____ woman is her mother. eggs vegetable midnight meat car wake up potatoes milk fruit past lemons e) 09:35 e) ______________________ oranges o'clock television f) 17:10 f) ______________________ a) I wake up at seven o’clock. They eat _____ and _____. g) 20:05 g) ______________________ h) 00:00 h) ______________________ d) _____ and _____ are rich in vitamin C. d) I love (ese) _____ car. one glass of _____ and an orange juice. h) You smell (aquellas) _____ flowers. 5) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING “THIS”. c) Spanish omelette is made of _____ and _____. b) Vegetarian people do not eat _____. English terms 1) It is seven o´clock in the morning 2) It is midnight 3) It is a quarter past two in the afternoon 4) It is ten to ten in the evening 5) It is nine o´clock in the morning Spanish terms a) I have lunch b) I have dinner c) I wake up d) I go to bed e) I go to work 4) LOOK AT THE WATCHES AND WRITE THE TIME. For breakfast I have toast.

a) mother's /My / my/ aunt/ sister /is a) My mother's sister is my aunt. etc.35 - . c) soup /dinner /take / for/I /take c) ______________________________. e) expensive /car /Julian's/ very /is e) ______________________________.) 8) MAKE SENTENCES WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. f) with /whisky /drink /I /soda f) ______________________________. b) wake up /I /past /seven /at /half b) ______________________________.7) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). Cab.. Rama (Inf.. 3 . d) mine /books /are /These d) ______________________________.. Art. English terms 1) Army 2) Task Force 3) NATO 4) Brigade Headquarters 5) Squad 6) Regiment 7) Branch 8) Platoon Spanish Terms a) Cuarter General de Brigada b) Regimiento c) Agrupación Táctica d) Ejército e) Sección f) Escuadra g) OTAN h) Arma.

-DEGREES OF COMPARISON (GRADOS DE COMPARACIÓN) 2. por el contrario. las palabras terminadas en "y" precedida de consonante cambian la "y" por "i" antes de tomar la terminación correspondiente.UNIT 4 GRAMMAR 1.-SUPERIORITY COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES (GRADO COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDAD Y SUPERLATIVO RELATIVO) El grado comparativo de superioridad (“más + adjetivo”) y el grado superlativo relativo (“el/ la/ los/ las más + adjetivo”) de los adjetivos en inglés se forma: *Se entiende por “vocal corta” la existencia de una única vocal (“hot”. "y". 4 a) Añadiendo al adjetivo positivo la terminación Recuerde que. sin embargo. bísilabos y con los trisílabos terminados en "ow". por ejemplo. está compuesto por dos vocales. Esto la consonante final está precedida de otra ocurre con los adjetivos monosílabos.-THE ADJECTIVE (EL ADJETIVO) El adjetivo calificativo en inglés es invariable (es decir. Examples: English hot / hotter thin / thinner Spanish cálido / más cálido delgado / más delgado 2. “thin”). nótese que “cheap” también es un adjetivo calificativo monosílabo. "l": c) El resto de adjetivos de dos o más sílabas forman el comparativo añadiendo "more" y el superlativo añadiendo "the most": Examples: English Comparative happier wiser easier colder yellower Examples: Superlative happiest wisest easiest coldest yellowest candid more candid Spanish Comparative más terrible más sensato más cándido the most candid Positive terrible sensible English Comparative more terrible more sensible Superlative the most terrible the most sensible Positive happy wise easy cold yellow Positive feliz sabio fácil frío amarillo Spanish Comparative más feliz más sabio más fácil más frío más amarillo Superlative el más feliz el más sabio el más fácil el más frío el más amarillo -37- Positive terrible sensato cándido Superlative el más terrible el más sensato el más cándido . duplican dicha consonante final. "er". tiene la misma forma para el singular masculino y femenino y para el plural masculino y femenino) y precede al sustantivo: Examples: English the good boy a slim girl the bad cats some white flags Spanish el niño bueno una niña delgada los gatos malos algunas banderas blancas Para añadir las terminaciones propias del comparativo y superlativo se siguen las reglas usuales de ortografía que se han visto anteriormente. b) Los adjetivos calificativos monosílabos (aquellos compuestos por unas sola sílaba) acabados en consonante precedida de vocal corta*. con los consonante. “cold” o “rich” "er" para el comparativo de superioridad. "e".1. y la tampoco duplican dicha consonante final ya que terminación "est" para el superlativo relativo. por ejemplo.

y menos que ella. My sister is taller than your mother. and less than her.-INFERIORITY COMPARATIVES (GRADO DE INFERIORIDAD DEL ADJETIVO) Para formar el grado de inferioridad del adjetivo ("menos + adjetivo”. ** 4 4. Examples: English Joan is as beautiful as Mary. Para las oraciones negativas se emplea "so + adjetivo en grado positivo + as”. Examples: English You are stronger than me. antepuesto al adjetivo (ya sea un adjetivo de una o más sílabas): Examples: Positive terrible happy English Comparative less terrible less happy Spanish Comparative menos terrible menos feliz Superlative the least terrible the least happy 3. * Nótese que en la segunda parte de la estructura comparativa la construcción “she is” se puede sustituir por el pronombre personal “her”. y "the least" en el superlativo.2.3.-EQUALITY COMPARATIVES (GRADO DE IGUALDAD DEL ADJETIVO) La comparación de igualdad en inglés se forma con "as + adjetivo en grado positivo +as" (‘tan + adjetivo + como’) para las oraciones afirmativas. y/o derivadas de otras raíces. No soy tan perezoso como tú.-HOW TO MAKE COMPARISONS (FORMACIÓN DE COMPARACIONES) Para realizar comparaciones entre dos sustantivos en inglés se utiliza la siguiente estructura: How to make comparisons SUST + VERBO + adjetivo en grado + THAN + SUST comparativo Spanish Joan es tan guapa como Mary. pero no es tan buena como ella.-IRREGULAR FORMS OF THE COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE (FORMAS IRREGULARES DEL ADJETIVO COMPARATIVO Y SUPERLATIVO) Varios adjetivos en inglés tienen la forma del comparativo y superlativo irregulares. but she is not so good as she is/ as her. (Tú) lo quieres (a él) más que yo. You love him more than me. ** Nótese que en la segunda parte de la estructura comparativa la construcción “you are” se puede sustituir por el pronombre personal “you”. * I am not so lazy as you are/ as you. -38- Spanish (Tú) eres más fuerte que yo. English Comparative better worse less older/ elder Positive good bad little old Superlative the best the worst the least the oldest/ eldest Positive terrible feliz Superlative el menos terrible el menos feliz Positive bueno malo pequeño viejo Spanish Comparative mejor peor menos más viejo mayor Superlative el óptimo el pésimo el mínimo el más viejo el mayor 2. Mi hermana es más alta que tu madre. “el /la /los /las menos + adjetivo") siempre se utiliza la forma "less" en el comparativo.2. .

-THE ADVERB I (EL ADVERBIO I) 5. Siempre leo el periódico.5.-ADVERBS CLASSIFICATION (CLASIFICACIÓN DE LOS ADVERBIOS) b) si tiene complemento y éste es corto. allí en Quantity sólo bastante casi mucho 4 c) los adverbios de tiempo indefinido y algunos de modo preceden generalmente al verbo. Spanish Nunca llega a tiempo. Spanish (Él) lee bien. please. Examples: English He is never in time. Examples: fuera cerca lejos Examples: English Spanish English My sister is so nice! Spanish ¡Mi hermana es tan simpática! I always read the newspaper. Your house is very far from Tu casa está muy lejos de here. a) si el verbo no tiene complemento. -39- . Póngase el sombrero. Apenas pude leerlo. por favor.1. I could hardly read it. out near after still soon Spanish Time Manner pronto tarde antes después hasta pronto así deprisa ciertamente así thus much Time early late before English Manner so quickly certainly Quantity only rather almost Examples: far English I shall read your letter now.2. aquí.-WHERE TO PUT THE VERB (COLOCACIÓN DEL ADVERBIO) A la hora de colocar los adverbios en inglés hay que tener en cuenta una serie de consideraciones: d) sin embargo. (Ella) anda deprisa. el adverbio sigue inmediatamente al verbo. Place aquí Put your hat on. here there in She walks quickly. He briefly told the news. 5. los adverbios siguen al verbo "to be" y a los verbos anómalos. (Él) dijo las noticias brevemente. se dividen en: Examples: Place English He reads well. Spanish Leeré su carta ahora. Los adverbios en inglés según su significado puede intercalarse entre el verbo y el adverbio.

I think she does. ¿Quiere dejar un mensaje? Yes. Do you have a pen and a piece of paper with you? Nuria: My phone number is: 0-9-8-2-3-4-7-9-6 Nuria: Yes. ¿Tiene bolígrafo y papel? Yes. ¿Podría decirle que la he llamado? Does she have your phone number? ¿Tiene su número de teléfono? Does she have your phone number? Yes. Muchas gracias. Alicia: Alicia: Thank you very much Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Yes. please. creo que lo tiene. she’ll call you back later.DAILY 1. Thank you very much. Do you want to leave a message? Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: 4 Yes. I think she does. I do. She isn’t here at the moment. OK. Sí. I do OK. De nada. You are welcome. she’ll call you back later You are welcome -40- . Soy Nuria. por favor. Could you tell her that I called? Sí. Vale. Mi número de teléfono es: 098 23 47 96.-ON THE PHONE (AL TELÉFONO) SPEAKING Is that Teresa? Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Nuria: Nuria: Alicia: Alicia: Is that Teresa? ¿Es usted Teresa? This is Nuria Who's calling? ¿Quién llama? This is Nuria. ya la llamará ella más tarde. I’m going to give you my number just in case. Do you want to leave a message? No se encuentra aquí en estos momentos. Could you tell her that I called? Who’s calling? She isn’t here at moment. Do you have a pen and a piece of paper with you? Sí. I’m going to give you my number just in case. De todas maneras le voy a dar mi número de teléfono. My phone number is: 0-9-8-2-3-4-7-9-6. please.

los días de la semana y los meses del año reciben el tratamiento que se da a los nombres propios. of 2000 2001 2002 2003 . El último mes del año es diciembre. Spanish Spanish lunes martes miércoles jueves viernes sábado domingo 2.. a diferencia de lo que ocurre en español. of January Febrary March April .-SEASONS OF THE YEAR (ESTACIONES DEL AÑO) El tercer día de la semana es miércoles..CIVILIAN 1. The last month of the year is December..-CARDINAL NUMBERS III (101-2..000.... 4 autumn/ fall winter 3.000]) 101 102 103 110 125 130 one one one one one one hundred hundred hundred hundred hundred hundred and and and and and and one two three ten twenty-five thirty .-DAYS OF THE WEEK (DÍAS DE LA SEMANA) English Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday VOCABULARY En inglés.000) (NÚMEROS CARDINALES III [101-2. es decir..000. first second the third fourth .-DATES (FECHAS) spring summer What is the date today? What’s the date today? first Today is the Today’s the (BrE) second third fourth . 5.. of 2000 2001 2002 2003 . la inicial de cada uno de ellos siempre aparece en mayúscula: Examples: English The third day of the week is Wednesday.-MONTHS OF THE YEAR (MESES DEL AÑO) English January February March April May June July August September October November December Spanish enero febrero marzo abril mayo junio julio agosto septiembre octubre noviembre diciembre -41- January Today is the Febrary Today’s the March (AmE) April .... 4.

ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. "thousand" y "hundred" son invariables. Examples: English Are there many books here? Yes. es decir. aparecen siempre en singular aunque su traducción en español pueda ser plural. hay varios centenares. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) What do people celebrate on the 25th of December? 2) What is the biggest party for Irish people? 3) What are the most important dates at Easter? In Great Britain. for Irish people it is the biggest party.. Sin embargo. The date of these holidays changes every year.145 150 165 170 185 190 200 one hundred one hundred one hundred one hundred one hundred one hundred two hundred and and and and and and forty-five fifty sixty-five seventy eighty-five ninety 1 000 1 100 1 101 10 000 100 000 1 000 000 2 000 000 one thousand one thousand and a hundred one thousand one hundred and one ten thousand one hundred thousand one million two million Nótese que en inglés entre la decena y la unidad (“forty-five”. 4 READING 1. También hay que tener en cuenta que después de “million”. sí que tienen forma de plural cuando se utilizan como sustantivos: Spanish ¿Hay muchos libros aquí? Sí. Valentine's Day (14th of February) some men give roses and presents to their girlfriends or wifes In Ireland people celebrate St. -42- . Patrick's Day on the 17th of March. Good Friday. People don't work in bank holidays. Easter Day and Easter Monday. The 25th of December is Christmas and the 31st of the same month New Year's Eve. In the United States of America people celebrate the Independence Day on the 4th of July and Thanksgiving Day in November. there are several hundreds. Ireland and the United States of America there are quite a few important holidays. On St. "one thousand three hundred and four").-HOLIDAYS (VACACIONES) COMPREHENSION 2. "thousand" y "hundred" los números inferiores a cien deben ir precedidos por la conjunción "and" (1 304. ‘cuarenta y cinco’) no se emplea la conjunción "and" (‘y’) como ocurre en español. Families get together to celebrate these important holidays. "Million". The most important dates in Easter are: Festival of Passover. Easter and Mother's and Father's Day.

T. SPECIALITIES AND ASSIGNMENTS (ARMAS.) especialidad técnica equipo de mantenimiento unidad de abastecimiento operaciones especiales paracaidista Legión Española operación aerotransportada buceador de combate communications 4 army aviation APC APC BMR (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier) (transporte de personal) mechanised infantry motorised unit armoured military police bugle bugler vehicle infantería mecanizada unidad motorizada acorazado policía militar corneta [objeto] corneta [persona] vehículo parachutists vehicle special operations Spanish Legion -43- .MILITARY TERMS 1. ESPECIALIDADES Y DESTINOS) English light infantry field artillery antiaircraft artillery cavalry engineers sappers signals/ communications recognisance logistics transportation electronic warfare army aviation technical branch maintenance team supply unit special operations parachutist Spanish Legion airborne operation combat diver Spanish infantería ligera artillería de campaña artillería antiaérea caballería ingenieros zapadores transmisiones reconocimiento logística transporte guerra electrónica light infantry field artillery cavalry engineers FAMET (helicópteros del E.-WEAPONS.

I don´t have the driving license. Ramírez? CONVERSATION Full Corporal: Cabo Primero Corporal: Cabo: What’s your branch. I need a driver for this recovery truck. f) (cheap) In this shop this book is _____. h) (thin) Anna is the ______ girl in her class. b) (happy) Sally is _____ than her sister. Sir. No te preocupes. d) (good) My teacher is _____ than yours. e) (pretty) Sally is the ______ girl in this town. e) (easy) This exercise is _____ than last one. Light Infantry. Ramírez? Light Infantry. a) (tall) Peter is taller than John. I don’t have the driving license Certainly. h) (old) I am four years _____ than you. buscaré a un conductor en la Compañía del Cuartel General. -44- i) hot) August is the ______ month of the year. Sir. I’ll look for a driver in the Headquarters Company I’m sorry. Lo siento. g) (bad) This year my grades are _____ than the year before. Infantería Ligera. I’m posted in the 3rd Rifle Company Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Corporal: Cabo: Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: I need a driver for this recovery truck Don’t worry. Certainly. f) (brilliant) Shakespeare is the ______ writer of English literature. I’m posted in the 3rd Rifle Company.MILITARY What’s your branch. Sir. I should apply for the driving course Corporal: Cabo: 4 EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS SUPERIORITY COMPARATIVES. a) (good) Only you is the best song in the history of music. I’ll look for a driver in the Headquarters Company. La verdad es que debería solicitar el curso de conducción. mi Primero. . BY USING 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE SUPERLATIVE FORM OF THE ADJECTIVES. c) (difficult) This exam is _____ than the previous one. Ramírez? ¿Cuál es tu especialidad. c) (intelligent) William is the ______ person in his class. I should apply for the driving course. Don’t worry. g) (rich) Bill Gates is the ______ on earth. no tengo el carnet de conducir. b) (old) My ______ brother is already married. Necesito un conductor para este camión grúa. I’m sorry. d) (strong) Peter is the ______ person in this base. Estoy destinado en la 3ª Compañía de Fusiles. mi Primero. Sir.

g) (clear) Things seem to be ______ with this book. f) (cold) April is ______ than January. d) (beautiful) Pekin is ______ than Tokyo. c) When is Julian's birthday? c) ____________________________. ANSWER THE QUESTIONS ACCORDING TO THE INFORMATION SHOWN IN COLUMN C. b) When is your birthday? b) ____________________________. -45- a) When is Peter's wedding? a) Peter’s wedding is in September. 6) FILL a) (clever) Julian is less clever than you. EACH OF THE BOXES OF COLUMN B BY INSERTING THE NAMES OF THE MONTHS. c) (temprano) We have to get up ______ in the morning to go to work. h) (clean) Jodie is ________than Mary. e) (lejos) Don't go too ______! We are having lunch in half an hour. d) When does Spring begin? d) ____________________________.3) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING INFERIORITY COMPARATIVES. . a) (aquí) The prices here are very expensive. d) (casi) It is ______ two o'clock. e) When is William's interview? e) ____________________________. f) When does summer begin? f) ____________________________. e) (blue) The sky in England is ______ than in Spain. f) (fuera) There were lots of people ______ of the building! g) (tarde) Last night I went to bed very ______. g) When are Sally's holidays? g) ____________________________. b) (happy) I am sure Judith is ______ than Mary. c) (angry) This morning I am ______ than yesterday. b) (después) We'll go to the party ______ the cinema. Sally's holidays Positive hot good Comparative hotter Superlative hottest 2nd month of the year 6th month of the year least older beautiful worst green dirtier small 7th month of the year greenest 12th month of the year 10th month of the year 9th month of the year Summer begins Peter's wedding 4 Julian's birthday 5) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH AN ADVERB. A 1st month of the year 5th month of the year 11th month of the year B January C William's interview 3rd month of the year 8th month of the year 4th month of the year Spring begins 4) FILL THE BOXES WITH THE SUITABLE FORM OF THE FOLLOWING ADJECTIVES.

7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING BOXES WITH THE CORRESPONDING NAME OF MONTH AND/OR SEASON. English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) technical branch APC (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier) maintenance team cavalry special operations parachutist logistics motorised unit armoured Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) equipo de mantenimiento Logística operaciones especiales unidad motorizada FAMET (helicópteros del ET) especialidad técnica acorazado caballería transporte de personal (BMR) paracaidista 4 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) army aviation -46- . March SPRING September November June SUMMER December 8) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 10) WITH WORDS A) TO J).

superlativo se consigue anteponiendo “the Sin embargo hay adjetivos que no tienen que most” al adverbio. orgulloso/ orgullosamente Spanish Ayer comí más temprano que la semana pasada. de estos adverbios terminan en “-ly”.. 5 full/ fully completo/ completamente noble/ nobly noble/ noblemente English true/ truly verdad/ verdaderamente He works harder than Mary. -47- Spanish Creo de la manera más honesta y firme que.-THE ADVERB II (EL ADVERBIO II) 1. Los polisílabos. categoría donde se incluyen equivalente a la terminación española “-mente”. para referirse a “duramente” no añade la terminación “-ly”. ya que cambiaría su significado por el de ‘apenas’. se añade “-y” a los forman el comparativo anteponiendo el adjetivos que terminan en “-ll”. y el superlativo. añadiendo la calificativos y participios pasados. Para formar adverbios.-ADVERB DEGREES (GRADOS DEL ADVERBIO) Los adverbios en inglés. daily/ daily diario/ diariamente English hard/ hard* duro/ duramente I believe most honestly and strongly that. sufrir modificación alguna para funcionar como Examples: adverbios: Examples: English English proud/ proudly Spanish Yesterday I ate sooner than last week.UNIT 5 GRAMMAR 1. .1. El grado antes de tomar la terminación “-ly”... La mayoría terminación “-est”. Spanish friendly/ friendly amistoso/ amistosamente Trabaja más duro que Mary. así adverbio de cantidad “more” al adverbio como los que terminan en “-ue” pierden la “e” comparado y colocando inmediatamente después de éste la conjunción “than”. Los monosílabos y algunos La mayor parte de los adverbios de modo y bisílabos forman el comparativo añadiendo la de cantidad derivan de los adjetivos terminación “-er”..-“-LY” ENDING ADVERBS (ADVERBIOS TERMINADOS EN “-LY”) 2. al igual que los adjetivos calificativos. los adjetivos que terminan en “-le” cambian la “e” por una “y”. casi todos los adverbios terminados en “-ly”. *Nótese que el adverbio “hard”. admiten los grados de comparación.

forma el comparativo y superlativo como se muestra en los ejemplos.-IRREGULAR FORMS (FORMAS IRREGULARES) Algunos adverbios forman el comparativo y el superlativo de manera irregular: 5 Examples: morning ADVERB DEGREES (IRREGULAR) English Positive Comparative Superlative well badly little much far better worse less more further the best the worst the least the most the furthest yesterday tomorrow afternoon evening morning afternoon evening English last night at night in the night a week ago two days ago in the day time by day at noon Spanish anoche.-ADVERBIAL PHRASES (LOCUCIONES ADVERBIALES) Algunas de las locuciones adverbiales más comunes en inglés son: English morning this afternoon evening morning in the afternoon evening Spanish esta mañana esta tarde esta noche por la mañana por la tarde por la noche mañana por la mañana mañana por la tarde mañana por la noche ayer por la mañana ayer por la tarde ayer por la noche ADVERB DEGREES Spanish Positive Comparative Superlative más lo más prudentemente prudentemente prudentemente lo más fácilmente más fácilmente fácilmente tarde cerca más tarde más cerca lo más tarde lo más cerca 3. 4. ayer noche por la noche de noche hace una semana hace dos días de día durante el día a mediodía al mediodía ADVERB DEGREES (IRREGULAR) Spanish Positive bien mal poco mucho lejos Comparative mejor peor menos más más lejos Superlative lo mejor óptimamente lo peor pésimamente lo menos lo mínimo lo más lo máximo lo más lejos -48- .Positive wisely easily late near ADVERB DEGREES English Comparative Superlative more wisely more easily later nearer the most wisely the most easily the latest the nearest Nótese que “far” puede ser tanto adjetivo calificativo como adverbio. forma el comparativo en “farther” y el superlativo en “farthest”. En el segundo supuesto (adverbio). En el primer supuesto (adjetivo).

¿Prefiere fumador o no fumador? I prefer non-smoking and. ¿A qué hora sale el avión? At nine a.-ON THE PLANE (EN EL AVIÓN) Customer: Cliente: Air hostess: Azafata: Customer: Cliente: Air hostess: Azafata: Customer: Cliente: Air hostess: Azafata: Is there still a long way to go? ¿Falta mucho para llegar? No. hay plazas disponibles. a window OK. just ten minutes. 5 Thank you very much At nine a. De nada. At what time does the plane leave? Teresa Smith. I’d like to know if there are any seats on the first plane tomorrow to London Travel agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: Travel agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: I prefer non-smoking and. thank you The plane is landing now. OK. me conformaré con el pasillo. I’d like to know if there are any seats on the first plane tomorrow to London. No. an aisle will do Can you give me your forename and surname? Travel agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: Travel agent: Can you give me your forename and surname? ¿Me puede dar su nombre y apellido? Teresa Smith. there are seats available. Me siento un poco mareado. if it’s possible. you will feel better in a few minutes Is there still a long way to go? No.. se sentirá mejor en unos minutos. si es posible..-AT THE TRAVEL AGENCY (EN LA AGENCIA DE VIAJES) Travel agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: Good morning! Can I help you? ¡Buenos días! ¿Puedo ayudarle? Yes. a window. por favor. Prefiero no fumador. Thank you very much. Alas nueve de la mañana. Muchas gracias. Would you like smoking or non smoking? I’m afraid there are no windows available Yes. El avión esta aterrizando ahora. thank you. there are seats available. Let me check on the computer. an aisle will do. Would you like smoking or non-smoking? Déjeme comprobarlo en el ordenador. Do you want a sick bag? ¿Quiere una bolsa para el mareo? No. You are welcome. Are you feeling OK? Do you want a sick bag? I’m feeling a bit sick . you will feel better in a few minutes. Teresa Smith.DAILY SPEAKING 1. please. pero tiene que estar en el aeropuerto al menos una hora antes del despegue. At what time does the plane leave? Good morning! Can I help you? Let me check on the computer. y.m. The plane is landing now. if it’s possible. Me gustaría saber si hay alguna plaza en el primer avión de mañana a Londres. Me temo que no hay ventanas disponibles.. just ten minutes. ventana. Sí. -49No. tan sólo diez minutos. ¿Se siente bien? I’m feeling a bit sick. Bueno. Are you feeling OK? No. please. gracias. I’m afraid there are no windows available. but you should be at the airport at least one hour before take-off.m. but you should be at the airport at least one hour before take-off Agente: Customer: Cliente: Travel agent: Agente: You are welcome 2.

5 He makes me feel happy when I’m sad. Normalmente me pongo nervioso antes de un examen. 2.-MOODS (ESTADOS DE ÁNIMO) VOCABULARY English happy sad tired exhausted hungry thirsty awake asleep nervous surprised interested angry scared relaxed calm terrified happy sad angry nervous Examples: scared surprised Spanish contento triste cansado exhausto hambriento sediento despierto dormido nervioso sorprendido interesado enfadado asustado relajado calmado aterrorizado English Spanish (Él) me hace feliz cuando estoy triste. (Ella) se asusta cuando ve un perro grande.CIVILIAN 1. I’m usually nervous before an exam. She gets scared when she sees a big dog.-WEATHER PHENOMENA AND NATURAL CATASTROPHES (FENÓMENOS METEOROLÓGICOS Y CATÁSTROFES NATURALES) English Spanish What is the weather like? ¿qué tiempo hace? rain snow fog storm wind cloud sun tornado hurricane drought seaquake earthquake fire lluvia nieve niebla tormenta viento nube sol tornado huracán sequía maremoto terremoto incendio snowy cloudy -50- .

in another. In the late 1998. In Australia it causes droughts and bush fires..English rain snow freeze shine it’s rainy/ it’s raining it rains it’s snowy/ it’s snowing llover nevar helar brillar Spanish está lluvioso/ lloviendo llueve está nevado/ nevando nieva hay niebla hay tormenta hace viento está nublado está helado/ helando hace sol hace frío hace calor foggy it snows it’s foggy it’s stormy it’s windy it’s cloudy it’s frozen/ freezing it’s sunny it’s cold it’s hot freezing Examples: English When it rains I always bring my umbrella. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 5 El Niño takes place in 1997-98. droughts occur in areas drenched by El Niño***. Peruvian fishermen call this phenomenon El Niño -the Spanish name for Christ child. Opposite to El Niño.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. It is considered* extremely severe when it causes drought in one country and rampant floodings. Climate historians speculate that significant events are linked**** to El Niño. * Se considera. These fires create a cloud of smoke that chokes 20 million people and affect Southeast Asian cities. Spanish Cuando llueve siempre llevo mi paraguas.-EL NIÑO AND LA NIÑA (EL NIÑO Y LA NIÑA) COMPREHENSION 2.because these effects on the Pacific Ocean occur around Christmas. **** Están relacionados. an episode of La Niña -a cooling of those same tropical Pacific waterschanges the weather conditions. Other phenomena** observed with El Niño’s appearance include forest fires in Indonesia. Lots of people died in the earthquake. 1) Why do Peruvian fishermen call this phenomenon El Niño? 2) What are the consequences of forest fires? 3) What is the name of the opposite phenomenon to El Niño? 4) What does La Niña consist of? many -51- . Mucha gente murió en el terremoto. ** “Phenomena” es la forma de plural de “phenomenon”. *** En zonas inundadas por El Niño. READING 1.

Tell the Full Corporal about it.-THE UNIFORM (EL UNIFORME) English garrison cap service cap tab badge fatigue uniform boots combat harness belt buckle dress uniform helmet beret holster chinstrap flak jacket mat combat pack compass magazine pouch canteen poncho name tag overall jumper field jacket parka TERMS 5 Spanish gorra cuartelera gorra (tb gorro) de bonito hombrera parche. I’m going to tell the Full Corporal about it. He may solve your problem -52- . Tell the Full Corporal about it. he may solve your problem. he’ll change them for you What’s your size? Normally. el Cabo Primero te puede solucionar el problema. 8 ½. Necesito el número 44. What’s your size? ¿Qué número calzas? Normally. I’m going to tell the Full Corporal about it That’s OK. Estas botas son muy grandes para mí. he’ll change them for you. Normalmente. te las cambiará. That’s OK. emblema uniforme de faena botas correaje de combate cinturón hebilla del cinturón uniforme de paseo casco boina pistolera barbuquejo chaleco antifragmentación esterilla mochila de combate brújula cartuchera del correaje cantimplora poncho tirilla del nombre mono jersey chaquetón beret canteen tabs garrison cap combat pack MILITARY CONVERSATION These boots are very big for me Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: These boots are very big for me. Voy a decírselo al Cabo Primero. Muy bien. I need a size 10.MILITARY 1. Díselo al Cabo Primero. el 42. 8 1/2 I need a size 10.

a) (unfortunate) Unfortunately this year we don’t have holidays. g) (little) No ______ than 50 people came to the party. f) (easy) These exercises are ______ done. d) (perfect) I understand the book ______ well. Positive a) late Comparative later Superlative latest b) far c) recently d) near 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE COMPARATIVE FORM OF THE ADVERBS IN BRACKETS. g) (serious) I am ______ telling you that you must stay here. c) (long) Today the palace is no ______ a royal institution. e) well f) easily g) little h) badly d) (near) Madrid is ______ Barcelona than London. b) (former) Do you know him ______? c) (frequent) Lebanon is more ______ associated with civil war. f) (well) Today she is well but tomorrow she will be ______. e) (wise) Nowadays things are done ______ than years before. English terms 1) in the morning(s) / afternoon/ evening 2) this morning / afternoon / evening 3) yesterday morning / afternoon / evening 4) tomorrow morning / afternoon / evening 5) last night 6) in the night / at night 7) a week ago / last week 8) in the day time / by day 9) at noon -53- Spanish terms a) ayer noche / anoche b) ayer por la mañana / tarde / noche c) a /al mediodía d) de día / durante el día e) esta mañana / tarde / noche f) por la(s) mañana(s) / tarde / noche g) por la noche h) mañana por la mañana / tarde / noche i) hace una semana . THE BOX BY INSERTING THE SUITABLE FORMS OF THE FOLLOWING ADVERBS. i) early 5 j) soon 4) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 9) WITH WORDS A) TO I). h) (real) He is ______ a good doctor. e) (cheap) The trip is done ______. a) (far) I went as far as the house.EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING 3) FILL THE SUITABLE ADVERB IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ADJECTIVES IN BRACKETS. b) (late) Six years ______ he got married. not further.

f) (ayer por la mañana) _______ we went to the beach. e) (durante el día) I study _______ from Monday to Friday. English terms 1) uniform 2) garrison cap 3) belt 4) chinstrap 5) fatigue uniform 6) combat harness 7) overall 8) compass Spanish terms a) cinturón b) uniforme de faena c) brújula d) uniforme e) gorra cuartelera f) correaje de combate g) barbuquejo h) mono -54- . h) When I heard the bad news I was __________. c) Before an exam I get very __________. b) I want to drink. a) In winter it snows. d) At 8 o’clock I am still __________. c) (mediodía) In Great Britain people eat _______. 6) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS INSERTING THE SUITABLE STATE OF MIND. c) Llueve. INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING a) En invierno nieva. c) ____________________________. 5 g) (esta tarde) _______ there is a good film on tv. 7) TRANSLATE SENTENCES. I am __________. e) After working for ten hours I was __________ or __________. d) Hace un día nublado. h) (mañana por la noche) _______ I work in that old pub. b) (esta mañana) _______ I got up at 8 o’clock. BY a) When I won the prize I was very happy. f) I want to learn lots of things about Biology. a) (ayer noche) I could not sleep last night. e) ¿Qué tiempo hace? e) ____________________________. f) ____________________________. d) (la semana pasada) I went to Málaga _______. b) En verano hace calor. f) El sol brilla. d) ____________________________. 8) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). b) ____________________________. g) When I am in dark places I get __________. I am quite __________ in that subject.5) FILL THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH OF THE ADVERBS IN BRACKETS.

f) 08:35 _________________________. And ______? e) ______ ______ twenty-two ______ old. d) I don't like (aquellos) ______ boys. d) Unfortunately my cousin is not here. b) My text book. a) The computer is hers. f) (Estas) ______ letters are not for you. e) (Este) ______ dog lives in a kennel. d) ______________________________. c) How old ______ ______? d) ______ ______ twenty ______ old. a) (Estas) These chairs are Paul's. f) Anne and Peter's novel. g) (Aquella) ______ giraffe is very tall. What ______ ______ name? b) My ______ ______ Henry. b) My grandmother is a lot older than my father. a) Sally's computer. 6) a) My oldest brother's name is John. a) 18 eighteen b) 13 c) 17 d) 19 e) 28 f) 23 g) 30 h) 25 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 5) WHAT TIME IS IT? REVIEW a) 13:45 It is a quarter to two. c) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. a) Mi hermano mayor se llama John. b) 17:20 _________________________. 4) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 2) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING CARDINAL NUMBERS BY USING WORDS. c) 18:15 _________________________. b) ______________________________. e) 00:00 _________________________. c) (Esa) ______ house is very beautiful. f) ______________________________. c) Your walkman. g) 10:05 _________________________. d) 20:30 _________________________. c) What time is it? It is half past five. e) ______________________________. -55- FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING "THIS". b) I am talking to (este) ______ boy. d) ______________________________. "THAT" OR "THOSE". 3) TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO SPANISH. . e) ______________________________. e) Paul's cat. "THESE". f) What is ______ telephone ______? g) It ______ 063 14 86 25. c) ______________________________. d) My dog and your dog. h) (Ese) ______ computer is very expensive. a) Hello. e) On fridays I have breakfast in my cousin's bar.REVIEW REVIEW FROM UNIT 1 TO UNIT 5 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD.

d) (1st pl) _____ computers are very expensive. e) not /boots /mine /These /are e) ______________________________. f) for /I /eggs /have /breakfast f) ______________________________. woman) _______ come from Mars. g) a /dinner /at /past /quarter /I /seven /have g) ______________________________. b) (3rd pl) _____ books are very long. h) (3rd sg neutral)In the long run. g) (3rd sg fem) _____ skirt is too short. i) (ring) Suzanne always wears beautiful _______. h) hers /is /My /not /book h) ______________________________. leaf) In winter most _______ lose their _______. j) (tree. a) your /than /am /I /brother /taller a) I am taller than your brother. mouse) _______ catch _______ and _______ catch _______. 10) MAKE SENTENCES BY USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS. a) (strawberry) Do you like strawberries? b) (child) My _______ are all grown up. -56- c) ______________________________. box) I have all my _______ packed in _______. cat. _______ from Venus. d) (foot) My _______ hurt from walking. _____ effects are very dangerous. e) (3rd sg masc) _____ mobile phone takes pictures. c) (fox. a) business b) orange c) class d) watch e) duty f) hero g) day h) person i) catch j) wolf k) fuss l) glory m) fax n) city o) knife p) tornado q) tooth r) fly businesses ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ a) This is (1st sg) my car. b) brother /uncle /my /My /is /mother's b) ______________________________. i) my /brother's /sister-in-law /My /wife /is i) ______________________________. f) (2nd pl) _____ dictionaries are bilingual. d) summer /colder /is /much /Winter /than d) ______________________________.7) WHAT IS THE PLURAL FORM OF THE FOLLOWING WORDS? 9) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE SUITABLE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. goose. g) (book. f) (man. c) Physics /better /are /me /than /You /at 8) REVIEW FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE PLURAL OF THE NOUNS IN BRACKETS. e) (tomato) We are growing _______ in our garden. c) (2nd sg) _____ suitcase is very heavy. h) (city) New York is one of the most fascinating _______ in the world. .

a) (expensive) John has the most expensive car in Barcelona. f) The sky is _____ and roses are _____. g) (long) Margaret Thatcher is no ______ the United Kingdom's Prime Minister. i) My brother's wife is my ______. g) In case of _____ emergency call the police. Angry Fourth blue drink interested thirsty July half lunch red June Spring a) (near) This year I live nearer university than the year before. c) Is there _____ book on the floor? d) I ate* _____ hour ago. d) (early) I talked to him ______ this morning. b) (rich) Julia Roberts is the ______ actress on earth. d) (bad) Paul is the ______ student in his class. c) (little) Now I have to eat ______ than before because I suffered a heart attack. f) That man is _____ teacher. i) (easy) This is the ______ exercise. *jamás haya visto. h) (badly) The report was ______ written than expected. 12) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS ACCORDING TO THE FAMILY RELATIONSHIP. f) (far) Children are not allowed to go ______ the main door. h) (good) Gone with the wind is the ______ film I have ever seen*. Peter is very ill. b) (clear) Things are much _____ now to me. h) Please. 14) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORTY OF THE ADJECTIVES IN BRACKETS. j) My son's wife is my ______. g) The _____ of _____ is a very important date for Americans. f) (strong) My father is _____ than me. f) (hot) Brazil is the ______ country. e) _____ begins in March and summer in _____. g) My father's mother is my ______. e) My daughter's husband is my ______. b) (late) I call you ______. c) (cold) This is the ______ day I can remember. 16) FILL 13) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING AN INDEFINITE ("A". b) I am not _____ in that subject. c) My brother's daughter is my ______. d) (good) Things are getting _____. e) (interesting) The old films are _____ than the new ones. REVIEW a) My wife's mother is my mother-in-law. e) My uncle has _____ eagle in his house. I need to drink. a) I have to call an ambulance. c) I am _____. d) She is so _____ that she doesn't talk to anyone. a) I have lunch at _____ past one. "AN") ARTICLE. d) My daughter's son is my ______. l) My daughter's sons and daughters are my ______.11) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD FROM THE BOX. b) My sister's husband is my ______. 15) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE SUPERLATIVE FORM OF THE ADJECTIVES IN BRACKETS. g) (old) Julian is the ______ brother. f) My sister's son is my ______. h) (fat) Eating chocolate makes me _____. b) _____ chair is _____ place to sit. e) (well) I know her ______ than you might think. don't wear _____ skirt for the meeting. . e) (wise) My grandfather is the ______ person I have ever seen*. c) (happy) I couldn't be _____ than now. h) My son's daughter is my ______. g) (busy) I am a lot _____ with my new job. *comí -57- EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE COMPARATIVE OF SUPERIORITY OF THE FOLLOWING ADVERBS. k) My wife's father is my ______. a) (soon) This year the crop will be harvested sooner than the year before.

There aren’t five boys. en inglés. Las oraciones interrogativas se construyen anteponiendo la forma verbal “is” o “are” a “there” y a continuación se colocan el sujeto y los complementos si los hubiera. que en español se forman con “hay” se construyen en inglés utilizando “there is” (para hacer referencia a la existencia de un objeto.) o “there are” (para hacer referencia a la existencia de más de un objeto. por lo tanto. “una pequeña cantidad de”. etc. sin embargo. I shall take some wine.UNIT 6 GRAMMAR 1.). etc. “alguno(s)” “alguna(s)” o cualquier otra expresión que transmita la idea de partición indeterminada. “un poco de”. 6 English He gave some credit to him. se utiliza una misma forma verbal (“hay”) para referirse a la existencia tanto de uno como de varios objetos. Spanish Le dio algún crédito. Examples: English There are some children in the house.-THE USE OF “SOME” (EL USO DE “SOME”) “Some” equivale en español a “algo”. Tomaré vino. en muchas ocasiones cuando en inglés se usa “some” en español no se usa ningún tipo de partícula partitiva. “THERE IS” AND “THERE ARE” SENTENCES (ORACIONES CON “THERE IS” Y “THERE ARE”) Algunas de las oraciones impersonales en presente. Negative There isn’t any boy. English Pay me some attention. English I have some friends at school. Give me some bread. fenómenos. sin embargo. Spanish Tengo algunos amigos en el colegio. etc.1.2. Spanish Présteme un poco de atención. Dame pan. en inglés es muy frecuente el uso de “some” para expresar esta idea. Examples: Simple present English Singular Affirmative There is a boy. Spanish Hay algunos niños en la casa. el verbo de estas oraciones concuerda con el sujeto. a diferencia de lo que ocurre en español. ser. Plural There are five boys. ser. “algún”. seres. En español es muy frecuente omitir las palabras que expresan partición.“THERE IS” AND “THERE ARE” SENTENCES AND PARTITIVES (IMPERSONALES CON “THERE IS” Y “THERE ARE” Y PARTITIVOS) 1. En español. -59- . English Spanish Question Is there any boy? Are there five boys? 1.

Spanish Es cierto. al igual que “some”.Al igual que con “some”. Asimismo. traduzca por nada. En español “any” puede traducirse por “ningún”. después de explicar los usos de “some” y “any”. 6 “Any”. Spanish No hay ningún gato en la perrera. sin embargo. English Spanish Won’t you take some time to think about the matter? ¿No vas a tomarte algo de tiempo para pensar sobre el asunto? 1. “ninguna(s)”. -60- . Examples: English Any day the war coud break out. ask any doctor. Examples: English There aren’t any cats in the kennel. “any” puede emplearse en oraciones afirmativas. “algún”. puede que en la El uso de “some” suele restringirse a las oraciones afirmativas. English It’s true. Spanish Cualquier disgusto podría matarlo. Examples: English Spanish Won’t you take some more tea? ¿No vas a tomar algo más de té? English Do you need any help? Spanish ¿Necesitas ayuda? . I have got some. esta partícula no se cuando se espera una respuesta afirmativa. English Spanish Have you got any sister? ¿Tienes alguna hermana? Yes. “ninguno(s)”. English Is there any teacher in the garden? Spanish ¿Hay algún profesor en el jardín? English I don’t have any brother. podemos deducir que la respuesta afirmativa a una oración interrogativa en la que se use “any” hará uso de “some”. especialmente si la pregunta interrogativa se formula de forma negativa.3. English Any upset could kill him.-THE USE OF “ANY” (EL USO DE “ANY”) Spanish Cualquier día la guerra podría estallar. “Any” se emplea en oraciones negativas e interrogativas. “alguno(s)” o “alguna(s)”. también traducción hacia el español de una oración en puede utilizarse en oraciones interrogativas la que se emplee “any”. como por ejemplo cuando se ofrece alguna Examples: cosa. pregúntale a cualquier médico. es un término partitivo en inglés. Si. tengo (algunas). Por lo tanto. Spanish No tengo ningún hermano. pero entonces su significado difiere del de “some” y debe traducirse por “cualquier(a)”.

I have much money.? (¿cuánto/ a. Sólo tengo unas pocas cintas. “NOT ENOUGH” (EL USO DE “TOO”..? (¿cuántos/ as. Bebieron mucho vino.-QUANTITIES (CANTIDADES) countable a lot(s) of (muchos/ as) large quantities (not) many ([no] muchos/ as) how many.?) small quantities a few (pocos/ as) very few (muy pocos/ as) uncountable a lot(s) of (mucho/ a) (not) much ([no] mucho/ a) how much. “TOO MANY”. I’d like a smaller one. “TOO MANY”. las connotaciones de este tipo de oraciones son negativas ya que expresan una queja por ese exceso: Examples: English I don´t want to go out. poca (no mucha) cerveza y muy poca limonada.. Mi pantalla es demasiado pequeña. Aquí hay mucha gente.2. pero no tengo muchos compacts. “Enough” se escribe después del adjetivo pero antes del sustantivo y expresa la idea de suficiencia. 6 Spanish No quiero salir.. My house is too big. I’d like a bigger one. Tengo muchos libros. “TOO MUCH”. Me gustaría una más pequeña. I’ve got too much work. They drank a lot of wine. Mi casa es demasiado grande. sin embargo los envases que las contienen son contables.. but I haven´t got many CD’s. Examples: English Spanish How much water did they drink? ¿Cuánta agua bebieron? English Spanish How many bottles of water did they drink? ¿Cuántas botellas de agua bebieron? A continuación vamos a ver algunos ejemplos de las expresiones de cantidad más 2. Spanish Estoy estresado. Were there many people? ¿Había muchas personas? How much money do you have? ¿Cuánto dinero tienes? I have got a lot of books. Para expresar la idea de que hay algo en exceso utilizaremos este tipo construcciones: Examples: + TOO + + much many + + adjetivo sustantivo incontable sustantivo contable Nótese que.?) a little (poco/a) very little (muy poco/ a) Muchos términos ingleses que hacen referencia a comidas son incontables.1. “ENOUGH”. Estoy demasiado cansado. English There are too many chairs in this room. “TOO MUCH”.-THE USE OF “TOO”. and very little lemonade. English I’m stressed. Examples: English Spanish English Spanish My screen is too small. I’m too tired... frecuentemente. de tener todo lo que uno necesita. not much beer. Examples: “NOT ENOUGH”) English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish How many apples do you have? ¿Cuántas manzanas tienes? I have only got a few tapes. Tengo mucho dinero. Was there much noise? ¿Había mucho ruido? There are many people here.. Me gustaría una más grande.. Tengo demasiado trabajo. -61- . comunes en inglés: “ENOUGH”. Spanish Hay demasiadas sillas en esta habitación.

2. 2. alguna parte. English Spanish English Things anything nada. I can see nothing with this fog. se utilizan los compuestos “anybody”. 6 Things something algo Places somewhere alguna parte English There wasn’t anybody in the party. alguien. they can go nowhere. afirmativas e interrogativas (de acuerdo con lo que se ha visto anteriormente) con la función de pronombres indefinidos. Places nowhere ninguna parte Examples: English Negative and question Spanish People anybody / anyone nadie. There isn’t enough food for everybody. no pueden ir a ninguna parte. como se ve. People somebody / someone alguien Spanish Están atrapados.-“SOME”. al contrario que en español. They are trapped. cualquier persona Are you doing anything tonight? ¿Vas a hacer algo esta noche? I met somebody interesting last night. English They are trapped. son compuestos de “any” y “some”.Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish Have you got enough money? ¿Tienes suficiente dinero? The table isn’t big enough for six people. Negative People nobody / no one nadie There was nobody in the party. “ANY” Y “NO”) Estos términos. cualquier cosa Places anywhere ninguna parte. Examples: English I can’t see anything with this fog. Nobody turned up for the meeting. “ANY” AND “NO” COMPOUNDS (INDEFINIDOS CON “SOME”. Spanish Things nothing nada No había nadie en la fiesta. cualquier parte Spanish -62- . se emplearán en frases negativas. No hay suficiente comida para todos. no se debe negar dos veces. En inglés. Nadie apareció en la reunión. Anoche conocí a alguien interesante. algo. La mesa no es suficientemente grande para seis personas. they can’t go anywhere. “anywhere” y “anything” cuando anteriormente se ha negado. Affirmative Spanish No puedo ver nada con esta niebla. Por lo tanto. por lo tanto.

That’s right.m. anything else? The exchange rate is 1. please? Recepcionista: ¿Me pueden enseñar sus pasaportes. please? Of course.DAILY 1. Recepcionista: No. 50 libras. That’s right. How long are you going to stay at this hotel for? Would you like half or full board? Recepcionista: ¿Cuánto tiempo van a quedarse en este hotel? ¿Quieren media pensión o pensión completa? May I see your passports. Customer: Cliente: Thank you very much. -63- Could you change us pounds into euros? What’s the exchange rate? The exhange rate is 1. Recepcionista: De nada. ¿desean algo más? Customer: Cliente: Receptionist: Could you change us pounds into euros? What’s the exchange rate? ¿Podría cambiarnos libras por euros? ¿A cómo está el cambio? Of course. Smith and Mrs. ladies! Can I help you? Recepcionista: ¡Buenas noches. please I’ve booked two single rooms for Mrs. here you are Do we have to fill in any form? Customer: Cliente: We’re just going to stay at this hotel for two days.3 euro to the pound. Preferimos media pensión. Receptionist: May I see your passports. así es. lo haré yo por ustedes. We’d like to have half board.? ¿Podría despertarnos a las siete de la mañana? Could you please wake us up at seven a. Sí. Johnson. por favor? Customer: Cliente: Customer: Cliente: Of course. señoras! ¿Puedo ayudarles en algo? I’ve booked two single rooms for Mrs. aquí los tiene.? Receptionist: Of course.-AT THE HOTEL (EN EL HOTEL) SPEAKING Good evening. por favor. por favor. Smith y Sra. Sí. please. Receptionist: We’re just going to stay at this hotel for two days. How much would you like to change? £50. I’ll do it for you.m. Customer: Cliente: Could you please wake us up at seven a. Tan sólo vamos a quedarnos en este hotel dos días. I’ll do it for you 6 You are welcome Receptionist: No. Muchas gracias. Would you like two single rooms with a bathroom? Recepcionista: Déjeme comprobarlo en el ordenador. Por supuesto. anything else? Recepcionista: Por supuesto. He reservado dos habitaciones individuales a nombre de la Sra. Would you like two single rooms with a bathroom? How long are you going to stay at this hotel for? Would you like half or full board? Receptionist: Good evening.3 euros por libra.3 euro to the pound. please. How much would you like to change? Recepcionista: El cambio está a 1. Receptionist: You are welcome. We’d like to have half board Let me check on the computer. ladies! Can I help you? Let me check on the computer. please . Do we have to fill in any form? ¿Tenemos que rellenar alguna hoja de registro de entrada? Thank you very much No. ¿Quieren dos habitaciones individuales con baño? Customer: Cliente: Receptionist: Yes. Johnson. Smith and Mrs. here you are. Johnson Customer: Cliente: Yes. ¿Cuánto quieren cambiar? Customer: Cliente: £50.

-FURNITURE (MOBILIARIO) English armchair fridge curtains cooker table bed alarm clock chair sofa television lamp carpet closet vase blanket pillow sheets bedside table ashtray drawer matress sillón nevera cortinas hornilla mesa cama despertador silla sofá televisión lámpara alfombra armario florero manta almohada sábanas mesita de noche cenicero cajón colchón -64Spanish ashtray alarm-clock lamp bed .-PARTS OF THE HOUSE (PARTES DE LA CASA) English window door floor roof wall VOCABULARY Spanish ventana puerta suelo tejado pared door 2.CIVILIAN 1.-ROOMS OF THE HOUSE (HABITACIONES DE LA CASA) English bedroom bathroom kitchen living-room dining-room Spanish dormitorio cuarto de baño cocina sala de estar comedor garaje aseo jardín living-room garage toilet garden 6 kitchen 3.

jewellery and glass. don’t miss the opportunity to come! a) Charles Henry Harrod is a grocery wholesaler and tea merchant.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. and in 1889 it becomes a public limited company. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) When does Charles Henry Harrod buy the store? 2) What is the name of the famous businessman who buys Harrods in 1985? 3) What is the stores motto? -65- . g) Since 1985 Harrods is the best and the most well known department store in the world. He buys this store in 1849. c) In 1889 it only sells food. Harrods is probably the best and the most well known department store in the world. e) The Canadian Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force use parts of the building during the First World War. The Canadian Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force use parts of the building during the Second World War.-ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)? (DI SI ESTAS ORACIONES SON VERDADERAS O FALASAS) The tale begins with Charles Henry Harrod who is a grocery wholesaler and a tea merchant. In 1902 it becomes London’s biggest store and remains like that throughout the 1920s and 1930s. furniture. b) The tale begins with Mohemend Al Fayed. perfumes. In 1985.-THE BATHROOM (EL CUARTO DE BAÑO) English shower wash-basin towel soap tap sponge tooth brush brush comb lotion ducha lavabo toalla jabón grifo esponja cepillo de dientes cepillo peine loción Spanish wash-basin tap tooth brush comb READING 1. Nowadays. T/F T/F T/F T/F 6 T/F T/F T/F 3. If you are in London. which sells food.The stores motto is “everything for everyone everywhere”. d) In 1902 it becomes London’s biggest store. Through constant innovation and evolution it is in the forefront of the changing trends.4.-THE HISTORY OF HARRODS (LA HISTORIA DE HARRODS) COMPREHENSION 2. the famous businessman Mohamed Al Fayed buys it and decides to prepare it for the decades ahead. f) In 1985 the famous businessman Mohamed Al Fayed buys Harrods.

usaremos cartuchos de fogueo.-LIGHT WEAPONRY (ARMAMENTO LIGERO) English bayonet mortar pistol sword knife revolver burst round machine gun rocket launcher bullet blank cartridge live ammunition shell hand grenade rate of fire barrel bore chamber flash suppressor trigger sub-machine gun shoot TERMS Spanish bayoneta mortero pistola espada cuchillo revólver ráfaga disparo ametralladora lanzagranadas bala cartucho de fogueo munición de guerra granada de mortero granada de mano cadencia de fuego cañón ánima recámara bocacha apagafuegos disparador subfusil disparar pistol knife-bayonet machine gun bullet 6 sub-machine gun MILITARY CONVERSATION Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: What are you doing? ¿Qué estás haciendo? I’m collecting ammunition for the exercise we have tomorrow. By the way. What are you doing? I’m collecting ammunition for the exercise we have tomorrow What kind of exercise is it about? Will it be carried out with live ammnuniton? It’s a double action exercise. Estoy cogiendo munición para el ejercicio que tenemos mañana. an ambush drill No. tengo que preparar los cargadores. By the way. an ambush drill. No. Will it be carried out with live ammunition? ¿Se realizará con munición de guerra? No. Por cierto. we’ll shoot blank cartridges. I must prepare the magazines.MILITARY 1. Es un ejercicio de doble acción. un ejercicio de emboscada. I must prepare my magazines -66- . What kind of exercise is it about? ¿De qué tipo de ejercicio se trata? It’s a double action exercise. we’ll shoot blank cartridges.

b) You are _______ pupil but I am a teacher.EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE “A” OR “AN”. e) _______ colour of this watch is very nice. a) The door of the room is open. c) I have _______ uncle in Russia. f) There _____ a lot of water in the swimming pool. a) There are twenty pupils in the room. f) Anthony is _______ best boy in the world. c) There _____ two cats in the sofa. g) William wants _______ car for his birthday. b) There _____ a big dog in the street. a) How many people are there in this room? b) How _____ money do you have? c) How _____ chairs are there in the living-room? d) How _____ milk is there? e) How _____ wine is there? f) How _____ books are there in the bedroom? 6 5) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO J). English terms 1) flash suppressor 2) rate of fire 3) light weaponry 4) trigger 5) bullet 6) machine gun 7) shell 8) barrel 9) burst 10) round -67- Spanish terms a) cadencia de fuego b) ametralladora c) cañón d) granada de mortero e) bocacha de apagafuegos f) disparo g) armamento ligero h) bala i) disparador j) ráfaga . e) There _____ some wine in the bottle. 3) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE SUITABLE FORM OF THE VERB “TO BE”. d) Day after day she sees ______old dog in the street. h) There _____ a table in the dining-room. d) There _____ too much paint in your painting. g) There _____ a couple of girls in the kitchen. 4) WHERE CAN YOU FIND THE FOLLOWING THINGS? a) Sugar a) In the kitchen b) Soap b) __________________ c) Water c) __________________ d) Cheese d) __________________ e) Bed e) __________________ f) Rice f) __________________ g) Car g) __________________ h) Television h) __________________ i) Matress i) __________________ j) Cooker j) __________________ k) Towel k) __________________ 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH “MUCH” OR “MANY”. FOLLOWING GAPS WITH “THE”.

h) I see you don’t have _______ maps. “SOMETHING”. j) Don’t let _______ in. “ANYBODY”. e) Are there _______ letters for me? f) When would you like to come? _______ day would suit me. g) ______________________________ . 9) MAKE SENTENCES USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS. d) ______________________________ e) There are many people here. ETC. e) There is not _____ chocolate in the fridge. h) In Adrian’s living-room there are two _____. c) Please. c) There is _____ water in the bath. a) Is there a boy in the garden? b) There are two televisions in Thomas’ living-room. 6 10)CHANGE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE INTERROGATIVE FORM. MAKING THE APPROPRIATE COMPOUNDS IF NECESSARY (“SOMEBODY”. d) There is _____ milk in your glass. d) In the zoo there _____ many animals. e) ______________________________ f) There is a big bed in her living-room. Michael. 7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH “SOME” OR “ANY”. “SOMEWHERE”.6) FILL EACH OF THE “SOME” OR “ANY”. f) ______________________________ g) There is some coffee in the coffeepot. a) There is a boy in the garden. c) living-room /very /isn’t /Your /nice c) ______________________________. b) ______________________________ c) There isn’t any sugar. a) There is not any butter. the _____ in the kitchen. f) There are _____ trees in the garden. three_____ and one _____. e) Wasn’t she _____ very nice girl? f) The bed is in the _____. Would you like to borrow _______ of mine? i) Come and have supper with us if you aren’t doing _______ tonight. a) There’s some milk in that jug. g) There is _____ wine in Angelica’s glass. d) lamp /does / work /not / That d) ______________________________. open the _____ and draw the _____. g) _______ told me you’ve got _______ bad news for me. e) have /an /bed /We /old e) ______________________________. h) There are _____ medicines in the first-aid kit. c) Is there _______ here who speaks Italian? d) I’d like to buy you _______ new clothes but don’t have _______ money. I’m too busy to see _______. “ANYONE”. “ANYTHING”. b) There is not _____ table in my bedroom. curtains television than shower window toilets sofas bedroom yours fridge carpets are a bathroom a) My bedroom is bigger than yours.). k) He lives _______ in France now. FOLLOWING GAPS WITH 8) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD FROM THE BOX. a) many /How /children /in/ are/ room /the /there? a) How many children are there in the room? b) sugar /any /not /There /is b) ______________________________. b) Peter’s house has a big bathroom and two little _____. will you grind _______?. l) Would you like _______ to drink? -68- g) The _____ and the towel are in the _____. b) I’m afraid there isn’t _______ coffee left. c) ______________________________ d) There is some tea in the teapot.

) ? 1. Las oraciones interrogativo-negativas se construyen siguiendo el mismo orden de la forma interrogativa en afirmativa: Examples: English Don’t you like English? Don’t they eat apples? Spanish ¿No te gusta el inglés? ¿No comen (ellos) manzanas? ISN’T/ AREN’T + SUJETO + (complts.) ? Am I tall? Are you clever? Is he a student? Is she intelligent? Is it hard? Examples: English Do you like any sport? Do they eat apples? Does she go to class? Spanish ¿Te gusta algún deporte? ¿Comen (ellos) manzanas? ¿Va (ella) a clase? 7 Are we engaged? Are they interesting? ¿Son (ellos) interesantes? Por lo general. estar’) Simple present / Question form AM/ IS/ ARE + SUJETO + (complts. exceptuando los anómalos not" en "aren´t”: o defectivos. TO BE (‘ser.2. en las oraciones interrogativonegativas "is not" se contrae en "isn´t" y "are Todos los verbos. estar’) Simple present / Contracted negative question form La forma interrogativo-negativa del auxiliar "to do" suele contraerse en "don´t" y "doesn´t". se conjugan en su forma interrogativa según el modelo anterior.-THE VERB "TO BE" (EL VERBO “TO BE” ) La forma interrogativa del verbo "to be" se constituye de la siguiente manera: TO BE (‘ser.) ? Examples: English Spanish ¿Soy (yo) alto? ¿Eres (tú) listo? ¿Es (usted) listo? ¿Sois (vosotros) listos? ¿Son (ustedes) listos? ¿Es (él) un estudiante? ¿Es (ella) inteligente? ¿Es (eso) difícil? ¿Estamos (nosotros) comprometidos? La forma del auxiliar "to do" cambia para la tercera persona del singular y adopta la forma de "does": REGULAR VERBS (3rd) Simple present / Question form verbo en DOES + SUJETO + INFINITIVO + (complts.) ? Examples: English Isn´t she pretty? Aren´t they tall? Aren´t we brave? Aren´t you blind? Spanish ¿No es (ella) guapa? ¿No son (ellos) altos? ¿No somos (nosotros) valientes? ¿No eres (tú) ciego? Doesn’t she go to class? ¿No va (ella) a clase? .1.69 - .UNIT 7 GRAMMAR 1.-QUESTIONS (ORACIONES INTERROGATIVAS) 1.-AUXILIARY "TO DO" (AUXILIAR “TO DO”) La forma interrogativa de las oraciones en presente de indicativo para los verbos regulares es la siguiente: REGULAR VERBS Simple present / Question form DO + SUJETO + verbo en INFINITIVO + (complts.

tras a lo largo de en delante de.) ? .. bajo sobre. English in near next to of Spanish en. fuera de Examples: English Is she not pretty? Are they not tall? Are we not brave? Are you not blind? Spanish ¿No es (ella) guapa? ¿No son (ellos) altos? ¿No somos (nosotros)valientes? ¿No eres (tú) ciego? off on out over (a) round since till. A continuación aparecen las más comunes: English a por Spanish at [reposo] to [movimiento] by [el agente] for [la causa] above (más elevado.. desde. por medio de a. lejos de sobre. bajo con entre. quitado de) among [más de dos] between [dos] debajo de debajo de al lado de además de entre más allá de. inferior a) beneath (más bajo de. acerca de.Si no se usa esta contracción. por entre debajo de hasta en sobre . inferior a) off (lejos de. (a)dentro cerca de. until [tiempo] as far as [espacio] into [cuando está expresado el lugar] of [posesión] from [procedencia] with [materia] under (debajo de) below (más bajo de. detrás de 7 across against after along at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond by down during for from Las siguientes preposiciones en español pueden traducirse de varias formas. sobre por medio de. arriba. estar’) Simple present / Negative question form AM/ IS/ ARE + SUJETO + NOT + (complts. durante. junto a de separado de.70 - . hacia.-PREPOSITIONS I (PREPOSICIONES I) Las preposiciones inglesas más usadas son: English above about Spanish sobre alrededor de. en lo alto de debajo de. en fuera sobre. junto a abajo durante por. a través de contra después de.. until through to towards under up underneath with within without 2. más allá de alrededor de desde hasta por. en el espacio de. la forma para estas interrogativas es la siguiente: TO BE (‘ser. superior) on. sobre por. de. ante. para fuera de. para hacia debajo de. . antes de tras. upon [con apoyo] till.. dentro de sin.

Creo que una botella de vino del país les encantaría. Which wine do you recommend? Perfecto. Here you have the menu. Could you bring us whatever you think is best on the menu? ¿Podría traernos lo que más le guste del menú? I'd go for veal cutlets and French fries. por favor.DAILY 1. please. ¿Qué vino nos recomienda? I think you'd love a bottle of table wine. please Waiter: Camarero: Customer: Cliente: Good evening! Where would you like to sit? ¡Buenas tardes! ¿Dónde desean sentarse? Good evening! Near the window. That's wonderful. ¡Buenas tardes! Cerca de la ventana. Which wine do you recommend? I think you'd love a bottle of table wine .71 - . Yo me tomaría unas chuletas de ternera con patatas fritas.-IN THE RESTAURANT (EN EL RESTAURANTE) SPEAKING Good evening! Where would you like to sit? Good evening! Near the window. Here you have the menu Waiter: Camarero: Customer: Cliente: Waiter: 7 Could you bring us whatever you think is best on the menu? Camarero: Customer: Cliente: Waiter: I'd go for veal cutlets and French fries Camarero: That's wonderful. Aquí tienen el menú.

CEREALS AND VEGETABLES (FRUTAS. CEREALES Y VERDURAS) English lemon orange pear grape banana fig plum peach tomato potato strawberry apple lettuce carrot beans onions olives cucumber flour peas watermelon dates rice pasta noodles . huevo cocido) queso jamón pan azúcar sal tortilla cereales mantequilla mermelada miel té café cereals jam coffee tea fried eggs with ham 7 2.-FRUITS.72 Spanish limón naranja pera uva plátano higo ciruela melocotón tomate patata fresa manzana lechuga zanahoria judías cebollas aceitunas pepino harina guisantes melón dátiles arroz pasta fideos lemons pears figs apples watermelons oranges strawberries dates grapes .CIVILIAN 1.-BREAKFAST (DESAYUNO) English milk egg (fried egg. boiled egg) cheese ham bread sugar salt omelette cereals butter jam honey tea coffee leche VOCABULARY Spanish huevo (huevo frito.

-DESSERTS (POSTRES) English ice-cream yoghurt sweets / candies cake pudding rice pudding chocolate custard jelly helado yogur caramelos tarta pudin arroz con leche chocolate natillas gelatina Spanish 6.-THE TABLE (LA MESA) English knife fork spoon teaspoon glass serviette napkin table cloth plate caster salt cellar vinegar pepper oil tray mug toothpicks lay / set the oven cook .73 Spanish cuchillo tenedor cuchara cucharilla vaso servilleta servilleta mantel plato vinagrera salero vinagre pimienta aceite bandeja taza palillos de dientes poner la mesa horno cocinar yogohurt cake ice-cream .3. vino tinto) zumo whisky limonada gaseosa ron ginebra bebidas no alcohólicas bebidas alcohólicas Spanish water beer champagne 7 5.-DRINKS (BEBIDAS) English water beer champagne wine (white wine.-MEAT AND FISH (CARNE Y PESCADO) English salami sausage ham veal beef pork chicken steak cutlet trout hake tuna mussels crab shrimp sword-fish squid turkey hamburguer Spanish salchichón salchicha jamón ternera buey cerdo pollo filete chuleta tucha merluza atún mejillones cangrejo gamba pez espada calamar pavo hamburguesa 4. red wine) juice whisky lemonade soda rum gin non-alcoholic drinks spirits agua cerveza champán vino (vino blanco.

bread and butter or toast with jam or marmalade. It starts at seven o'clock in the afternoon. Many people take an additional meal known as tea.-BRITISH MEALS (COMIDAS BRITÁNICAS) COMPREHENSION 2. biscuits. pudding. 2) 3) 4) 7 MILITARY 1. In special occasions a full dinner consists of several courses: soup.-HEAVY WEAPONRY (ARMAMENTO PESADO) TERMS English loader turret hatch gun howitzer towed artillery self propelled gun guided weapon artillery piece crew antitank weapon cargador torreta escotilla cañón obús Spanish turret artillería remolcada cañón autopropulsado arma guiada pieza de artillería tripulación arma contracarro howitzer .READING 1. ham. It is a more substantial meal than the Spanish breakfast. tea or milk. and coffee. toast. It is a light meal consisting of a simple dish of hot or cold meat. British people usually choose: fruit. at about four o'clock.The last meal of the day is dinner. Sometimes fruit and cheese too. fish. it is tea time. cake and tea. In the afternoon. meat or poultry with potatoes and vegetables. This is the principal meal. how many meals do British people have a day? Is British breakfast a more substantial meal than Spanish breakfast? When do British people have tea? According to the text. bread and butter and pudding. Beakfast is usually between half past seven and half past eight in the morning. cheese and dessert. what is the last meal of the day? British people have at least three meals a day: breakfast.ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. porridge.. lunch and dinner. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) At least.74 - . The second meal of the day is lunch. fish. People eat bread and butter. eggs (boiled or fried) bacon. People have lunch between midday and half past one. a vegetable.

Eres verdaderamente eficiente. this morning I went to the gas station You’re really efficient Thanks. esta mañana fui a la gasolinera. No se preocupe.missile gunner tank missile rocket tank English tirador carro de combate misil cohete mina contracarro explosivo calibre bombardeo fuego indirecto barrera metralla esquirla Spanish antitank mine explosive caliber bombardment indirect fire barrage shrapnel gunner splinter 7 MILITARY Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: CONVERSATION Did you check the track of the tank? ¿Has comprobado la cadena del carro de combate? Yes. Did you already refuel the tank? ¿Has repostado ya el carro? Yes. Don't worry. this morning I went to the gas station. ya está hecho. mi Sargento. everything was OK. Sir. mi Sargento. Sir. Sir. Sí. Don't forget to install the machine gun on the turret. mi Sargento. it is already done. No olvides instalar la ametralladora en la torreta. it is already done Did you already refuel the tank? Yes. todo estaba correcto. . Sí. everything was OK Don´t forget to install the machine gun on the turret Don´t worry. Thanks. Sir. You're really efficient. Gracias.75 - Did you check the track of the tank? Yes. Sir. Sir .

f) __________________________________. d) ______________________________ d) ______________________________ e) I am five feet tall. a) You like apples. b) Debajo de nuestra casa hay un cementerio. 7 2) MAKE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES (1) INTERROGATIVE AND (2) INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE. . d) En septiembre llueve mucho. h) Después de cuatro horas estamos cansados. b) __________________________________. f) ______________________________ g) You eat potatoes. a) Don't you like apples? b) They want a car.EXERCISES 1) MAKE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE 3) AND NEGATIVE. c) ______________________________ d) We buy some tickets for the theatre. d) __________________________________. g) Don't leave until I tell you. d) __________________________________. e) __________________________________. g) __________________________________. c) Hay un supermercado detrás de la escuela. d) The sun shines over the city. b) ______________________________ c) She plays the guitar. b) ______________________________ b) ______________________________ c) She is a pretty girl. i) __________________________________. c) __________________________________. h) Before going out. c) __________________________________. e) ______________________________ e) ______________________________ f) He is the best good-looking boy. g) __________________________________. a) There is a cinema near my house. f) __________________________________. b) __________________________________. e) Stay by my side. c) ______________________________ c) ______________________________ d) We are Mary's best friends. f) ______________________________ f) ______________________________ g) You are my sister-in-law's brother. a) What city do you come from? a) ¿De qué ciudad vienes? b) Put the glass on the table. e) __________________________________. INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING a) Cerca de mi casa hay un cine. f) The chair is between the door and the window. h) __________________________________. put your application on the table. a) You are tall. a) Are you tall? a) Aren't you tall? b) They are interested in Geography. c) The road passes across the valley. g) ______________________________ g) ______________________________ 4) TRANSLATE SENTENCES. e) ______________________________ f) He takes several pictures. g) De Madrid a Granada hay 450 km. h) __________________________________. f) Con un coche es suficiente. i) La guerra contra aquel país es un fracaso.76 - . e) El martes se casa John. d) ______________________________ e) I have a mobile. g) ______________________________ TRANSLATE INTO SPANISH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES.

lechuga. aceite de oliva) I like bread with tomato and olive oil.77 - . té) I don't like ______ with ______. cebolla) I make ______ with ______ . that way it is very tasty! d) (vinagre. c) (cocinar. horno) I ______ the ______ in the ______. g) (ensalada. b) (cuchara. cuchillo) Chinese people don't use ______ . tomate.5) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING 6) WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING THE TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH OF THE WORDS IN EACH COLUMN? BRACKETS. a) (pan. tenedor.______ and ______. juice veal A B WORDS DON'T FIT INTO C D beer salami tea lemon sugar sausage strawberry orange wine ham apple tuna lettuce grape e) (azúcar.______ nor ______. f) (pavo) English people eat ______ at Christmas. pimienta) I am allergic to ______ and ______. whisky vinegar carrot banana lemonade pork beans fig 7 7) MATCH TERMS 1) TO 8) SENTENCES A) TO H). pollo. English terms 1) crew 2) indirect fire 3) tank 4) artillery piece 5) hatch 6) towed artillery 7) antitank weapon 8) splinter Spanish terms a) escotilla b) carro de combate c) artillería remolcada d) tripulación e) arma contracarro f) pieza de artillería g) fuego indirecto h) esquirla . tomate.

anduviste 2nd S you walked (usted) andaba. se sigue la regla general: El pasado de los verbos regulares en inglés Examples: se forma añadiendo la terminación "-ed" al infinitivo sin la preposición "to". no anduvieron (ellos/ as) no andaban. viví -79- we did not walk (nosotros/ as) no andábamos. 1. no anduvieron you did not walk 2nd P you didn’t walk they did not walk 3rd P they didn’t walk . no anduvisteis (ustedes) no andaban.-SIMPLE PAST OF THE REGULAR VERBS (PASADO SIMPLE DE LOS VERBOS REGULARES) 1. que se añade la terminación "-s" para formar la tercera persona Spanish jugar/ (yo) jugaba.g. ‘[él] anda’). no anduviste you did not walk 2nd S you didn’t walk (usted) no andaba. no anduvo La forma negativa del pasado simple en inglés de los verbos (salvo los verbos anómalos). “I worked”. anduve (tú) andabas. anduvimos (vosotros/ as) andabais.1. como en interrogativa. 1st P we didn’t walk no anduvimos (vosotros/ as) no andabais. dicha "e" desaparece al añadir "-ed": Example: English Spanish to live/ I lived vivir/ (yo) vivía. anduvo 1st P we walked (nosotros/ as) andábamos. anduvieron he/ she/ it did not walk 3rd S he/ she/ it didn’t walk (él/ ella/ *ello) no andaba. anduvo 3rd S he/ she/ it walked (él/ ella/ *ello) andaba. se construye (para todas las personas) anteponiendo la forma negativa del pasado simple del auxiliar “to do” (“did not” o “didn’t”) al verbo en infinitivo sin la partícula “to”. ‘trabajaba’) y al pretérito perfecto simple de indicativo (e. lloré “I worked”. NEGATIVE FORM (FORMA NEGATIVA) como en negativa.: “I walked”. en pasado simple existe una única forma verbal para todas las personas.g. anduvisteis (ustedes) andaban. ‘anduve’. jugué del singular (e. ‘trabajé’).2. no anduve (tú) no andabas. pero si en lugar de estar precedida por consonante lo está por vocal. El pasado English to cry/ I cried simple en inglés equivale al pretérito imperfecto de indicativo español (e. TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple past / Affirmative form English Spanish 1st S I walked (yo) andaba.UNIT 8 GRAMMAR 1.g. A diferencia de lo que English to play/ I played ocurre en presente. ‘andaba’.: “he walks”. tanto en afirmativa. al tomar la terminación “-ed” dicha “y” se cambia por “i”.-AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA) b) Si termina en “y” precedida de consonante. no anduvo 8 2nd P you walked Para la adición de la terminación "-ed" hay que tener en cuenta las siguientes reglas ortográficas: a) Si el infinitivo termina en "e". Spanish llorar/ (yo) lloraba. TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple past / Negative form English Spanish I did not walk 1st S I didn’t walk (yo) no andaba.: “I walked”. anduvieron 3rd P they walked (ellos/ as) andaban.

incluso para la tercera de singular: TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple past / Question form English Spanish 1st S did I walk? ¿andaba. no anduvisteis (vosotros/ as)? ¿no andaban. no anduvimos 1st P didn’t we walk? (nosotros/ as)? ¿no andabais. En el resto de oraciones en pasado simple (las negativas. no anduviste (tú)? did you not walk? 2nd S didn’t you walk? ¿no andaba. incluso para la tercera de singular: -80I went to Madrid last week. no obstante. anduvo (usted)? did you not walk? 2nd P didn’t you walk? did they not walk? ¿no andaban.3. no anduvieron (ustedes)? ¿andabas. no anduvo rd 3 S didn’t he/ she/ it (él/ ella/ *ello)? walk? did we not walk? ¿no andábamos. anduvieron (ellos/ as)? English Spanish When did you go to Madrid? ¿Cuándo fuiste a Madrid? 1. La forma verbal es igual para todas las personas. aduvimos (nosotros/ as)? ¿andabais.1.seguida del verbo en infinitivo sin la partícula "to". anduvo (él/ ella/ *ello)? 8 2. seguido del sujeto y del verbo en infinitivo sin la partícula "to". No. es más común el uso de la forma contraída (“didn’t”) que el de la forma no contraída ("did not").4. no fui a Barcelona. no anduve (yo)? ¿no andabas. Existen dos maneras posibles para construir la forma interrogativo-negativa.-QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVA) La forma interrogativa del pasado simple en inglés se forma con el auxiliar "to do" en pasado ("did") -tal y como se explica en la unidad 7-. Fui a Madrid la semana pasada. las interrogativas y las interrogativo-negativas) estos verbos se comportan como verbos regulares: 1st P did we walk? ¿andábamos. anduvisteis (vosotros/ as)? 2nd P did you walk? ¿andaban. La forma verbal es igual para todas las personas. no anduvieron 3rd P didn’t they walk? (ellos/ as)? did he/ she/ it 3rd S walk? ¿andaba. anduviste (tú)? 2nd S did you walk? ¿andaba. I didn’t go to Barcelona. anduvieron (ustedes)? Examples: 3rd P did they walk? ¿andaban.. . Didn’t you go to Barcelona? ¿No fuiste a Barcelona? No. anduve (yo)? TO WALK (‘andar’) Simple past / Negative question form English Spanish did I not walk? 1st S didn’t I walk? ¿no andaba. no anduvo (usted)? did he/ she/ it not walk? ¿no andaba.NEGATIVE QUESTION (FORMA INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVA) La forma interrogativo-negativa del pasado simple en inglés se forma con el auxiliar "to do" en pasado y la partícula negativa "not" ("did not" o "didn't") -tal y como se explica en la unidad 7.-PAST SIMPLE OF THE IRREGULAR VERBS (PASADO SIMPLE DE LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES) En inglés hay un gran número de verbos que toman formas irregulares para las oraciones en pasado simple afirmativas (ver lista de verbos irregulares).

fuimos (nosotos/ as) estábamos. no fue 3rd S he/ she/ it wasn’t (él/ ella/ *ello) no estaba. fui (yo) estaba.-AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA) 3.las personas. no estuvimos (vosotros/ as) erais.2. estuve (tú) no eras. no estuve English Spanish 1st S I was 8 he/ she/ it 3rd S was (él/ ella/ *ello) era. estuvo he/ she/ it was not (él/ ella/ *ello) no era. estar’) Simple past / Affirmative form TO BE (‘ser. no estuvo I was not 1st S I wasn’t (yo) no era. no fuisteis (vosotros/ as) no estabais. no fueron (ellos/ as) no estaban.-NEGATIVE FORM (FORMA NEGATIVA) Las formas verbales del pasado simple del verbo “to be” en negativa son “was not” El verbo “to be” es un verbo anómalo. no fuimos (nosotos/ as) no estábamos. no estuvo you were not 2nd S you weren’t (usted) no era. estuvimos we were not 1st P we weren’t (nosotros/ as) no éramos. Para la primera y tercera persona del singular la forma es “was”. fue (usted) estaba. no estuvieron -81- . sino que que hay que aprender las formas irregulares.1. fuisteis (vosotros/ as) estabais. TO BE (‘ser. no fui (yo) no estaba. estuvo 1st P we were (nosotros/ as) éramos. por lo /“wasn’t” para la primera y tercera persona del tanto para formar el pasado simple no hay que singular y “were not” /”weren’t” para el resto de seguir las reglas que hemos visto con anteriori. estar’) Simple past / Affirmative form English Spanish (yo) era. estuviste 2nd S you were (usted) era. para el resto de las personas es “were”.-SIMPLE PAST OF THE VERB “TO BE” (PASADO SIMPLE DEL VERBO “TO BE”) 3. fueron (ustedes) estaban.3. no estuvisteis (ustedes) no eran. estuvieron they were not 3rd P they weren’t (ellos/ as) no eran. no estuviste (tú) eras. no estuvieron 3rd P they were (ellos/ as) eran. fuiste (tú) estabas. no fuiste (tú) no estabas. no fue (usted) no estaba. estuvisteis 2nd P you were (ustedes) eran. fue (él/ ella/ *ello) estaba. dad. fueron (ellos/ as) estaban. no fueron (ustedes) no estaban. estuvieron you were not 2nd P you weren’t (vosotros/ as) no erais.

no fueron (ustedes)? ¿no estaban. y la forma "are". estuviste (tú)? 2nd S were you? ¿era. estar’) Simple past / Question form WAS / WERE + SUJETO + (complementos) ? 3. fuisteis (vosotros/ as)? ¿estabais. estuvimos (nosotros/ as)? ¿erais.3. no fueron (ellos/ as)? ¿no estaban. no estuvieron (ellos/ as)? weren’t you? 2nd P were you not? 3rd P were they? ¿eran. por "were". no estuvo (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿era. Para construir oraciones interrogativas en pasado simple con el verbo "to be" hay que seguir el mismo patrón que se emplea para las de presente simple.4. estuvieron (ellos/ as)? weren’t they? 3rd P were they not? -82- . fui (yo)? ¿estaba. el verbo "to be" en su forma interrogativa no hace uso del auxiliar "to do". no fue (él/ ella/ *ello)? 3rd S was he/she/it not? ¿no estaba. estuve (yo)? La forma no contraída sigue esta estructura: TO BE (‘ser. no estuvo (usted)? wasn’t he/ she/ it? ¿no era. no fui (yo)? ¿no estaba. estar’) Simple past / Question form English Spanish ¿era. no estuvisteis (vosotros/ as)? ¿no eran. fue (él/ ella/ *ello)? 3rd S was he/ she/ it? ¿estaba. de la unidad 7) usar la forma contraída: La forma contraída sigue esta estructura: TO BE (‘ser.NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVA) Para construir oraciones interrogativonegativas en inglés con el verbo "to be" hay dos posibilidades: (1) utilizar la forma contraída o (2) utilizar la forma no contraída. fuiste (tú)? ¿estabas. no fuiste (tú)? ¿no estabas. no estuvieron (ustedes)? ¿no eran. fueron (ustedes)? ¿estaban. estuvo (él/ ella/ *ello)? 1st P were we? ¿éramos. estuvisteis (vosotros/ as)? 2nd P were you? ¿eran. de la unidad 7. no fue (usted)? ¿no estaba.2. estuvieron (ustedes)? weren’t we? 1st P were we not? ¿no éramos. Lo más común es (como se ha visto en el punto 1. TO BE (‘ser. estuvo (usted)? TO BE (‘ser. estar’) Simple past / Negative question form WAS/ WERE 1st S was I? + SUJETO + NOT + (complementos) ? 8 ¿eras. estar’) Simple past / Negative question form English Spanish wasn’t I? 1st S was I not? ¿no era. fuimos (nosotros/ as)? ¿estábamos. fue (usted)? ¿estaba. no fuisteis (vosotros/ as)? ¿no estabais. fueron (ellos/ as)? ¿estaban. no fuimos (nosotros/ as)? ¿no estábamos. no estuvimos (nosotros/ as)? ¿no erais.2. QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVA) Como se ha visto en el punto 1.. no estuve (yo)? ¿no eras. estar’) Simple past / Contracted negative question form WASN’T / WEREN’T + SUJETO + (complementos) ? TO BE (‘ser.3. no estuviste (tú)? weren’t you? 2nd S were you not? ¿no era. con la salvedad de que hay que cambiar las formas "am" e "is" por "was".

os acompaño. What are you doing here? ¿Qué estáis haciendo aquí? We’re about to take a train to our family’s city. Estamos a punto de coger un tren que nos lleve a la ciudad de nuestra familia. Thank you very much Miguel and Teresa: Miguel y Teresa: Bye! Bye! Have a good journey! Miguel and Teresa: Miguel y Teresa: Itziar: Itzíar: Bye! ¡Adiós! Bye! Have a good journey! ¡Adiós! ¡Buen viaje! -83- . ¿y vosotros? Fine. And. thanks. Hi! How are you? Fine Hi! Fine. Bien. Al final de la estación. I go with you. and you? What are you doing here? In fifteen minutes We’re about to take a train to our family’s city And. thanks. gracias. Thank you very much. Dentro de quince minutos.-IN THE TRAIN STATION (EN LA ESTACIÓN DE TREN) Miguel and Teresa: Miguel y Teresa: Itziar: Itzíar: Miguel and Teresa: Miguel y Teresa: Itziar: Itzíar: Miguel: Miguel: Hi! How are you? ¡Hola! ¿Qué tal? Hi! Fine. ¿cuándo sale el tren? In fifteen minutes. when does your train leave? Itziar: Itzíar: Teresa: Teresa: Do you know where the platform four is? At the back of the station. I go with you 8 Miguel: Miguel: Itziar: Itzíar: Do you know where the platform four is? ¿Sabes dónde está el andén cuatro? At the back of the station. Muchas gracias. when does your train leave? Y. and you? ¡Hola! Bien.DAILY SPEAKING 1.

también sirven para referirse al idioma del país. español. son suizos. soy inglés. they are Swiss. inglés). English. Examples: English Where are you from? I’m from England.) Spanish ¿De dónde eres? Soy de Inglaterra. por lo tanto. ¿De dónde son? Son de Suiza.-COUNTRIES AND NATIONALITIES (PAÍSES Y NACIONALIDADES) COUNTRIES English Spanish Australia Austria Belgium England France Australia Austria Bélgica Inglaterra Francia NATIONALITIES English Spanish Australian australiano Austrian Belgian English French German Greek Dutch Indian Irish Italian Iraqi Japanese Norwegian austriaco belga inglés francés alemán griego holandés hindú irlandés Africa Europe Germany Alemania Greece Holland India Ireland Italy Grecia Holanda India Irlanda Italia Iraq Japón Noruega Portugal Rusia España Suiza Turquía Asia America italiano iraquí japonés noruego CONTINENTS English Africa America Asia Europe Switzerland Turkey Swiss Turk suizo turco Oceania Oceanía Spanish África América Asia Europa Oceania 8 Irak Japan Norway Portugal Russia Spain NATIONALITIES English African American Asiatic European Oceanic Spanish africano americano asiático europeo oceánico Portuguese portugés Russian Spanish ruso español En inglés. España. "él habla ruso" se traduce por "he speaks Russian" (los nombres de los idiomas en inglés también se escriben con mayúscula. y a diferencia de lo que ocurre en español. Inglaterra). los topónimos se consideran nombres propios y. Los gentilicios en inglés. Sin embargo.CIVILIAN VOCABULARY 1. I’m English. su inicial se escribe con letra mayúscula(Spain. Así. -84- . al igual que ocurre en la mayoría de los casos en español. Where are they from? They are from Switzerland. en inglés los gentilicios también reciben este tratamiento (Spanish. al igual que en español. England.

drinking a lot of beer. driving on the left side. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) 3) 4) What did Albert Einstein say about prejudices? What do people think about English people? What do people think about Russian people? What do people think about Italian mothers? MILITARY TERMS 8 English seaman warship vessel warjet combat aircraft helicopter / chopper submarine wine sweeper frigate aircraft carrier wings deck air-to-surface missile air-to air missile tanker plane surveillance flight aircraft helipad pilot airport prow port Spanish marinero barco de guerra buque avión de combate avión de combate helicóptero submarino dragaminas fragata portaaviones alas cubierta misil aire-tierra misil aire-aire avión nodriza vuelo de reconocimiento aeronave helipuerto piloto aeropuerto proa puerto 1. British people are believed to be snobs. to eat frankfurters and to have a straight mind (everything must go the right way).READING 1. to be always on time and to drink tea. German people are considered to drink too much beer. people think that British people do the opposite things European people do in the continent. for example. it is easier to split an atom than to erase prejudices. As Albert Einstein said. European people think that Swiss people do things very slowly. people from Russia are consided to drink too much vodka.-THE NAVY AND THE AIR FORCE (LA ARMADA Y EL EJERCITO DEL AIRE) warjet / combat aircraft helicopter / chopper warship aircraft carrier submarine -85- . For example. Danish people are thought to be blond and to row in Viking boats. Normally.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. 2. French people are considered to be arrogant about their language and to have the best European food. Italian men are considered to love football and to live at their parents’ house until the age of thirty. Spanish people are thought to be brave and party lovers and to like bullfights too. Italian mothers are thought to wear the trousers at home and to cook a lot of pasta and pizza.-PREJUDICES (PREJUICIOS) COMPREHENSION There are a lot of prejudices according to nationalities.

sí! Es un APACHE americano. c) ______________________________. yes! It’s an American APACHE. l) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. j) I usually pay him £5. d) I meet her on Tuesday. Oh. Mira aquel helicóptero. isn’t it? Look at that helicopter Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Private: Soldado: Look at that helicopter. f) Europe is the cradle of civilization. e) Anke is my best German friend. f) ______________________________. 8 EXERCISES 1) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PAST TENSE. that one flying over the city Private: Soldado: Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Private: Soldado: Did you see that warjet? ¿Ha visto ese avión de combate? Yes. aquel que sobrevuela la ciudad. h) She speaks slowly. d) ______________________________. isn’t it? Realmente bonito. Sí. What kind of warjet is it? ¿Qué clase de avión de combate es? I think that it is an F-18.MILITARY Did you see that warjet? CONVERSATION Yes. b) She likes oranges but she does not like lemons. Really beautiful. g) ______________________________. Creo que es un F-18. yes! It’s an American APACHE a) I go to school. c) Peter goes to work by bus. i) He leaves that house at six o’clock. Oh. -86- . l) I lie down after lunch. k) ______________________________. i) ______________________________. e) ______________________________. g) Andrea is less beautiful than Joan. m) We sleep badly. ¿verdad? What kind of warjet is it? I think that it is an F-18 Full Corporal: Cabo Primero: Private: Soldado: Really beautiful. b) ______________________________. that one flying over the city. k) He rides every day. ¡Oh. a) I went to school. j) ______________________________. m) ______________________________.

I am Turk. c) She is my best friend in London. e) My parents drink beer. e) ______________________________. b) I go to Scotland. f) I am from Italy. h) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. I am __________. I am Australian. I am English. f) I see her. I am Dutch. I am __________. d) I am from France. b) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. h) We don’t want those carpets. c) ______________________________ 8 d) I drive my car all night long. i) i) ______________________________.2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING THE SUITABLE WORD. 4) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS BY USING NEGATIVE QUESTIONS. ______________________________. b) ______________________________ a) Didn’t I like apples? 3) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING NEGATIVE PAST TENSE. g) ______________________________. I am German. ______________________________. f) f) ______________________________. g) I am from Norway. e) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. g) ______________________________ f) I don’t see her. f) ______________________________ g) Peter loses his job. a) I don’t like apples. -87- i) I watch television at home. a) I like apples. ______________________________. a) I didn’t like apples. a) I did not like apples. i) I watch television at home. h) I am from __________. h) ______________________________ g) Peter loses his job. i) ______________________________ . e) I am from __________. g) ______________________________. c) I am from __________. i) I am from Spain. d) ______________________________ c) She is my best friend in London. e) My parents drink beer. I am __________. b) I am from __________. b) I go to Scotland. c) c) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. a) I am from England. I am __________. e) ______________________________ d) I drive my car all night long. h) We want those carpets.

g) Did Mary know the way? g) ______________________________. I am ________. g) Did you see my sister? Yes. e) ________ you enjoy yourself yesterday? No. they had eggs for breakfast. I ________. ________ do. h) Did you see the difference? h) ______________________________. i) ______________________________. f) Did you see us? f) ______________________________. c) They ________ in Mario’s restaurant last week. h) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. -88- 8 Do a) Alice went to Ireland last year. b) ______________________________. 7) ANSWER THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN THE AFFIRMATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORM. b) Did he want a new coat? b) ______________________________. c) Did they have to work hard? c) ______________________________. b) ________ you like baseball? Yes. didn’t where Is I were She much am Greek ate did went Did from French a) Did they have eggs for breakfast? a) Yes. d) ______________________________. . f) ________ your mother from Greece? Yes. i) Did he come every day? i) ______________________________.5) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). d) Did he have a heart attack? d) ______________________________. I ________. English terms 1) chopper 2) submarine 3) frigate 4) combat aircraft 5) deck 6) prow 7) tanker plane 8) aircraft Spanish terms a) submarino b) avión de combate c) cubierta d) helicóptero e) fragata f) avión nodriza g) aeronave h) proa 6) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD OF THE BOX. f) ______________________________. they didn’t have eggs for breakfast. a) No. d) ________ are you ________? I ________ from France. she is ________. e) ______________________________. ________ liked it very ________. e) Did they do their homework after dinner? e) ______________________________. c) ______________________________. and they ________ very well.

I don't”). sin embargo. etc. HOW TO FORM WH QUESTIONS (FORMACIÓN DE LAS WH QUESTIONS) a) Para formar este tipo de oraciones interrogativas en pasado y presente simple con verbos no anómalos (es decir. "¿qué cosa?". Spanish ¿No es guapa? Sí. I don't.2. el verbo "to be"). she is. se contestaban afirmativa o negativamente (e. las "wh questions" necesitan otro tipo de respuesta (e. Do you like football? No. Otra forma de construir oraciones en inglés que se basa.1. lo único que hay que hacer es anteponer una partícula interrogativa a una oración construida con el auxiliar " to do" (tal y como se ha visto en el punto 1. en el uso de pronombres interrogativos (“what”. “which”. I do/ No. por ejemplo. who. Con el verbo "to be" sirve para preguntar la profesión. esto quiere decir que la oración se contesta con una afirmación o con una negación. which.g. que no sean.: “Where did you go? I went home”). ¿Te gusta el fútbol? No. este tipo de oraciones interrogativas se llaman "wh questions".-WH QUESTIONS (INTERROGATIVAS PARCIALES) Hasta el momento hemos visto formas de construir oraciones interrogativas basadas en la inversión del orden de los elementos y/o en la utilización del auxiliar "to do".) Debido a que la gran mayoría de los pronombres interrogativos ingleses empiezan con las letras "wh". Estas oraciones interrogativas se conocen en español como interrogativas totales y en inglés como "yes/no questions". además de en la inversión y en la utilización del auxiliar "to do".g. Las partículas interrogativas con las que se construyen este tipo de oraciones son las siguientes: English what which who where when how why qué qué cuál / cuáles quién / quienes dónde cuándo cómo por qué Spanish 9 + Verbo en INFINITIVO SUJETO + sin la particula + (complementos) ? “TO” Examples: English Where do they go? What do you do? Spanish ¿A dónde van? ¿Qué haces? When did you see Mary? ¿Cuándo viste a Mary? Why does she want to do it? ¿Por qué quiere hacer eso? How did you find it? -89¿Cómo lo encontraste? . "What" en sentido absoluto significa también "¿qué?". etc. "Which" sirve para distinguir entre varias personas o cosas. …) AUXILIAR “TO DO” + (conjugado en presente o pasado) A continuación vamos a ver las interrogativas parciales. de un ser. el estado.-QUESTIONS II (ORACIONES INTERROGATIVAS II) 1.UNIT 9 GRAMMAR 1. calidad.3. de alguien. etc. Examples: English Isn't she pretty? Yes. lo es. “who”. "What" para preguntar sobre la naturaleza. Las oraciones interrogativas que hasta el momento habíamos visto. Examples: English Where are you from? Where is she? When is your birthday? When did they eat? How are you? How is your house? Spanish ¿De dónde eres? ¿Dónde está? ¿Cuándo es tu cumpleaños? ¿Cuándo comieron? ¿Cómo estás? ¿Cómo es tu casa? 1.1 de la unidad 7 y en el punto 1. no me gusta. de la unidad 8): Wh questions PARTÍCULA INTERROGATIVA (what.: “Do you like apples? Yes. where.

Por un lado. La forma de construir este tipo de oraciones es la siguiente: Wh questions Verbo Partícula interrogativa + SUST. que puede ir tanto a la derecha como a la izquierda. en Gran Bretaña la dirección del remitente se coloca en el ángulo superior derecho de la carta. en presente who. mientras que "who" es en sí el sujeto.2.)? 2.-OPENING A LETTER (SALUDO) Wh questions Partícula interrogativa WHO + verbo CONJUGADO en presente o pasado simple + (complementos)? Las fórmulas más comunes son: · Dear Examples: English Spanish ¿A quién le importa? ¿Quién abrió la puerta? ¿Quién comió aquí? ¿Qué chica hace la foto? · Dear Mrs Smith · Dear Sir · Dear Madam · Dear Sir or Madam · Dear Sir / Madam · Dear Sirs Cuando en la carta se emplea el formato tradicional con sangría. Ésta va seguida de la fecha.1. where. La fecha se coloca o bien debajo de ésta o bien debajo de la dirección del destinatario a la izquierda.-DATE AND PLACE OF ORIGIN (FECHA Y DIRECCIÓN DEL REMITENTE) Según el lugar de procedencia del remitente..b) Hay ocasiones en las que para formar oraciones interrogativas parciales con verbos no anómalos en presente y pasado simple no se utiliza el auxiliar "do". 2. la fecha y dirección de éste se ubicarán en un lugar o en otro de la carta. Estas oraciones son aquellas en las que las partículas interrogativas "who" o "which" hacen referencia al sujeto que lleva a cabo la acción.-HOW TO WRITE A LETTER IN ENGLISH (CORRESPONDENCIA EN INGLÉS) 2. La partícula "which" va acompañada por un sustantivo y conjuntamente ejercen la función de sujeto. Por lo tanto: 9 Who cares? Who opened the door? Who ate here? Which girl takes a picture? Which boy answered the ¿Qué chico contestó la question? pregunta? c) Para formar las wh questions con el verbo anómalo "to be" en presente o pasado simple se debe seguir este orden: Wh questions with the verb “to be” PARTÍCULA Verbo INTERROGA“TO BE” TIVA + (conjugado + SUJETO + (complementos)? (what..) o pasado) · Dear Ms Smith. + CONJUGADO en presente o + WHICH pasado simple (complmnts. existe una tendencia cada vez más generalizada a no emplear puntuación ni en el encabezamiento ni en la fórmula de despedida. Por lo tanto: · Dear Madam: When were you at home? ¿Cuándo estuviste en casa? Why am I so nervous? How was she? ¿Por qué soy tan nervioso? ¿Cómo estaba? Cuando se trata de cartas en formato sin sangría. estas fórmulas van seguidas de una coma. Por otro lado. por esta misma razón no es necesario que vaya acompañado por un sustantivo.. which. Examples: English Where are you from? What is it? Spanish ¿De dónde eres? ¿Qué es esto? En el inglés norteamericano también se utilizan los dos puntos. -90- . los norteamericanos (estadounidenses y canadienses) colocan la dirección del remitente en el ángulo superior izquierdo de la carta.

(AmE) · Very truly yours. Cuando el destinatario es un amigo o un pariente cercano se emplean las siguientes fórmulas: · Love. · With love from. · Love from. (AmE) · Fondly.3. Ésta es la fórmula que debe emplearse cuando el encabezamiento de la carta es "Dear Sir". Si no se tiene confianza con la persona a la que va dirigida la carta. Los británicos se inclinan por el uso de "Yours sincerely".-CLOSING A LETTER (FÓRMULA DE DESPEDIDA) Las fórmulas más usadas en inglés norteamericano son "Sincerely yours" y "Sincerely". no obstante. cuando el destinatario no es una persona tan allegada: con las fórmulas que a continuación se citan: · Best wishes. · Love from all of us. (BrE) · As always. · Much love. (BrE) · With best wishes from. ésta puede concluirse O. (AmE) · Fond / Fondest regards. "Dear Madam" o "Dear Sir or Madam". · Truly yours. (BrE) · As ever. · Yours. 9 -91- . (AmE) · Warm / Warmest regards. · All my love. · Regards. (AmE) · Affectionately. utilizan la fórmula "Yours faithfully" en cartas formales dirigidas a un destinatario que no se conoce. (AmE) · Kind /Kindest regards.2. · Love to all. (AmE) · Yours ever.

but the cheapest one is the model Fiat Seiscento. How old are you? ¿Cuántos años tiene? I’m 23 years old. Really? How much is it? ¿De verdad? ¿Cuánto es? Around € 10 per day. hay varios grupos y modelos. Can I see your ID or passport? ¿Me puede enseñar su carnet de identidad o pasaporte? I'm afraid you’ll have to pay an additional fee for being under 25. The price includes fully comprehensive insurance policy. but there is not air conditioning nor stereo system. But I need a credit card with at least € 500 for a deposit on the rental car. Which car would you like to rent? This is the list. -92- No. can I help you? Buenos días. Which car would you like to rent? This is the list. there are several groups and models. No. ¿puedo ayudarle en algo? Yes. Nos gustaría alquilar un coche. El precio incluye seguro a todo riesgo. Sobre unos 10 € por día. We’d like to rent a car How old are you? Good morning. How much is it in total? ¿Cuánto es en total? € 80. We’d like to rent the Fiat Seiscento for a couple of days.5 miles per day. Tengo 23 años. pero el más barato es el modelo Fiat Seiscento.5 miles per day That’s fine. but there is limited mileage of 187. The price How much is it includes fully comprehensive insurance policy. Sí. but the chepest one is the model Fiat Seiscento Is there an additional driver fee? Customer: Cliente: Agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: Agent: Agent: Agent: I’m 23 years old Can I see your ID or passport? Agente: Really? How much is it? Customer: Cliente: Agent: Agente: 9 Customer: Cliente: Agent: Agente: Customer: Cliente: Customer: Cliente: Agent: Agent: I’m afraid you’ll have to pay an additional fee for being under 25 Around €10 per day Agente: Is there an additional driver fee? ¿Existe algún suplemento por conductor adicional? No. Pero necesito una tarjeta de crédito con al menos 500 € para el depósito del alquiler del coche. We’d like to rent the Fiat Seiscento for a couple of days € 80. 80 €. please. Me temo que tendrá que pagar un coste adicional por tener menos de 25 años. pero no hay ni aire acondicionado ni radiocasete. ¿Qué coche le gustaría alquilar? Ésta es la lista. But I need a credit card with at least € 500 for a deposit on the rental car. please. por favor. Está bien. That's fine. but there is not air conditioning nor stereo in total? system Agente: . there are several groups and models. We’d like to rent a car. pero existe un kilometraje limitado de 300 km por día. can I help you? Yes. Nos gustaría alquilar el Fiat Seiscento por un par de días.DAILY 1.-RENT A CAR (ALQUILAR UN COCHE) SPEAKING Agent: Agente: Good morning. but there is limited mileage of 187.

CIVILIAN
1.-“DO” OR “MAKE”? (¿"DO" O "MAKE"?)

VOCABULARY
When to use “make” English Spanish make (a) noise hacer (un) ruido hacer la cama anotar hecho en hecho de equivocarse, cometer un error hacer un trato girar a la derecha girar a la izquierda pronunciar un discurso hacer un sugerencia hacer / ganar dinero ganar dinero perder dinero causar problemas concertar una cita desordenar, ensuciar; hacer algo mal, hacer una chapuza, arruinar hacer una llamada, llamar [por teléfono] tomar una decisión, decidir poner mala cara hacer las paces estar en guerra hacer un intento, intentar hacer café / té poner una excusa hacer una oferta, ofrecer hacer un descubrimiento, descubrir hacer el testamento halagar, hacer un cumplido hacer preparativos make the bed make a note made* in made of make a mistake make a deal make a right make a left make a speech make a suggestion make money make a profit make a loss make trouble make an appointment make a mess make a phone call make a decision make a face make peace make war make an attempt / an effort make coffee / tea make an excuse make an offer make a discovery make a will make a compliment make preparations
*

Tanto "to make" como "to do" aluden a la acción de hacer, producir, crear, etc. No existen unas pautas gramaticales fijas que estipulen cuándo debe utilizarse uno u otro. En este sentido, tendremos que echar mano de nuestra memoria y, en función del complemento directo que vaya modificando a estas formas, utilizar un verbo u otro.

he makes an appointment

9

they make peace

“made” (‘hecho’) es el participio pasado de “to make” (‘hacer’).

he makes a phone call Examples:
English That old jar is made in China. John made a mess of his life. The president made a speech in the White House. Someone who never makes a mistake never makes a discovery. -93Spanish Esa jarra vieja está hecha en China. John arruinó su vida. El presidente pronunció un discurso en la Casa Blanca. Alguien que nunca se equivoca nunca hace un descubrimiento.

When to use “do” English do the homework do the housework do the nails / hair do films do drugs do a favour do work do research do an exercise do harm do (a lot of) damage do good do business do honours in Spanish hacer los deberes hacer las tareas domésticas arreglarse la uñas / el pelo hacer peliculas drogarse hacer un favor hacer un trabajo investigar hacer un ejercicio hacer daño hacer (mucho) daño hacer el bien hacer un negocio, trabajar licenciarse en limpiar hacer la colada fregar los platos hacer un examen, examinarse hacer reformas/ arreglos, reparar, arreglar ofrecer, prestar un servicio hacer bien hacer mal hacer milagros

she does a service

9

do the cleaning do the washing-up do the dishes do an examination do repairs do a service do right do wrong do miracles

he does work

they do repairs

Examples:
English Anna does her homework every morning. Alfred Hitchcock did very famous films. She did me a favour. Philip did honours in French. Spanish Anna hace sus deberes todas las mañanas. Alfred Hitchcock hizo películas muy famosas. Me hizo un favor. Philip se licenció en Francés.

-94-

READING

COMPREHENSION
2.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) 3)
Is it a formal or an informal letter? When did Pedro arrive in London? Where did Pedro eat a very nice meal with his friend Julian?

1.-WRITING A LETTER IN BRITISH ENGLISH (CORRESPONDENCIA EN INGLÉS)
15 Kensington Road London E15 KOR 8th June 2004 Julia García Gran Vía 45, 2º A 16932 Madrid Spain Dear Julia, I arrived in London last Sunday. On Monday I visited a lot of old buildings and museums like the National Gallery and the British Museum. I really liked Buckingham Palace and its gardens. On Tuesday I listened to a beautiful concert. Last night I ate a very nice meal with my friend Julian in a restaurant in Covent Garden. On Wednesday I went to Portobello in Notting Hill Gate to buy some clothes and now I am ready to go back to Spain! See you soon! Love, Pedro

MILITARY
1.-IN THE OFFICE (EN LA OFICINA)
English computer printer hard disk screen keyboard mouse report SITREP (Situation Report) INTREP (Intelligent Report) MEDEVAC REP (Medical Evaluation Report) file to file submit application form to apply for copy send receive coded message personnel records deadline

TERMS

9
keyboard

Spanish ordenador impresora disco duro pantalla teclado ratón informe informe de situación informe de inteligencia

report
informe de evaluación médica archivo, archivo informático archivar remitir, enviar impreso de solicitud solicitar copia enviar recibir mensaje cifrado hoja de servicios fecha límite -95-

coded message

2.-ON THE MANEUVERS (EN MANIOBRAS)
English tent sleeping bag campsite training drill trainer Spanish tienda de campaña saco de dormir campamento instrucción ejercicio instructor

firing range

APC (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier) vehículo de combate trail, path patch parking place firing range FIBUA (Fight In Build-Up Areas) urban combat marksman Training Centre camino, senda bache aparcamiento campo de tiro combate en localidades combate en localidades, combate urbano tirador selecto Centro de Instrucción simulación marcha zona minada obstáculo orden preparatoria cuartel general Estado Mayor alboroto salvoconducto golpe de mano English fall in on one rank tense at ease call the roll left-face (left turn) right-face (right turn) about-face (about turn) forward-march (march off) halt at ease-march shoulder arms a formar en un fila firmes descanso pasar lista izquierda derecha media vuelta de frente alto paso de maniobra sobre el hombre rompan filas

tent

9

simulation march mined / contaminated zone obstacle warning order headquarters Staff riot safe-conduct raid

campsite

APC (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier)
Spanish

3.-FORMED IN PARADE (FORMACIÓN DE PARADA)

formed in parade
-96-

fall out

Cambio. h) ______________________________ i) Cervantes wrote “El Quijote”. a) At what time do you take your bus? b) She likes football and tennis. e) ______________________________ f) I go to work every morning. close to the hill “The Hawk”. Over. f) ______________________________ g) We are twenty-two years old. g) ______________________________ h) My favourite meal is Spanish omelet. Over We’ll be there within 30 minutes. Over Grid 23-34. Operador B: Cuadrícula 23-34. abran fuego y fijen el objetivo. Over. 9 2) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. Cambio. Operador B: Estaremos allí en 30 minutos. Over. Cambio. cerca de la colina “El Halcón”. Over. Move on up to the next emplacement. open fire and fix the target. c) ______________________________ d) They are from Holland. Fin. b) ______________________________ c) I am fine. Operator B: Roger. Operador A: Confirme repitiendo. Out EXERCISES 1) WRITE A SUITABLE QUESTION FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. Over Once there. Cambio. Operador A: ¿Cuál es la posición de su unidad? Cambio. What’s the position of your unit? Over Say it again. open fire and fix the target. close to the hill “The Hawk”. Operator A: Once there. i) ______________________________ j) We don’t eat this kind of fish. Continúe hasta el próximo emplazamiento. Over Roger. Cambio. Over. d) ______________________________ e) Yes. thank you. Operator B: Grid 23-34. Over. Cambio. Operator B: We’re deployed in a deep ravine in the grid 23-34. Over We’re deployed in a deep ravine int the grid 23-34. he speaks Greek. j) ______________________________ . Move on up the next emplacement. Operator A: Say it again. Operador B: Recibido. Operador A: Recibido. Operador A: Una vez allí.MILITARY CONVERSATION Operator A: What’s the position of your unit? Over. Operator A: Roger. Operator B: We’ll be there within 30 minutes. Over Roger. Out. a) ¿Te gusta el fútbol? a) Do you like football? b) ¿Cuándo vas a la escuela? b) ______________________________ c) ¿Cómo os llamáis? c) ______________________________ d) ¿Quién se comió las naranjas? d) ______________________________ e) ¿Cuándo compraste tu coche? e) ______________________________ f) ¿Cuántos alumnos hay en esta clase? f) ______________________________ g) ¿Cómo se llama tu suegra? g) ______________________________ h) ¿Ganaron Hellen y William el partido? h) ______________________________ i) ¿Qué comes hoy? i) ______________________________ j) ¿Hablas ruso? j) ______________________________ -97- a) I take my bus at nine o’clock. Operador B: Estamos desplegados en una vaguada profunda en la cuadrícula 23-34.

d) I’m afraid I can’t come. e) She _______ a face because she didn’t like my cooking. h) I like to ________ business with Jack. f) ______________________________ g) you /some /for /Did /breakfast /take /milk /? g) ______________________________ EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE VERBS “DO” OR “MAKE” IN THE PRESENT TENSE. e) How much ________? money does your father f) Tom has to ________ a phone call to the United States g) He really doesn’t want to ________ that decision. 5) FILL a) you /today /Do /work /? a) Do you work today? b) see /you /Didn’t /they /yesterday /? b) ______________________________ c) father’s /When /your /is /birthday /? c) ______________________________ d) you /How/ spell /do /it /? d) ______________________________ e) study /they /did /when /? e) ______________________________ f) ate /but /didn’t /I /I /potatoes /eat /meat. English terms 1) sleeping bag 2) path 3) urban combat 4) trainer 5) Staff 6) march 7) riot 8) warning order -98- Spanish terms a) combate en localidades b) Estado Mayor c) saco de dormir d) marcha e) alboroto f) orden preparatoria g) senda h) instructor . 4) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PAST TENSE. I’m going to ________ my homework after school. d) I _______ the cleaning last Saturday. f) Julian _______ his bed yesterday morning. i) I can’t sleep at night because the cars ________ a lot of noise. 7) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). b) How much profit did your company _______ last quarter? c) Sue cooked and I _______ the dishes. I’m sure we can make a deal. b) Excuse me.3) MAKE SENTENCES WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. h) Peter _______ honours in French. 9 c) Are they friendly? c) ______________________________ d) How do you make the bed? d) ______________________________ e) Why does she sing this song? e) ______________________________ f) Who are they? f) ______________________________ g) Which computer do you prefer? g) ______________________________ h) Does he play the piano? h) ______________________________ a) I made an appointment to visit my doctor yesterday. a) Do you eat meat? a) Did you eat meat? b) When is your sister’s birthday? b) ______________________________ 6) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE VERBS “DO” OR “MAKE” IN THE PAST TENSE. i) She had a lot of problems because she _______ drugs. a) If you want to buy that car. g) Last year they _______ a lot of money with that business. could you ________ me a favour and watch my bags for a moment? c) Timmy! Don’t ________ a mess in the living room.

TO THE NEXT SENTENCES WRITE WH a) Who discovered America? a) ¿Quién descubrió América? b) Did they understand the lesson? b) ______________________________ c) When did she go to Mary’s house? c) ______________________________ d) How did you find her? d) ______________________________ e) When did Michael read my letter? e) ______________________________ f) Who makes the speech? f) ______________________________ g) Does it rain? g) ______________________________ 1) Charles sees Séverine. a) What did Charles buy? b) Where ____________________? c) When ______________________? d) Why ______________________? e) How ______________________? 10) ACCORDING TO THE GRAMMAR. IL 59962 9 Letter B 59 Telephone Road London N89 8GK 5 July 2001 Barclays Bank 36. a) When does Charles see Séverine? b) How ______________________? c) Why ______________________? d) Where ____________________? 2) Charles bought his new car. SAY IF THE FOLLOWING DATES AND PLACES OF ORIGIN ARE BRITISH OR AMERICAN. CA 06698 September 14. Letter A 96 South Street Santa Rosa.8) TRANSLATE SENTENCES. High Street Guildford Surrey -99- . INTO SPANISH THE FOLLOWING 9) ACCORDING QUESTIONS. 1998 John Harrington 16 Beacon Street Chicago.

-HOW TO FORM THE GERUND (FORMACIÓN DEL GERUNDIO) English Spanish parar / parando poner / poniendo nadar / nadando caerse / cayéndose A continuación aparecen algunas de las consideraciones que hay que tener en cuenta para la formación del gerundio de determinados verbos. está compuesto por dos vocales. duplican Para construir el presente y pasado continuo dicha consonante final delante de la terminación (tiempos verbales que se verán en la presente “-ing”: unidad) es necesario saber cómo se forma el gerundio: Examples: How to form the gerund Verbo en infinitivo + -ING sin “TO” 1. de vocal. se omite dicha “e” y se añade “-ing”: Examples: English write / writing come / coming Spanish escribir / escribiendo venir / viniendo c) Si termina en “ie”. al añadir “-ing” se cambia dicha “ie” por “y”: Examples: English lie / lying Spanish mentir / mintiendo English refer / referring occur / occurring Spanish referir / refiriendo ocurrir / ocurriendo g) Los verbos terminados en “l” precedidos d) Si termina en “y” precedida de consonante. nótese que “meet” también es un verbo monosilábico. Examples: 10 b) Si el infinitivo termina en “e”. duplican la “l” delante de la terminase conserva dicha “y” al añadir “-ing”: ción “-ing”. duplican dicha conosnante final delante de la terminación “-ing” si el acento recae en la última sílaba. excepto en el inglés americano. sin embargo. a) Los verbos que terminan en consonante simplemente añaden la terminación “-ing”: Examples: English eat / eating think / thinking Spanish comer / comiendo pensar / pensando stop / stopping put / putting swim / swimming drop / dropping *Se entiende por vocal corta la existencia de una única vocal (stop. Examples: English English study / studying fly / flying Spanish estudiar / estudiando volar / volando -101travel / travelling counsel / counselling Spanish viajar / viajando aconsejar / aconsejando .UNIT 10 GRAMMAR e) Los verbos monosílabos (aquellos compuestos por una sola sílaba) acabados en consonante precedida de vocal corta*. cut). f) Los verbos de dos o tres sílabas que acaban en consonante + vocal + consonante. por el contrario.

) y en negativa verbo (forma contraída o no principal contraída) -102Past continuous / Negative form Verbo TO BE conjugado en GERUNDIO SUJETO + pasado simple y en + del + (complts. al igual que en español. They are not watching tv. We were discussing the matter.2. expresa una acción que se está desarrollando. They aren’t watching tv. La diferencia de uso entre este tiempo verbal y el presente simple es que este último se emplea para expresar un hábito. que no está terminada. He’s learning English. Estaba aprendiendo inglés. Estaba comiendo una manzana. una costumbre o una verdad universal. I’m eating an apple.2. He isn’t learning. Está aprendiendo inglés. Spanish English Spanish English Spanish I was eating an apple.-PRESENT CONTINUOUS (PRESENTE CONTINUO) 2. Present continuous A bird is flying over the house.1.2.1.) SUJETO + conjugado presente principal (forma contraída o no contraída) Past continuous / Affirmative form Verbo GERUNDIO “TO BE” SUJETO + conjugado + del verbo + (complts.1 de la unidad 8. Spanish Examples: English Estoy comiendo una manzana.-AFFIRMATIVE FORM La forma verbal afirmativa del presente conti.-NEGATIVE FORM English Spanish (FORMA NEGATIVA) Para conjugar el presente continuo en nega.) negativa verbo (forma contraída o no principal contraída)* .(FORMA AFIRMATIVA) nuo en inglés se forma de la siguiente manera: La forma afirmativa del pasado continuo se construye de la siguiente manera: Present continuous / Affirmative Form 10 Verbo “TO BE” GERUNDIO en + del verbo + (complts. They are watching tv. No estoy comiendo una manzana He is not learning.-NEGATIVE FORM tiva lo único que hay que hacer es conjugar en (FORMA NEGATIVA) presente simple y en negativa el verbo “to be” (tal y como se ve en el punto 2 de la unidad 1). También puede indicar un futuro inmediato. Los pájaros vuelan. No está aprendiendo inglés. Estábamos tratando el asunto.-PAST CONTINUOUS (PASADO CONTINUO) El pasado continuo en inglés se forma de la misma manera que el presente pero con el verbo auxiliar “to be” conjugado en pasado simple (tal y como se ve en el punto 3.-AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA) Este tiempo verbal en inglés. 2.3.) 3. They were watching tv. Un pájaro está volando por encima de la casa.) en principal pasado simple Examples: English I am eating an apple. 3. I’m not eating an apple. Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish I am not eating an apple. They’re watching tv. Present simple English Spanish English Spanish Birds fly. No están viendo la televisión. He is learning English. Están viendo la televisión. La forma negativa se forma de la siguiente manera: Present continuous / Negative form Verbo TO BE GERUNDIO conjugado en del SUJETO + presente + + (complts. He was learning English. Estaban viendo la televisión.

“how”. 4. We were not discussing the matter.* La forma del pasado simple en negativa del verbo “to be” se construye de acuerdo con lo indicado en el punto 3. Estas oraciones interrogativas parciales con presente y pasado continuo siguen esta estructura: (complts.2.2. etc.1. We weren’t discussing the matter.) ? -103- .3.-WH QUESTIONS WITH PRESENT AND PAST CONTINUOUS (INTERROGATIVAS PARCIALES EN PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO) Las oraciones interrogativas parciales en presente y pasado simple se construyen con partículas interrogativas como “which”. He wasn’t learning English. Spanish English Spanish English Spanish 4. es decir. No estaba aprendiendo inglés. 4. que es el que usan para la inversión. la contraída y la no contraída. He was not learning English. de las partículas interrogativas de las “wh questions”. Examples: Examples: English Spanish English Was I eating an apple? ¿Estaba comiendo una manzana? Is he learning English? ¿Está aprendiendo inglés? Were they watching tv? ¿Estaban viendo la televisión? Are you having fun? ¿Te lo estás pasando bien? English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish I was not eating an apple. No obstante. No estaba comiendo una manzana.-PRESENT AND PAST CONTINUOUS QUESTION (FORMA INTERROGATIVA DEL PRESENTE Y PASADO CONTINUO) Para formar oraciones interrogativas en pasado o presente continuo se siguen las reglas sintácticas que hemos visto anteriormente. I wasn’t eating an apple. “who”. They weren’t watching tv. No estaban viendo la televisión. no se utiliza el auxiliar “to do” para realizar la inversión de las oraciones interrogativas. Esto se debe a que el presente y pasado continuo ya tienen su propio auxiliar (“to be”). Sin embargo. Por lo tanto: English Spanish Wasn’t I eating an apple? Was I not eating an apple? ¿No estaba comiendo una manzana? Isn’t he learning English? Is he not learning English? ¿No está aprendiendo inglés? Weren’t they watching tv? Were they not watching tv? ¿No estaban viendo la televisión? Aren’t you having fun? Are you not having fun? ¿No te lo estás pasando bien? 4. No estábamos tratando el asunto. de la unidad 8. la forma contraída es mucho más común en el discurso oral.-QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVA) La forma interrogativa del presente y pasado continuo sigue esta estructura: Present and past continuous / Question form Verbo “TO BE” GERUNDIO conjugado + SUJETO + del verbo + en pasado principal o presente English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish 10 Como se puede observar en los ejemplos. They were not watching tv.-NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVA) Para negar las oraciones interrogativas también existen dos formas posibles. hay que tener en cuenta que las formas continuas del verbo están compuestas por dos elementos (el verbo auxiliar “to be” conjugado y el verbo principal en gerundio) y que la construcción de las oraciones interrogativas va a variar en algunos aspectos con respecto a la de las formas simples (como el presente y el pasado simple). si es necesario. se va a hacer uso de la inversión y.

which. English Spanish How big is your dog? ¿Cómo es de grande tu perro? (*¿Cómo de grande es tu perro?) Como se puede observar la estructura de este tipo de preguntas en inglés difiere en gran medida de la estructura usada en español. ‘grande’). Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish When was I eating? ¿Cuándo estaba comiendo? How is he learning English? ¿Cómo está aprendiendo inglés? English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish How heavy is your suitcase? ¿Cuánto pesa tu maleta? (*¿Cómo de pesada es tu maleta?) How high did you jump? ¿Hasta qué altura saltaste? (*¿Cómo de elevado saltaste?) How tall are you? ¿Cuánto mides? (*¿Cómo de alto eres?) Where were they watching tv? English ¿Dónde estaban viendo la televisión? Spanish Why are you having fun? English How big were your cars? ¿Cómo eran de grandes tus coches? (*¿Cómo de grande eran tus coches?) How often do you go to the cinema? ¿Con qué frecuencia vas al cine? (*¿Cómo de a menudo vas al cine?) 10 English Spanish English Spanish ¿Por qué te lo estás pasando bien? Spanish What am I doing? English ¿Qué estoy haciendo? Spanish ¿Cómo lo quieres de largo? (*¿Cómo de largo lo quieres?) How long do you want it? 5. ‘alto’.g. ‘largo’. ‘ancho’.-QUESTIONS WITH “HOW” (PREGUNTAS CON “HOW”) Como se vio en el punto 2 de la unidad 6.g. ‘¿Cuántas manzanas comió?’. además de con “much” y “many”.g.. Estas oraciones interrogativas son simplemente “wh questions” (ver el punto 1. ‘pesado’. ‘elevado’.)? where. deberemos decantarnos por estructuras propias del español (como lo son las traducciones del cuadro de ejemplos que no aparecen entre paréntesis. “big”. + do en + SUJETO + verbo + (complts.: “How many apples did he eat?”..Present and past continuous / Wh questions Verbo PARTÍCULA GERUNDIO “TO BE” INTERROGATIVA conjugadel (what. por lo tanto. “How much money do you have?”. aunque las traducciones literales del cuadro de ejemplos (que aparecen entre paréntesis. ‘¿Cuánto dinero tienes?’).: “often”. who. se pueden construir oraciones interrogativas parciales combinando “how” con los adverbios de cantidad “much” y “many” (e.) -104- .2 de la unidad 9) encabezadas por la partícula interrogativa “how” seguida de un adverbio o de un adjetivo calificativo.) principal presente o pasado Examples: English Spanish How far is your house from here? ¿A cuánta distancia está tu casa de aquí? (*¿Cómo de lejos está tu casa desde aquí?) La única mención que debería hacerse al respecto es que emplean como auxiliar el verbo “to be” en lugar de “to do”. a la hora de encontrar en nuestra lengua equivalentes para este tipo de preguntas. “wide”. “high”. con letra de menor tamaño y precedidas por un asterisco) reflejen la estructura en inglés. con otros adverbios (e. ‘lejos’) y con adjetivos calificativos (e. ‘a menudo’. “far”.. “long”. “tall”.: “heavy”. A continuación vamos a ver cómo “how” puede combinarse.

Los seres humanos proceden del mono. No.-ANIMALS AND PLANTS (ANIMALES Y PLANTAS) ANIMALS English Spanish dog cat mouse pig horse rat goat bear sheep bird seagull eagle lion giraffe elephant hippopotamus perro gato ratón cerdo caballo rata cabra oso oveja pájaro cigüeña águila león jirafa elefante hipopótamo VOCABULARY 10 PLANTS English Spanish forest tree bush cactus carnation geranium daisy rose tulip orchid pine tree palm tree chestnut tree oak tree eucalyptus water lily bosque árbol arbusto cactus clavel geranio margarita rosa tulipán orquídea pino palmera castaño roble eucalipto nenúfar giraffe rose dog water lily elephant cactus bear daisy Examples: English I love carnations and daisies. Bueno.DAILY SPEAKING 1. Eagles have very beautiful feathers. Next Tuesday would suit you? ¿Le vendría bien el martes que viene? Well. Human beings come from the monkey. me gustaría ver al doctor lo antes posible. Itzíar: Itzíar: Next Tuesday would suit you? Well. Do you have any medical insurance? CIVILIAN 1. Las águilas tienen unas plumas muy bonitas. I'm afraid I will have to pay for it I'm afraid next Tuesday is the soonest you can get. me temo que tendré que pagar. I'm afraid I will have to pay for it. Do you have any medical insurance? Me temo que hasta el martes que viene no podrá atenderle ¿Tiene algún seguro médico? No. Could I make an appointment to see the doctor? Secretary: Secretaria: I'm afraid next Tuesday is the soonest you can get. -105Spanish Me encantan los claveles y margaritas. I’d like to see the doctor as soon as possible No.-HOW TO MAKE AN APPOINTMENT TO SEE THE DOCTOR (CÓMO SOLICITAR UNA CITA MÉDICA) Itzíar: Itzíar: Secretary: Secretaria: Itzíar: Itzíar: Could I make an appointment to see the doctor? Me gustaría pedir cita para el médico. . I’d like to see the doctor as soon as possible.

-106- thigh hip nail .-PARTS OF THE HEAD (PARTES DE LA CABEZA) Head English head face forehead eyes nose lips tooth / teeth tongue eyebrow eyelashes ear eyelid hair chin Spanish cabeza cara frente ojos nariz labios diente / dientes lengua ceja pestañas oreja párpado pelo barbilla eyebrow forehead nose hair lips ear chin 3.2. Sus ojos son muy expresivos. My fingers are too small to play the jazz bass. Tengo los dedos demasiado pequeños para tocar el bajo. Spanish Me como las uñas cuando estoy nervioso. Her eyes are very expressive.-PARTS OF THE BODY (PARTES DE LA CUERPO) The body English shoulder throat neck armpit arm elbow finger knuckle nail wrist chest breasts ribs navel Spanish hombro garganta cuello axila brazo codo dedo nudillo uña muñeca pecho senos costillas ombligo English liver kidneys lungs heart stomach hip waist thigh leg foot / feet calf knee ankle toes Spanish hígado riñones pulmones corazón estómago cadera cintura muslo pierna pie / pies pantorrilla rodilla tobillo dedos de los pies 10 foot knee shoulder elbow neck arm finger ankle Examples: English When I am nervous I bite my nails.

-CLIMATIC CHANGE (CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO) COMPREHENSION 2. But it is not too late to slow down global warming and to avoid the climate catastrophe. b) The results of the climatic change are very positive for the environment.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.-IN THE TRAINING (EN LA INSTRUCCIÓN) English crawl creep shooting range grazing fire cover concealment minefield trail landmark guerrilla patrol friendly fire rush night vision gatear reptar TERMS Spanish campo de tiro fuego rasante cubierta abrigo campo de minas senda referencia en el terreno guerrilla patrulla fuego amigo avanzar rápidamente visión nocturna minefield night vision rush -107- . coal and gas are fossil fuels. e) Wind energy is a renewable energy source. d) It is too late to slow down global warning. c) Droughts and floods are extreme weather events. its impacts and the predictions for the future. particularly in developing economies. coal and gas) and consists of a global warming.…) offer abundant clean energy that is safe for the environment and good for the economy.READING 1. melting Polar regions. This change is mainly due to the use of fossil fuels (oil. Scientists and governments worldwide agree on the latest and starkest evidence of human-induced climate change.-ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)? (DI SI ESTAS ORACIONES SON VERDADERAS O FALSAS) a) Oil. people and environment are experiencing the consequeces of the worst environmental problem: the climatic change. rising sea levels. the solutions exist. loss of coral reefs and much more. there are extreme weather events: droughts and floods. Corporations and governments should invest in renewable energies. Renewable energy sources (wind energy. Clean energies should replace fossil fuel developments. 3. are T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F 10 MILITARY 1. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) 3) What is this climatic change mainly due to? What do renewable energy sources offer? What should corporations and governments do in developing countries? Nowadays. disruption of water supplies. People are changing the climate. f) Renewable energy sources dangerous for the enviroment. solar energy. and the results are disastrous.

Encontrar un buen refugio para que no me afecten las radiaciones. after that? To find a good concealment to avoid being affected by the radiations Exactly. Pérez. after that? Y. That’s it -108- . That’s it. what’s the first thing you have to do in an NBC attack? Soldado. Exactly. mi Sargento. Así es. Ponerme la máscara. Bacteriológica y Química) máscara prisionero de guerra mensaje supervivencia maniobras maneuvers NBC war (Nuclear. Sir. Exactamente. ¿después de eso? To find a good concealment to avoid being affected by the radiations. Pérez. Bacteriological and Chemical) 10 survival maneuvers camouflage MILITARY CONVERSATION Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private. And. Bacteriological and Chemical) mask PoW (Prisoner of War) message arrastrar Spanish camuflaje avanzar terreno suelo prudencia movimiento asalto defensa emboscada cráter de granada guerra NBQ (Nuclear. Sir And. Pérez.English drag camouflage advance terrain ground caution movement assault defense ambush shell crater NBC war (Nuclear. ¿qué es lo primero que tienes que hacer en un ataque NBQ? To put the mask on. what’s the first thing you have to do in an NBC attack? To put the mask on. Private.

d) ________________________________. b) He ________ one lecture a week. b) The neighbours are coming in to watch tv. e) ________________________________. b)I (walk) ________ along Picadilly when I (realize) ________ that a man with a ginger bear (follow) ________ me. f) ________________________________. d) ________________________________. f) I ________ a plane to New York in three hours’ time. c) ________________________________. we (have) ________ a lesson. c) To my surprise Sally (come) ________ to my last birthday.EXERCISES 1) PUT THE FOLLOWING PRESENT CONTINUOUS. MORE THAN ONE FORM COULD BE POSSIBLE . We (sit) ________ at our desks listening to what the teacher (tell) ________ us. f) I am meeting Thomas at 5:30. g) I am sure she (lie). INTO THE 10 2) FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS 4) PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES OF THE FOLLOWING VERBS. b) ________________________________. f) ________________________________. e) It’s 8:30. . h) Those men in the corner (talk) about football h) ________________________________. g) ________________________________. c) Your sister is studying at home. madam. d) ________________________________. g) They are thinking of going to the party. d) I’m afraid we ________. c) Look! He ________ a ticket in William’s car. f) Today. a) I am spending £10 a week on cigarretes. a) Are you listening to your teacher? a) You are not (aren’t) listening to your teacher. h) The day before yesterday I (work) ________ while my sister (learn) ________ her lessons. e) Jones and Co. b) ________________________________. a) Last week that old man (wear) was wearing very conventional clothes and I (wonder) if he (be) ________ a policeman. SENTENCES INTO THE 3) FILL IN THE GAPS WITH THE SUITABLE FORM OF THE PAST SIMPLE. g) Look. d) She (leave) next week. g) ________________________________. f) We like the coat you (wear). that is why the boys (shut) ________ the windows. -109- a) A bus is standing at the bus stop just beside me. b) This week Julian (work) in a factory in Manchester. c) They (put) in new electronic points. b) ________________________________. d) It is raining now. c) ________________________________. catch stand have close put give a) You are listening to your teacher. e) ________________________________. e) ________________________________. g) ________________________________. Tom and Sally ________ breakfast. e) She (use) the car today to take Tom to the dentist. are having a sale at the moment. a) I (spend) £10 a week on cigarretes. d) Last night you (play) ________ cards while I (read) ________ a book. e) Once Peter (travel) ________ by car when he (pass) ________ a field he (see) ________ that there (be) ________ only one woman. PRESENT OR PAST CONTINUOUS IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS. f) ________________________________. c) ________________________________. INTERROGATIVE AND NEGATIVE FORM. it (rain) ________ !.

b) In the desert _____________. English terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) n) o) lips nose shoulder elbow wrist ribs kidneys toes knee throat lungs armpit knuckles eyebrow -110- Spanish terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) costillas nudillos nariz pecho rodilla codo dedos de los pies muñeca hombro 10) axila 11) riñones 12) labios 13) garganta 14) pulmones 15) ceja m) chest . you will find lots of give b) How ________ is Pau Gasol? He is 6 feet tall. trunk of the d) How ________ can you climb? 10 e) How ________ is Madrid from London? f) How ________ is your house? Someone told me ten people could live there. g) The ___________symbolises strength and power. far often high long tall big carnations roses seagulls giraffe lion dog tulip elephant cactuses a) How often do you go to the cinema? About twice a week. c) In Saint Valentine’s Day _____________ to each other. i) I don’t like ______________ because they are very close related to death. lovers c) How ________ does it take to go from Barcelona to Paris by plane? About an hour and a half. 6) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 15) WITH WORDS A) TO L). e) When I am in Madrid I miss the sound of the ______________ flying in the sky. a) I love my dog because it is the most faithful animal in the farmyard.5) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE APPROPRIATE ADVERB OR ADJECTIVE. 7) FILL EACH OF THE GAPS WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. h) When I was little the ____________scared me. d) The _____________ is one of the national symbols of Holland. f) The animal with the longest neck is the ____________.

8) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) terrain camouflage PoW night combat shooting range guerrilla grazing fire maneuvers creep Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) combate nocturno campo de tiro prisionero de guerra maniobras terreno reptar campo de minas camuflaje fuego rasante guerrilla 10) minefield 10 -111- .

f) I agree with ______ remarks he made during the presentation. -113- 3) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH "SOME" OR "ANY". c) He works ______ between Main Street and Regeant Street. c) people /lot /Fortunately. c) I can't read ______ of Paul's books. i) I can do ______ without his support. d) ______ is allowed in this building. b) ______ could be the winner. h) You can go ______ without your passport. b) There _____ a dictionary on the shelf. e) There are ______ pencils in the office. f) goes /Anywhere /she /finds /she /friends f) ______________________________. g) You can't go ______ without your passport. a) much /How /too /is /much /? a) How much is too much? b) to /Saturday /Nobody /do /exam /on /wanted /an b) ______________________________. there are too difficult for me. g) There _____ two new soldiers in the barracks. . g) home /is /There /nowhere /like g) ______________________________. e) Please. 4) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH AN APPROPRIATE COMPOUND OF "SOME" . g) ______ day I am going to London.REVIEW REVIEW FROM UNIT 6 TO UNIT 10 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH "MUCH" OR "MANY". c) There _____ a couple of days gap between exams. a) There are some books on the table. f) ______ told me you left school. e) in /country /are /too /There /fat /many /people /this e) ______________________________. d) There _____ nothing I can do about it. h) without /can't /you / do /I /anything h) ______________________________. 5) MAKE SENTENCES USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS. REVIEW 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE FORM OF THE VERB "TO BE". "ANY" OR "NO" FROM THE BOX. f) There _____ some wine in the bottle. d) not /enough /for /This /is /people /car /five /big d) ______________________________. don't tell ______ to ______. e) There _____ two t-shirts in your wardrobe. a) How many pupils are there in the classroom? b) How ______ cheese do you eat per week? c) How ______ computers are there? d) How ______ rice did Paul eat? e) How ______ people attended the conference? f) How ______ pears did you count? g) How ______ money do you have in your bank account? nowhere anyone anywhere somewhere Somebody nothing Nobody Anyone something anything a) There is something amazing about the film. b) There is ______ beer in the fridge. a) I couldn't see any of your pictures in the exhibition. /a /came /party /of /to /the c) ______________________________. d) There is not ______ wine left in the bottle.

e) _______________________________ f) Después de la cena vamos a la discoteca. paid after ate from lied hear went Does much Did for didn’t Dutch French REVIEW a) Last year I went to Ireland _____ holidays. c) _______________________________ d) ¿Almuerza ella en un restaurante cerca de mi casa? d) _______________________________ e) Ceno a las 7 en punto. _______________________________ She is in her classroom. I play the guitar. _______________________________ He reads more than two books per week. I am Spanish. he is __________. d) _______________________________ e) ¿Alquilaron su (de ella) casa? e) _______________________________ f) ¿No vendían rosas en esa tienda? f) _______________________________ g) ¿Cantó ella en el concierto? g) _______________________________ h) ¿No robaron los ladrones un famoso cuadro? h) _______________________________ 7) a) a) b) b) c) c) d) d) e) e) f) f) 10) FILL literature /you /Aren't /interested /in? Aren't you interested in Literature? speak /Doesn't /he /French? _______________________________ my /Do /near /house /you/ live? _______________________________ the /dictionary /on /Is /table /the ? _______________________________ for /the/she /this /position/ Isn't /right /person? _______________________________ perfect /Does /know /English /she ? _______________________________ TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. a) He drove that old car. d) Michela is from Italy. _______________________________ MAKE QUESTIONS USING THE FOLLOWING WORDS. b) Paul is from Ireland. b) Debajo de la mesa hay un libro. j) Nina is from Scotland.6) a) a) b) b) c) c) d) d) e) e) f) f) g) g) h) h) i) i) MAKE QUESTIONS WITH THE SENTENCES GIVEN. g) Mette is from _________. she is Dutch. 9) TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO ENGLISH. g) _______________________________ h) Este regalo es para ti. she is Norwegian h) François is from France. d) _____ she know how to speak _____? e) She _____ the bills _____ leaving her house. _______________________________ I write very long poems. g) _____ you _____ that strange sound? 8) a) Hay una guerra contra Italia. c) You _____ to me. f) Victor is from Russia. Do you play the guitar? She doesn't drink orange juice. b) People _____ Holland are _____. _______________________________ They are very tall. i) Charles is from ________. a) There is a war against Italy. c) Panos is from _______. he is ________. k) We all are from Europe. _______________________________ We don't study very hard. b) _______________________________ c) No encontré las llaves en tu casa. she is _________. c) _______________________________ d) No perdieron el partido. he is Greek. You _____ tell me the truth. we are __________. a) I am from Spain. b) _______________________________ c) Estudio de 5 a 7. he is English. he is _________. a) Él conducía ese coche viejo. she is _________. . e) Sonia is from _________. EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A SUITABLE WORD FROM THE CHART. b) Ellos se sentían muy mal. f) _______________________________ g) Siempre desayuno antes de mediodía. _______________________________ He is in Manchester. h) _______________________________ -114- 11) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE APPROPRIATE NATIONALITY OR COUNTRY. f) I _____ too _____ cheese. _______________________________ She doesn't drink alcohol.

g) _______________________________ h) Last week she went to Poland. . f) Once a week I go to the launderette to ______ the washing. b) I failed the exam because I ______ lots of mistakes. l) I have to go now. I have to ______ an urgent phone call. (preguntar cómo se desplaza al trabajo) i) _______________________________ a) a/Do /have /car /you ? a) Do you have a car? a) Did you have a car? b) she /drive /How /does? b) _______________________________ b) _______________________________ c) plays /guitar /Who /the? c) _______________________________ c) _______________________________ d) married /When /do /get /they? d) _______________________________ d) _______________________________ e) for /does /holidays /Where /go /she? e) _______________________________ e) _______________________________ f) you /upset /Why /are /so? f) _______________________________ f) _______________________________ g) one /take /Which /do /you? g) _______________________________ g) _______________________________ a) ¿Quién fue al concierto? a) Who went to the concert? b) ¿Cuándo te despiertas? b) _______________________________ c) ¿Comes fresas? c) _______________________________ d) ¿Quién trajo estos libros? d) _______________________________ e) ¿Hablas inglés? e) _______________________________ f) ¿Por qué te fuiste a Escocia? f) _______________________________ g) ¿Dónde compraste esta camiseta? g) _______________________________ h) ¿De dónde eres? h) _______________________________ i) ¿Qué dijiste? i) _______________________________ j) ¿Qué coche prefieres? j) _______________________________ k) ¿Cómo era tu perro? k) _______________________________ l) ¿Tienes hermanos o hermanas? l) _______________________________ 15) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE VERBS "DO" OR "MAKE" IN THE PRESENT OR PAST TENSE. you need to ______ an appointment. f) _______________________________ g) It is raining. (preguntar a dónde fue) h) _______________________________ i) I go to work by bus. e) _______________________________ f) My name is Thomas. c) _______________________________ d) Paul and Anne went to the party. j) Some people think Christ ______ miracles.12) WRITE A SUITABLE QUESTION FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING WH QUESTIONS. -115- REVIEW 13) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. e) Researchers ______ research. c) Could you ______ me a favour? Could you turn down the volume? d) Last year Peter ______ a lot of money with his new business. a) When did you have lunch? b) I am fine. ______ an effort and study this textbook. b) _______________________________ c) I did it because I wanted. (preguntar quién fue a la fiesta) d) _______________________________ e) I am from Japan. a) Students are asked to make suggestions. k) Charles was expelled from school because he ______ a lot of trouble. 14) MAKE QUESTIONS WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS AND THEN WRITE THESE QUESTIONS IN THE PAST TENSE. a) I had lunch at 1 o'clock. i) Please. h) Claire ______ honours in Media Studies ten years ago. g) If you want to go to the doctor's.

a) Last week I was writing my lesson when your brother phoned me. AND INTERROGATIVE FORM OF THE FOLLOWING VERBS. she doesn't like apples. g) ______ you ______ an English lesson now? h) Today it is sunny.16) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE PRESENT 17) TRANSLATE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES AND PAST CONTINUOUS IN THE AFFIRMATIVE. c) ¿Con qué asiduidad vas de compras? c) ______________________________. REVIEW -116- . NEGATIVE ENGLISH BY USING QUESTIONS WITH HOW. g) ¿Cuánto tiempo lleva llegar a Manchester? g) ______________________________. c) ______ you ______ Geography when he came? d) Yesterday all students ______ at the blackboard while the teacher ______ the lecture. b) Mary ______ apples. study give shine have leave look rain write eat INTO a) ¿A cuánta distancia está Londres de Barcelona? a) How far is London from Barcelona? b) ¿Cuánto mide tu padre? b) ______________________________. f) ¿Qué longitud tiene la playa? f) ______________________________. f) Today the sun ______ and it is very hot. I am sure ______. d) ¿Cuánto pesa tu mesa? d) ______________________________. e) ¿Qué anchura tiene el lago? e) ______________________________. e) Peter ______ the room when his friend came in.

estará we will be 1st P we’ll be we shall be you will be 2nd P you’ll be they will be 3rd P they’ll be Future / Question form (nosotros/ as) seremos. estarás (tú)? he/ she/ it will not be 3rd S he/ she/ it won’t be (él/ ella/ *ello) no será. no estarán (ellos/ as) no serán. no estará we will not be 1st P we won’t be we shall be you will not be 2nd P you won’t be they will not be 3rd P they won’t be (nosotros/ as) no seremos. La forma interrogativa se obtiene invirtiendo el orden del sujeto y del auxiliar. estaremos (nosotros/ as)? ¿seréis.1. no estaréis (ustedes) no serán. estar’) Future / Affirmative form English Spanish I will be (yo) seré. estar’) Future / Negative and contracted negative form English Spanish I will not be 1st S I won’t be I shall not be you will not be 2nd S you won’t be (yo) no seré. no estará ¿será. estará (él/ ella/ *ello)? will we be? 1st P shall we be? 2nd P will you be? ¿serán.UNIT 11 GRAMMAR 1. estaréis (vosotros/as)? Future / Question form English Spanish will I be? 1st S shall I be? ¿seré. Por lo tanto: Future / Negative and contracted negative form SUJETO + Verbo principal en WILL NOT / INFINITIVO + WON’T sin “TO” he/ she/ it will be 3rd S he’ll/ she’ll/ it’ll be (él/ ella/ *ello) será. estarán (ellos/ as) serán. estará (usted)? 3rd S will he/ she/ it be? ¿será. estarán (ellos/ as)? ¿seremos. o (2) con la forma contraída (“won’t”) de la suma del auxiliar y de la partícula de negación. no estaremos (vosotros/ as) no seréis. Por lo tanto: TO BE (‘ser. no estarás 2nd S will you be? (usted) no será. estarás (usted) será. estarán WILL + SUJETO + Verbo principal en + (complementos)? INFINITIVO sin “TO” 11 TO BE (‘ser.2-NEGATIVE FORM AND QUESTION FORM (FORMA NEGATIVA E INTERROGATIVA) Existen dos maneras posibles para construir la forma negativa: (1) intercalando el adverbio de negación “not” entre el auxiliar (“will”) y el verbo principal en infinitivo sin la partícula “to”. no estarán -117- . Esta forma (“will”) se puede contraer en “’ll”. estaré 1st S I’ll be I shall be you will be 2nd S you’ll be (tú) serás. Para la primera persona del plural y del singular también se puede utilizar el auxiliar “shall”.-FUTURE TENSE (EL TIEMPO FUTURO) 1. estará 1. no estaré (tú) no serás. estaré (yo)? ¿serás. estaremos (vosotros/ as) seréis. estarán (ustedes)? 3rd P will they be? ¿serán.-AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA) En inglés el futuro de los verbos se forma anteponiendo el auxiliar “will” al verbo en infinitivo sin la partícula “to”. estaréis (ustedes) serán.

se usurá “will” cuando uno se ofrezca como voluntario para hacer algo o cuando se haya tomado una decisión. Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English I am not going to eat at home. es decir. Iba a ir a Irlanda.-FUTURE WITH “GOING TO” (FUTURO PRÓXIMO) En inglés también se puede expresar futuro con la partícula “going to”. He is going to read a book. Van a beber agua. (2) o hacer uso de la forma negativa no contraída (“will not”). no estará (él/ella/*ello)? will we not be? 1st P won’t we be? ¿no seremos. Future / Contracted negative question form Verbo principal en WON’T + SUJETO + + (complementos) ? INFINITIVO sin “TO” Future / Negative question form Verbo en WILL + SUJETO + NOT + INFINITIVO + (compts. no estaremos (nosotros/ as)? ¿no seréis. en caso de usar el verbo “to be” en presente. They were not going to study the lesson.1. Por lo tanto. Iba a tocar el piano.) ? sin “TO“ Este futuro expresa proximidad. con unos amigos en la cafetería Spanish Voy encontrarme [es un hecho que ya está planeado] English Spanish I will call you as soon as I arrive in Dublin. They are going to drink some water.3. No voy a comer en casa. no estarás (tú)? ¿no será. I was going to go to Ireland.-NEGATIVE QUESTION (FORMA INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVA) Para construir oraciones interrogativonegativas en futuro tenemos dos opciones: (1) hacer uso de la forma negativa contraída (“won’t”) que es más común a nivel oral. se hará uso del futuro con “going to” a la hora de referirse a algo que ya está planeado y organizado de antemano. no estaré (yo)? ¿no serás. Examples: English I am going to meet some friends at the café. He was going to play the piano.DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE FUTURE “GOING TO” AND THE SIMPLE ( DIFERENCIAS DE USO ENTRE EL FUTURO “ GOING TO ” Y EL FUTURO SIMPLE ) will they not be? ¿no serán.4. WITH CON TO BE (‘ser. No iban a estudiar la lección. no estarán (ustedes)? will you not be? 2nd P won’t you be? 1. Por lo tanto: Future with “going to” Verbo Verbo principal “TO BE” en SUJETO + conjugado + “GOING TO” + INFINITIVO en pasado o sin “TO“ en presente La diferencia de uso entre el futuro próximo y el futuro con “will” radica en la intención del hablante. la acción que se va a llevar a cabo está cercana al momento presente. no estaréis (vosotros/ as)? ¿no serán. no estará (usted)? Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish 11 will you not be? 2nd S won’t you be? will he/she/it not be? 3rd S won’t he/she/it be? ¿no será.5. estar’) Future / Negative question form and contracted negative question form English Spanish will I not be? 1st S won’t I be? ¿no seré. Te llamaré en cuanto llegue a Dublín. Va a leer un libro. asimismo. [he tomado la decisión de llamarte y lo haré] -118- . y en caso de usar el verbo “to be” en pasado la acción que se va llevar a cabo está cercana a un momento pasado. precedida del verbo “to be” (conjugado en pasado o en presente) y seguida del verbo en infinitivo sin “to”. no estarán (ellos/ as)? 3rd P won’t they be? 1. que la acción que se va a realizar (o que se realizó) se encuentra (o se encontraba) próxima a un momento determinado en el tiempo.

I have played that song. Desde la semana pasada he estado en Gales. 3 Spanish He tocado esa canción. If I go to London [Presente Simple] it will rain [Futuro simple] 1 Spanish English Spanish He visto tu coche de camino aquí. Por lo tanto: Present perfect / Affirmative form Verbo PARTICIPIO “TO HAVE” SUJETO + conjugado en + PASADO del verbo principal presente TO WALK (‘andar’) Present perfect / Affirmative form English Spanish I have walked (yo) he caminado 1st S I’ve walked (tú) has caminado you have walked 2nd S you’ve walked (usted) ha caminado he/she/it has walked (él/ ella/ *ello) ha caminado 3rd S he/she/it’s walked we have walked 1st P we’ve walked you have walked 2nd P you’ve walked they have walked 3rd P they’ve walked (nosotros/ as) hemos caminado (vosotros/ as) habéis caminado (ustedes) han caminado (ellos / as) han caminado they have not walked 3rd P they haven’t walked (ellos/ as) no han caminado Present perfect / Negative form and contracted negative form English I have not walked 1st S I haven’t walked Spanish (yo) no he caminado 11 you have not walked (tú) no has caminado 2nd S you haven’t walked (usted) no ha caminado he/ she/ it has not walked 3rd S he/ she/ it hasn’t walked (él/ ella/ *ello) no ha caminado we have not walked (nosotros/ as) 1st P we haven’t walked no hemos caminado (vosotros/ as) no habéis caminado you have not walked 2nd P you haven’t walked (ustedes) no han caminado -119- . para el resto de las personas “have” o su contracción “’ve”) y el verbo TO WALK (andar) principal en participio pasado. contracción “’s”. 3)Una acción que tuvo lugar en el pasado. ‘¿He andado?’). Si bebes demasiado te emborracharás. El pretérito perfecto compuesto se forma con ‘No he andado’). If he plays they will win. I have been in Wales since last week. y en “hasn’t” para la la tercera persona del singular “has” o su tercera persona del singular. La forma negativa se consigue 3. pero relacionada con una forma adverbial anterior. Si voy lloverá. La forma interrogativa se obtiene invirtiendo el orden del sujeto y auxiliar (“Have I walked?”. 2 English Spanish English I have had this pen for a month. Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish If I go it will rain. sin referencia a un tiempo concreto. Nótese que también se puede el verbo “to have” conjugado en presente (para abreviar ésta en “haven’t”. If you drink too much you will get drunk. English I have seen your car on my way here.2. 2)Una acción que todavía continúa en el momento presente. He tenido esta pluma desde hace un mes.-FIRST TYPE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DE PRIMER TIPO) Las oraciones condicionales de primer tipo siguen esta estructura: First type conditional sentences Partícula “IF” Oración en + PRESENTE + SIMPLE Oración en FUTURO SIMPLE El pretérito perfecto compuesto expresa: 1)Una acción finalizada en el momento en el que se está comunicando y relacionada de alguna manera con el momento presente.-PRESENT PERFECT intercalando el adverbio de negación “not” entre (PRETÉRITO PERFECTO COMPUESTO) el auxiliar y el participio (“I have not walked”. Si juega ganarán.

TO WALK (andar) Present perfect / Question form English Spanish 1st S have I walked? 2nd S have you walked? ¿he caminado (yo)? ¿has caminado (tú)? ¿ha caminado (usted)? rd 3 S has he/ she/ it walked? ¿ha caminado (él/ ella/ ello*) ¿hemos caminado 1st P have we walked? (nosotros/ as)? ¿habéis caminado (vosotros/ as)? 2nd P have you walked? ¿han caminado (ustedes)? rd 3 P have they walked? ¿han caminado (ellos/ as)? TO WALK (‘andar’) Present perfect / Contracted negative question form English Spanish 1st S haven’t I walked? ¿no he caminado (yo)? ¿no has caminado (tú)? 2nd S haven’t you walked? ¿no ha caminado (usted)? hasn’t he/ she/ it ¿no ha caminado (él/ ella/ 3rd S walked? *ello)? ¿no hemos caminado 1st P haven’t we walked? (nosotros/ as)? ¿no habéis caminado (vosotros/ as)? nd 2 P haven’t you walked? ¿no han caminado (ustedes)? rd haven’t they walked ? ¿no han caminado (ellos/ as)? 3 P

Por el contrario, el pasado simple hace referencia a una acción que ocurrió en el pasado y que excluye toda relación con el tiempo actual. Examples:
English Spanish English Spanish I went to England last summer. Fui a Inglaterra el verano pasado. He drank too much wine. Bebió demasiado vino.

4.-USE OF “SINCE” AND “FOR” (USO DE “SINCE” Y “FOR”) Las preposiciones inglesas “since” y “for” significan ‘desde’, ‘desde hace’ y ‘durante’. La diferencia de uso entre “since” y “for” radica en que “since” se emplea cuando se hace referencia a un momento concreto, es decir, “since” precede a una expresión temporal que hace referencia a un momento concreto en el pasado (e.g.: “my birthday”, “1976”, “I saw you”, “last week”, etc.). “For” se emplea cuando se hace referencia a un periodo de tiempo, es decir, “for” precede a una expresión temporal que hace referencia un periodo de tiempo y no a un momento concreto (e.g.: “five days”, “one year”, “a moment”, etc.).

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Para obtener la interrogativa negativa (no contraída), que es menos común en el discurso hablado que la contraída, se sigue este orden:
Present perfect / Negative question PARTICIPIO Verbo “TO HAVE” + SUJETO + NOT + PASADO + (compts.) ? del verbo en presente principal

English Spanish English

Peter hasn’t talked to me for one week. Peter no me ha hablado durante una semana. Peter hasn’t talked to me since last summer.

Spanish Peter no me habla desde el verano pasado. English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish I had a very bad pain in my chest for seven months. Tuve un dolor muy fuerte en el pecho durante siete meses. I haven’t had any pain in my chest since January. No he tenido ningún dolor en el pecho desde enero. This is the first time I meet Anne since last year. Esta es la primera vez que me encuentro con Anne desde el año pasado. This is the first time I meet Anne for two months. Esta es la primera vez que me encuentro con Anne desde hace dos meses.

Por lo tanto:
TO WALK (‘andar’) Present perfect / Negative question form English Spanish 1st S Have I not walked? 2nd S Have you not walked? 3rd S Has he/she/it not walked? 1st P Have we not walked? 2nd P Have you not walked? 3rd P Have they not walked? ¿No he caminado (yo)? ¿No has caminado (tú)? ¿No ha caminado (usted)? ¿No ha caminado (él/ ella/ ello*)? ¿No hemos caminado (nosotros/ as)? ¿No habéis caminado (vosotros/ as)? ¿No han caminado (ustedes)? ¿No han caminado (ellos/ as)?

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DAILY

SPEAKING

1.-ASKING THE WAY (CÓMO PREGUNTAR DIRECCIONES)
Tourists: Turistas: Carlos: Carlos: Excuse me, is Gains Road far from here? Disculpe, ¿está la calle Gains lejos de aquí? Yes, it is rather far. I’m afraid you might need to take a bus to the city centre. Sí, está bastante lejos. Me temo que tendrán que coger un autobús al centro de la ciudad.

Excuse me, is Gains Road far from here? Where can we take this bus?

Yes, it is rather far. I’m afraid you migh need to take a bus to the city centre The bus stop is quite near. Go straight on along this street until you get to the traffic lights, then take the third turning on the left

Tourists: Where can we take this bus? Turistas: ¿Dónde podemos coger este autobús? Carlos: The bus stop is quite near. Go straight on along this street until you get to the traffic lights, then take the third turning on the left. La parada de autobús está bastante cerca. Sigan esta calle hasta que lleguen al semáforo, después cojan la tercera calle a mano izquierda.

Carlos:

Could you show us in the map? How often are there buses to the city centre?

Of course

I think every ten minutes

Tourists: Could you show us in the map? Turistas: ¿Nos lo podría mostrar en el mapa? Carlos: Carlos: Of course. Por supuesto.

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Tourists: How often are there buses to he city centre? Turistas: ¿Con qué frecuencia hay autobuses al centro de la ciudad? Carlos: Carlos: I think every ten minutes. Creo que cada diez minutos.

Tourists: And, how long does this route take? Turistas: Y, ¿cuánto tiempo dura el trayecto? Carlos: Carlos: About fifteen minutes. And, if you ask the driver, he will tell you where to get off. Sobre unos quince minutos. Y, si le preguntan al conductor, él les indicará dónde tienen que bajarse. Thank you very much for your help. Muchas gracias por su ayuda. You are welcome. De nada.

And, how long does this route take? Thank you very much for your help

About fifteen minutes. And, if you ask the driver, he will tell you where to get off You are welcome

Tourist: Turistas: Carlos: Carlos:

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CIVILIAN
1.-MEANS OF TRANSPORT (MEDIOS DE TRANSPORTE)
English train (by ~) ticket return ticket luggage window (at the ~) station car (by ~) plane (by ~) boat (by ~) bicycle (by ~) coach (by ~) tram (by ~) underground, tube (by ~) subway (AmE) (by ~) bus (by ~) get into billete

VOCABULARY

Spanish tren (en ~)

bicycle

billete de ida y vuelta equipaje ventanilla (en la ~) estación coche (en ~) avión (en ~) barco (en ~) bicicleta (en ~) autocar (en ~) tranvía (en ~) metro (en ~) autobús (en ~) subir a

car

train

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2.-CLOTHES (ROPA)
English overcoat jacket hat boots abrigo chaqueta sombrero botas calzoncillos camisa corbata cinturón gorra guantes blusa bolso bragas falda jersey medias pañuelo calcetines Spanish

hat bag

underpants shirt tie belt cap gloves

gloves

shoes

blouse bag panties skirt jersey stocking handkerchief

tie

cap

socks

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3.-THE SIZES AND THEIR EQUIVALENCES (LAS TALLAS Y SUS EQUIVALENCIAS)
Dress (vestido) / Overcoat (abrigo) / Trousers (pantalón) USA UK EUROPE

30 40

32 42

34 44

36 46

38 48

40 50

42 52

44 54

46 56

Shirt (camisa) USA UK EUROPE

14 36

15 38

151/2 39

16 41

161/2 42

17 43

171/2 44

18 45

Shoes (zapatos) USA UK EUROPE

5 38

6 39

7 40

8 41

81/2 42

9 43

91/2 43

10 44

11 44

4.-THE CITY (LA CIUDAD)

English city town avenue square gardens fountain road pavement (BrE) sidewalk (AmE) bus stop underground station (BrE) tube station (BrE) subway station (AmE) pedestrian crossing (BrE) crosswalk (AmE) traffic lights building consulate street lamps shop window sewer town hall local authority ciudad

Spanish pueblo; ciudad avenida plaza jardines fuente carretera; calzada acera parada de autobús estación de metro

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street lamp

buildin

g

town hall
paso de peatones semáforo edificio consulado farolas escaparate alcantarilla ayuntamiento diputación

garde

ns

church
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cro pedes sswalk (A trian c m rossin E) g (BrE )

English telephone booth embassy the post and telegraph office museum hospital church bank chemist’s (BrE) drugstore (AmE) Spanish cabina de teléfonos embajada oficina de correos y telégrafos museo hospital iglesia banco farmacia cárcel hotel tienda comisaría de policía cine teatro castillo discoteca agencia de viajes peluquería mercado marke t telephone booth hairdre prison hotel shop police station cinema theatre castle night club travel agency hairdresser’s market READING hotel sser ’s COMPREHENSION 11 1. i) The Faroe Islands belong to the British Isles. Wales (Cardiff capital) and Northern Ireland (Belfast capital). 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) What does the United Kingdom consist of? What is the name of the capital of Wales? Does Northern Ireland belong to Great Britain or to the United Kingdom? Why is the Isle of Man different? What does Great Britain include? What is the name of the most populated nation of the United Kingdom? 3. Great Britain includes the main island (Wales. It is often incorrectly used as a synonym for Great Britain or the United Kingdom. Scotland (Edinburgh capital). the Isle of Wight. the Hebrides. Great Britain is often incorrectly used to refer to the United Kingdom. England is the largest and the most densely populated of the nations that make up the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.-ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)? (DI SI ESTAS ORACIONES SON VERDADERAS O FALSAS) a) The United Kingdom is situated in the north-east coast of Europe.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. e) Edinburgh is the capital of England. It consists of two large islands (Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and about 5000 smaller ones. It is the largest of the British Isles. Its neighbours are Ireland to west and France to south-east. g) The Republic of Ireland doesn't belong to the British Isles. an archipielago that also includes Ireland (Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland). England) and some islands such as Anglesey. which is inaccurate and can be offensive. f) Great Britain is a synonym for United Kingdom. The United Kingdom consists of four nations: England (London capital).-THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND 2. Each of these nations has a very distinct identity and you should not call a Welshman “English” and vice versa. the Faroe Islands (Denmark) and the Isle of Man. b) Northern Ireland belongs to the United Kingdom. h) The Faroe Islands are Danish. The name "England" is derived from "land of the Angles". This means that Northern Ireland belongs to the United Kingdom but not to Great Britain. The Isle of Man is an internally self-governing dependency of the British Crown and its people are British citizens. Scotland. d) The United Kingdom consists of four nations. (EL REINO UNIDO DE GRAN BRETAÑA E IRLANDA DEL NORTE) (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) The United Kingdom is situated in the north-west coast of Europe across the English Channel. the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands. T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F -124- . c) The people that come from the Isle of Man are British.

MILITARY

TERMS

1.-PARTS OF THE RIFLE, MACHINE GUN & PISTOL (PARTES DEL FUSIL, AMETRALLADORA Y PISTOLA)
English barrel butt trigger pistol rear sight front sight forearm tripod bipod sling feed cover feed tray charging handle buffer chamber magazine bore trigger guard flash suppressor ejection port bayonet firing pin hammer extractor Spanish cañón culata gatillo empuñadura alza punto de mira guardamanos trípode bípode portafusa teja bandeja palanca de montar muelle recuperador recámara cargador ánima guardamontes apagallamas ventana de expulsión bayoneta percutor martillo extractor

barrel / bore front sight

hammer rear sight ejection port

trigger

pistol

magazine

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Yes, Sir Yes, Sir. I have a cartridge in the chamber

MILITARY

CONVERSATION

Ramírez, show me your rifle

Do you have any problem with your weapon? I did it but it’s still stuck Pull the charging handle down and take it out

Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento:

Ramírez, show me your rifle. Ramírez, enséñame el rifle. Yes, Sir. Sí, mi Sargento.

Private: Soldado: Sergeant:

Yes, Sir. I have a cartridge in the chamber. Sí, mi Sargento. Tengo un cartucho en la recámara. Pull the charging handle down and take it out. Baja la palanca de montar y sácalo. I did it but it’s still stuck. Lo he hecho pero sigue atascado.

Do you have any problem with your Sargento: weapon? ¿Tienes algún problema con el arma? Private: Soldado:

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EXERCISES
1) INSERT “SINCE”
OR

“FOR”.

3) WRITE THE FOLLOWING “BE GOING TO” FORM.

SENTENCES BY USING THE

a) He has been in prison for a year. b) I have been taking driving lessons ______ last August. c) She has driven the same car ______ 1975. d) My life has changed ______ I was a girl. e) We have been waiting for you ______ two hours! f) I’ve been very patient with you ______ several years. g) You haven’t spoken to me ______ the last committee meeting. h) They have been under water ______ half an hour.

a) I go to the cinema this evening. a) I am going to go to the cinema this evening. b) She buys one ticket to Berlin. b) ________________________________. c) They run for one hour. c) ________________________________. d) He walks along the street. d) ________________________________. e) You are the president. e) ________________________________. f) The party starts very soon. f) ________________________________.

2) FILL THE FOLLOWING BOX BY INSERTING THE PAST FORM AND THE PAST PARTICIPLE OF EACH VERB.

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Present a) look b) love

Past looked

Past Participle looked

g) Dalila is my wife’s best friend. g) ________________________________. h) She has twins. c) see d) eat e) understand f) be g) want k) Lissa plays the piano. h) wear i) bite j) kiss k) watch k) ________________________________. l) Mary buys a book for her father. l) ________________________________. j) We play football and baseball. j) ________________________________. h) ________________________________. i) They try to win the game. i) ________________________________.

m) They send her a present. m) ________________________________.
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4) WRITE

THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.

5) WRITE

THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PAST TENSE OF THE “BE GOING TO” FORM.

a) I go to the cinema. a) I have gone to the cinema.

a) I go to the cinema this evening. a) I was going to go to the cinema this evening.

b) She buys one ticket to Berlin. b) ______________________________.

b) She buys one ticket to Berlin. b) ______________________________.

c) They run for one hour. c) ______________________________.

c) They run for one hour. c) ______________________________.

d) He walks along the street. d) ______________________________.

d) He walks along the street. d) ______________________________.

e) You are the president. e) ______________________________.

e) You are the president. e) ______________________________.

f) The party starts very soon. f) ______________________________.

f) The party starts very soon. f) ______________________________.

g) Dalila is my wife’s best friend. g) ______________________________.

g) Dalila is my wife’s best friend. g) ______________________________.

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h) She has twins. h) ______________________________.

h) She has twins. h) ______________________________.

i) They try to win the game. i) ______________________________.

i) They try to win the game. i) ______________________________.

j) We play football and baseball. j) ______________________________.

j) We play football and baseball. j) ______________________________.

k) Lissa plays the piano. k) ______________________________.

k) Lissa plays the piano. k) ______________________________.

l) Mary buys a book for her father. l) ______________________________.

l) Mary buys a book for her father. l) ______________________________.

m) They send her a present. m) ______________________________.
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m) They send her a present. m) ______________________________.

6) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE 7) MAKE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE.
a) I go to the cinema. a) I will go to the cinema.

THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES NEGATIVE.

a) I am going to see my boyfriend. a) I am not going to see my boyfriend. b) I will ask you some questions.

b) She buys one ticket to Berlin. b) ______________________________.

b) ______________________________. c) Will you come to my party tonight?

c) They run for one hour. c) ______________________________.

c) _______________________________ d) She was going to study the lesson.

d) He walks along the street. d) ______________________________.

d) ______________________________. e) They have been in Madrid for five months.

e) You are the president. e) ______________________________.

e) ______________________________. f) They will speak English.

f) The party starts very soon. f) ______________________________.

f) ______________________________. g) Are you going to sell your car? g) _______________________________

11

g) Dalila is my wife’s best friend. g) ______________________________. h) Have they come soon? h) _______________________________ h) She has twins. h) ______________________________. i) It is going to rain. i) i) They try to win the game. i) ______________________________. j) They were going to write a letter. j) j) We play football and baseball. j) ______________________________. k) Has she gone to our school this morning? k) _______________________________ k) Lissa plays the piano. k) ______________________________. l) Will you stay here in winter? l) _______________________________ l) Mary buys a book for her father. l) ______________________________. m) I will finish my work tomorrow. m) ______________________________. n) It will be a very nice summer. n) ______________________________.
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______________________________.

______________________________.

m) They send her a present. m) ______________________________.

8) MAKE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTERROGATIVE. (to give) b) The table will collapse if you _____ on it. d) _______________________________ e) You told me the truth. j) _______________________________ 9) PUT THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE CORRECT FORM. (to make) k) If you give my dog a bone he _____ it at once. e) _______________________________ f) She has studied French since 1985. a) Were they going to write a letter? b) You have taken some eggs for breakfast. (to wash) j) I will be very angry if you _____ any more mistakes. (to arrest) f) If he _____ in bad light he will ruin his eyes. b) _______________________________ c) Anna will meet Peter tomorrow at half past one. (to bury) 11 10) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). f) _______________________________ g) They weren’t going to come. (to eat) d) If I find your passport I _____ you at once. a) They were going to write a letter. (to telephone) e) The police _____ him if they catch him. i) _______________________________ j) Michael is not going to read your article. g) _______________________________ h) Her birthday is on October the 14th. (to steal) h) What will happen if my parachute _____? (not to open) i) If he _____ my car I will give him £10. English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) pistol grip barrel sling bore bayonet rear sight chamber forearm Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) bayoneta recámara empuñadura portafusa ánima cañón guardamanos alza -129- . (to stand) c) If he _____ all that he will be ill. (to read) g) Someone _____ your car if you leave it unlocked. a) If I see him I will give him a lift. c) _______________________________ d) He is an English teacher. h) _______________________________ i) I won’t go with you to the zoo.

We would like to go to France. She would read this book. NEGATIVE FORM (FORMA NEGATIVA) La forma negativa del condicional en inglés se construye con la forma “would not” o su contracción “wouldn’t” más el infinitivo del verbo que se desea poner en condicional sin la preposición “to”. Te daría mi coche.2. Cogerías un taxi.UNIT 12 GRAMMAR 1. Conditional / Negative form 12 you would walk 2nd S you’d walk (tú) andarías (usted) andaría NOT/ + Verbo en INFINITIVO SUJETO + WOULD WOULDN’T sin “TO” he/ she/ it would walk 3rd S he’d/ she’d/ it’d walk (él /ella/ *ello) andaría we would walk 1st P we’d walk (nosotros/ as) andaríamos TO WALK (‘andar’) Conditional / Negative form English Spanish I would not walk (yo) no andaría 1st S I wouldn’t walk you would not walk 2nd S you wouldn’t walk (tú) no andarías (usted) no andaría (vosotros/ as) andaríais you would walk 2nd P you’d walk (ustedes) andarían he/ she/ it would not walk 3rd S he/ she/ it wouldn’t walk (él /ella/ *ello) no andaría we would not walk 1st P we wouldn’t walk you would not walk 2nd P you wouldn’t walk (nosotros/ as) no andaríamos (vosotros/ as) no andaríais (ustedes) no andarían (ellos/ as) no andarían they would walk 3rd P they’d walk (ellos /as) andarían they would not walk 3rd P they wouldn’t walk -131- . en el presente simple. Leería este libro. TO WALK (‘andar’) Conditional / Affirmative form English I would walk 1st S I’d walk Spanish (yo) andaría 1. es decir. AFFIRMATIVE FORM (FORMA AFIRMATIVA) La forma condicional afirmativa del verbo en inglés se obtiene de manera muy parecida a como se construye la del futuro simple: Conditional / Affirmative form SUJETO + WOULD + verbo en INFINITIVO sin “TO” Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish I would give you my car. THE CONDITIONAL TENSE (EL TIEMPO CONDICIONAL) 1. El auxiliar “would” es invariable para todas las personas. La forma “would” se puede contraer en “’d”. por ejemplo. no tiene una forma “especial” para la tercera persona del singular como ocurre. They’d meet my mother.1. You’d take a taxi. Nos gustaría ir a Francia. Conocerían a mi madre.

). NEGATIVE QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVO-NEGATIVA) Para construir oraciones interrogativonegativas en condicional tenemos dos opciones: (1) hacer uso de la forma negativa contraída (“wouldn’t”) que suele ser lo más común. etc. “you would like”.) ? sin “TO” Examples: Wouldn’t you lend me your car? Would you not lend me your car? English Spanish ¿No me dejarías tu coche? English Wouldn’t they go to England? Would they not go to England? TO WALK (‘andar’) Conditional / Question English Spanish 1st S would I walk? 2nd S would you walk? ¿andaría (usted)? 3rd S would he/ she/ it walk? ¿andaría (él/ ella /*ello)? 1st P would we walk? ¿andaríamos (nosotros/ as)? ¿andaríais (vosotros/ as)? 2nd P would you walk? ¿andarían (ustedes)? 3rd P would they walk? ¿andarían (ellos/ as)? ¿andaría (yo)? ¿andarías (tú)? Spanish ¿No irían a Inglaterra? 2.-QUESTION FORM (FORMA INTERROGATIVA) Para construir oraciones interrogativas en tiempo condicional en inglés no se emplea el auxiliar “ to do”. o (2) hacer uso de la forma negativa no contraída (“would not”). “they have seen”. THE IMPERATIVE (EL IMPERATIVO) El imperativo en inglés se construye simplemente con la forma de infinitivo del verbo sin la partícula “to” y.4. cuya forma es invariable para todas las personas. el imperativo en inglés no lo requiere.1. Conditional / Contracted negative question form English Spanish Hazlo (tú) / Hacedlo (vosotros/ as) Do it Hágalo (usted) / Háganlo (ustedes) Come (tú) / Comed (vosotros/ as) Eat Coma (usted) / Coman (ustedes) Verbo en WOULDN’T + SUJETO + INFINITIVO + (complts. a diferencia de otras formas verbales que necesitan el pronombre personal explícito (“I eat”. ‘vosotros’. En inglés se emplea esta única forma para la segunda persona del singular y del plural (“you”. sino que se hace uso de “would”. Conditional / Question form Verbo en WOULD + SUJETO + INFINITIVO + (complts.) ? sin “TO” Ven (tú) / Venid (vosotros/ as) Come Venga (usted) / Vengan (ustedes) -132- .) ? sin “TO” Estudia (tú) / Estudiad (vosotros/ as) Study Conditional / Negative question form Estudie (usted) / Estudien (ustedes) WOULDN’T Verbo en + SUJETO + INFINITIVO (complts. ‘ustedes’) cuando en español se necesitan cuatro formas distintas: Examples: 12 1. ‘usted’. ‘tú’.3.

Teresa: Teresa: You are welcome. Customs officer: Do you have an entry permit? Aduanero: ¿Tiene un permiso de entrada? Teresa: Teresa: Yes. ¿Tengo que abrir la maleta? No. what’s the purpose of your journey? Aduanero: Y. que se emplea en contextos más commands”. English Spanish Do eat Come (tú) / Comed (vosotros) Coma (usted) / Coman (ustedes) Spanish English Spanish Do study this lesson Estudia (tú) / Estudiad (vosotros) esta lección Estudie (usted) / Estudien (ustedes) esta lección English Spanish Let’s not go to the store. How long are you going to stay in the country for? Two months Customs officer: How long are you going to stay in the country for? Aduanero: ¿Cuánto tiempo va a permanecer en el país? Teresa: Teresa: Two months. 12 DAILY 1. ¿cuál es el motivo de su viaje? Teresa: Teresa: I am going to take a French course at the University of Paris. here it is Customs officer: Where are you from? Aduanero: ¿De dónde es usted? Teresa: Teresa: I’m Spanish. hablante.) ? sin “TO” El auxiliar “do” también se emplea en la forma afirmativa del imperativo cuando se quiere enfatizar la orden: Examples: Examples: English Let’s eat pizza. Thank you very much You are welcome Customs officer: No. que se emplea en contextos formales. Do I have to open my suitcase? Customs officer: And. And. Soy española. Do I have to open my suitcase? Voy a estudiar en la Universidad de París un curso de francés. here it is. emplea el auxiliar “to do” en su forma negativa: además de a otras personas. incluyan al propio “do not”. Dos meses. Sí.-CUSTOMS (LA ADUANA) Where are you from? Do you have an entry permit? SPEAKING I’m Spanish Yes. Thank you very much.) ? Don’t be a fool No seas (tú) tonto / No seáis (vosotros) tontos La forma negativa de este tipo de construcciones imperativas sería la siguiente: Let’s commands / Negative form Verbo en + INFINITIVO + (complts. what’s the purpose of your journey? I’m going to take a French course at University of Paris. aquí está. Se forman de la siguiente manera: informales: Examples: English Spanish No lo haga (usted) / No lo hagan (ustedes) English Spanish No sea (usted) tonto / No sean (ustedes) tontos LET’S + NOT Let’s commands / Affirmative firm Verbo en INFINITIVO sin “TO” Do not do it No lo hagas (tú) / No lo hagáis (vosotros) LET’S + + (complts. De nada. Aduanero: No. No vayamos a la tienda. Comamos pizza. Muchas gracias. en inglés se utilizan los “let’s y “don’t”.Para la forma negativa del imperativo se Para formular órdenes o sugerencias que. -133- .

-SPORTS AND LEISURE TIME (DEPORTES Y TIEMPO LIBRE) English draughts chess athletics basketball handball volleyball mountaineering billiards cycling skiing football golf riding ice hockey swimming skating rugby tennis VOCABULARY Spanish damas ajedrez atletismo baloncesto balonmano voleibol alpinismo billar ciclismo esquí fútbol golf hípica hockey sobre hielo natación patinaje rugby tenis riding tennis swimming rugby 12 play the harp English fishing theatre cinema opera dance go for a stroll pasear go for a walk go for jogging reading hiking pesca teatro cine ópera danza Spanish ir a correr leer senderismo pasatiempo fishing reading hobby play a musical instrument tocar un instrumento musical (play the guitar/ the violin/ the (tocar la guitarra/ el violín/ el piano/ the harp) piano / el arpa) Examples: English What do you do in your free time? When I was a child I used to ride horses. Las damas y el ajedrez son juegos intelectuales. . Draughts and chess are intellectual games.CIVILIAN 1. -134Spanish ¿Qué haces en tu tiempo libre? Cuando era pequeño solía montar a caballo.

shut off any other damaged utilities. For example. give first aid and get help for seriously injured people. open windows. there are things you can do to prepare for the unexpected and to reduce the stress.follow the advice of local emergency officials. check for injuries. . call your family contact. do not light matches or candles or turn on electrical switches. 2.READING 1. starting at the water heater. there are many people concerned about the possibility of future incidents and their potential impact. you can create an emergency communications plan. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) When did the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon take place? What can you do in order to prepare yourself for a terrorist attack? 12 MILITARY 1. check on your neighbours. As a result of this kind of devastating acts there is a great uncertainty about the future and stress levels are increasing. And in the event that disaster strikes.-COMMUNICATIONS (COMUNICACIONES) TERMS Spanish signal transmisiones information source fuente de información report informar.listen to your radio or television for news and Because of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in 2001. and get everyone outside quickly. sniff for gas leaks. check for fires. do not use the telephone again unless it is a life-threatening emergency. Nevertheless. if the disaster occurs near your home and you are there.-TERRORIST ATTACK (ATAQUE TERRORISTA) COMPREHENSION . you can establish a meeting place. and. especially those who are elderly or disabled. informe message mensaje tactical communications transmisiones tácticas radio communications transmisiones radio wireless sin cable antenna antena aerial wire cable fax fax operator operador call sign indicativo code cifrar interference interferencia jamming marcar un número dial a number [de teléfono] channel canal wave onda -135English signal operator . check for damage using a flashlight. you have to: - - instructions. you can assemble a disaster supplies kit or check on the school emergency plan of any school-age children you may have.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. turn off the main gas valve.remain calm and be patient. . if the disaster occurs near you. if you smell gas or suspect a leak. fire hazards and other household hazards.

La explosión de una granada. it wasn’t serious Was it a severe injury? Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Private: Soldado: Hello. se hirió una pierna.-FIRST AID (PRIMEROS AUXILIOS) English wound fracture shock burn frostbite sunstroke blister arm bandage leg bandage plaster stretcher casualty fever bruise pill severe injury light injury evacuation Spanish herida. he was wounded on his leg A shell explosion. herido fractura shock quemadura congelación golpe de calor ampolla vendaje de brazo vendaje de pierna escayola camilla baja fiebre magulladura pastilla herida grave herida leve evacuación leg bandage bruise severe injury MILITARY CONVERSATION Hello. he was wounded on his leg. Mortar shrapnel. Metralla de mortero. no fue grave. -136- . Mortar shrapnel 12 No. Pérez! ¿Sabes qué le pasó al Cabo Martínez ayer? Private: Yes.2. Pérez! Do you know what happened to Corporal Martínez yesterday? How was it? Yes. Pérez! Do you know what happened to Corporal Martínez Private: yesterday? Soldado: ¡Hola. Was it a severe injury? ¿Fue una herida grave? No. Soldado: Sí. Private: How was it? Soldado: ¿Cómo fue? A shell explosion. it wasn’t serious. No.

c) Paul doesn’t meet his girlfriend this afternoon. i) ______________________________. g) They have breakfast at half past seven. 4) MAKE SENTENCES WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. g) ______________________________. c) ______________________________. i) __________________________________. f) __________________________________. d) Hellen doesn’t come from Scotland. h) You buy this vase. f) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. g) __________________________________. e) ______________________________. f) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. f) We eat meat twice a week. f) We eat meat twice a week. 2) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE CONTRACTION OF CONDITIONAL TENSE. h) You buy this vase. c) ______________________________. c) Paul meets his girlfriend this afternoon. d) Hellen comes from Scotland. e) Peter’s best friend plays basketball. e) ______________________________. h) You buy this vase. -137- a) you /my new house /? /go to /Would a) Would you go to my new house? b) piano /not /play /they /Would /the /? b) ______________________________ c) a mistake /would /You /make c) ______________________________ d) for you /I /tonight /’d /cook d) ______________________________ e) wouldn’t /go /Michael /a walk /for e) ______________________________ f) like to /me /see /She /not /would f) ______________________________ g) She‘d /like to /book /read /good /a g) ______________________________ . c) __________________________________. a) I’d speak French. d) ______________________________. b) We go to the hotel this morning. a) I would not speak French. i) ______________________________. e) Peter’s best friend doesn’t play basketball. e) __________________________________.EXERCISES 1) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE CONDITIONAL TENSE. a) I speak French. f) We eat meat twice a week. g) They have breakfast at half past seven. h) __________________________________. e) Peter’s best friend plays basketball. c) Paul meets his girlfriend this afternoon. i) I write my curriculum. d) Hellen comes from a Scotland. b) We go to the hotel this morning. h) ______________________________. 3) WRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE NEGATIVE OF THE CONDITIONAL TENSE. g) They have breakfast at half past seven. i) I write my curriculum. g) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. d) __________________________________. a) I speak French. b) We go to the hotel this morning. 12 a) I speak French. a) I would speak French. i) I write my curriculum. b) __________________________________.

b) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. ______________________________. e) Sit down. 6) MAKE IMPERATIVE SENTENCES WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. f) ______________________________.5) MAKE INTERROGATIVE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. a) Don’t go home. c) c) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. a) Write a letter to your cousin. a) Go home. e) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) operator wire radio commnications report jamming dial a number aerial call sign -138- Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) interferencia indicativo operador antena marcar un número [de teléfono] transmisiones radio informe cable . a) I wouldn’t visit my grandmother. a) Do write a letter to your cousin. f) Stop. i) ______________________________. c) ______________________________. h) Let’s work together. f) ______________________________ g) Louise would not study in China. f) f) ______________________________. d) Open the door. a) Wouldn’t I visit my grandmother? b) He would like to be in France. 12 Subject you we you you we you we we Verb write study make come go say play start Complements a letter to your cousin for one hour peace here right now to the cinema it a song for her the work d) ______________________________. b) ______________________________ c) They wouldn’t have a better job. g) ______________________________. e) ______________________________ f) My legs would hurt very much. e) ______________________________. i) Let’s begin now. c) Smoke. i) ______________________________ 7) PUT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES INTO THE NEGATIVE FORM. d) ______________________________ e) He wouldn’t drive faster. b) ______________________________. b) Play this song. h) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. c) ______________________________ d) Martha’s father would find a good place. g) ______________________________ h) I’d borrow your chair. g) Let’s count the money. b) ______________________________. /Do not go home. 8) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). ______________________________. e) ______________________________. h) ______________________________ i) My mother wouldn’t make any suggestion.

He could do it better. He might do it later. siempre lo preceden en las oraciones afirmativas y negativas. Couldn’t she speak louder? Could she not speak louder? ¿No podría hablar más alto? Spanish Puede cantar. excepto “have (got) to”. a diferencia del resto de los verbos modales. Spanish Tiene que cantar. Puede que lo haga más tarde. que tiene “has” en la tercera persona del singular. She has to go to Hannover. Puede escribir. English She has to sing. MODAL VERBS (VERBOS MODALES) Los verbos modales son un conjunto de verbos anómalos que poseen una serie de características comunes: a) Tienen la misma forma verbal invariable para todas las personas. Nótese que “cannot”. No puede. mientras que en los verbos no modales se usa el auxiliar “to do” (las oraciones interrogativas con verbos modales se construyen de una forma similar a como se construyen las oraciones con el verbo “to be”.UNIT 13 GRAMMAR 1. Puede escribir. Tiene que ir a Hannover. You shouldn’t take it so seriously.) infinitivo sin “TO” ] ] d) Cuando el verbo modal acompaña a un verbo en infinitivo. No deberías tomártelo tan a pecho. He could not (couldn’t). tal y como se explica en la unidad 1). ? Modal verbs / Contracted negative question form Verbo modal en + SUJETO negativa contraído Verbo en + infinitivo + (complts. Lo podría / lo pudo hacer mejor. va todo junto en la forma negativa. 13 b) En las oraciones interrogativas se invierte el orden del sujeto y del verbo modal. Examples: English He can write. dicho infinitivo aparece sin la partícula “to”. Examples: En las oraciones negativas la partícula negativa “not” va siempre detrás del verbo. salvo con los verbos modales “ought to” y “have to” Examples: English Spanish He can write. No pudo / no podría. Aquellos modales que aceptan la forma negativa contraída tienen dos maneras para formar oraciones interrogativas: Modal verbs / Negative question form Spanish English Spanish English Spanish Verbo + SUJETO + NOT modal [ [ Verbo en + + (complts. Can he? Could he? ¿Puede? ¿Pudo / podría? He cannot (can’t). c) Cuando acompañan a un verbo en infinitivo.) sin “TO” English Spanish ? English Spanish -139- . Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English He can sing.

¿Puedo ir contigo? Can English Ability: Permission: He can write. “Could” se refiere tanto al tiempo También se puede usar para hacer pasado (‘pude’) como al condicional (‘podría’. pasado: Suggestion: We could go to the cinema. por ejemplo. Las formas “can”. Inability in the future: I will not (won’t) be able to come Incapacidad en futuro: tomorrow.1. conoce a la gente adecuada. please? Solicitar educadamente: Spanish Mi padre podía hablar francés cuando tenía diez años. Could English Skill in the past: Polite request: My father could speak French when Habilidad en he was ten years old. “cannot” y “can’t” sólo se utilizan en presente. imposibilidad en el pasado. la forma negativa hará referencia a la falta de capacidad. especulaciones (como “might”).1. Por lo tanto. críticas. “to be able to” puede conjugarse en todos los tiempos que hasta el momento hemos visto en este libro: Spanish Capacidad: Permiso: Puede escribir. Crítica: Podrías haberme dicho la verdad. Ability in the past: He was able to read a whole book Capacidad en pasado: Pudo leer un libro entero en un solo día. Sugerencia: Criticism: You could have told me the truth. ‘tener la capacidad o la habilidad para llevar a cabo una acción’. Podríamos ir al cine. posibilidad.2.-CAN El verbo modal “can” significa ‘poder’. 13 Ability in the future: I will be able to speak English.-COULD “Could” expresa habilidad en el pasado. con para pedir algo educadamente o para expresar la forma negativa. por favor? Estaba tan nervioso que no pude recordar nada. -140- . Request: Deduction: Can I have a glass of water? Petición: ¿Puedo tomarme un vaso de agua? No pueden estar en casa. imposibilidad o petición. ¿Podría repetir eso de nuevo. No podré venir mañana. No obstante. También se puede utilizar para expresar permiso. Deducción: The lights are off. They cannot (can’t) be at home. in one day. 1. La forma negativa de “can” (“cannot” o “can’t”) expresa deducción. to be able to English Spanish Capacidad en futuro: Podré hablar inglés. Can I go with you? Possibility/Impossibility: Albert can become rich and famous if Posibilidad/Imposibilidad: Alberto puede hacerse rico y famoso si he knows the right people. Impossibility in the I was so nervous I could not (couldn’t) Imposibilidad en past: remember anything.) sugerencias. pasado: algo Could you repeat that again. en futuro o pasado. Las luces están apagadas. La perífrasis verbal “to be able to” se usa para expresar capacidad en los tiempos verbales en los que “can” no puede conjugarse.

No tienes que leer todo el libro. etc. ¿Deben estudiar para aprobar el examen? El rumor debe de ser verdad. No debes volver tarde.-MUST que. que puede adquirir (o no) las propiedades estructurales de los verbos modales. (con el auxiliar “to do”). Must Obligación they study to pass the exam? The rumour must be true. No necesitan cogerlo a no ser que quieran. She doesn’t have to drive. Ausencia de obligación No tendré que volver temprano. Además. 13 Obligación en futuro: Tendrá que ir a Londres. No tiene que conducir. 1. I must go to class. Necesita ser amada. Asimismo. Esto quiere decir verbales (e. expresar deducción de un hecho. Nótese forma “has”. Spanish Tengo que ir a clase. en futuro: Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish Do you have to wear a uniform? ¿Tienes que llevar uniforme? Did she have to bring an umbrella? ¿Tuvo que llevar paraguas? You don’t have to read the whole book. Necesito estudiar más duro.). la forma negativa de “have to” tercera persona del singular ha de emplearse la expresará esa ausencia de obligación. Tuvieron / tenían que estudiar No tuvo / tenía que estudiar. futuro. Spanish English Spanish English Spanish -141- . es decir.4. nos vemos que. “Need” es un verbo semi-modal.g. en pasado: de obligación She did not (didn’t) have to study.3. Debo ir a clase. Need you go? ¿Necesitas irte? Do you need to go? ¿Necesitas irte? Need he go so soon? ¿Necesita irse tan temprano? Does he need to go so soon? ¿Necesita irse tan temprano? I need to study harder. Examples: English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English Spanish English They need not (needn’t) take it unless they want to. They don’t need to take it unless they want to. She needs to be loved. pasado. prohibición (en su forma negativa) o una sugerencia. Ausencia en pasado: He will have to go to London. Veamos algunos ejemplos: Must English Spanish Deben estudiar para aprobar el examen. They must study to pass the exam. I will not (won’t) have to come soon. se comporta como el resto de los verbos a obligados a utilizar “have to” en el tiempo la hora de hacer preguntas o a la hora de negar oportuno para expresar este tipo de obligación. Asimismo.1. puede con ese mismo matiz de obligación. “have to” El verbo “must” expresa obligación también podrá utilizarse en tiempo presente ineludible de hacer algo. “Have to” no es un verbo modal propiamente dicho ya que no posee la mayoría de las Ya que “must” es un verbo defectivo y no características de los verbos modales puede conjugarse en determinados tiempos expuestas anteriormente. “must” implica un mayor grado de obligación que “have to”. You must not (mustn’t) come back late Deducción: Prohibición: Obligation Deduction Prohibition: Suggestion: You must see the British Museum! It’s ¡Deberías ver el Museo Británico! ¡Es Sugerencia: maravilloso! wonderful! Have to English I have to go to class. esto significa que puede comportarse como modal o no. para la Por lo tanto..-NEED El verbo “need” expresa necesidad. Obligation in the present: Obligation in the past: Lack of obligation in the past: Obligation in the future: Lack of obligation in the future: Obligación en presente: Obligación They had to study. No necesitan cogerlo a no ser que quieran.

Esto quiere decir que para la forma negativa.-MIGHT Con el verbo modal “might” sirve para expresar posibilidad. También es utilizado para hacer especulaciones. La forma negativa contraída de “should not” es “shouldn’t”. She might not be the winner. 1. 1. se intercala la partícula de negación “not” entre “need” y el verbo en infinitivo sin la partícula “to” (también puede contraerse en “needn’t”).Nótese que el verbo “need” se comporta como modal en las tablas sombreadas en amarillo. una ventana abierta.6.* Crítica: He ought not to have lied. así como para hacer especulaciones. May English Permission: Possibility Speculation: May I go? It may rain tomorrow. Por lo tanto: Nótese que la forma negativa de “may” no se abrevia. Puede que no sea la ganadora. seguida del verbo en infinitivo con la partícula “to”. 13 English Possibility: She might be the winner. Should I read more? Ought I to read more? You should be more responsible.7 SHOULD / OUGHT TO Los verbos modales “should” y “ought to” pueden: expresar obligación moral. You ought not to drink so much. Criticism: He shouldn’t (should not) have lied. No deberías beber tanto. mientras que para la forma interrogativa no modal de hace uso del auxiliar “to do” como se ha explicado en unidades anteriores. se antepone la partícula “don’t” al verbo “need”. Consejo / Sugerencia: Spanish Debería leer más.5. tocó la lotería. -142No debería haber mentido.-MAY El modal “may” expresa permiso y posibilidad. Permiso: Posibilidad: Spanish ¿Puedo ir? Es posible que llueva mañana. Posibilidad: Spanish Puede que sea la ganadora. Obligación moral: Debería leer más? Moral obligation: . Para la forma interrogativa se invierte el orden del sujeto y del verbo modal. 1. Might she be the winner? ¿Puede que sea la ganadora? Speculation: They might come into the house through an Especulación: Puede que entren en la casa a través de open window. That may be the man who won the Especulación: Puede que ése sea el hombre al que le lottery. You ought to be more responsible. Deberías ser más responsable. así como para criticar acciones pasadas. Por lo tanto: Might La forma “might not” no se contrae. mientras que para la forma negativa no modal. Advice / Suggestion: You should not (shouldn’t) drink so much. Should / Ought to English I should read more. Por lo tanto: *Nótese que para criticar acciones pasadas el verbo principal debe ir en infinitivo compuesto (have + participio de pasado) o en infinitivo simple. servir para dar consejos. I ought to read more.

De todas formas.-SHOPPING. Ok. I’ll take them Teresa: Teresa: Anyway. Do it! This colour really goes with your complexion. ¡Oh. Customer: Cliente: I’ll have half a pound. Dependiente: 9 libras por libra.. por favor? Shop assistant: Which one do you want? The Camembert? Dependiente: ¿Cuál quiere? ¿El Camembert? Customer: Cliente: Yes.DAILY SPEAKING Could I have some of that cheese. 2. ¿Cuánto cuesta? Yes. I think that if you have any problems. Anyway. Dependiente: Aquí tiene. I will. entremos. smaller size. let’s come in I’ll take it. Dependiente: De nada. ¡Hazlo! Este color te sienta muy bien a la cara.. Muchas gracias. me encanta. please? Which one do you want? The Camembert? 1. the Camembert will do... BUYING CLOTHES (DE COMPRAS. I think that if you have any problems. COMPRANDO ROPA) Look at that sweater! Isn’t it nice? Why don’t we come in? 13 Teresa: Teresa: Miguel: Miguel: Miguel: Miguel: Teresa: Teresa: Teresa: Teresa: Do it! This colour really goes with your complexion Look at that sweater! Isn’t it nice? Why don’t we come in? ¡Mira ese jersey! ¿A que es bonito? ¿Por qué no entramos? Ok.-SHOPPING. pruébatelos. BUYING FOOD (DE COMPRAS. me los llevo. I love it. Customer: Cliente: Thank you very much. éstos me van bien. Miguel. Thank you very much You are welcome Shop assistant: You are welcome. Oh. but I need a smaller size. COMPRANDO COMIDA) Customer: Cliente: Could I have some of that cheese.. creo que si tienes algún problema puedes cambiarlos por otros pantalones o te devuelven el dinero. I love it Miguel: Miguel: Oh. Me lo llevo. the Camembert will do. me los probaré. I’ll take it. Ok. estos pantalones también me gustan mucho! Por favor. How much is it? Sí. try them on. How much is it? £9 a pound Shop assistant: £9 a pound. these are Miguel. I like very much these Ok. Miguel. el Camembert está bien. Vale.. Vale. try them on fine. Please. you can change them for other trousers or get the money back. I’ll take them. you can change them for other trousers or get the money back -143- . I will. please? ¿Me podría dar un poco de ese queso. I like very much these trousers too! Please. let’s come in. but I need a trousers too!. these are fine. I’ll have half a pound Here you are Shop assistant: Here you are. Quiero media libra. pero necesito una talla más pequeña.

000 pounds 20 hundredweights 2.66 kg.35 g = 1 pound = 1 libra = 1 stone = 1 hundredweight = 1 short ton = 1 ton / long ton 454 g 6.-CAPACITY (CAPACIDAD) Anglo-Saxon Metric System (Sistema Métrico Anglosajón) 1 fluid ounce 1 onza fluida 20 fluid ounces 20 onzas fluidas 2 pints 2 pintas 4 quarts 4 cuartos = 1 pint = 1 pinta = 1 quart = 1 cuarto = 1 gallon = 1 galón -144European Metric System (Sistema Métrico Decimal) 2.66 kg.568 l 1. 3.54 cm 30.48 cm 91.8 kg 907 kg 1.-LENGTH (LONGITUD) VOCABULARY Anglo-Saxon Metric System (Sistema Métrico Anglosajón) 1 inch 1 pulgada 12 inches 12 pulgadas 3 feet 3 pies 220 yards 220 yardas 8 furlongs 8 estadios 1.17 m 1. Pesa 58.-WEIGHT (PESO) Anglo-Saxon Metric System (Sistema Métrico Anglosajón) European Metric System (Sistema Métrico Decimal) 28.760 yards 1.4 cm 201.016 kg 13 1 ounce 1 onza 16 ounces 16 onzas 14 pounds 14 libras 112 pounds 112 libras 2. (AmE) She weighs 9 stone 3 pounds.136 l 4.546 l .240 pounds Examples: English She weighs 129 pounds.35 kg 50.609 km = 1 mile = 1 milla 2. (BrE) Spanish Pesa 58.CIVILIAN 1.760 yardas = 1 foot = 1 pie = 1 yard = 1 yarda = 1 furlog = 1 estadio = 1 mile = 1 milla European Metric System (Sistema Métrico Decimal) 2.84 cl 0.

OFFENSIVE (OPERACIONES. impacto tomar un objetivo zona de reunión línea de coordinación contraataque perseguir rodear sitiar assault -145- . 1970. United Kingdom). "Absolute Beginners" (1986). c) A friend paralyzed his left pupil in a fight.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.-DAVID BOWIE COMPREHENSION 2. 1947. in London (England. d) He changed his name to David Bowie because he liked it more. OFENSIVA) English task attack assault enemy combat hand-to-hand combat endurance march platoon position approaching avenue advanced rearguard flank body suppress TERMS 13 Spanish misión atacar. Bowie had no luck in his acting career: "Into the Night" (1985). h) “Labyrinth” was a very famous album. ataque asalto enemigo combate combate cuerpo a cuerpo marcha de endurecimiento posición de sección avenida de aproximación vanguardia retaguardia flanco grueso neutralizar aim at English landing zone departure line aim at destroy target impact hit seize an objective assembly area coordination line counterattack pursue encircle siege Spanish zona de lanzamiento línea de partida apuntar a destruir objetivo impactar. f) His song “Changes” was a tribute to New York. included his theme song "Changes". T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F T/F MILITARY 1. He married the American-born Angela Barnett on 20th March. and he left Bromley Technical High School (where a friend paralyzed David's left pupil in a fight) to work as a commercial artist three years later. Bowie's tribute to the New York City of Andy Warhol. They had a son in June 1971.-OPERATIONS. he changed his name to David Bowie to avoid confusion with the Monkees' Davy Jones.-ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)? (DI SI ESTAS ORACIONES SON VERDADERAS O FALSAS) a) David Bowie was born in 1947. e) In 1972 he married Angela Barnett. He produced albums for Lou Reed ("Transformer" and its hit "Walk on the wild side") and wrote and produced Mott the Hoople's anthem "All the Young Dudes".READING 1. None of these films were commercial successes. The couple divorced in 1980. the Velvet Underground and Bob Dylan. i) The supermodel Iman became his wife in 1992. David Jones started playing the saxophone at the age of 13. which received positive reviews. Bowie revitalized Iggy Pop's career by producing "The Idiot" and "Lust for life" (both in 1977). In 1966. His wedding present to his wife was an album called "Black Tie White Noise". "The Linguini Incident" (1992) and "Twin Peaks". g) He produced the album “Transformer” for Lou Reed. In 1992 Bowie married Somalian supermodel Iman. "Labyrinth" (1986). b) He started playing the saxophone at the age of 15. 3. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) 3) 4) What happened to David's eye a long time ago? Why did he change his name to David Bowie? Was his acting career successful? What was his wedding present to his wife? David Robert Jones was born on 8th January.

c) She can’t say it louder. es una ciudad muy bonita. e) __________________________________. The mortars will support your assault. We will need fire support after crossing the departure line. Sir. Sir. b) __________________________________. d) I need my pills. d) Alex y Raúl deben comprar sus libros. Lieutenant. Después de eso. mi sección avanzará sobre aquel río pero… ¿Dónde se encuentra la posición enemiga? It’s behind that hill. Necesitaremos fuego de apoyo después de cruzar la línea de partida. b) __________________________________. Los morteros apoyarán el asalto. b) I must study to pass my exam. That’s right. d) __________________________________. f) ¿Podría darme el nombre de la escuela? f) __________________________________. e) James must do an assignment. cross the departure line at 7 am It’s behind that hill. cruce la línea de partida a las 7 am. g) __________________________________. mi Capitán. . now I can’t. b) La próxima semana no tendré que venir. g) __________________________________. my platoon will advance up to that river but.. f) You must pronounce perfectly. After that. c) __________________________________. c) __________________________________. The attack will be performed once you receive the order by radio. Está detrás de aquella colina. d) __________________________________. a) I will be able to play a song for you with a guitar. e) Sus (de ella) explicaciones deben ser ciertas. f) __________________________________. El ataque tendrá lugar una vez haya recibido la orden por radio. h) I can´t see your eyes.. a) I can play a song for you with a guitar. Teniente. g) Deberías ir a Londres. -146- 2) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE. The attack will be performed once you receive the order by radio The mortars will support your assault Captain: Capitán: That’s right. g) You can’t understand these sentences. After that. a) ¿Puedes hacer esto ahora? No. e) __________________________________. my platoon will advance up to that river but… Where is the enemy position? De acuerdo.MILITARY CONVERSATION Captain: Capitán: Lieutenant: Teniente: Lieutenant. ahora no puedo. Where is the enemy position? Lieutenant: Teniente: Captain: Capitán: We will need fire support after crossing the departure line 13 EXERCISES 1) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. h) ¿Necesitas llevar falda? h) __________________________________. cross the departure line at 7 am. a) Can you do it now? No. h) __________________________________. c) Tienes que estudiar la lección tercera.

101. EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE SUITABLE FIGURE.4 cl = ____ fluid ounces = ____ pints. f) 907 kg = ____ short ton = ____ hundredweights = ____ stones = ____ pounds = ____ ounces.6 kg = ____ hundredweights = ____ stones = ____ pounds = ____ ounces. “SHOULD” a) a) I can play a song for you. i) __________________________________. -147- .8 cm = ____ yards = ____ feet = ____ inches. 6) FILL a) She can’t read your article. h) __________________________________ i) She couldn’t speak Russian. h) ________________________________.175 kg= ____ stone = ____ pounds = ____ ounces. Don’t move him. so she _______ be here by 6:00. c) __________________________________ d) They need to go on holidays.and they _______ really enjoy a nice day at the beach. Weight a) b) c) d) e) 454 g = ____ pound = ____ ounces.68 cl = ____ fluid ounces. 6. 121. h) They can be right. 1. b) My cousins can dance flamenco. 9. It doesn’t do you any good. e) Our questions must be answered. 201. I would love to go on the cruise to Tahiti with Robin and Michelle. a) Can I play a song for you? b) He must study to pass his exam.827 km = ____ miles = ____ furlongs = ____ yards = ____ feet = ____ inches.4 cm = 1 yard = ____ feet = ____ inches.17 m = ____ furlong = ____ yards = ____ feet = ____ inches. i) __________________________________ f) g) e) 4) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE. c) I must do my homework. f) __________________________________ g) You can’t understand these sentences.35 kg = ____ stone = ____ pounds = ____ ounces. he is unconscious. b) c) d) f) He should do better at Physics. c) ________________________________.133 l = ____ fluid ounces = ____ pints = ____ quart. But such a luxurious trip _______ cost a fortune. a) She couldn’t read your article / She was not able to read your article. You _______ worry so much. but I really think you should at least get her some flowers or a nice bottle of wine. Oh.2 cm = ____ feet = ____ inches. b) __________________________________ c) She can’t act like a queen. 76. 908 g = ____ pounds = ____ ounces. Nina said she would come over right after work. he _______ have internal injuries. e) __________________________________ FOLLOWING GAPS WITH AND “MUST” IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE FORM. b) ________________________________.92 cm = ____ feet = ____ inches. SENTENCES INTO THE 5) FILL EACH OF THE “MIGHT”. f) 4. d) ________________________________. We haven’t seen them in weeks. g) ________________________________. g) __________________________________ h) She will be able to attend lectures during pregnancy. 3. Capacity a) b) c) d) 5. d) We need to be accepted. i) I must not do this exam. We should invite Sally and her husband to come to the picnic on Saturday.3) PUT THE FOLLOWING INTERROGATIVE FORM. e) ________________________________. my God. 182. f) Do you need to take music lessons? f) ________________________________. Somebody call an ambulance.092 l = ____ fluid ounces = ____ pints = ____ quarts = ____ gallon. g) They need not study at home. d) __________________________________ e) James could walk for hours. 13 Length a) b) c) d) e) 91. 28. Nancy said you didn’t need to buy her anything for her birthday. You _______ be kidding! That can’t be true.

YOU CAN USE MODAL VERBS MORE THAN ONCE. a) I might not go to the cinema. a) I don’t might go to the cinema. j) __________________________________. d) __________________________________. 9) MATCH 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). CORRECT THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IF NECESSARY. The book is optional. He _______ prefer to stay in tonight and get some rest. g) __________________________________. If they don’t get enough water. a) Ted’s flight from Amsterdam took more than 11 hours. j) j) He have work hard. I _______ speak Arabic fluently when I was a child and we lived in Egypt. d) e) Does Mary must pass this exam? e) __________________________________ e) 13 f) f) Won’t you must work this afternoon? f) __________________________________ g) g) They can to swim but they don’t can to play football. English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) endurance march departure line hand-to-hand combat seize an objective assembly area to siege landing zone rearguard -148- Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) tomar un objetivo sitiar línea de partida retaguardia marcha de endurecimiento zona de lanzamiento combate cuerpo a cuerpo zona de reunión . b) __________________________________. You _______ take your umbrella along with you today. h) h) He not cans be there next week. c) __________________________________. _______ you hold your breath for more than a minute? Jenny’s engagement ring is enormous!. i) i) I don’t need to study that much. The weatherman on the news said there is a storm north of here and it _______ rain later on this afternoon. Do you _______ chew with your mouth open like that? It is making me sick watching you eat that piece of pizza. can must could might have to should b) Hellen don’t must be late. My professor said we _______ read it if we needed extra credit. It _______ have cost a fortune. they _______ die. When you have a small child in the house. Please make sure to water my plants while I am gone. WORDS c) We don’t can do this exercise. b) c) d) I have not to go to Sally’s office this afternoon. Hiking the trail to the peak _______ be dangerous if you are not well prepared for dramatic weather changes.7) FILL IN THE GAPS BY INSERTING THE RIGHT MODAL 8) VERB FROM THE BOX IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE FORM. you _______ leave small objects lying around. it is very difficult. i) __________________________________. But we _______ read it if we don’t want to. h) __________________________________. He might be exhausted after such a long flight.

Won’t the jewel be stolen? ¿No será robada la joya? Present perfect English Spanish English Spanish The jewel has been stolen. Was the jewel being stolen? ¿Estaba siendo robada la joya? 14 Passive voice un vaso de agua es bebido por Peter a glass of water is drunk by Peter TO BE (‘ser. en la oración pasiva la persona o cosa que recibe la acción del verbo en la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto paciente del verbo pasivo (e. La joya está siendo robada.el auxiliar va acompañado por el participio pasado del verbo principal. mientras que el sujeto de la oración activa pasa a ser el complemento agente de la oración pasiva (“María ve un árbol” / “Un árbol es visto por María”). es decir. estar’) Simple past English Spanish English Spanish The jewel was stolen.: “María ve un árbol” / “Un árbol es visto por María”). La joya ha sido robada. La joya estaba siendo robada. La joya fue robada.se utiliza el verbo “to be” (acepción ‘ser’) como verbo auxiliar. La joya sería robada. La joya iba ser robada. el número y tiempo oportunos. Was the jewel stolen? ¿Fue robada la joya? Simple present / Affirmative form English I am loved 1st S I’m loved you are loved 2nd S you’re loved Spanish (yo) soy amado/ a (tú) eres amado/ a (usted) es amado/ a Conditional English Spanish English Spanish The jewel would be stolen. Is the jewel going to be stolen? ¿Va a ser robada la joya? he/ she/ it is loved 3rd S he/ she/ it’s loved (él/ ella/ *ello) es amado/ a we are loved 1st P we’re loved you are loved 2nd P you’re loved they are loved 3rd P they’re loved (nosotros/ as) somos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) sois amados/ as (ustedes) son amados/ as (ellos/ as) son amados/ as Future with “going to” (past) English Spanish English Spanish -149The jewel was going to be stolen. Was the jewel going to be stolen? ¿Iba a ser robada la joya? . La joya va a ser robada.g. Is the jewel being stolen? ¿Está siendo robada la joya? Past continuous English Spanish English Spanish The jewel was being stolen.-PASSIVE VOICE (VOZ PASIVA) La formación de la oración pasiva en inglés es similar a la del español. Would the jewel be stolen? ¿Sería robada la joya? Future with “going to” (present) English Spanish English Spanish The jewel is going to be stolen. Subject English Spanish English Spanish Active voice Peter Peter Verb bebe drinks Complements un vaso de agua a glass of water Examples: Future English Spanish English Spanish The jewell won’t be stolen. La forma verbal de la voz pasiva se construye de la siguiente manera: .UNIT 14 GRAMMAR 1. Has the jewel been stolen? ¿Ha sido robada la joya? Present continuous English Spanish English Spanish The jewel is being stolen. conjugado en la persona. . La joya no será robada.

hay que tener en cuenta que este sujeto activo será el complemento agente de la oración pasiva y que las formas anteriormente mencionadas (“I”. “it”. Active voice Subject Verb saw bring has bought will send Complements Michael some friends your books a letter Spanish Se dice que (ella) es profesora. Subject Spanish Se cree que (ella) necesita un médico. “you”. Passive voice Verb was seen Agent by him by them by her by us 14 En inglés (a diferencia de lo que ocurre en español que sólo el objeto directo [DO] puede ser el sujeto paciente de la oración pasiva) el objeto indirecto [IO] en cierto tipo de oraciones también puede ser el sujeto paciente de la voz pasiva: (1) (2) (3) (4) Michael Some friends are brought Your books A letter have been bought will be sent Existe la posibilidad de que en las oraciones pasivas no aparezca el complemento agente. A la hora de transformar una oración activa en la que la función de sujeto está siendo ejercida por un pronombre personal (“I”. “a book”).En inglés. (1) He English He is often seen with your sister. “she”. sino que se emplean estructuras con la forma impersonal “se”: Examples: English It is said that she is a teacher. “it”. English Active voice They (2) Passive voice (subject: IO): The boys were given a book for their birthdays by Michel. “it”. “her”. respectivamente. en la oración pasiva se suele omitir el complemento agente (“by them”). etc. “he”. Spanish Ellos cortaron un árbol Nótese que el verbo auxiliar “to be” siempre concordará con el sujeto paciente. (2) They (3) She Spanish Se le ve (a él) a menudo con tu hermana. (4) We English It is believed that she needs a doctor. “we” o “they”). “he”. activa es “they”. bien porque Active voice: resulte irrelevante. Cuando el sujeto de la oración Michael gave a book to the boys for their birthdays. English Passive voice Spanish A tree was cut (by them) Un árbol fue cortado (por ellos) -150- . “us” y “them”. la voz pasiva se emplea en inglés para construir cierto tipo de oraciones impersonales cuando en español no se utiliza este modo. “you”. “him”. “she”. [subject] [verb] [DO] [IO] [complement] Suject Verb cut Complements a tree (1) Passive voice (subject: DO): A book was given to the boys for their birthdays by Michel. mientras que en (2) adopta la forma “were” (ya que el sujeto paciente es plural. Por ejemplo. “the boys”). así en (1) adopta la forma “was” (ya que el sujeto paciente es singular. “you”. el uso de la voz pasiva es mucho más frecuente que en español. bien porque no se sepa quién o qué es.) se convertirán en “me”.

arriba. Dejé el libro encima de la mesa. exceso] Read this over again. sobre [superioridad. I am at home. La mantequilla es un derivado de la leche. a [situación en reposo. encima [posición de un objeto I overreacted to his remarks. I come from London. Le escribí. número 15. repetición. Estoy en la habitación. determinado. The door of the room. The dog is lying under the table. desde [punto de partida espacial o I’ll be there from 2 to 3. finalidad] Este tren va a Londres. moral] The Captain is above the Lieutanant. tiempo. The lamp is over the table. encima de otro sin contacto directo. El vaso se rompió en cien pedazos. Vino a las tres en punto. Mi reacción frente a sus observaciones fue exagerada. inferioridad [en cualquier sentido] Below the sun. causa] Estaré allí de 2 a 3. Vine para ver los deportes. Tengo miedo a los fantasmas. debajo [posición opuesta a “on”] The paper is under the book.2. sobre. -151Translation OVER ON UPON IN INTO 14 FROM OF BELOW BENEATH UNDER AT TO . de [relación de un objeto con otro. de. I am in the room. El papel está debajo del libro. Debajo del sol. I came to see sports. La puerta de la habitación. I walked into the shop. Vengo de Londres. El Teniente está por debajo del Capitan. Butter comes from milk. Vivo en la calle Green. encima [posición de un objeto sobre otro en contacto directo. dentro de [movimiento hacia dentro. He died from a heart attack. The Lieutenant is below the Captain. Come in! ¡Entra! en. bajo. Recibí un carta de tu hermana. a. lapso de tiempo. posesión. estado] The house is on fire.-PREPOSITIONS II (PREPOSICIONES II) A continuación vamos a ver una lista de las preposiciones más usadas en inglés: Preposition ABOVE Examples The sky is above. origen. In a bad temper. El Capitán está por encima del Teniente. tiempo On New Year’s day. El día de Año Nuevo. La lámpara está encima de la mesa. He came at three o’clock. I received a letter from your sister. Murió de un ataque al corazón. lugar. en. El perro está tumbado debajo de la mesa. sobre. para [movimiento hacia o hasta un This train goes to London. dirección] Estoy en casa. I wrote to her. Lee esto otra vez. En un minuto. De mal humor. Entré en la tienda. dentro [movimiento de fuera adentro. causa] I’m afraid of ghosts. I live at 15 Green Street. temporal. I left the book on the table. La casa está ardiendo. división] The glass was broken into a hundred of pieces. modo] In a minute. ya sea física o El firmamento está en lo alto.

No.Preposition ACROSS Translation a través de. antes del desayuno y la comida. Médico: Dos veces al día. lately my head hurts very much. a través de.. proximidad] FOR por. are you allergic to any medicine? Médico: Bien. no lo soy. Este libro es para ti. It is raining hard and I am wet through. What’s the matter? Hummm. Itziar: Itzíar: Thank you very much. Doctor: Ok. ¿es alérgica a algún medicamento? Doctor: You are welcome. are you allergic to any medicine? -152- . Itziar: Itzíar: How often do I have to take them? ¿Cada cuánto tengo que tomarlas? Doctor: How is this pain like? Médico: ¿Cómo es el dolor? Itziar: Itzíar: It’s an acute and constant pain. Médico: De nada. Médico: De acuerdo.. Doctor: That’s right. you have to take these pills. I don’t feel very good. al otro lado de [movimiento de una parte a otra] por. 14 Doctor: Good morning! Of course. ¡Good moorning! May I come in? Ok. before breakfast and lunch You are welcome No. para [finalidad. THROUGH BY por [complemento agente.. No me encuentro muy bien. I like travelling by car. before breakfast and lunch. and don’t eat hot food. Este libro fue escrito por Bernard Shaw. He jumped through the window. Saltó por/a través de la ventana. They walked for miles in the woods. duración en el tiempo o en el espacio] DAILY 1. por completo [paso de una parte a otra] Examples The Post Office is just across the street. La oficina de correos está al otro lado de la calle. Muchas gracias. I don’t feel very good. Estaba sentada junto al fuego. ¿Qué le ocurre? Itziar: Itzíar: Hummm. lately my head hurts very much It’s an acute and constant pain How is this pain like? How often do I have to take them? Thank you very much Twice a day. I’m not. Me gusta viajar en coche. últimante me duele mucho la cabeza. Está lloviendo mucho y estoy completamente mojado. and don’t eat hot food ¡Good moorning! Of course. I sat there for an hour. This book is for you.-AT THE DOCTOR’S (EN EL MÉDICO) Itziar: Itzíar: SPEAKING Good morning! May I come in? ¡Buenos días! ¿Se puede? Itziar: Itzíar: No.. I’m not That’s right. Hummm. tiene que tomar estas pastillas y no coma comida picante. What’s the matter? Médico: ¡Buenos días! Por supuesto. Doctor: Twice a day. Anduvieron durante horas en el bosque. Estuve sentado allí durante una hora.. you have to take these pills. Es un dolor agudo y continuo. She sat by the fire. modo.. This book was written by Bernard Shaw.

His legs ache. Her arm hurts. "feet". la correcta es la que aparece encima de la literal y con letras de tamaño "normal"). His legs hurt.) Te duele (a ti) el pie. "arms". Your foot hurts... "foot". (*Su brazo [de ella] duele]. 'brazos'.. En inglés se pueden utilizar dos verbos. Le duelen (a ella) los brazos. (*Tus pies [de ti] duelen. pero cuando lo que duelen son varias partes del cuerpo ("legs". English my (parts of the body) hurt my (parts of the body) ache Spanish me duelen los/las. Spanish Le duele (a él) la pierna. etc. (*Su pierna [de él] duele. 'brazo'. en lugar de utilizar el adjetivo posesivo "my". Your foot aches. 'pierna'.) Le duelen (a él) las piernas. (*Tus pies [de ti] duelen. pero no es la gramaticalmente correcta en español. 'pie'. English His leg hurts. (*Sus brazos [de ella] duelen. Her arms hurt..) Te duelen (a ti) los pies. se utilizan los adjetivos posesivos correspondientes al resto de las personas (la traducción que aparece entre paréntesis. (*Sus piernas [de él] duelen. (*Tus pies [de usted] duele.) His arm hurts -153- His leg aches .CIVILIAN 1.) Le duele (a ella) el brazo. 'pies'.) los verbos anteriormente mencionados se conjugan en tercera persona del plural (no hay que añadirles -s).) estos verbos se conjugan en tercera persona del singular (hay que añadirles -s). "to hurt" y "to ache". Her arm aches. English my (part of the body) hurts my (part of the body) aches Spanish me duele el/la. His leg aches. con letra más pequeña y encabezada por un asterisco es la traducción literal. (*Tu pie [de ti] duele. Your feet ache. Your feet hurt.) Te duelen (a ti) los pies.) Cuando en inglés se quiere expresar que a quien le duele algo no es a uno mismo. "arm". etc.-DISEASES AND PAINS (ENFERMEDADES Y DOLENCIAS) English headache stomachache heart attack earache sore throat sore arms sore eyes sore lips sore fingers sore feet AIDS hepatitis syphilis gonorrhea diarrhoea laxative sedative downer painkiller analgesic temperature cough cold burning pain medicine cough sneeze sting take the blood pressure VOCABULARY Spanish dolor de cabeza dolor de estómago ataque al corazón dolor de oído garganta dolorida brazos doloridos ojos doloridos labios resecos dedos doloridos pies doloridos sida hepatitis sífilis gonorrea diarrea laxante sedante analgésico fiebre resfriado ardor medicamento toser estornudar escocer tomar la tensión sore eyes to take the blood pressure sore throat sore arms 14 En inglés la estructura gramatical para expresar que a alguien le duele algo difiere bastante de la que se emplea en español. Her arms ache.) Le duele (a usted) el pie. 'piernas'. Cuando la oración está en presente simple y se quiere decir que duele una parte del cuerpo ("leg".

) Your heads hurt. Siento dolor muy fuerte en el estómago. Spanish (*Vuestras cabezas [de vosotros/as] duelen. the euro entry has yielded a great many advantages. The euro has replaced the former national currencies of several European countries located in the European Union (Spanish peseta. Spanish Les (*Sus piernas derechas [de ellos/as] duelen. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) When did the euro become the European single currency? Can you say the names of several European countries that have replaced their former national currency? Is the euro able to compete with any of the currencies of the world? Since the 1st of January 2002. I have an acute pain in the stomach. I have a temperature. Me duele el pie derecho.-THE EURO (EL EURO) COMPREHENSION 2. now it is not necessary to exchange national money to pay along the most of the countries of Europe and we have a currency able to compete with any of the currencies of the world.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. "we" [‘nosotros /as’] o "you" [acepción 'vosotros /as' o 'ustedes']) los verbos "to hurt" y "to ache" siempre van a estar conjugados en tercera persona del plural.) Despite the fact that the euro is the single currency in several European countries.Hay que tener en cuenta que cuando el sujeto a quien le duele algo es plural ("they" [‘ellos /as’].) Their heads hurt Their heads ache Les duele (a ustedes) la cabeza. Spanish Nos (*Nuestos brazos izquierdos [de nosotros/as] duelen. etc. the euro is the European single currency.) However nowadays there are still European countries that do not want to join the Euro (Norway.) Examples: English I got up with a headache. English Your heads ache. ¿Cada cuánto tiempo tengo que tomar el medicamento? Spanish Me levanté con dolor de cabeza. Spanish coins bear the portrait of Juan Carlos I. Sweden. How often do I have to take the medicine? Tengo fiebre. (*Sus cabezas [de ustedes] duelen. But despite this fact. 14 READING 1. for people and for governments. etc. My right foot hurts. French franc.) left arms hurt. each country has chosen its own design for one of the faces of the coin (for example. 2) 3) -154- . duele (a nosotros/as) el brazo izquerdo. German mark. Italian lira. English Our Our left arms ache. English Their Their right legs ache. I have a very bad cold. right legs hurt.) The euro is a strong currency and its entry has meant a considerable effort for the countries. Estoy muy resfriado. porque siempre serán varias las partes del cuerpo que duelan. Os duele (a vosotros/as) la cabeza. United Kingdom. duele (a ellos/as) la pierna derecha.

Mi Sargento. Sir? Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Private: Soldado: Sergeant: Sargento: Watch that cord!! ¡¡Cuidado con ese cable!! What’s it.-OPERATIONS. Sir. I’ll be waiting here What’s it. Take care. De acuerdo. mi Sargento? It’s a booby trap. DEFENSIVA) TERMS English entrenchment trench foxhole minefield booby trap barbed wire defensive defeat demolition Spanish fortificación trinchera pozo de tirador campo de minas trampa explosiva alambrada defensiva derrota demolición posición de tiro posición de fuego casamata búnker retirarse retirada reforzar refuerzos relevo punto fuerte.MILITARY 1. Sir. Es una trampa explosiva. DEFENSIVE (OPERACIONES. fortaleza fortificar zapador abrir brecha explotar zanja firing position firing position pillbox bunker withdraw withdrawal reinforce reinforcement replacement stronghold fortify sapper break through blow up ditch barbed wire entrenchment replacement 14 MILITARY CONVERSATION Watch that cord!! It’s a booby trap. Sir? ¿Qué es. vuelvo a la trinchera para informar por radio al Teniente. I come back to the trench to report by radio to the Lieutenant -155- . I come back to the trench to report by radio to the Lieutenant. Take care That’s right. That’s right. estaré esperando aquí. I’ll be waiting here. Ten cuidado.

4) TRANSLATE SENTENCES. g) The crowd shout him down. g) __________________________________. h) __________________________________. c) __________________________________. d) __________________________________. MAINTAINING EACH TENSE. d) __________________________________.EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY INSERTING 3) MAKE PASSIVE THE FOLLOWING THE PASSIVE FORM OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS. -156- a) It is said that he is the best football player. e) It was found that they were guilty. b) __________________________________. b) The watchman called the police. e) __________________________________. 14 7) (simple past) The “For Sale” notice (take) __________ recently. h) He hasn’t watched tv. he escaped. c) An ambulance takes the sick man to hospital. g) __________________________________. f) It is kown that the story is false. b) Joan and Julian steal things from supermarkets every day. i) Anne often takes him for his brother. INTO SPANISH THE FOLLOWING a) The milkman brings the milk to my door. 5) (present) Tenants (ask) __________ not to play their radios loudly after midnight. f) __________________________________. h) __________________________________. f) __________________________________. g) __________________________________. SENTENCES a) We never saw him in the dining room. a) The milk is brought to my door by the milkman. a) Se dice que es el mejor futbolista. e) __________________________________. g) They won’t take him to prison. f) They have brought the children in Italy. b) __________________________________. d) The postman clears these boxes three times a day. c) __________________________________. e) She hasn’t paid me for the work. d) It is considered that we are rich. i) __________________________________. 2) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PASSIVE TENSE. e) Dogs guard the warehouse. b) It is believed that he is a bad student. c) It is thought that Charles is a good private. d) The court found him guilty. h) It is believed that John loves her. b) __________________________________. . f) __________________________________. f) A Japanese firm makes these television sets. g) It is said that his girlfriend is from Japan. 4) (simple past) Umbrellas and sticks (leave) __________ in the cloakroom. 2) (simple past) I (not introduce) __________ to her mother. d) __________________________________. c) Tom had a slight injury. a) He was never seen in the dining room by us. 6) (future) The books (give) __________ by tomorrow. e) __________________________________. c) __________________________________. 1) (past) When he (move) was moved from one prison to another. 3) (simple past) Last year the town (destroy) __________ by an earthquake.

b) How do I get ______ the Public Library? Go ______ the end ______ this street and turn right. “IN”. d) I’m going to Bath _____ Monday _____ Tom.5) INSERT “AT”. “AT”. i) The children jumped _____ the river _____ shouts of delight. “OVER”. “TO”. e) Are you ______ your own? No. a) There is a parcel of books ______ you ______ the table. They must be ______ my brother. 6) INSERT “FROM”. “INTO”. and ______ the end there is an index. a) Could I speak to Tom? b) Are you going _____ bus? c) Turn right _____ the end of this street and you’ll see it _____ front of you. h) We arrived _____ the airport _____ good time for the plane. Would you like to come _____ us? e) Children get presents _____ Christmas and _____ their birthdays. 7) MATCH WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). “BY”. I’m ______ a friend ______ mine. 14 Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) demolición retirarse casamata alambrada derrota zapador campo de minas punto fuerte English terms 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) defeat demolition minefield barbed wire stronghold sapper pillbox withdraw -157- . d) ______ the beginning of a textbook there is a preface. “OUT”. “IN”. “ON”. “OF”. “WITH” OR “BY”. f) He arrived _____ London _____ six o’clock _____ a foggy November day. c) Although we were ______ a hurry she insisted ______ stopping to look for it. “ON”. f) The rows are lettered ______ A to T. beginning ______ the row nearest the stage. “FOR”. g) He started going _____ school _____ the age of five. “WITH”. “TO”. He always sends me books ______ my birthday.

He decidido dejar de fumar. English Put on it.-HOW TO FORM PHRASAL VERBS (FORMACIÓN DE VERBOS CON PARTÍCULAS) En la mayoría de los “phrasal verbs”. abandonar. si el objeto es un sustantivo. right Verb Preposition on Translation encender [un aparato eléctrico] off turn up apagar [un aparato eléctrico] 15 subir [el volumen]. off take out quitarse [ropa]. Buscó las llaves durante más de dos horas. es decir. Cuidé a los niños mientras sus padres estaban fuera. She looked for the keys for more than two hours. solicitud] give up fill in Spanish after look for buscar cuidar English Spanish -159- . English or aprendérnoslos de memoria dentro del contexto Put your coat on. éste siempre va entre el verbo y la preposición (o adverbio). éste puede colocarse Los “phrasal verbs” son verbos con entre el verbo y la preposición (o adverbio) o partículas que están compuestos por un verbo despúes de la preposición (o adverbio). renunciar a [un hábito. I have decided to give up smoking.UNIT 15 GRAMMAR 1. presentarse down bajar [el volumen] Recuerde que el objeto de algunos “phrasal verbs” siempre va después de la preposición o adverbio. despegar [avión] sacar Spanish English Spanish English put on ponerse [ropa] dejar. All applicants have to fill in an application form.-PHRASAL VERBS (VERBOS CON PARTÍCULAS) 1.1. English I looked after the children while their parents were away. Por lo y una preposición o un adverbio. que no es posible intercalar el objeto entre el verbo y la preposición (o adverbio). Éstos tanto: adquieren un nuevo significado (diferente de aquel compuesto por la suma de sus Example: componentes) es decir. wrong Spanish Póntelo. que no debemos guiarnos por nuestra intuición y debemos Put on your coat. si el objeto es un pronombre. vicio] rellenar [un impreso. Por lo tanto: Example: Put it on. Algunos de los “phrasal verbs” más utilizados en inglés son: Sin embargo. de cada situación Spanish Ponte tu abrigo. Todos los candidatos tienen que rellenar una solicitud. Tal es el caso de los verbos sombreados en amarillo en la tabla de la izquierda.

2... So does she Simple past So was I I was in Tom’s class. So has she Present perfect (passive voice) So have I I have been told that.. Presente perfecto He leído un libro. Spanish Presente simple Yo también (soy inteligente) Ella también (es inteligente) A mí también (me gusta el pollo) A ella también (le gusta el pollo) Yo también (estuve en clase de Tom) Ella también (estuvo en clase de Tom) Yo también (vi la película) Ella también (vio la película) Yo también (he leído un libro) Ella también (ha leído un libro) Yo también (te he visto en la discoteca) Ella también (te ha visto en la discoteca) A mí también (me han dicho que. Soy muy inteligente. Por lo tanto: English Simple present So am I I am very intelligent.. Oración del interlocutor afirmativa.-“SO” / “NEITHER DO I” (PARTÍCULAS PARA MOSTRAR ACUERDO O DESACUERDO) 2. . Presente perfecto (voz pasiva) Me han dicho que. So is she So do I I like chicken. So has she So have I I have seen you in the disco.) Yo también (estoy estudiando toda la lección) Ella también (está estudiando toda la lección) Yo también (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Ella también (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Yo también (haré los deberes) Ella también (hará los deberes) So SO + VERBO AUXILIAR en el tiempo oportuno + SUJETO Pasado simple 15 I saw the film. Te he visto en la discoteca. So was she So did I Estuve en clase de Tom. Presente continuo Estoy estudiando toda la lección Pasado continuo Estaba estudiando toda la lección Futuro Haré los deberes... Me gusta el pollo. So did she Present perfect So have I I have read a book. So will she -160So was I So was she So am I So is she Vi la película. Future So will I I will do my homework.-“SO” (PARTÍCULA PARA MOSTRAR ACUERDO) Para mostrar acuerdo con lo que un interlocutor ha dicho. Past continuous I was studying the whole lesson.) A ella también (le han dicho que. So has she Present continuous I am studying the whole lesson..1. respuesta afirmativa..

un verbo que no sea el verbo "to be"). si existen dudas de qué auxiliar es el que rige a una oración en futuro.English Conditional So would I I would tell her the truth. Neither does she Simple past I was not (wasn’t) in Tom’s class. la respuesta será con "are". respuesta negativa (reafirma esa negación mostrando acuerdo.2. A lo largo de todo el libro se han visto detalladamente este tipo de cuestiones. si el verbo en presente es el verbo "to be". Por lo tanto. si el verbo de la oración principal está en presente y no es un verbo anómalo (es decir. 2. Ella tampoco (es inteligente) A mí tampoco (me gusta el pollo) No me gusta el pollo.-“NEITHER” (PARTÍCULA PARA MOSTRAR ACUERDO) Oración del interlocutor negativa. "is" o "am". Neither is she Neither do I I do not (don’t) like chicken.) Por lo tanto: English Simple present Neither am I I am not very intelligent. A ella tampoco (le gusta el pollo) Pasado simple Yo tampoco (estuve en clase de Tom) No estuve en clase de Tom. So am I So is she Spanish Condicional Yo también (le diría la verdad) Ella también (le diría la verdad) Yo también (voy a trabajar en esa empresa) Ella también (va a trabajar en esa empresa) Le diría la verdad. Future with “going to” (past) Peter was going to work in that firm. en consecuencia. el auxiliar que rige a ésta. Ella tampoco (te ha visto en la discoteca) -161- . condicional. Ella también (iba a trabajar en esa empresa) Nótese que para saber cuál es la partícula que hay que utilizar en la respuesta. Ella tampoco (ha leído un libro) Yo tampoco (te he visto en la discoteca) No te he visto en la discoteca. Neither have I Neither has she Neither have I Neither has she NEITHER + Neither VERBO AUXILIAR + SUJETO en el tiempo oportuno 15 I have not (haven’t) seen you in the disco. So was I So was she Pasado Próximo Yo también Peter iba a trabajar en esa (iba a trabajar en esa empresa) empresa. Por el contrario. So would she Future with “going to” (present) Peter is going to work in that firm. primero hay que prestar atención al tiempo verbal en el que se expresa la oración y. Neither was I Neither was she Neither did I I did not (didn’t) see the film. Ella tampoco (vio la película) Presente perfecto Yo tampoco (he leído un libro) No he leído un libro. Neither did she Present perfect I have not (haven’t) read a book. la respuesta deberá hacerse con "do" o "does". Futuro Próximo Peter va a trabajar en esa empresa. presente continuo… sería necesario remitirse a la unidad en la que se explican todos estos aspectos. Ella tampoco (estuvo en clase de Tom) Yo tampoco (vi la película) No vi la película. Spanish Presente simple Yo tampoco (soy inteligente) No soy muy inteligente. a continuación.

English Present perfect (passive voice) Neither have I I have not (haven’t) been told that... Neither has she Present continuous Neither am I I am not studying the whole lesson. Neither is she Past continuous Neither was I I was not (wasn’t) studying the whole lesson. Neither was she Future Neither will I

Spanish Presente perfecto (voz pasiva) A mí tampoco (me han dicho que...) No me han dicho que... A ella tampoco (le han dicho que...) Presente continuo Yo tampoco (estoy estudiando toda la lección) Ella tampoco (está estudiando toda la lección)

No estoy estudiando toda la lección.

Pasado continuo Yo tampoco (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Ella tampoco (estaba estudiando toda la lección)

No estaba estudiando toda la lección

Futuro Yo tampoco (haré los deberes) No haré los deberes. Neither will she Ella tampoco (hará los deberes) Condicional Neither would I Yo tampoco (le diría la verdad) No le diría la verdad. Neither would she Ella tampoco (le diría la verdad) Futuro próximo Yo tampoco (voy a trabajar en esa empresa) Peter no va a trabajar en esa empresa. Neither is she Ella tampoco (va a trabajar en esa empresa) Pasado próximo Yo tampoco (iba a trabajar en esa empresa) Peter no iba a trabajar en esa empresa. Neither was she Ella tampoco (iba a trabajar en esa empresa)

15

I will not (won’t) do my homework.

Conditional

I would not (wouldn’t) tell her the truth.

Future with “going to” (present) Neither am I Peter is not (isn’t) going to work in that firm.

Future with “going to” (past) Neither was I Peter was not (wasn’t) going to work in that firm.

Recuerde que la partícula "neither", al igual que "not", expresa negación. Por lo tanto, como en inglés nunca se niega dos veces, no es neceseario añadir ninguna partícula adicional de negación. Por otro lado, tal y como se ha visto a lo largo de este

libro, la mayoría de los auxiliares en la forma negativa pueden contraerse ( "wouldn't", "won't", "don't", "aren't"…); nótese que "I am not" se contrae en “I’m not”.

-162-

2.3.-GRAMMATICAL CONSTRUCTIONS TO DESAGREE WITH SOMEONE (CONSTRUCCIONES GRAMATICALES PARA MOSTRAR DESACUERDO)
SUJETO + en el tiempo oportuno + negación NOT a) En este tipo de oraciones, a diferencia de lo que ocurre en las anteriores, uno de los interlocutores hace una afirmación ( e.g. "I live in Madrid", 'Vivo en Madrid') y el otro muestra Oración del interlocutor afirmativa, respuesta desacuerdo con éste ( e.g. " I don't", 'Yo no (vivo en negativa. Por lo tanto: Madrid’.) Por lo tanto: VERBO AUXILIAR Partícula de

English Simple present I am not (’m not) I am very intelligent. She is not (isn’t) I do not (don’t) I like chicken. She does not (doesn’t) Simple past I was not (wasn’t) I was in Tom’s class. She was not (wasn’t) I did not (didn’t) I saw the film. She did not (didn’t) Present perfect I have not (haven’t) I have read a book. She has not (hasn’t) I have not (haven’t) I have seen you in the disco. She has not (hasn’t) Present perfect (passive voice) I have not (haven’t) I have been told that... She has not (hasn’t) Present continuous I am studying the whole lesson. I am not (’m not) She is not (isn’t)

Spanish Presente simple Soy muy inteligente. Yo no (soy inteligente) Ella no (es inteligente) A mí no (me gusta el pollo) A ella no (le gusta el pollo) Yo no (estuve en clase de Tom) Ella no (estuvo en clase de Tom) Yo no (vi la película) Ella no (vio la película) Yo no (he leído un libro) Ella no (ha leído un libro) Yo no (te he visto en la discoteca) Ella no (te ha visto en la discoteca) A mí no (me han dicho que...) A ella no (le han dicho que...) Yo no (estoy estudiando toda la lección) Ella no (está estudiando toda la lección) Yo no (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Ella no (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Yo no (haré los deberes) Ella no (hará los deberes)

Me gusta el pollo.

Pasado simple Estuve en clase de Tom.

Vi la película.

Presente perfecto He leído un libro.

15

Te he visto en la discoteca.

Presente perfecto (voz pasiva) Me han dicho que...

Presente continuo Estoy estudiando toda la lección.

Past continuous I was studying the whole lesson. I was not (wasn’t) She was not (wasn’t)

Pasado continuo Estaba estudiando toda la lección.

Future I will not (won’t) I will do my homework. She will not (won’t) -163Haré los deberes.

Futuro

English Conditional I would not (wouldn’t) I would tell her the truth. She would not (wouldn’t) Future with “going to” (present) Peter is going to work in that firm. I am not (’m not) She is not (isn’t)

Spanish Condicional Yo no (le diría la verdad) Ella no (le diría la verdad) Yo no (voy a trabajar en esa empresa) Ella no (va a trabajar en esa empresa)

Le diría la verdad.

Futuro próximo Peter va a trabajar en esa empresa.

Future with “going to” (past) Peter was going to work in that firm. I was not (wasn’t) She was not (wasn’t)

Pasado próximo Yo no Peter iba a trabajar en esa (iba a trabajar en esa empresa) empresa. Ella no (iba a trabajar en esa empresa)

Nótese que también se pueden contraer los auxiliares en la forma negativa.

b) Oración del interlocutor negativa, respuesta afirmativa (e.g. “I don’t live in Madrid”, ‘No vivo en Madrid’) y el otro muestra desacuerdo con éste (e.g. “I do”, ‘Yo sí (vivo en Madrid)’. Por lo tanto:
English Simple present

SUJETO +

VERBO AUXILIAR en el tiempo oportuno

Spanish Presente simple I am Yo sí (soy inteligente) Ella sí (es inteligente) A mí sí (me gusta el pollo) No me gusta el pollo. A ella sí (le gusta el pollo) Pasado simple Yo sí (estuve en clase de Tom) No estuve en clase de Tom. Ella sí (estuvo en clase de Tom) Yo sí (estuve en clase No vi la película. Ella sí (vio la película) Presente perfecto Yo sí (he leído un libro) No he leído un libro. Ella sí (ha leído un libro) Yo sí (te he visto en la discoteca) No te he visto en la discoteca. Ella sí (te ha visto en la discoteca) Presente perfecto (voz pasiva) A mí sí (me han dicho que...) No me han dicho que... A ella sí (le han dicho que...) Presente continuo Yo sí No estoy estudiando toda la (estoy estudiando toda la lección) lección. Ella sí (está estudiando toda la lección) No soy muy inteligente. -164-

15

I am not very intelligent. She is I do I do not (don’t) like chicken. She does Simple past I was I was not (wasn’t) in Tom’s class. She was I did I did not (didn’t) see the film. She did Present perfect I have I have not (haven’t) read a book. She has I have not (haven’t) seen you in the disco. I have She has

Present perfect (passive voice) I have not (haven’t) been told that... I have She has

Present continuous I am not studying the whole lesson. I am She is

English Past continuous I was not (wasn’t) studying the whole lesson. Future I will not (won’t) do my homework. Conditional I would not (wouldn’t) tell her the truth. I would I will I was She was

Spanish Pasado continuo Yo sí No estaba estudiando toda la (estaba estudiando toda la lección) lección Ella sí (estaba estudiando toda la lección) Futuro No haré los deberes. She will Yo sí (haré los deberes) Ella sí (hará los deberes) Yo sí (le diría la verdad) Ella sí (le diría la verdad) Yo sí (voy a trabajar en esa empresa) Ella sí (va a trabajar en esa empresa)

Condicional No le diría la verdad. She would

Future with “going to” (present) Peter is not (isn’t) going to work in that firm. I am She is

Futuro próximo Peter no va a trabajar en esa empresa.

Future with “going to” (past) Peter was not (wasn’t) going to work in that firm. I was She was

Pasado próximo Yo sí (iba a trabajar en esa empresa) Peter no iba a trabajar en esa empresa. Ella sí (iba a trabajar en esa empresa)

3.-VERB + “-ING” (= GERUND) (USO DE LOS VERBOS EN GERUNDIO)
El gerundio de los verbos en inglés se utiliza en los siguientes supuestos:
English After verbs of preference

a) Después de los verbos que expresan gustos y preferencias (like, love, enjoy, mind, prefer) b) Después de preposiciones c) Al utilizar un verbo como sujeto de una oración
Spanish Después de verbos de preferencia

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I don’t mind cooking. I hate ironing.
After prepositions

No me importa cocinar. Odio planchar.
Después de preposiciones

I am good at finding bargains. Thank you you for giving me a hand
Verb as a subject

Soy bueno para encontrar gangas. Gracias por echarme una mano.
Verbo como sujeto

Buying clothes often takes me a long time. Writing a personal letter is very hard for me.

Por lo general comprar ropa me lleva mucho tiempo. Escribir una carta personal es muy duro para mí.

En caso de dudas de cómo formar los gerundios, remitirse al apartado 1 de la unidad 10.
-165-

Could you tow it away? Mi coche se ha averiado. we’ll tow your car away in fifteen minutes. pueden darse situaciones en las que se utilicen palabras diferentes para referirse a la misma realidad ( e. Can you give me your name? ¿Puede decirme su nombre? My name’s Itziar Johnson. no obstante. Could you please wait there?. aconsejando controlled (pas & pas.) En primer lugar. counselling (gerund) counseled. "Fall" (AmE). De nada. we’ll tow your car away in fifteen minutes. Alliance Insurance Company I’m in Fawcett Road Can you give me your name? My car’s broken down. You are welcome.g. Me llamo Itzíar Johnson. controlling (gerund) controled. Estoy en la calle Fawcett.g. traveling viajado.-DIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND AMERICAN ENGLISH (DIFERENCIAS ENTRE EL INGLÉS BRITÁNICO Y EL AMERICANO) El inglés británico y el americano son la misma lengua en esencia.). Could you tow it away? Where are you? My name’s Itziar Johnson 15 CIVILIAN VOCABULARY 1. la ortografía también puede variar ( e. You are welcome Thank you very much. En segundo lugar.DAILY SPEAKING 1. ¿Podría esperar allí?. ¿Podría remolcarlo? Where are you? ¿Dónde se encuentra usted? I'm in Fawcett Road. la producción del inglés americano y británico son diferentes en lo que el acento se refiere. controling controlado. Muchas gracias.).). part. "centre" (BrE). Alliance Insurance Company. remolcaremos su coche en quince minutos. travelling (BrE) traveled. counseling aconsejado. viajando counselled (pas & pas.) tavelled. "center" (AmE).-CALLING THE INSURANCE COMPANY (LLAMANDO A LA ASEGURADORA) Itziar: Itzíar: Operator: Operador Itziar: Itzíar: Operator: Operador: Itziar: Itzíar: Operator: Operador: Itziar: Itzíar: Operator: Operador: Itziar: Itzíar: Operator: Operador: My car’s broken down. 'centro'. "Autumn" (BrE). part.) Finalmente. What’s your insurance company? Could you please wait there?. Thank you very much. controlando grey gray gris -166- . 'otoño'. part. traveling (AmE) colour (BrE) color (AmE) Use of different spelling (Uso de una ortografía diferente) British English American English Spanish analyse analyze analizar centre center centro colour color color favour favor favor fibre fiber fibra flavour flavor sabor glamour glamor glamour maneuver manoeuvre maniobra neighbour neighbor vecino travelled (pas & pas. travelling (gerund) traveled. el inglés británico difiere en bastantes aspectos respecto al americano (o viceversa. What’s your insurance company? ¿Cuál es su compañía de seguros? Alliance Insurance Company.

Stonehenge. Its original purpose is unclear to us. clerk. salesclerk pants collect call mail box tire Spanish caramelos galletas metro gasolina gasolinera farmacia carretera cuenta. f) There is certainly a strong connection between the ancient participant in the rites of this monument and nature. gas gas station drugstore highway check sidewalk truck elevator apartment vacation chips movie trunk hood bill salesman. (CONTESTA LAS SIGUIENTES PREGUNTAS) 1) 2) 3) Where is Stonehenge situated? What does Stonehenge symbolize? When was Stonehenge built? 15 The most famous Neolithic monument of England. 3. but some people believe that it was a temple made for the worship of ancient earth deities. the ancient participant in the rites of Stonehenge would experience a deep connection with nature. In any case.) Nevertheless other people think that it was a sacred site for the burial of ancient highranking citizens from the societies. Stonehenge consists of a series of concentric rings of standing stones around an altar stone at the center. power and endurance. It is considered to be an astronomical observatory for marking significant events on the prehistoric calendar (a powerful cult of sun worship seems to have dominated this monument. -167- T/F T/F . factura acera camión ascensor apartamento vacaciones patatas fritas película maletero capó billete dependiente /a pantalones llamada a cobro revertido buzón neumático road (BrE) / highway (AmE) lorry (BrE) / truck (AmE) holidays (BrE) / vacation (AmE) READING 1.Use of different words (Uso de diferentes palabras para referirse a la misma realidad) British English sweets biscuits underground petrol petrol station chemist's road bill pavement lorry lift flat holidays French fries film boot bonnet note shop assistant trousers reverse charge call letter box tyre American English candies cookies subway gasoline. salewoman. it symbolizes mystery.-ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. was built in several phases on a sacred site on the Salisbury Plain from 2750 BC to 1500 BC.-ARE THESE SENTENCES TRUE (T) OR FALSE (F)? (DI SI ESTAS ORACIONES SON VERDADERAS O FALSAS) a) Stonehenge was built in several phases. In form. c) It is doubtful that Stonehenge is Britain's national icon. Stonehenge is surely Britain's greatest national icon. d) Nowadays its original purpose is very clear to us.-STONEHENGE COMPREHENSION 2. b) At the center of a series of concentric rings there is an altar. T/F T/F T/F T/F e) An a s t r o n o m i c a l observatory for marking significantevents onthe prehistoric calendar is one of the most probable hypothesis about its original purpose.

saqueo refugiado retornado desplazado instalaciones almacén asilo político documentación Elecciones Generales colegio electoral asesinato bandos combatientes -168- refugees convoy humanitarian aid .MILITARY 1.-PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS (MISIONES DE PAZ) English TERMS Spanish ONU (Organización de Naciones Unidas) OTAN (Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte) ONG (Organización No Gubernamental) OI (Organización Internacional) Cruz Roja ACNUR (Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados) Observador Militar de las Naciones Unidas UN (United Nations) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) NGO (Non Governmental Organization) IO (International Organization) RC (Red Cross) UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) UNMO (United Nations Military Observer) 15 NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) RC (Red Cross) English checkpoint sniper convoy humanitarian aid deliver rations shelter ethnical cleansing agreement cease-fire arson loot refugee returnee DP (Displaced People) facilities warehouse political asylum papers General Elections polling station murder warrior factions Spanish puesto de control francotirador convoy ayuda humanitaria distribuir raciones contenedor limpieza étnica acuerdo alto el fuego incendio saquear.

and put ________ a sweater. but next month NATO will be in command Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: Private: Soldado: Corporal: Cabo: What Organization is leading this Operation? EXERCISES 1) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING ONE OF THE GIVEN PREPOSITIONS. Están operando en Kosovo. c) The room was dark so she turned ________ the lights. f) Are you going to take my money ________ of the bank? g) I filled ________ the insurance forms. Hot spot. please? b) A babysitter is a person who ________ b) My neighbour has left the city and we’re looking ________ his cat. -169- children when their parents are away. Where are they? They are operating in Kosovo Hot spot. but next month NATO will be in command. d) I am determined to give ________ smoking. Can you turn it up. I can’t find them anywhere. isn't it? Zona conflictiva. Where are they? ¿Dónde están? They are operating in Kosovo. pero el mes que viene tomará el mando la OTAN. todavía hay muchos francotiradores en las ciudades.MILITARY My Unit is in a peacekeeping mission abroad CONVERSATION Corporal: Cabo: My Unit is in a peacekeeping mission abroad. c) I’m ________ my glasses. Mi Unidad está en una misión de paz en el extranjero. La ONU está al frente. d) When Jim gets home from work. e) Can you ________ the number of the bus station in the phone book? f) Could you ________ this application form? . there still are lots of snipers in the cities. 15 2) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A PHRASAL VERB IN THE RIGHT TENSE. isn't it? Yes. Sí. after in up out off on up a) The music was too loud. What Organization is leading this Operation? ¿Qué Organización está liderando la Operación? UN is in charge. a) I can’t hear the radio. e) He took ________ his jacket and tie. ¿verdad? Yes. so she turned down the volume. there still are lots of snipers in the cities UN is in charge. he ________ his suit and ________ his pijamas.

e) (buy. swim) Do you like ________? I think ________ is better. a) (come) Would you like to come to a party with me tonight? b) (go) Oh yes. 5) PUT a) I am from Italy. d) (walk) I think that ________ is very relaxing. b) I don’t eat vegetables. I love ________ to parties. h) (jog. listen) He tried ________ it but she refused ________. d) I have eaten in that Chinese restaurant d) ______________________________. f) ______________________________. e) (swim) ________ is my favourite holiday activity. k) ______________________________. j) ______________________________. not enter) After ________ the conditions I decided ________ for the competition. f) (telephone. 15 6) PUT THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE CORRECT FORM (GERUND OR INFINITIVE). f) (travel. i) ______________________________. a) (iron) I'm quite good at ironing. -170- g) (hear. h) I have never liked onions. 4) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A GERUND. i) (think. e) (explain. a) So I am. ask. b) (not speak) My mother told ________ to anyone about it. h) ______________________________. d) (study) ________ the night before the exam makes me nervous. b) ______________________________. c) (read) When I'm on my own. i) When I was child I went to Rome. j) I was going to forgive her. g) ______________________________. l) ______________________________.3) AGREE WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS. l) I would not expect her to come. e) ______________________________. live) Joe would like ________ a flat because he doesn't like ________ with his parents. THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE CORRECT FORM (GERUND OR INFINITIVE). have) Just ________ of ________ to study makes me sad. c) (meet) I arranged ________ them there. c) I have never been to New York. d) (leave. f) I din’t find you in the party. look) I suggest ________ the hospitals before ________ the police ________ for him. say)He surprised us all by ________ the room without ________ "goodbye". b) (cook) I'm not very good at ________. k) I will not tell the teachers about Jim’s problem. I really enjoy ________. fly) I love ________ but I'm afraid of ________ so I always go by train or bus. g) (go)I enjoy ________ to funfairs. . e) I swim a lot every day. a) (have) He dreads having to retire. g) Last year I was unemployed. c) (work. f) (do the washing up) The job I most hate in the house is ________. get up) I don't want ________ in an office because I hate ________ early. c) ______________________________.

f) I own a very nice ________ in the ________ of London. I have been disappointed by Peter. OR WORDS USED IN AMERICAN ENGLISH. 9) MATCH 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) WORDS 1) TO 8) WITH WORDS A) TO H). I don't speak German. I would not eat that piece of cake. b) I went to Covent Garden by ________ c) People buy medicines in the ________ d) My house is half a mile down the ________ e) Fortunately. c) I paid the chair with one hundred dollar ________. English terms RC checkpoint deliver rations IO UN agreement UNMO UNHCR Spanish terms a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) Organización Internacional distribuir raciones observador militar (de las Naciones Unidas) ACNUR puesto de control acuerdo Cruz Roja ONU 15 10) WHAT DO THESE ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS STAND FOR IN WHAT IS THE TRANSLATION IN SPANISH? ENGLISH? a) b) c) d) e) Abbreviation It stands for UN United Nations NATO NGO IO RC THE CHART.7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A WORD 8) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH A WORD USED IN BRITISH ENGLISH. I didn't watch TV last night. f) Pedestrians walk on the ________. I'm going to stay in tonight. d) Paul had no money and desperately needed to make a phone call. there is a ________ in that ten-storey building. I have a microwave. that's why me made a ________. I haven't been to Venice. a) Peter was so stressed out that he needed to take a vacation. a) The telephone bill was too high for me to pay. I went to the beach today. Agree So do I Neither do I I don't Disagree -171- . e) When buying ice-creams. otherwise I couldn't walk up. b) It was difficult to fit three suitcases in the ________ of the car. I don't like mushrooms. I was going to take part in the meeting. Spanish translation Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU) 1 1) COMPLETE a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) Sentences I really like classical music. chocolate and vanilla are my favourite ________. I will see him in his birthday.

for the last two years. a) Where (be. a year ago. they) ______ a party next week? . we) ______ bacon tomorrow at dinner? e) I (work) ____________ without a break ____________ 13 hours. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) I have studied English… h) I) j) k) l) m) n) o) for two months. January. f) You (change) ____________ ____________ I last saw you. six weeks. I came to America.REVIEW REVIEW FROM UNIT 11 TO UNIT 15 1) FILL THE FOLLOWING CHART WITH SINCE OR FOR ACCORDING TO THE SENTENCE GIVEN. a long time. REVIEW 3 hours a day. f) She (not buy) ______ any more chocolate. his hair e) (eat. you) have you been ?I (not see) haven’t seen you for ages. 2) PUT THE FOLLOWING VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE PRESENT PERFECT AND THEN INSERT SINCE OR FOR. I was 14 years old. b) (rain. 1997. about 10 minutes. the beginning of the year. b) It (not snow) ____________ in Athens ____________ 1941. it) ______ tomorrow? c) We (buy) ______ him a pen for his birthday. I (not eat) ____________ anything ____________ breakfast. a lot -173- g) (have. I was a child in Elementary School. 3) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO” OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS IN THE PRESENT TENSE. a year. twelve days. a) (not attack) The lion is not going to attack you. d) I (not win) ______ the race. c) I’m hungry. d) He (not cut) ____________ ____________ seven months. three days.

it (take) ____________ two or three months to cross North America by wagon. Claudia and I (decide) ____________ to get married spontaneously. a) Did you like the movie “Star Wars”? I don’t know. c) (spend. That man at the service counter (help) ____________ you. We still get together once a week. however. You (grow) ______________ at least a foot! 5) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE SIMPLE FUTURE OR THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO”. you) ____________ up to late? c) (not hear. but in the last minute she invited me to her birthday. but in the end I decided to watch a film. I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. 6) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE PRESENT PERFECT OR THE PAST SIMPLE OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS. i) Listen Jessica. The trip (be) ____________ very rough and often dangerous. which is hundreds of miles from the coast. REVIEW a) Why are you holding a piece of paper? I (write) am going to write a letter to my friends back home in Texas. so he (see. travelling (become) ____________ much easier and very comfortable. l) In the last hundred years. because the wedding took place in Las Vegas. never) have never seen that movie.4) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO” OF THE VERBS IN BRACKETS IN THE PAST TENSE. c) I can’t hear the television! I (turn) ____________ it up so you can hear it. I (attend) ____________ medical school and become a doctor. We (not do) ____________ even organize a party. I (not see) ____________ you for ages! e) Jim (arrive) ____________ in Las Vegas a week ago. she) ______________ you last year? f) (travel. -174- . In the 19th century. She (write) ____________ ten very creative short stories in the last year. g) Sally is a fantastic writer. h) I (not have) ____________ this much fun since I (be) ____________ a kid. but the clothes we had were not the appropriate to the occasion. I don’t care if you (miss) ____________ the bus this morning. b) (be. he had an accident. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people. That will wake you up. b) I (not buy) ______________ her a present. Things (change) ____________ a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. f) After I graduate. but he didn’t do it. they) ______________ a week in Germany? d) Paul (give) ______________ the lecture. f) My best friend and I (know) ____________ each other for over fifteen years. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life. d) Hey Paul. You are fired! j) Peter is from Missouri. e) Hillary (come) ____________ to the party. He (see. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours. He should come with us to Miami. you) ____________ the news yet? I got married last July. m) Charles. g) Excuse me. We (visit) ____________ Paris. b) I’m about to fall asleep. I can’t believe how much you (change) ______________ since the last time I (see) ______________ you. John (be) ____________ there as well. a) Yesterday I (write) was going to write my lesson. you) ______________ to Ireland last January? g) We (not buy) ______________ new clothes for our aniversary. I (see. You (be) ____________ late to work too many times. I need to wake up! I (get) ____________ you a cup of coffee. never) ____________ the ocean. d) We are so excited about our trip next month to France. Nice and Nantes. k) How sad! George (dream) ____________ of going to California before he died. never) ____________ the ocean. e) (marry.

c) I promise that I (not tell) ________ your secret to anybody. a) Here is Peter’s number. . make sure to leave a message. Great. e) She (come) ________ to your party if you (invite) ________ her. REVIEW a) When you (arrive) arrive in Oslo. d) She (make) ______ some major changes in her life. Even if somebody (ask) ________ me about what happened that day. a) Today after I (get) get out of class.7) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE SIMPLE PRESENT OR THE FUTURE WITH “GOING TO”. e) I (call) ________ you as soon as I arrive in Dublin. we (experience) ________ huge changes in the environment during the twenty-first century. You will probably get home before I (do) ________. b) If the people (not stop) ________ cutting down trees in the rain forest. She (quit) ______ her job and go back to school. d) If I (tell) ________ you the truth. (believe. I will. we (go) ______ skiing near Lake Tahoe. -175- If I could choose. After she (finish) ______ studying. Everybody (c)________ me and I (d)________ a big house with a garden and maids and I (e)________ up early. I promise I (take) ________ care of everything while you are in Ireland. will you please drop by the grocery store and pick up some milk and bread? No problem. She is going to improve her life! e) Tom (call) ______ when he (arrive) ______ in Manchester. And please don’t forget to water my plants and feed the cat. I (not reveal) ________ the truth to a single person. He (show) ________ you around the city and help you get situated. she (get) ______ a better paid job and buy a house. b) Do you know what you want to do after you (graduate) ______ ? c) If it (snow) ______ this weekend. I (pick) ________ up the groceries and be. If I am not there when you (call) ________. you) ________ me? 8) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE SIMPLE PRESENT OR THE SIMPLE FUTURE. we (go) ________ for a walk. I (b)________ in Beverly Hills. I am sure he (help) will help you if you (ask) ask him. 9) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS BY USING THE VERBS IN BRACKETS IN THESE FIRST TYPE CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 10) FILL IN THE GAPS BY USING THE CONDITIONAL TENSE OF THE FOLLOWING VERBS. He (stay) ______ with you for two or three days until his new apartment (be) ______ available. call my friend Jonas. I (a) would be a famous actress. I (f)_______ around with my dog and I (g)________ at the fanciest hotels and I (h)________ at the best restaurants. travel live be know not get stay own eat d) After you (leave) ________ work. f) He (go) ________ if he (have) ________ time. I (go) ______ to a movie with some friends. b) You (get) ________ wet if you (not take) ________ your umbrella. c) If it (be) ________ nice tomorrow. at home by 6 o’clock.

h) I can dance ballet. d) Their reasons must be explained carefully. g) ______________________________. c) Can you repeat the sentence? c) _______________________________ d) Must he study the whole lesson? d) _______________________________ e) He can’t read my mind. b) I must say the truth. c) not /do /letters /in /Please /. /capital /write c) ______________________________. a) I will be able to eat a whole large pizza. g) Applicants need to call 1-800-486-624 for further information. g) party /go /I /wouldn’t /to /Why /?/your g) _______________________________ REVIEW THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE. e) Do you need a visa? e) _______________________________ f) You mustn’t speak during the exam. a) I can eat a whole large pizza. f) ¿Qué escribirían ellos? f) _______________________________ g) ¿Por qué no se lo diría (ella) a sus abuelos? g) _______________________________ -176- . h) You can make yourself. j) ______________________________. f) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. d) they /What /say /? /would d) _______________________________ e) be /come /? /he /to /Wouldn’t /able e) _______________________________ f) your /’ /d /to /house /I /go f) ______________________________. e) ______________________________. i) Mustn’t we follow their example? i) _______________________________ j) Can he play the piano? j) _______________________________ a) Jugaría al fútbol. a) Can’t we take criticism? a) Couldn’t we take criticism? / Weren’t we (Were we not) able to take criticism? b) Must I paint you a picture? b) _______________________________ c) They must hand in their assignments. a) I would play football. d) ______________________________. f) Can’t they take a joke? f) _______________________________ g) I can’t explain why. c) ______________________________. b) ¿Jugarías al fútbol? b) _______________________________ c) ¿Te gustaría jugar al fútbol? c) _______________________________ d) Haz los deberes. i) Mustn’t she invite her parents to dinner? i) _______________________________ j) We mustn’t waste time.11) MAKE SENTENCES WITH THE FOLLOWING WORDS. b) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. e) ______________________________. h) would /like /he /? /What /look h) _______________________________ 14) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IN THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE. 12) TRANSLATE INTO ENGLISH THE FOLLOWING SHORT SENTENCES. 13) REWRITE a) to /I /invitation /say /? /Would /your /no a) Would I say no to your invitation? b) an /not /for /answer /I /take /would /no b) ______________________________. e) No comas naranjas.

tomorrow (can/could) ________ be a cooler day. You (may not/might not) ________ speak during this exam. f) (May/Could) ________ you lend me 40 euros until Monday? g) Listen. i) With luck. 17) FILL a) might /She /to Paris /go /not a) She might not go to Paris. your friends (can/could) ________ stay the night if they want to. m) I really think Real Madrid (can’t/could) ________ lose the final of the King’s Cup. a) (Can’t/May) May I make a call on your mobile? b) Do you know if Mark (can/may) ________ sing? c) (Can’t/May) ________ I sit here.15) PUT THE FOLLOWING WORDS INTO THE RIGHT ORDER SO THEY MAKE SENSE. REVIEW 16) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE MODAL VERBS GIVEN IN BRACKETS IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE FORM. They are perfectly welcome. j) I (can’t/might) ________ go to the party but I’m not sure yet. l) She (can’t/could) ________ steal things from shops. n) She’s been revising 10 hours a day for 3 weeks. o) He (can’t/may) ________ be from the USA. j) You (can/might) ________ be right but I’m going back to check the times. g) (May/Can) ________ you swim? h) You (couldn’t/might not) ________ smoke on the bus. h) The exam (can’t/might) ________ be easy. please? d) Caroline. He doesn’t speak English. b) be /I /the book /not /will /read /able to b) ______________________________. Students (may/could) ________ study in the library from five to nine in the evening. g) not / have come /ought /He /to g) ______________________________. She is rich and famous. please. c) You (may/might) ________ leave now if you wish. c) your /tell /surname /Could /me /you? c) _______________________________ d) have to /clothes /did /They /not /new /buy d) ______________________________. please? f) He (can/could) ________ be Manchester. e) so /Need /you /fast /drive? e) _______________________________ f) the whole /She /not /lesson /need /study f) ______________________________. b) Listen. You never know. k) This (must/could) ________ be the right answer but we’ll have to check with your teacher to make sure. She (could/must) ________ be exhausted. please. but I think she (can’t/might) ________ be from Scandinavia. a) They (can/might) might be away for the weekend but I’m not sure. e) I’m sorry but you (can’t/may) ________ use the computer until after I’ve finished. i) Claire reckons she is from America. -177- from . d) They (can’t/may not) ________ still be out! e) (Could/May) ________ you open the window a bit. judging by his accent. h) Should /I /go /should /or /stay /I? h) _______________________________ EACH OF THE FOLLOWING GAPS WITH THE MODAL VERBS GIVEN IN BRACKETS IN THE AFFIRMATIVE OR NEGATIVE FORM.

e) ________________________________. m) ________________________________. a) Sally don’t must miss lectures. You ________ do it now. d) ________________________________. You needn’t apologize. You __________ get tickets if you wait too long. he __________ be there. b) It’s a secret. People are trying to work. n) ________________________________. d) Victoria __________ hear the speaker because the crowd was shouting so loudly. k) If you want an explanation for this grammar point. you ________ do a thing. o)Needs he say anything else? o) ________________________________. but we’d better call her before we get her ticket. k) ________________________________. so they couldn’t come with us to the exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art. you ________ laugh. i) Charles __________ be angry at me. h) I’m not deaf. Jones. f) If I show you my new hat. j) I’ll do everything. and tickets sell out quickly. I have never done anything to upset him. f) Peter might be angry. h) ________________________________. g) Keep quiet. k) I should to ask you to do me a favour. m) I have not to get up early tomorrow morning. REVIEW GAPS WITH g) Will they can understand the language? g) ________________________________. b) Does she need to go to London? b) ________________________________. j) ________________________________. e) It __________ be a bad idea to take some snacks along while we’re hiking. -178- j) Humans ought to have equal rights. THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES IF a) I don’t mind at all. c) Wont’ he must study a little bit harder? c) ________________________________. f) ________________________________. e) I can find my own way there. a) Sally mustn’t miss lectures. we got so hungry we had to come back early without finishing the hike. I’ll send you one automatically.18) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING “NEEDN’T” OR “MUSTN’T”. and she __________ be able to get time off that evening. You ________ wait for me. GAPS WITH 20) CORRECT NECESSARY. f) She might plays the guitar in the concert. . a) Unfortunately. c) I know Susan wants to go to the ballet with us. You ________ do anything unless you really want to. I don’t want to drive all the way there for nothing. You never know with him because he is so temperamental. James and Michelle had already made plans. e) He not cans tell you his secret. You ________ shout. g) I heard the band is really popular. h) Peter didn’t could stand the weather. c) It’s not urgent. d) He have to earn a living. i) Martha don’t can run faster. Last time. or he __________. h) That __________ possibly be Mr. i) You ________ drive at more than 70 mph in the UK. He’s lost so much weight that he looks like a completely different person. You ________ tell anybody. You ________ talk so loudly in here. d) You can type those letters later. n) I need not to get up early tomorrow morning. l) Might she to call the fire department? l) ________________________________. b) We should call Tom before we go over to his house. She works Wednesday nights. 19) FILL EACH OF THE FOLLOWING “COULDN’T” OR “MIGHT NOT”. You ________ do it now. i) ________________________________.

a) The injured man had to be carried. c) They will ask him many questions. e) ______________________________. i) He __________ by the policemen right now. h) ______________________________. d) They introduced the secretary to her new boss. f) Vandals damaged most paintings. g) ______________________________. b) They believed he was one of the three greatest mathematicians. h) The boss asked John to remain in charge for another year. b) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. a) They say she wears a long blue dress. g) The executive committee would approve the new policy. g) We require suitable candidates to be bilingual. (solamente poner a “her” como sujeto de la oración) g) ______________________________. c) He __________ sportsman of the year. (solamente poner a “him” como sujeto de la oración) REVIEW 22) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PASSIVE VOICE. f) I haven’t decided anything yet. i) ______________________________. f) ______________________________. a) Nobody has ever called me “stupid”! a) I have never been called “stupid”! b) They have planted thousands of tress. c) ______________________________. c) ______________________________. d) ______________________________. are 24) FILL IN THE GAPS WITH A SUITABLE PASSIVE CONSTRUCTION.21) REWRITE THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES BY USING THE PASSIVE VOICE. g) The computer corrects all sentences. c) They think Susan is in her mid fifties. i) Paul gave her my telephone number. f) Nothing __________ yet. (solamente poner a “me” como sujeto de la oración) f) ______________________________. e) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. i) They will punish you severely for this. d) ______________________________. i) The policemen are interviewing him right now. d) They have to work out a publicity campaign to restore the image of the Prime Minister. d) ______________________________. b) They were going to tape our conversation. a) Everybody was shocked by the terrible news. e) They would do everything to bring war criminals to justice. c) They will crown him sportsman of the year. 23) MAKE IMPERSONAL THE FOLLOWING SENTENCES. e) Everything __________ to bring war criminals to justice. d) A publicity campaign has to __________ to restore the image of the Prime Minister. f) ______________________________. a) She is said to wear a long blue dress. e) ______________________________. c) ______________________________. h) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. e) The members of the committee considering our plan. d) He hasn’t returned the books yet. g) They gave her her birthday present. h) They are repairing her car at the moment. e) They found him dead. a) It is said that she wears a long blue dress. b) That company will publish a new book next year. c) ______________________________. -179- f) They will give a prize to whoever solves this problem. h) They have altered this notice. h) They know him as Peter Smith. g) Suitable candidates __________ to be bilingual. a) The terrible news shocked everybody. d) ______________________________. d) They consider Peter is quite social. i) ______________________________. e) People spend less money on school books nowadays. h) John __________ by the boss to remain in charge for another year. f) They told me his secrets. b) ______________________________. . b) Thousands of tress __________. e) ______________________________. a) They had to carry the injured man. c) He has forgot our address.

Imagine that! p) _______ three years time he will be at university. c) ______________________________. I will see you _______ January 17. c) Our language class usually begins _______ 8 o’clock. f) I spent the whole evening reading a book. g) ______________________________. d) I am not going to go to London. a) I would love to see you sometime. _______ London. we always went to school _______ Monday _______ the morning _______ 8:30. d) I have been to Asia. h) ______________________________. g) ______________________________. s) Will you wait for me _______ the bus stop? t) Do you live _______ the city or _______ the country? -180- 27) AGREE USING “SO” WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS BY OR “NEITHER”. d) ______________________________. g) I didn’t know that you won the championship. f) The weather is usually warm _______ August. f) ______________________________. e) I have never been to Paris. i) ______________________________. f) ______________________________. i) ______________________________. b) Several people visited my school _______ Friday. g) The weather is colder _______ winter. a) He will see his friend in the evening. j) After Christmas vacation. n) What will you do _______ Christmas Eve? o) _______ 2010 we will be 35. k) Did they start the show _______ noon? l) My dream will probably come true _______ the future.m. e) The English Test will be given _______ December 13 and December 15. i) He woke up _______ 4 o’clock _______ the morning. j) I am going out tonight. h) I hate carrots. g) I would go out with Sally. . e) ______________________________. a) So do I. q) I saw him _______ Peter’s birthday party _______ April 17th. b) ______________________________. b) ______________________________. i) I would like to visit the Greek Islands. 26) AGREE USING “SO” WITH THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS BY OR “NEITHER”. j) ______________________________. e) I was sick yesterday. d) ______________________________. h) I will pick you up _______ 1:45 p. h) I am going to buy a new car. i) Last year I visited the British Museum. f) I will make you laugh. FOLLOWING GAPS WITH “IN”. d) The best part of Halloween begins _______ midnight. r) The plane lands _______ 3:45 p.25) FILL EACH OF THE “ON” OR “AT”. e) ______________________________. c) I don’t like butter. b) I didn’t enjoy the film. a) So would I. b) I need a vacation. c) ______________________________. REVIEW a) I like Peter. c) I don’t like living in the city.m. m) _______ the past. h) ______________________________.

h) (pay) Bill promised ______ George the money he owed him. c) (go) Are you thinking of ______ to London? d) (write) I enjoy ______ picture postcards. i) (sing) Would you like ______ with me in the concert. b) (do) Do you know what ______ in case of an accident.28) PUT THE VERBS IN BRACKETS INTO THE CORRECT FORM (GERUND OR INFINITIVE). e) (not buy) We decided ______ a new car. j) (not tell) My mother told me ______ the secret to anyone. a) (see) I look forward to seeing you again. f) (play) Do you like ______ tennis? g) (read) ______ Hamlet is a difficult task to accomplish. l) (learn) I am quite good at ______ new words. k) (study)I recommend ______ three hours every night. REVIEW -181- .

En el caso de que dicha forma verbal sea diferente para otra persona (como suele ocurrir con la primera y tercera del singular [“I”. ‘usted’) y del plural (“you”. ‘él/ ella/ *ello’]) dicha forma también aparece recogida. ‘ustedes’) ya que esta forma suele coincidir con el resto de las formas verbales para el mismo tiempo a excepción.). el participio pasado (past participle) y el gerundio (gerund). El presente anexo aparece dividido en dos partes principales: la conjugación activa (active voice) y la conjugación pasiva (passive voice). * Cabe señalar que por defecto se ofrece la forma interrogativa para la segunda persona del singular (“you”. en el tercer bloque se presentan las formas conocidas en español como “no personales del verbo”. negativas (negative form) e interrogativas (question form*) de los siguientes tiempos verbales: el presente simple de indicativo (simple present) el pretérito perfecto de indicativo (present perfect) el presente continuo de indicativo (present continuous) REGULAR VERBS VERBS el pretérito imperfecto y el pretérito indefinido de indicativo (simple past) el pasado continuo de indicativo (past continuous) el futuro simple de indicativo (future) el futuro próximo de indicativo (future with “going to” [present]) el pasado próximo de indicativo (future with “going to” [past]) y el condicional simple de indicativo (conditional) En el segundo bloque se recogen las formas afirmativas y negativas del imperativo (imperative). el infinitivo (infinitive). -183- . A su vez cada parte cuenta con tres bloques: En el primer bloque están recogidas las formas afirmativas (affirmative form). claro está. ‘tú’. del pronombre personal que sirve como sujeto (“you”. ‘nosotros/ as’. Por último. “he/ she/ it”. “we”. a saber. ‘yo’.VERBS REGULAR PREFACE A continuación se ofrece el modelo de conjugación para los verbos regulares de los tiempos verbales que se ven en el libro. etc. “they”.

amasteis (ustedes) amaban. amaste (yo) estoy amando (tú) estás amando (usted) está amando you are loving 2nd S you’re loving he/ she/ it is loving 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s loving (él/ ella/ *ello) está amando we are loving 1st P we’re loving you are loving 2nd P you’re loving they are loving 3rd P they’re loving (nosotros/ as) estamos amando (vosotros/ as) estáis amando (ustedes) están amando (ellos/ as) están amando 2nd P you loved Past continuous English 1st S I was loving 2nd S you were loving he/ she/ it was 3rd S loving 1st P we were loving Spanish (yo) estaba amando (tú) estabas amando (usted) estaba amando (él/ ella/ *ello) estaba amando (nosotros/ as) estábamos amando we will love 1st P we’ll love (vosotros/ as) estabais amando 2nd P you were loving (ustedes) estaban amando 3rd P they were loving (ellos/ as) estaban amando you will love 2nd P you’ll love they will love 3rd P they’ll love -184English I will love 1st S I’ll love you will love 2nd S you’ll love Future Spanish (yo) amaré (tú) amarás (usted) amará (él/ ella/ *ello) amará he/ she/ it will love 3rd S he’ll/ she’ll/ it’ll love (nosotros/ as) amaremos (vosotros/ as) amaréis (ustedes) amarán (ellos/ as) amarán . amó (nosotros/ as) amábamos. amé (tú) amabas.ACTIVE VOICE AFFIRMATIVE FORM Simple present English 1st S I love (yo) amo (tú) amas 2nd S you love (usted) ama 3rd S he/ she/ it loves 1st P we love (él/ ella/ *ello) ama (nosotros/ as) amamos (vosotros/ as) amáis 2nd P you love (ustedes) aman 3rd P they love (ellos/ as) aman Spanish I have loved 1st S I’ve loved you have loved 2nd S you’ve loved Present perfect English Spanish (yo) he amado (tú) has amado (usted) ha amado he/ she/ it has loved 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s loved (él/ ella/ *ello) ha amado we have loved 1st P we’ve loved you have loved 2nd P you’ve loved they have loved 3rd P they’ve loved (nosotros/ as) hemos amado (vosotros/ as) habéis amado (ustedes) han amado (ellos/ as) han amado Present continuous English Spanish I am loving 1st S I’m loving REGULAR VERBS Simple past English 1st S I loved 2nd S you loved (usted) amaba. amó 3rd S he/ she/ it loved 1st P we loved (él/ ella/ *ello) amaba. amamos (vosotros/ as) amabais. amaron 3rd P they loved (ellos/ as) amaban. amaron Spanish (yo) amaba.

Future with “going to” (present) English I am going to love 1st S I’m going to love you are going to love 2nd S you’re going to love Spanish (yo) voy a amar (tú) vas a amar (usted) va a amar Future with “going to” (past) English 1st S I was going to love 2nd S you were going to love Spanish (yo) iba a amar (tú) ibas a amar (usted) iba a amar 3rd S he/ she/ it was going to love (él/ ella/ *ello) iba a amar 1st P we were going to love (nosotros/ as) íbamos a amar 2nd P you were going to love (vosotros/ as) ibais a amar (ustedes) iban a amar he/ she/ it is going to love 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s going to love (él/ ella/ *ello) va a amar we are going to love 1st P we’re going to love you are going to love 2nd P you’re going to love they are going to love 3rd P they’re going to love (nosotros/ as) vamos a amar (vosotros/ as) vais a amar (ustedes) van a amar (ellos/ as) van a amar 3rd P they were going to love (ellos/ as) iban a amar Conditional English I would love 1st S I’d love you would love 2nd S you’d love he/ she/ it would love 3rd S he’d/ she’d/ it’d love we would love 1st P we’d love you would love 2nd P you’d love they would love 3rd P they’d love (yo) amaría (tú) amarías (usted) amaría REGULAR VERBS Spanish (él/ ella/ *ello) amaría (nosotros/ as) amaríamos (vosotros/ as) amaríais (ustedes) amarían (ellos/ as) amarían ACTIVE VOICE NEGATIVE FORM Simple present English I do not love 1st S I don’t love you do not love 2nd S you don’t love Spanish (yo) no amo (tú) no amas (usted) no ama Present perfect English I have not loved 1st S I haven’t loved you have not loved 2nd S you haven’t loved Spanish (yo) no he amado (tú) no has amado (usted) no ha amado he/ she/ it does not love 3rd S he/ she/ it doesn’t love (él/ ella/ *ello) no ama we do not love 1st P we don’t love you do not love 2nd P you don’t love they do not love 3rd P they don’t love (nosotros/ as) no amamos (vosotros/ as) no amáis (ustedes) no aman (ellos/ as) no aman he/ she/ it has not loved 3rd S he/ she/ it hasn’t loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no ha amado we have not loved 1st P we haven’t loved you have not loved 2nd P you haven’t loved they have not loved 3rd P they haven’t loved (nosotros/ as) no hemos amado (vosotros/ as) no habéis amado (ustedes) no han amado (ellos/ as) no han amado -185- .

Present continuous English Spanish I am not loving (yo) no estoy amando 1st S I’m not loving (tú) no estás amando you are not loving 2nd S you aren’t loving (usted) no está amando he/ she/ it is not loving 3rd S he/ she/ it’ isn’t loving we are not loving 1st P we aren’t loving you are not loving 2nd P you aren’t loving they are not loving 3rd P they aren’t loving (él/ ella/ *ello) no está amando (nosotros/ as) no estamos amando (vosotros/ as) no estáis amando (ustedes) no están amando (ellos/ as) no están amando Simple past English I did not love 1st S I didn’t love you did not love 2nd S you didn’t love Spanish (yo) no amaba. no amaste (usted) no amaba. no amó he/ she/ it did not love (él/ ella/ *ello) no amaba. no amamos (vosotros/ as) no amabais. no amaron Past continuous English I was not loving 1st S I wasn’t loving you were not loving 2nd S you weren’t loving REGULAR VERBS Future Spanish English I will not love 1st S I won’t love you will not love 2nd S you won’t love Spanish (yo) no amaré (tú) no amarás (usted) no amará (yo) no estaba amando (tú) no estabas amando (usted) no estaba amando he/ she/ it was not loving (él/ ella/ *ello) no estaba 3rd S he/ she/ it wasn’t loving amando we were not loving 1st P we weren’t loving you were not loving 2nd P you weren’t loving they were not loving 3rd P they weren’t loving (nosotros/ as) no estábamos amando (vosotros/ as) no estabais amando (ustedes) no estaban amando (ellos/ as) no estaban amando he/ she/ it will not love 3rd S he/ she/ it won’t love (él/ ella/ *ello) no amará we will not love 1st P we won’t love you will not love 2nd P you won’t love they will not love 3rd P they won’t love (nosotros/ as) no amaremos (vosotros/ as) no amaréis (ustedes) no amarán (ellos/ as) no amarán Future with “going to” (past) English Spanish I was not going to love 1st S I wasn’t going to love you were not going to love 2nd S you weren’t going to love (yo) no iba a amar (tú) no ibas a amar (usted) no iba a amar Future with “going to” (present) English I am not going to love 1st S I’m not going to love Spanish (yo) no voy a amar you are not going to love (tú) no vas a amar 2nd S you aren’t going to love (usted) no va a amar he/ she/ it is not going to love 3rd S he/ she/ it isn’t going to love (él/ ella/ *ello) no va a amar we are not going to love 1st P we aren’t going to love (nosotros/ as) no vamos a amar he/ she/ it was not going to love 3rd S he/ she/ it wasn’t going to love (él/ ella/ *ello) no iba a amar we were not going to love (nosotros/ as) 1st P we weren’t going to love no íbamos a amar you were not going to love 2nd P you weren’t going to love (vosotros/ as) no ibais a amar (ustedes) no iban a amar (vosotros/ as) you are not going to love 2nd P you aren’t going to love no vais a amar (ustedes) no van a amar they are not going to love 3rd P they aren’t going to love (ellos/ as) no van a amar they were not going to love 3rd P they weren’t going to love (ellos/ as) no iban a amar -186- . no amaron (ellos/ as) no amaban. no 3rd S he/ she/ it didn’t love amó we did not love 1st P we didn’t love you did not love 2nd P you didn’t love they did not love 3rd P they didn’t love (nosotros/ as) no amábamos. no amé (tú) no amabas. no amasteis (ustedes) no amaban.

¿no han amado (ustedes)? ¿ha amado (él/ ella/ *ello)? Negative have you not loved? haven’t you love? Affirmative has he/ she/ it loved? has he/ she/ it not love? hasn’t he/ she/ it love? -187- Negative ¿no ha amado (él/ ella/ *ello)? . ¿ama (usted)? Affirmative do you love? REGULAR VERBS Spanish ¿amáis (vosostros/ as)?.Conditional English 1st S I would not love I wouldn’t love (yo) no amaría (tú) no amarías (usted) no amaría (él/ ella/ *ello) no amaría Spanish you would not love 2nd S you wouldn’t love he/ she/ it would not love he/ she/ it wouldn’t love we would not love we wouldn’t love 3rd S 1st P (nosotros/ as) no amaríamos (vosotros/ as) no amaríais (ustedes) no amarían (ellos/ as) no amarían you would not love 2nd P you wouldn’t love 3rd P they would not love they wouldn’t love ACTIVE VOICE QUESTION FORM Simple present English ¿amas (tú)?. ¿no ha amado (usted)? ¿no habéis amado (vosostros/ as)?. ¿no ama (usted)? ¿no amáis (vosostros/ as)?. ¿aman (ustedes)? ¿no amas (tú)?. ¿ha amado (usted)? Affirmative have you loved? ¿habéis amado (vosostros/ as)?. ¿han amado (ustedes)? ¿no has amado (tú)?. ¿no aman (ustedes)? ¿ama (él/ ella/ *ello)? Negative do you not love? don’t you love? Affirmative does he/ she/ it love? does he/ she/ it not love? doesn’t he/ she/ it love? Negative ¿no ama (él/ ella/ *ello)? Present perfect English Spanish ¿has amado (tú)?.

¿no está amando (usted)? ¿no estáis amando (vosotros/ as). ¿no amará (usted)? ¿no amaréis (vosostros/ as)?. amó (usted)? Affirmative did you love? ¿amabais. ¿está amando (usted)? ¿estáis amando (vosotros/ as). ¿amaba. ¿estaba amando (usted)? ¿estabais amando (vosotros/ as). no amaste (tú)?.Present continuous English Affirmative Negative Affirmative am I loving? am I not loving? are you loving? Spanish ¿estoy amando (yo)? ¿no estoy amando (yo)? ¿estás amando (tú)?. ¿amaban. ¿no estaban amando (ustedes)? ¿estaba amando (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no estaba amando (él/ ella/ *ello)? Future Affirmative Negative Affirmative Negative were you not loving? weren’t you loving? was he/ she/ it loving? was he/ she/ it not loving? wasn’t he/ she/ it loving? English Spanish ¿amarás (tú)?. ¿amará (usted)? Affirmative will you love? ¿amaréis (vosostros/ as)?. ¿no están amando (ustedes)? ¿está amando (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no está amando (él/ ella/ *ello)? Simple past Negative Affirmative Negative are you not loving? aren’t you loving? is he/ she/ it loving? is he/ she/ it not loving? isn’t he/ she/ it loving? English Spanish ¿amabas. amaron (ustedes)? ¿no amabas. amaste (tú)?. no amasteis (vosostros/ as)?. no amaron (ustedes)? Past continuous English Negative REGULAR VERBS did you not love? didn’t you love? Affirmative Negative was I loving? was I not loving? wasn’t I loving? were you loving? Spanish ¿estaba amando (yo)? ¿no estaba amando (yo)? ¿estabas amando (tú)?. ¿estaban amando (ustedes)? ¿no estabas amando (tú)?. no amó (usted)? ¿no amabais. ¿no estaba amando (usted)? ¿no estabais amando (vosotros/ as). ¿no amarán (ustedes)? -188- Negative will you not love? won’t you love? . ¿están amando (ustedes)? ¿no estás amando (tú)?. amasteis (vosostros/ as)?. ¿no amaba. ¿amarán (ustedes)? ¿no amarás (tú)?. ¿no amaban.

¿iba a amar (usted)? ¿ibais a amar (vosotros/ as). ¿iban a amar (ustedes)? ¿no ibas a amar (tú)?. ¿amarían (ustedes)? ¿no amarías (tú)?. ¿no va a amar (usted)? ¿no vais a amar (vosotros/ as). ¿amaría (usted)? Affirmative would you love? ¿amaríais (vosostros/ as)?. ¿va a amar (usted)? ¿vais a amar (vosotros/ as). ¿no amaría (usted)? Negative would you not love? wouldn’t you love? ¿no amarías (vosostros/ as)?. ¿no van a amar (ustedes)? ¿va a amar (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no va a amar (él/ ella/ *ello)? Affirmative are you going to love? Negative are you not going to love? aren’t you going to love? is he/ she/ it going to love? is he/ she/ it not going to love? isn’t he/ she/ it going to love? Affirmative Negative Future with “going to” (past) English Affirmative Negative was I going to love? was I not going to love? wasn’t I going to love? Spanish ¿iba a amar (yo)? ¿no iba a amar (yo)? ¿ibas a amar (tú)?. ¿no iba a amar (usted)? ¿no ibais a amar (vosotros/ as).Future with “going to” (present) English Affirmative Negative am I going to love? am I not going to love? Spanish ¿voy a amar (yo)? ¿no voy a amar (yo)? ¿vas a amar (tú)?. ¿no iban a amar (ustedes)? ¿iba a amar (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no iba a amar (él/ ella/ *ello)? Affirmative were you going to love? Negative were you not going to love? weren’t you going to love? was he/ she/ it going to love? was he/ she/ it not going to love? wasn’t he/ she/ it going to love? Affirmative Negative Conditional English Spanish ¿amarías (tú)?. ¿van a amar (ustedes)? ¿no vas a amar (tú)?. ¿no amarían (ustedes)? -189- REGULAR VERBS .

fuisteis amados/ as (ustedes) eran. fue amado/ a 3rd S he/ she/ it was loved (él/ ella/ *ello) era. no amen (ustedes) amemos (nosotros/ as) no amemos (nosotros/ as) Gerund Past Participle Infinitive ACTIVE VOICE INFINITIVE / PAST PARTICPLE / GERUND FORM English Spanish to love amar loved amado/ a. fuiste amado/ a he/ she/ it is being loved (él/ ella/ *ello) 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s being loved está siendo amado/ a we are being loved 1st P we’re being loved you are being loved 2nd P you’re being loved they are being loved 3rd P they’re being loved (nosotros/ as) estamos siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as) estáis siendo amados/ as (ustedes) están siendo amados/ as (ellos/ as) están siendo amados/ as 2nd P you were loved 3rd P they were loved -190- . fui amado/ a (tú) eras. fueron amados/ as Spanish (yo) era. fuimos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) erais. no ame (usted) no améis (vosostros/ as). amen (ustedes) no ames (tú). amados/ as Negative do not love don’t love Affirmative let’s love Negative let’s not love loving amando PA S S I V E V O I C E AFFIRMATIVE FORM Simple present English Spanish 1st S REGULAR VERBS Present perfect English I have been loved 1st S I’ve been loved you have been loved 2nd S you’ve been loved Spanish (yo) he sido amado/ a (tú) has sido amado/ a (usted) ha sido amado/ a I am loved I’m loved (yo) soy amado/ a (tú) eres amado/ a (usted) es amado/ a you are loved 2nd S you’re loved 3rd S 1st P he/ she/ it is loved he’s/ she’s/ it’s loved (él/ ella/ *ello) es amado/ a we are loved we’re loved (nosotros/ as) somos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) sois amados/ as (ustedes) son amados/ as (ellos/ as) son amados/ as he/ she/ it has been loved 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s been loved (él/ ella/ *ello) ha sido amado/ a we have been loved 1st P we’ve been loved you have been loved 2nd P you’ve been loved they have been loved 3rd P they’ve been loved (nosotros/ as) hemos sido amados/ as (vosotros/ as) habéis sido amados/ as (ustedes) han sido amados/ as (ellos/ as) han sido amados/ as you are loved 2nd P you’re loved 3rd P they are loved they’re loved Present continuous English Spanish I am being loved 1st S I’m being loved 2nd you are being loved S you’re being loved (yo) estoy siendo amado/ a (tú) estás siendo amado/ a (usted) está siendo amado/ a Simple past English 1st S I was loved 2nd S you were loved (usted) era. fueron amados/ as (ellos/ as) eran. ame (usted) Affirmative love amad (vosostros/ as). fue amado/ a 1st P we were loved (nosotros/ as) éramos.ACTIVE VOICE IMPERATIVE FORM Imperative English Spanish ama (tú).

Past continuous English 1st S I was being loved 2nd S you were being loved (usted) estaba siendo amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello) 3rd S he/ she/ it was being loved estaba siendo amado/ a (nosotros/ as) 1st P we were being loved estábamos siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as) estabais siendo amados/ as (ustedes) estaban siendo amados/ as Spanish (yo) estaba siendo amado/ a (tú) estabas siendo amado/ a you will be loved 2nd S you’ll be loved English I will be loved 1st S I’ll be loved Future Spanish (yo) seré amado/ a (tú) serás amado/ a (usted) será amado/ a he/ she/ it will be loved 3rd S he’ll/ she’ll/ it’ll be loved (él/ ella/ *ello) será amado/ a we will be loved 1st P we’ll be loved you will be loved 2nd P you’ll be loved they will be loved 3rd P they’ll be loved (nosotros/ as) seremos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) seréis amados/ as (ustedes) serán amados/ as (ellos/ as) serán amados/ as 2nd P you were being loved (ellos/ as) 3rd P they were being loved estaban siendo amados/ as Future with “going to” (past) English Spanish 1st S I was going to be loved (yo) iba a ser amado/ a (tú) ibas a ser amado/ a 2nd S you were going to be loved (usted) iba a ser amado/ a he/ she/ it 3rd S was going to be loved (él/ ella/ *ello) iba a ser amado/ a Future with “going to” (present) English Spanish I am going to be loved (yo) voy a ser amado/ a 1st S I’m going to be loved you are going to be loved (tú) vas a ser amado/ a 2nd S you’re going to be loved (usted) va a ser amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello) va a ser amado/ a REGULAR VERBS (nosotros/ as) 1st P we were going to be loved íbamos a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as) ibais a ser amados/ as (ustedes) iban a ser amados/ as 3rd P they were going to be loved (ellos/ as) iban a ser amados/ as he/ she/ it is going to be loved 3rd S he’s/ she’s/ it’s going to be loved we are going to be loved 1st P we’re going to be loved 2nd P you were going to be loved (nosotros/ as) vamos a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as) vais a ser amados/ as you are going to be loved 2nd P you’re going to be loved (ustedes) van a ser amados/ as they are going to be loved 3rd P they’re going to be loved (ellos/ as) van a ser amados/ as Conditional English 1st S I would be loved I’d be loved Spanish (yo) sería amado/ a (tú) serías amado/ a (usted) sería amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello) sería amado/ a (nosotros/ as) seríamos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) seríais amados/ as (ustedes) serían amados/ as (ellos/ as) serían amados/ as -191- you would be loved 2nd S you’d be loved he/ she/ it would be loved 3rd S he’d/ she’d/ it’d be loved 1st P we would be loved we’d be loved you would be loved 2nd P you’d be loved they would be loved 3rd P they’d be loved .

no fuisteis amados/ as (ustedes) no eran. no fuimos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no erais. no fui amado/ a (tú) no eras. no fuiste amado/ a (usted) no era. no fueron amados/ as REGULAR VERBS 1st S 2nd S 3rd S 1st P 2nd P 3rd P Past continuous English Spanish I was not being loved (yo) no estaba siendo I wasn’t being loved amado/ a (tú) no estabas siendo amado/ a you were not being loved you weren’t being loved (usted) no estaba siendo amado/ a he/ she/ it was not being loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no estaba he/ she/ it wasn’t being siendo amado/ a loved we were not being loved (nosotros/ as) no estábamos we weren’t being loved siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no estabais you were not being loved siendo amados/ as you weren’t being loved (ustedes) no estaban siendo amados/ as they were not being loved (ellos/ as) no estaban they weren’t being loved siendo amados/ as Future English I will not be loved 1st S I won’t be loved you will not be loved 2nd S you won’t be loved Spanish (yo) no seré amado/ a (tú) no serás amado/ a (usted) no será amado/ a he/ she/ it will not be loved 3rd S he/ she/ it won’t be loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no será amado/ a we will won’t be loved (nosotros/ as) no seremos 1st P we won’t be loved amados/ as you will not be loved 2nd P you won’t be loved (vosotros/ as) no seréis amados/ as (ustedes) no serán amados/ as they will not be loved (ellos/ as) no serán amados/ as 3rd P they won’t be loved -192- . no fueron amados/ as (ellos/ as) no eran. no fue amado/ a (nosotros/ as) no éramos.PA S S I V E V O I C E NEGATIVE FORM Simple present Spanish (yo) no soy amado/ a Present perfect English Spanish I have not been loved (yo) no he sido amado/ a 1st S I haven’t been loved you have not been loved (tú) no has sido amado/ a 2nd S you haven’t been loved (usted) no ha sido amado/ a he/ she/ it has not not been loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no ha sido 3rd S he/ she/ it amado/ a hasn’t been loved we have not been loved (nosotros/ as) no hemos sido 1st P we haven’t been loved amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no habéis sido you have not been loved amados/ as nd 2 P you haven’t been loved (ustedes) no han sido amados/ as they have not been loved (ellos/ as) no han sido 3rd P they haven’t been loved amados/ as English I am not loved 1st S I’m not loved you are not loved (tú) no eres amado/ a 2nd S you aren’t loved (usted) no es amado/ a he/ she/ it is not loved 3rd S he/ she/ it isn’t loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no es amado/ a we are not loved 1st P we aren’t loved (nosotros/ as) no somos amados/ as you are not loved (vosotros/ as) no sois amados/ as 2nd P you aren’t loved (ustedes) son no amados/ as they are not loved 3rd P they aren’t loved (ellos/ as) son no amados/ as Present continuous English Spanish I am not being loved (yo) no estoy siendo 1st S I’m not being loved amado/ a (tú) no estás siendo you are not being loved amado/ a nd 2 S you aren’t being loved (usted) no está siendo amado/ a he/ she/ it is not being loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no está 3rd S he/ she/ it isn’t being siendo amado/ a loved we are not being loved (nosotros/ as) no estamos 1st P we aren’t being loved siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no estáis siendo amados/ as you are not being loved 2nd P you aren’t being loved (ustedes) no están siendo amados/ as they are not being loved (ellos/ as) no están 3rd P they aren’t being loved siendo amados/ as Simple past English I was not loved 1st S I wasn’t loved you were not loved 2nd S you weren’t loved he/ she/ it was not loved 3rd S he/ she/ it wasn’t loved we were not loved 1st P we weren’t loved you were not loved 2nd P you weren’t loved they were not loved 3rd P they weren’t loved Spanish (yo) no era. no fue amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello) no era.

¿no es amado/ a (usted)? ¿no sois amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿es amado/ a (usted)? ¿sois amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿no son amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿es amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no es amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? -193- Affirmative are you loved? Negative are you not loved? aren’t you loved? Affirmative is he/ she/ it loved? Negative is he/ she/ it not loved? isn’t he/ she/ it loved? . ¿son amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no eres amado/ a (tú)?.Future with “going to” (past) English Spanish I was not going to be loved 1st S I wasn’t going to be loved (yo) no iba a ser amado/ a you were not going to be loved (tú) no ibas a ser amado/ a 2nd S you weren’t going to be loved (usted) no iba a ser amado/ a he/ she/ it was not going to be loved 3rd S he/ she/ it wasn’t going to be loved we were not going to be loved 1st P we weren’t going to be loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no iba a ser amado/ a Future with “going to” (present) English Spanish I am not going to be loved 1st S I’m not going to be loved (yo) no voy a ser amado/ a you are not going to be loved (tú) no vas a ser amado/ a 2nd S you aren’t going to be loved (usted) no va a ser amado/ a he/ she/ it is not going to be loved 3rd S he/ she/ it isn’t going to be loved we are not going to be loved 1st P we aren’t going to be loved you are not going to be loved 2nd P you aren’t going to be loved they are not going to be loved 3rd P they aren’t going to be loved (él/ ella/ *ello) no va a ser amado/ a (nosotros/ as) no vamos a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no vais a ser amados/ as (ustedes) no van a ser amados/ as (ellos/ as) no van a ser amados/ as (nosotros/ as) no íbamos a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no ibais a you were not going to be loved ser amados/ as nd 2 P you weren’t going to be loved (ustedes) no iban a ser amados/ as they were not going to be loved (ellos/ as) no iban a ser 3rd P they weren’t going to be loved amados/ as Conditional English I would not be loved 1st S I wouldn’t be loved you would not be loved 2nd S you wouldn’t be loved he/ she/ it would not be loved 3rd S he/ she/ it wouldn’t be loved we would not be loved 1st P we wouldn’t be loved you would not be loved 2nd P you wouldn’t be loved they would not be loved 3rd P they wouldn’t be loved Spanish (yo) no sería amado/ a (tú) no serías amado/ a (usted) no sería amado/ a REGULAR VERBS (él/ ella/ *ello) no sería amado/ a (nosotros/ as) no seríamos amados/ as (vosotros/ as) no seríais amados/ as (ustedes) no serían amados/ as (ellos/ as) no serían amados/ as PA S S I V E V O I C E QUESTION FORM Simple present English Affirmative am I loved? Negative am I not loved? Spanish ¿soy amado/ a (yo)? ¿no soy amado/ a (yo)? ¿eres amado/ a (tú)?.

no fueron amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿era. ¿eran. ¿no está siendo amado/ a (usted)? ¿no estáis siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿no era. no fuiste amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no eran. ¿están siendo amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no estás siendo amado/ a (tú)?. fuiste amado/ a (tú)?. ¿está siendo amado/ a (usted)? ¿estáis siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as). fuisteis amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿han sido amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no has sido amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no ha sido amado/ a (usted)? ¿no habéis sido amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?.Present perfect English Spanish ¿has sido amado/ a (tú)?. ¿ha sido amado/ a (usted)? Affirmative have you been loved? ¿habéis sido amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?. ¿era. fue amado/ a (usted)? ¿erais. no fue amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? -194- Affirmative Negative were you not loved? weren’t you loved? was he/ she/ it loved? was he/ she/ it not loved? wasn’t he/ she/ it loved? Affirmative Negative . no fui amado/ a (yo)? ¿eras. fue amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no era. ¿no han sido amados/ as (ustedes)? Affirmative Negative has he/ she/ it been loved? has he/ she/ it not been love? hasn’t he/ she/ it been love? ¿ha sido amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no ha sido amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? Negative have you not been loved? haven’t you been love? Present continuous English Affirmative Negative am I being loved? am I not being loved? Spanish ¿estoy siendo amado/ a (yo)? ¿no estoy siendo amado/ a (yo)? ¿estás siendo amado/ a (tú)?. no fuisteis amados/ as (vosotros/ as). fui amado/ a (yo)? ¿no era. ¿no están siendo amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿está siendo amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no está siendo amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? REGULAR VERBS Affirmative are you being loved? Negative are you not being loved? aren’t you being loved? Affirmative Negative is he/ she/ it being loved? is he/ she/ it not being loved? isn’t he/ she/ it being loved? Simple past English Affirmative Negative was I loved? was I not loved? wasn’t I loved? were you loved? Spanish ¿era. no fue amado/ a (usted)? ¿no erais. fueron amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no eras.

¿van a ser amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no vas a ser amado/ a (tú)?. ¿estaban siendo amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no estabas siendo amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no serán amados/ as (ustedes)? Future with “going to” (present) English Affirmative Negative am I going to be loved? am I not going to be loved? Spanish ¿voy a ser amado/ a (yo)? ¿no voy a ser amado/ a (yo)? ¿vas a ser amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no va a ser amado/ a (usted)? ¿no vais a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿no estaba siendo amado/ a (usted)? ¿no estabais siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿no van a ser amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿va a ser amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? ¿no va a ser amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? Affirmative are you going to be loved? Negative are you not going to be loved? aren’t you going to be loved? is he/ she/ it going to be loved? is he/ she/ it not going to be loved? isn’t he/ she/ it going to be loved? -195- Affirmative Negative . ¿no será amado/ a (usted)? Negative will you not be loved? won’t you be loved? ¿no seréis amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?. ¿va a ser amado/ a (usted)? ¿vais a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as). ¿no estaban siendo amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿estaba siendo amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? Affirmative Negative were you not being loved? weren’t you being loved? was he/ she/ it being loved? Affirmative Negative was he/ she/ it not being loved? ¿no estaba siendo amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? wasn’t he/ she/ it being loved? Future English Spanish ¿serás amado/ a (tú)?. ¿serán amados/ as (ustedes)? REGULAR VERBS ¿no serás amado/ a (tú)?. ¿será amado/ a (usted)? Affirmative will you be loved? ¿seréis amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?.Past continuous English Affirmative Negative was I being loved? was I not being loved? wasn’t I being loved? were you being loved? Spanish ¿estaba siendo amado/ a (yo)? ¿no estaba siendo amado/ a (yo)? ¿estabas siendo amado/ a (tú)?. ¿estaba siendo amado/ a (usted)? ¿estabais siendo amados/ as (vosotros/ as).

Future with “going to” (past) English Affirmative was I going to be loved? Negative was I not going to be loved? wasn’t I going to be loved? Spanish ¿iba a ser amado/ a (yo)? ¿no iba a ser amado/ a (yo)? ¿ibas a ser amado/ a (tú)?. no sea amado/ a (usted) Infinitive PA S S I V E V O I C E INFINITIVE / PAST PARTICPLE / GERUND FORM English Spanish to be loved ser amado/ a. ¿no iban a ser amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿iba a ser amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? Affirmative were you going to be loved? Negative were you not going to be loved? weren’t you going to be loved? Affirmative was he/ she/ it going to be loved? Negative was he/ she/ it not going to be loved? ¿no iba a ser amado/ a (él/ ella/ *ello)? wasn’t he/ she/ it going to be loved? Conditional English Spanish ¿serías amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no iba a ser amado/ a (usted)? ¿no ibais a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as). amados/ as Affirmative let’s be loved siendo amado/ a. ¿iban a ser amados/ as (ustedes)? ¿no ibas a ser amado/ a (tú)?. ¿no serían amados/ as (ustedes)? PA S S I V E V O I C E IMPERATIVE FORM Imperative English Spanish sé amado/ a (tú). ¿no sería amado/ a (usted)? Negative would you not be loved? wouldn’t you be loved? ¿no seríais amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?. sea amado/ a (usted) Affirmative be loved sed amados/ as (vosostros/ as). no sean amados/ as (ustedes) seamos amados/ as (nosotros/ as) Gerund being loved sido amado/ a. ¿serían amados/ as (ustedes)? REGULAR VERBS ¿no serías amado/ a (tú)?. ¿sería amado/ a (usted)? Affirmative would you be loved? ¿seríais amados/ as (vosostros/ as)?. sean amados/ as (ustedes) no seas amado/ a (tú). amados/ as Negative let’s not be loved no seamos amados/ as (nosotros/ as) -196- . amados/ as Negative do not be loved don’t be loved Past Participle been loved no seáis amados/ as (vosostros/ as). ¿iba a ser amado/ a (usted)? ¿ibais a ser amados/ as (vosotros/ as).

tirar. guiar apoyarse IRREGULAR VERBS . amarrar morder sangrar soplar romper traer construir quemar estallar comprar poder coger escoger venir costar trepar cortar cavar hacer arrastrar. mantener saber poner. alcanzar ir crecer colgar tener oír esconder golpear sujetar. dañar gardar. colocar conducir. huir arrojar volar prohibir olvidar perdonar helar lograr. agarrar herir. dibujar soñar beber conducir comer caer alimentar sentir luchar encontrar escapar. were beat became began bent bound bit bled blew broke brought built burnt burst bought could caught chose came cost crept cut dug did drew dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found fled flung flew forbade forgot forgave froze got went grew hung had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid led leant -197- arisen awoke(n) been beaten become begun bent bound bitten bled blown broken brought built burnt burst bought could caught chosen come cost crept cut dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found fled flung flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got (BrE) gotten (AmE) gone grown hung had heard hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led leant levantarse despertar ser.IRREGULAR PRESENT VERBS PAST PARTICIPLE SPANISH SIMPLE PAST arise awake be beat become begin bend bind bite bleed blow break bring build burn burst buy can catch choose come cost creep cut dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find flee fling fly forbid forget forgive freeze get go grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know lay lead lean arose awoke was. estar golpear llegar empezar doblar atar.

bicicleta] sonar levantarse. pasar tiempo derramar dividir estropear derramar brotar sostenerse. inflamar nadar tomar enseñar decir pensar arrojar comprender despertar llevar puesto [ropa] ganar escribir IRREGULAR VERBS . tumbarse mentir encender perder hacer significar encontrarse pagar poner leer alquilar montar [caballo. estar en pie robar picar [insecto] jurar barrer hinchar. agitar brillar disparar mostrar cerrar cantar hundir sentarse dormir resbalar oler hablar aligerar deletrear gastar.PRESENT SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE SPANISH leave lend let lie lie light lose make mean meet pay put read rent ride ring rise run say see seek sell send set shake shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell speak speed spell spend spill split spoil spread spring stand steal sting swear sweep swell swim take teach tell think throw understand wake wear win write left lent let lay lied lit lost made meant met paid put read rent rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set shook shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke sped spelt spent spilt split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stung swore swept swelled swam took taught told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote -198- left lent let lain lied lit lost made meant met paid put read rent ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken sped spelt spent spilt split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stung sworn swept swollen swum taken taught told thought thrown understood woke(n) worn won written dejar. elevarse correr decir ver buscar vender enviar colocar temblar. abandonar prestar dejar echarse.

funcionan con diferentes categorías gramaticales. 2. Así. -199- PREFACE . no son equivalentes (ver bite). aunque puedan ser parecidos. Además de las equivalencias en español.GLOSSARIES PREFACE En los siguientes glosarios están recogidos todos los términos de la lengua inglesa que aparecen en el presente libro. pero ha de sobreentenderse que también puede equivaler a africana. Esto se debe a que determinadas palabras en inglés. Las diferentes acepciones hacen referencia a términos que se pueden considerar sinónimos entre sí en español (ver brilliant). africanos y africanas. act2) o no (ver can1. pueden aparecer términos compuestos o derivados del término en inglés que se ofrece como entrada (ver board) o locuciones de uso frecuente en la que dicho término aparece (ver chemist). de cada término se ofrece información a cerca de su categoría gramatical en inglés y. las equivalencias en español de los adjetivos en inglés se dan únicamente en la forma masculina singular. Varias acepciones separadas entre sí por coma. 3. neighbor). Puede haber dos o más entradas en inglés idénticas. Además. en el caso de que sea necesario. bill2). dependiendo de su uso. Para facilitar la consulta del glosario. Varias acepciones separadas entre sí por punto y coma. can2). existiendo entre sus significados una evidente relación (ver act1. o a que al menos una de ellas pertenece al inglés británico o al americano (ver bill1. para evitar confusiones. En este caso las diferentes acepciones hacen referencia a términos en español que. Los participios pasados recogidos en el glosario también reciben este tratamiento. Bajo una misma entrada inglesa pueden aparecer: 1. Además de su equivalencia en español. a pesar de que dicha forma inglesa también equivalga a las formas del femenino singular y plural y del masculino plural en español. si dicho término pertenece al inglés usado en Reino Unido o en América (ver neighbour. en la entrada African aparece como equivalente en español africano. las equivalencias en español que puedan resultar ambiguas vienen acompañadas por una aclaración entre corchetes (ver wear). Dichos términos están ordenados alfabéticamente y vienen acompañados por su equivalencia en español.

..................................................................................................................................................... .................... ......................... ........................................................... .................................................. -200- adjetivo adverbio inglés americano artículo inglés británico comparativo conjunción demostrativo especialmente etcétera femenino indeterminado infinitivo interrogativo interjección modal participio pasado personal posesivo preposición presente pronombre reflexivo relativo semimodal superlativo sustantivo también verbo inf int interj mod p pas pers pos prep pres pron reflex rel semimod super sust tb v ............................ ....................................................ABBREVIATIONS adj adv AmE art BrE comp conj dem esp etc fem indet ABBREVIATIONS ............ ............................... ........................................................................ ............................... .................................................. ................ .............................. .............................................................................. ........ ......................................................................... ........................................................................................................................ ..................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................... ............................................................................................................ .............................................................. ....................................... ..................... ...................... .. ........................................................................................... . .............................. ................................................................................................................................................................................. ................ .................................................................

algunos. (in ~ case) en cualquier caso pron nadie. algunas. al otro lado de sust acto v actuar adj activo sust actividad adj agudo sust consejo sust aeroplano p pas de affect afectado adj asustado. de todas formas adv ninguna parte. evaluar adj antiguo sust anglo adj enfadado sust animal sust tobillo sust respuesta v responder sust himno pron alguno. (travel ~) agente de viajes adv (five days ~) hace cinco días v estar de acuerdo v ponerse de acuerdo en abbreviation above abroad absolute accepted ache acronym across act1 act2 active activity acute advice aeroplane affected afraid Africa African after1 after2 afternoon against agency agent ago agree agree on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) air air conditioning airport aisle alarm clock album all allergic almost along already altar although always amazing ambulance America anybody anyone anything anyway anywhere apartment (AmE) appearance appendices appendix appetite apple application appointment April archipielago arm armchair armpit around arrange arrest arrive arrogant article artist as ash ashtray Asia Asian Asiatic ask sust sida sust aire sust aire acondicionado sust aeropuerto sust pasillo [avión] sust despertador sust álbum pron todo. cualquier persona pron nadie. alguna. (~ bit of) un poco de. mientras sust ceniza sust cenicero sust Asia adj asiático [esp India y Paquistán] adj asiático v preguntar SPANISH art indet un. (~ right) todo bien. algunas adj algún. (~ few) unos pocos. alguna parte. algunos.CIVILIAN ENGLISH a GLOSSARY ENGLISH American American-born among an analgesic analyse (BrE) analyze (AmE) ancient Angle angry animal ankle answer1 answer2 anthem any any SPANISH adj americano adj americano prep entre art indet un. tan. cuando. cualquier parte sust apartamento sust aparición sust pl anexos sust anexo sust apetito sust manzana sust formulario sust cita. mucho sust abreviatura prep arriba. una. (to make an ~) concertar una cita sust abril sust archipiélago sust brazo sust sillón sust axila prep alrededor de v organizar. sobre adv en el extranjero adj absoluto p pas de accept aceptado v doler sust sigla prep a través. evaluar v analizar. de acuerdo adj alérgico adv casi prep a lo largo de adv ya sust altar conj aunque adv siempre adj increíble. alguna. algunos. (~ little of) un poco de. tener miedo sust África adj africano adv después prep después de. (~ lot of) un montón de. (travel ~) agencia de viajes sust agente. valorar. cualquier persona pron nada. una sust analgésico v analizar. unas pocas. fijar. tras sust tarde. alguien. (~ long way) mucho tiempo. algo. cualquier cosa adv de todos modos. algunas. asombroso sust ambulancia sust América -201- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . concertar v detener v llegar adj arrogante sust artículo sust artista conj como. (good ~) buenas tardes prep contra sust agencia. (to be ~) temer. alguien. valorar.

(~ the chemist’s) (BrE) en la farmacia. intentar v asistir sust atención sust agosto sust tía sust Australia adj australiano sust Austria adj austríaco sust otoño adj auxiliar adj disponible sust avenida adj disponible v evitar adj despierto sust canguro. ante. reunir sust misión. guía telefónica v reservar sust bota athletics atom attack attempt attend attention August aunt Australia Australian Austria Austrian autumn (BrE) auxiliarity available avenue avialable avoid awake babysitter back bacon bad badly bag ball banana bank bargain base baseball basketball bath bathroom be CIVILIAN GLOSSARY be able beach bean bear beautiful bed boat body boil boiled bone bonnet (BrE) book1 bedroom bedside table book2 boot1 -202- . (~ afraid) temer. (to make an ~) hacer un intento. (phone ~) agenda de teléfonos. panceta adj malo adv mal sust bolso sust pelota.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH asleep assemble assignment assistant astronomical at SPANISH adj dormido v montar. sobre sust bibliografía sust bicicleta adj grande sust billete sust cuenta. bonito sust cama. antes de. detrás de sust ser adj belga sust Bélgica v creer sust ombligo v pertenecer prep debajo de sust cinturón sust banco prep debajo de.(full ~) pensión completa. antes v comenzar sust principiante sust comienzo. factura sust pl billar sust biología sust pájaro sust cumpleaños sust galleta sust pedazo. en. (a ~ of) un poco de v morder. nombramiento sust dependiente. aguantar. (~ the back) al fondo de. organizar. (~ least) por lo menos.(to go to ~) irse a la cama. (may ~) puede ser. principio prep tras. habitación sust mesita de noche ENGLISH beef beer before begin beginner beginning behind being Belgian Belgium believe belly button belong below belt bench beneath Berlin beside besides best1 best2 better1 better2 between beyond bibliography bicycle big bill1 (AmE) bill2 (BrE) billiards Biology bird birthday biscuit (BrE) bit bite black blanket blind blond blood pressure blouse blue board SPANISH sust ternera sust cerveza prep delante de. por debajo de sust Berlín prep al lado de prep además de adj super mejor adv mejor adj comp mejor adv mejor prep entre prep más allá de. (~ stall) quiosco de prensa. resistir adj guapo. (at the ~) al fondo de sust bacon. (tennis ~) pelota de tenis sust plátano sust banco sust ganga sust base sust béisbol sust baloncesto sust bañera sust cuarto de baño v ser. (~ in a hurry) tener prisa. poder sust playa sust judía v llevar. (~ once) de una vez. tener miedo. (~ the moment) en este momento sust atletismo sust átomo sust ataque sust intento. acostarse. (half ~) media pensión sust barco sust cuerpo v hervir p pas de boil hervido. estar. niñera sust fondo. huevo duro sust hueso sust capó sust libro. empleado adj astronómico prep a. (~ sure) estar seguro v ser capaz. trozo. portar. (to make the ~) hacer la cama sust dormitorio. comer adj negro sust manta adj ciego adj rubio sust tensión arterial sust blusa adj azul sust pensión. (~ egg) huevo pasado por agua.

(in any ~) en cualquier caso. (~ stop) parada de autobús sust arbusto sust negocio. devolver una llamada adj tranquilo. niños sust barbilla sust China adj chino sust chocolate sust crema de chocolate v asfixiar v elegir sust Cristo sust Navidad sust iglesia sust cigarro. genial v traer sust hermano sust cuñado adj marrón sust cepillo sust edificio sust bala sust corrida de toros sust entierro adj ardiente. en. (~ the way) por cierto interj adiós sust cactus sust pastel. abrasador. (at the ~’s) en la farmacia sust farmacia sust ajedrez sust pecho sust castaño v mastica sust pollo sust niño sust pl hijos. trabajar adj ocupado conj pero sust mantequilla prep por.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH boot2 (BrE) booth borrow both bottle box boxing boy boyfriend bracket brave bread break down breakfast breast breath brilliant bring brother brother-in-law brown brush building bullet bullfight burial burning burning pain bury bus bush business busy but butter by SPANISH sust maletero sust cabina v coger prestado adj ambos sust botella sust caja sust boxeo sust chico. (to do ~) hacer un negocio. (just in ~)por si acaso sust espolvoreador sust castillo sust gato sust catástrofe v agarrar. naipe adj cardinal ENGLISH career carnation carpet carrot carry out cartoon case SPANISH sust carrera sust clavel sust alfombra sust zanahoria v llevar a cabo. niño sust novio sust paréntesis adj valiente sust pan v averiarse sust desayuno sust seno sust aliento adj brillante. de. factura v comprobar sust queso sust farmacéutico. (~ day) durante el día. compact. (to do the~) hacer la limpieza bye cactus cake calendar calf call call back calm1 calm2 can1 can2 candid candle candy (AmE) cap capacity capital capitalist car card cardinal chemist’s chess chest chestnut tree chew chicken child children chin China Chinese chocolate chocolate pudding choke choose Christ Christmas church cigarrete cinema citizien city civilian civilization class classical clean clean up cleaning -203- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY caster castle cat catastrophe catch cause CD (Compact Disk) cell cemetery center (AmE) centre (BrE) cereal certainly chair change1 change2 charge chart cheap check1 (AmE) check2 cheese chemist (BrE) . cigarrillo sust cine sust ciudadano sust ciudad adj civil sust civilización sust clase adj clásico adj limpio v limpiar sust limpieza. dulce sust gorra sust capacidad sust capital adj capitalista sust coche sust tarjeta. junto a. tarta sust calendario sust ternero. compacto sust celda sust cementerio sust centro sust centro sust cereal adv ciertamente sust silla sust cambio v cambiar v cobrar sust cuadro adj barato sust cuenta. mediante. sincero sust vela sust caramelo. pantorrilla v llamar v volver a llamar. (~ pain) ardor [estómago] sust ardor v enterrar sust autobús. en calma sust calma sust lata v mod poder adj abierto. carta. realizar sust dibujos animados sust caso. coger v causar sust CD.

par sust curso. tejido. convencional sust conversación sust cocinero v cocinar sust cocina. listo sust clima adj climático v escalar sust guardarropa adj cercano. constante sust consulado sust contacto sust contenido ENGLISH continent continuous past continuous present continuous contracted contraction controled (AmE) controlled (BrE) conventional conversation cook1 cook2 cooker (BrE) cooking cooky (AmE) cooling coral corner corporation correct cost cough1 cough2 could counsel count countable country couple course court cousin crab cradle create credit crosswalk (AmE) crowd cruise cry cucumber cult cup currency curriculum curtain custard customer customs cut cutlet cycling daily1 daily2 daisy damage SPANISH sust continente adj continuo sust pasado continuo sust presente continuo p pas de contract contraído sust contracción p pas de control controlado p pas de control controlado adj tradicional. plato. llegar v volver. comida. esquina sust empresa adj correcto v costar sust tos v toser v mod p pas de can v aconsejar v contar adj contable sust país sust pareja. (to make a ~) hacer un cumplido sust ordenador adj concéntrico p pas de concern preocupado sust concierto sust condición adj condicional sust confusión sust conjugación sust conexión sust consecuencia v considerar. (~ officer) empleado de la aduana v cortar sust chuleta sust ciclismo adj diario adv diariamente sust margarita sust daño. natillas sust cliente sust aduana. multitud. (to make a ~) hacer un café sust cafetería sust cafetera sust moneda sust Coca-Cola® adj frío sust resfriado v derrumbarse. (~ of) consistir en adj consistente adj continuo. hornillo sust cocina. próximo v cerrar sust armario sust tela. forma de cocinar sust galleta sust corriente de agua fría sust coral sust rincón. coger sust llamada a cobro revertido sust color sust color sust columna sust peine v venir. clásico. (table ~) mantel sust pl ropa adj nublado sust autocar sust carbón sust abrigo sust bacalao sust café. regresar adj comercial sust comité sust comunicación adj comparativo v competir sust competición sust complemento sust cumplido. (of ~) por supuesto sust tribunal sust primo sust cangrejo sust cuna v crear sust crédito sust paso de peatones sust muchedumbre. unidad monetaria sust currículo sust cortina sust crema. (tea ~) taza de té sust moneda. (a ~ of) un montón de sust crucero v llorar sust pepino sust culto sust taza. recolectar. (to do a ~) causar un daño CIVILIAN GLOSSARY -204- .Civilian Glossary ENGLISH clear clerk (AmE) clever climate climatic climb cloakroom close1 close2 closet cloth clothes cloudy coach coal coat cod coffee coffee-house coffeepot coin Coke® cold1 cold2 collapse collect collect call (AmE) color (AmE) colour (BrE) column comb come come back commercial committee communication comparative compete competition complement compliment computer concentric concerned concert condition conditional confusion conjugation connection consequence consider considerable consist consisting constant consulat contact content SPANISH adj claro sust dependiente adj inteligente. desplomarse v recoger. creer adj considerable v consistir.

tener terror a v empapar. estimado sust muerte sust diciembre v decidir sust decisión v declarar adj profundo sust grado sust deidad sust placer sust demostrativo sust Dinamarca sust densamente sust dentista sust depósito sust diseño sust escritorio. (~ films) hacer películas. (~ the housework) hacer la tareas domésticas. pupitre prep a pesar de sust postre v destruir p pas de determine determinado. (~ good) hacer el bien. (to do the ~es) fregar los platos sust trastorno adj bien diferenciado v divorciarse ENGLISH do SPANISH v hacer. (~ miracles) obrar milagros. (to do ~s) drogarse sust farmacia adj borracho adj (~ to) debido a sust dúo prep durante adj holandés sust responsabilidad. (~ a work) hacer un trabajo. drástico sust pl damas v correr. (~ off) día libre. pavor v temer. (~ the dishes) fregar los platos. (~ wrong) hacer mal sust médico. (~ a damage) causar un daño. (~ an exercise) hacer un ejercicio. (in the ~ time) de día sust trato. hacer reformas. (~ the washing-up) hacer la colada. (~ research) investigar. inundar sust vestido sust bebida v beber v conducir sust conductor v dejar caer sust sequía sust droga. (~ repairs) hacer arreglos. (~ right) hacer bien. (~ a favour) hacer un favor. reparar. hacer milagros. (~ drugs) drogarse. (~ the homework) hacer los deberes. descorrer sust cajón sust temor. (~ the hair) arreglarse el pelo. (~ harm) hacer daño. (~ the cleaning) hacer la limpieza. (by ~) durante el día. cita sust hija sust nuera sust día. (~ an exam) hacer un examen. (~ honours in) licenciarse en. baile adj peligroso adj danés adj oscuro sust fecha. fuente. indeciso prep abajo sust sedante adj dramático. obligación pron cada sust águila deal dear death December decide decision declare deep degree deity delight demonstrative Denmark densely dentist deposit design desk despite dessert destroy determined devastating developing development diarrhea (AmE) diarrhoea (BrE) die difference difficult dining room dinner dinosaur direction directly dirty disable disagree disappointed disaster disastrous discover discovery dish disruption distinct divorce doctor dog doll dollar done1 done2 door doubtful down downer dramatic draughts draw drawer dread1 dread2 drench dress drink1 drink2 drive driver drop drought drug drugstore (AmE) drunk due duo during Dutch duty each eagle -205- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . decidido adj devastador adj en vías de desarrollo sust desarrollo sust diarrea sust diarrea v morir sust diferencia adj difícil sust comedor. salón sust cena sust dinosaurio sust dirección adv directamente adj sucio adj incapacitado v estar en desacuerdo p pas de disappoint decepcionado sust desastre adj desastroso v descubrir sust descubrimiento. (~ the nails) arreglarse las uñas.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH dance dangerous Danish dark date daughter daugther-in-law day SPANISH sust danza. doctor sust perro sust muñeca sust dólar adj hecho p pas de do hecho sust puerta adj dubitativo. (to make a ~) hacer un descubrimiento sust plato. (to make a ~) hacer un trato adj querido. (~ a business) hacer un negocio.

perdonar sust ejercicio. (good ~) buenas tardes. huevo duro. buenas noches sust acontecimiento. (in the ~) en el caso adj cada. (to do an ~) hacer un ejercicio adj exhausto v existir v esperar. suponer adj caro sust experiencia v experimentar v explicar v explorar adj expresivo adj extra adj extremo adv extremadamente sust ojo sust ceja sust pestaña sust párpado sust cara. todo pron todos. algunos. (to make an ~) poner una excusa v disculpar. (to do ~s) hacer películas v encontrar Egypt elbow elder elderly eldest electrical electronic elephant elevator (AmE) elf else embassy emergency end ending endurance energy engaged England English English Channel enjoy enough enter entry environment environmental episode escape establish eucalyptus euro Europe European European Union evening event every everybody evidence exam CIVILIAN GLOSSARY fiber (AmE) fibre (BrE) field fig fill fill in film (BrE) find -206- . (boiled ~) huevo pasado por agua. final adj terminado en sust resistencia sust energía adj comprometido. todo el mundo sust prueba sust examen ENGLISH examination example exchange excuse1 excuse2 exercise exhausted exist expect expensive experience1 experience2 explain explore expressive extra extreme extremely eye eyebrow eyelash eyelid face fact factory failure fairtale faithful faithfully fall (AmE) false family far farmyard father father-in-law favor (AmE) favour (BrE) favourite feather February fee feel feet Festival of Passover few SPANISH sust examen. (to make a ~) poner mala cara sust hecho sust fábrica sust fracaso sust cuento de hadas adj fiel. (a ~) unos pocos. sentirse sust pl pies sust Pascua Judía o Pesah pron pocos.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH ear earache early earth earthquake easier east Easter Easter Day Easter Monday easy eat economy effect effort egg SPANISH sust oreja sust dolor de oído adv temprano sust tierra. digno de confianza adv atentamente sust otoño adj falso sust familia. bastante v entrar sust entrada sust medio ambiente adj medioambiental sust episodio v escapar v establecer sust eucalipto sust euro sust Europa adj europeo sust Unión Europea sust tarde. unas pocas. pocas. algunas sust fibra sust fibra sust campo sust higo v llenar. (fried ~) huevo frito sust Egipto sust codo adj comp mayor adj anciano adj super de más edad adj eléctrico adj electrónico sust elefante sust ascensor sust duende adv lo demás sust embajada sust urgencia sust fin. (make an ~) intentar sust huevo. completar v rellenar sust película. (to do an ~) hacer un examen sust ejemplo v cambiar sust excusa. gustar adv suficiente. caso. prometido sust Inglaterra adj inglés sust el Canal de la Mancha v disfrutar. Domingo de Resurrección sust Lunes de Pascua adj fácil v comer sust economía sust efecto sust esfuerzo. (~ tree) árbol genealógico adv lejos sust corral sust padre sust suegro sust favor sust favor (to do a ~) hacer un favor adj favorito sust pluma sust febrero sust suma de dinero v sentir. la Tierra sust terremoto adj comp más fácil sust este sust Semana Santa sust Domingo de Pascua.

nebuloso adj siguiente adj cariñoso adj super el más cariñoso. abandonar. para. (~ ounce) onza fluida v volar sust niebla adj de niebla. (~ station) (AmE) gasolinera. desde. (in ~) en frente sust fruta v freír sust combustible adj completo. niña sust novia v dar. antiguo adv afortunadamente sust fortuna adj fósil sust fuente sust franco sust Francia sust salchicha de Frankfurt sust pl patatas fritas v helar.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH fine finger finish fire fireplace firm first first aid fish fisherman fishing fit flag flamenco flashlight flat (BrE) flavor (AmE) flavour (BrE) flight flood floor flour flower fluently fluid fly fog foggy following fond fondest fondly food fool foot football for forehead forest1 forest2 fork form former fortunately fortune fossil fountain franc France frankfurter Frech fries freeze French frequent Friday fridge fried friend friendly1 SPANISH adj magnífico. entrar en v casarse v bajarse v comunicarse. (~ egg) huevo frito sust amigo adj amistoso ENGLISH friendly2 from front fruit fry fuel full fully SPANISH adv amistosamente prep de. (~ a hand) echar una mano v dejar. quedar bien sust bandera sust flamenco sust linterna sust apartamento sust sabor sust sabor sust vuelo sust inundación sust suelo. cariñosísimo adv cariñosamente sust comida adj tonto sust pie sust fútbol. helarse adj francés adj frecuente sust viernes sust nevera. piso sust harina sust flor adv con fluidez adj fluido. impreso adj anterior. estación de servicio sust gasolina sust puerta sust pl gansos sust geografía sust geranio adj alemán sust Alemania sust gerundio v ponerse v llevarse bien con v devolver v subir a. muy bueno sust dedo v acabar sust incendio sust chimenea sust empresa adj primero sust primeros auxilios sust pescado sust pescador sust pesca v colocar. (~ board) pensión completa adv completamente. formulario. frigorífico p pas de fry frito. durante. (~ sale) en venta sust frente adj forestal sust bosque sust tenedor sust forma. renunciar a sust glamour sust glamour sust vaso sust pl gafas adj global sust glosario sust guante fun funfair furlong furniture future1 future2 gallery gallon game gap garage garden gas gasoline (AmE) gate geese Geography geranium German Germany gerund get get along with get back get into get married get off get through get up ghost gin ginger1 ginger2 giraffe girl girlfriend give give up glamor (AmE) glamour (BrE) glass glasses global glossary glove -207- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . (~ comprehensive insurance policy) seguro a todo riesgo sust diversión. fachada. totalmente. pelota de fútbol prep por. (to have ~) pasárselo bien sust parque de atracciones sust estadio sust mobiliario adj futuro sust futuro sust galería sust galón sust juego sust espacio. hueco sust garaje sust jardín sust gas. desde. estar con v levantarse sust fantasma v ginebra adj color zanahoria sust jengibre sust jirafa sust chica. por sust frente.

(to do ~) hacer el bien interj adiós sust adiós sust ganso sust gobierno sust nota. (to do the ~) arreglarse el pelo sust peluquería sust merluza adj medio. desear sust caballo sust hospital adj caliente. (~ fun) pasárselo bien v desayunar v cenar v almorzar v tener que sust peligro. (to do ~) hacer daño sust sombrero v odiar v tener. buenas noches. continuar v salir sust cabra sust golf sust gonorrea sust gonorrea sust Viernes Santo adj guapo adj bueno. deberes. (~ evening) buenas tardes. (~ board) media pensión sust jamón York sust hamburguesa sust mano. contento adj duro adv duramente adv comp más duramente ENGLISH harm hat hate have have breakfast have dinner have lunch have to hazard he head headache hear heart heart attack heavy height hello help hepatitis her here hero hers hi high high school high-ranking highway (AmE) hiking him hip hippopotamus his1 his2 historian History hobby holiday (BrE) Holland home homework honey honour hood (AmE) hope horse hospital hot hotel hour house household housework SPANISH sust daño. (to do ~s in) licenciarse en sust capó v esperar. haber. sus [de él] pron pos suyo. suyas [de él] sust historiador sust historia sust pasatiempo sust día festivo. calificación sust pl notas. tomar.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH go go away go back go for a walk go on go out goat golf gonorrhea (AmE) gonorrhoea (BrE) Good Friday good looking good1 SPANISH v ir v irse v volver v pasear v seguir. (to do ~) hacer las tareas domésticas adv int cómo good2 goodbye1 goodbye2 goose government grade grades grammar grandchildren granddaughter grandfather grandmother grandparent grandson grape gray (AmE) Great Britain Greece Greek green greeting grey (BrE) grind guard guilty guitar hair hairdresser’s hake half ham hamburger hand handball handkerchief hang happen happy hard1 hard2 harder CIVILIAN GLOSSARY how -208- . (to give a ~) echar una mano sust balonmano sust pañuelo v colgar v pasar. suyos. (to do the ~) hacer los deberes sust miel sust honor. vacaciones sust Holanda sust hogar. ocurrir adj feliz. (~ morning) buenos días sust bien. riesgo pron pers él sust cabeza sust dolor de cabeza v oír sust corazón sust ataque al corazón adj pesado sust altura interj hola v ayudar sust hepatitis adj pos su. suceder. cálido sust hotel sust hora sust casa sust casa sust tarea doméstica. nietas sust nieta sust abuelo sust abuela sust abuelo. suya. suyas [de ella] interj hola adj alto. elevado sust instituto adj alto rango sust carretera sust senderismo pron pers él sust cadera sust hipopótamo adj pos su. sus [de ella] adv aquí sust héroe pron pos suyo. (~ afternoon) buenas tardes. calificaciones sust gramática sust nietos. suya. abuela sust nieto sust uva adj gris sust Gran Bretaña sust Grecia adj griego adj verde sust saludo adj gris v moler v defender adj culpable sust guitarra sust pelo. suyos. casa sust tarea.

(~ in case) por si acaso sust perrera sust llave. amable sust clase. (~ late 1998) a finales de 1998. sus [de *ello] pron pos suyo. clave v bromear sust riñón adj agradable. adentro. hacer footing v unirse sust viaje sust taza sust zumo sust julio v saltar sust junio adv sólo. set sust cocina sust rodilla sust cuchillo v conocer. suya. (to be in a ~) tener prisa v doler sust marido. suyos.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH human human being human-induced hungry hurricane hurry hurt husband hypothesis I ice hockey ice-cream icon ID (Identity Card) identity idol ill immediately impact impersonal in SPANISH adj humano sust ser humano adj provocado por el hombre adj hambriento sust huracán sust prisa. empleo v correr. (~ total) en total adj inapropiado sust pulgada sust incidente v incluir adv incorrectamente v incrementar adj indefinido sust Día de la Independencia sust índice sust India adj hindú sust Indonesia sust infinitivo sust información par pas de injure herido sust herida v insertar v insistir sust institución sust instrucción sust seguro sust registro de seguro adj intelectual adj inteligente adj interesado adj interesante adj interno adv internamente adj interrogativo sust entrevista prep en v presentar sust presentación v invertir v invitar sust Iraq ENGLISH Iraqi Ireland Irish iron irregular isle it Italian Italy its1 its2 jacket jam January Japan Japanese jazz bass jelly jersey jewel job jog join journey jug juice July jump June just kennel key kid kidney kind1 kind2 kindest kiss kit kitchen knee knife know knuckle labyrinth lamb lamp land large last name last night last1 last2 late law laxative lay SPANISH adj iraquí sust Irlanda adj irlandés v planchar adj irregular sust isla pron pers *ello adj italiano sust Italia adj pos su. (~ the event) en el caso. saber sust nudillo sust laberinto sust cordero sust lámpara. categoría adj super el más amable. extender. (~ any case) en cualquier caso. esposo sust hipótesis pron pers yo sust hockey sobre hielo sust helado sust icono sust carnet de identidad sust identidad sust ídolo adj enfermo adv inmediatamente sust impacto adj impersonal prep en. (~ the table) poner la mesa inaccurate inch incident include incorrectly increase indefinite Independence Day index India Indian Indonesia infinitive information injured injury insert insist institution instruction insurance insurance form intellectual intelligent interested interesting internal internally interrogative interview into introduce introduction invest invite Irak -209- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . amabilísimo v besar sust equipo. dentro. dentro de. suyas [de *ello] sust chaqueta. cazadora sust mermelada sust enero sust Japón adj japonés sust bajo sust gelatina sust jersey sust joya sust trabajo. pasado v durar adv tarde. (street ~) farola v aterrizar adj grande sust apellido adv anoche sust último. (in ~ 1998) a finales de 1998 sust ley sust laxante v poner.

ofrecer. (~ an excuse) poner una excusa. (~ a coffe) hacer un café. (~ a profit) ganar dinero. marcharse. (~ a face) poner mala cara. (~ a right) girar a la derecha. (~ a loss) perder dinero. (~ a phone call) hacer una llamada. equivocarse. ligero sust luz v encender v gustar p pas de limit limitado p pas de link relacionado. (at ~) por lo menos sust hoja v partir. mucho sust loción sust lotería adj alto. prolongado v cuidar ENGLISH look at look for lorry (BrE) lose loss lot lotion lottery loud louder loudly love1 love2 lover luck luggage lunch lung lust luxurious madam made mail box (AmE) mailman (AmE) mailwoman (AmE) main mainly maintain make SPANISH v mirar v buscar sust camión v perder sust pérdida. elevado adv comp más fuerte. (~ a will) hacer testamento. poca. (~ to) relacionado con sust león sust labio. ensuciar. (~ preparations) hacer preparativos. (~ in) hecho en. (~ a speech) pronunciar un discurso. en voz alta sust amor v amar. hacer algo mal. más alto adv fuerte. llamar [teléfono]. ubicado sust Londres adj largo. hacer una chapuza. (~ a compliment) hacer un cumplido. permitir v grabar. hacer dinero. querer. (~ of) hecho de sust buzón. (~ an effort) intentar. (~ an attempt) hacer un intento. amante sust suerte sust equipaje sust almuerzo sust pulmón sust lujuria adj lujoso sust señora p pas de make hecho. casillero sust cartero sust fem cartera adj principal adv principalmente v mantener v hacer. (sore ~s) labios resecos sust lira sust lista v escuchar sust literatura adj pequeño adv poco pron poco. (~ a note) anotar. pequeñísimo adv super lo menos. (a ~ of) un montón de. estampar sust buzón sust lechuga sust nivel sust biblioteca sust permiso v mentir v tumbarse adj de vida o muerte sust ascensor. (to make a ~) perder dinero sust montón.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH lay around lay down lazy leak learn least1 least2 leave1 leave2 lecture left1 left2 leg leisure lemon lemonade length less1 less2 lesson let letter letter box (BrE) lettuce level library license lie lie down life-threatening lift (BrE) light1 light2 light3 like limited linked lion lip lira list listen Literature little1 little2 little3 live liver living-room lobster local authority located London long look after SPANISH v estar esparcido. (~ a tea) hacer té. (~ an offer) hacer una oferta. (~ a war) estar en guerra. (a ~ of) un poco de v vivir sust hígado sust sala de estar sust langosta sust diputación p pas de locate localizado. salir. (~ a money) ganar dinero. encantar sust enamorado. (~ the bed) hacer la cama CIVILIAN GLOSSARY -210- . intentar. hacer dinero. arruinar. (~ peace) hacer las paces. impulso adj claro. tumbarse adj perezoso sust escape v aprender adj super el más pequeño. (~ an appointment) concertar una cita. estar en desorden v echarse. (~ a discovery) hacer un descubrimiento. (~ a noise) hacer un ruido. (~ a mess) desordenar. (~ a suggestion) hacer una sugerencia. abandonar sust clase. conferencia adj izquierdo sust izquierda sust pierna sust tiempo libre sust limón sust limonada sust longitud adj comp menor adv comp menos sust lección v dejar. cometer. (~ a trouble) causar problemas. (~ a mistake) cometer un error. (~ a deal) hacer un trato.

hacer dinero sust mono sust mes sust monumento sust estado de ánimo. mías sust minuto sust milagro. molestar pron pos mío. (~ pot) crisol sust pl hombres sust menú sust lío. equivocarse sust teléfono móvil sust modelo sust momento. cuestion v mod poder. ensuciar. encantado. (good ~) buenos días adv más sust madre sust suegra sust moto sust alpinismo sust ratón sust película sust millas por hora sust Sr. (to do ~s) obrar milagros. (station ~) jefe de estación sust cerilla / partido v unir sust colchón sust problema. desorden. (~ be) puede ser sust mayo sust comida v significar. sust maniobra v maniobrar. estar obligado a adj negativo sust vecino sust vecino adj neolítico sust sobrino adj nervioso adv nunca adv sin embargo.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH make up man maneuver (AmE) manoeuvre (BrE) manner map March mark market marmalade master match1 match2 matress matter may May meal mean meat medical medicine meet meeting1 meeting2 melt melting men menu mess SPANISH v constituir sust hombre v maniobrar. hacer milagros v echar de menos sust error. maestro. suponer sust carne adj médico sust medicamento v conocer. (to make a ~) ganar dinero. mover. hacer una chapuza. mentalidad v importar. arruinar sust mensaje sust pl ratones sust microondas sust mediodía sust medianoche v mod p pas de may sust milla sust kilometraje sust leche sust lechero sust mente. modo adv más sust mañana. (Señor) adv mucho sust taza sust museo sust champiñón sust música sust mejillón v mod deber adj pos mi. confusión. hacer algo mal. sust maniobra sust modo sust mapa sust marzo sust marco sust mercado sust mermelada sust dueño. agradable. colocar. (~ to meet you) encantado de conocerle sust sobrina sust noche sust discoteca adv no message mice microwave midday midnight might mile mileage milk milkman mind1 mind2 mine minute miracle miss mistake mobile model moment Monday niece night night club no -211- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . (to do the ~s) arreglarse las uñas sust nombre sust servilleta sust nación adj nacional sust nacionalidad sust naturaleza adv cerca prep cerca de. encontrarse adj de encuentro sust reunión v derretir adj enternecedor. míos. colocar. junto a sust cuello v necesitar v mod necesitar. (to make a ~) desordenar. mis sust misterio sust uña. (to make a ~) cometer un error. no obstante sust Nochevieja sust Nueva York sust pl noticias sust periódico prep cerca de. mover. (right ~) justo al lado de adj simpático. junto a. (at the ~) en este momento sust lunes ENGLISH money monkee monkey month monument mood more morning most mother mother-in-law motorbike mountaineering mouse movie (AmE) mph (miles per hour) Mr (Mister) much mug museum mushroom music mussel must my mystery nail name napkin nation national nationality nature near1 near2 neck need need negative neighbor (AmE) neighbour (BrE) Neolithic nephew nervous never nevertheless New Year’s Eve New York news newspaper next to nice SPANISH sust dinero. mía.

(~ oil) aceite de oliva sust tortilla prep sobre. nuestra. residencia. ofrecer v ofrecer sust oficina. contrario adj opcional conj o adj naranja sust naranja sust orquídea adj ordinal sust origen. nuestras pron pos nuestro. (~ course) por supuesto prep separado de. mayor sust aceituna. OK o’clock oak tree observatory observe occasion occur October of off offensive offer1 offer2 office SPANISH adj noble pron nadie sust ruido. dirección v mod debería (o deberías etc). (the post and telegraph ~) oficina de correos y telégrafos. (to make ~) hacer ruido adj sin alcohol adj no fumador sust fideo sust mediodía sust norte sust Irlanda del Norte sust Noruega adj noruego sust nariz adv no sust nota. (olive ~) aceite de oliva adj viejo. (day ~) día libre sust ofensiva sust oferta. (tourist ~) oficina de turismo sust oficial. de acuerdo adv en punto sust roble sust observatorio v observar sust ocasión v ocurrir. (burning ~) ardor [estómago] sust analgésico v pintar sust pintura sust par sust pl pijama sust palacio sust palmera sust pl bragas sust pl pantalones sust papel sust paracaídas p pas de paralize paralizado p pas de paralyze paralizado sust paquete sust pl padres sust participante sust participio adv en particular sust fiesta v aprobar sust pasajero adj pasivo sust pasaporte adj pasado sust pasado sust pasado continuo sust pretérito perfecto compuesto sust pasado simple sust pasta adj paciente sust acera CIVILIAN GLOSSARY officer official often oil old olive omelet on once onion only open opera -212- . más allá de sust abrigo sust horas extra adj propio v poseer sust buey sust pl bueyes sust Océnao Pacífico sust dolor. (right ~) ahora mismo adv hoy en día. hoy por hoy adv ninguna parte sust número interj vale. nuestros. nuestras prep fuera adv fuera sust horno prep sobre. suceder sust octubre prep de. (customs ~) empleado de la aduana sust agente. en adv una vez. nuestros. letrero sust noviembre adv ahora. (to make a ~) anotar sust billete pron nada sust aviso. funcionario adv a menudo sust aceite. todo bien. (at ~) de una vez sust cebolla adv sólo v abrir sust ópera ENGLISH opinion opposite optional or orange1 orange2 orchid ordinal origin ought to ounce our ours out outside oven over overcoat overtime own1 own2 ox oxen Pacific Ocean pain painkiller paint painting pair pajamas (AmE) palace palm tree panties pants (AmE) paper parachute paralized paralyzed parcel parents participant participle particulary party pass passenger passive passport past past past continuous past perfect past simple pasta patient pavement (BrE) SPANISH sust opinión adj opuesto. olivo. lejos de.K.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH noble nobody noise non-alcoholic non-smoking noodle noon north Northern Ireland Norway Norwegian nose not note note (BrE) nothing notice November now nowadays nowhere number O. (fluid ~) onza fluida adj pos nuestro. petróleo. nuestra. debiera (o debieras etc) sust onza.. (to make an ~) hacer una oferta.

sitio. presente sust presente continuo sust pretérito perfecto compuesto sust presidente adj guapo [esp mujer] adj anterior sust precio sust prisión. cumbre pear sust pera pedestrian sust peatón pedestrian crossing (BrE) sust paso de peatones pen sust bolígrafo. pozo. llamar [teléfono] photographer sust fotógrafo Physics sust física piano sust piano picnic sust picnic picture sust cuadro. hacer dinero sust pronombre v pronunciar adj orgulloso sust bar. fotografía piece sust trozo. (to make a ~) hacer una llamada. pluma pencil sust lápiz penicillin sust penicilina Pentagon sust el Pentágono people sust pl personas. (fully comprehensive insurance ~) seguro a todo riesgo sust charca. (to take ~) tener lugar plane sust avión plate sust plato platform sust andén play v jugar. (melting ~) crisol sust patata sust pl patatas fritas adj potencial sust carne de ave sust libra sust libra esterlina sust poder adj poderoso sust predicción sust prólogo. (the ~and telegraph office) oficina de correos y telégrafos sust oficina de correos sust cartero sust fem cartera sust olla. cárcel sust premio sust problema v producir sust profesor sust beneficio. (to make ~) hacer las paces peach sust melocotón peak sust cima. (~ station) comisaría de policía policeman sust policía pool populated pork porridge portrait Portugal Portuguese positive possession possessive possibility possible post post office postman (BrE) postwoman (BrE) pot potato potato chips (AmE) potential poultry pound pound sterling (£) power powerful prediction preface prefer pregnancy prejudice preparation prepare preposition present present continuous present perfect president pretty previous price prison prize problem produce professor profit pronoun pronounce proud pub public pudding pull down pupil -213- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . gente pepper sust pimienta perfect adj perfecto perfectly adv perfectamente permit1 sust permiso permit2 v permitir person sust persona personal adj personal Peruvian adj peruano petrol (BrE) sust gasolina. (~ station) (BrE) gasolinera phase sust fase phenomena sust pl fenómenos phenomenon sust fenómeno phone sust teléfono. lápiz. (to make ~s) hacer preparativos v preparar sust preposición sust regalo. ordenador personal sust paz. budín v bajar sust pupila v pagar. pedazo pig sust cerdo pill sust pastilla pillow sust almohada pine tree sust pino pink adj rosa pint sust pinta pizza sust pizza place sust lugar. pub. discoteca adj público sust pudín. prefacio v preferir sust embarazo sust prejuicio sust preparativo. tocar player sust jugador please interj por favor plum sust ciruela plural adj plural point sust punto polar adj polar police sust policía. efigie sust Portugal adj portugués adj positivo sust posesión adj posesivo sust posibilidad adj posible sust correo. guía telefónica phone call sust llamada telefónica. (~ book) agenda de teléfonos.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH pay PC peace SPANISH ENGLISH policy SPANISH sust póliza. pintura. gachas sust retrato. (swimming ~) piscina p pas de populate poblado sust cerdo sust avena. (to make a ~) ganar dinero. prestar sust PC.

reparar replace v sustituir. (all ~) todo bien. (~ now) ahora mismo. (to do ~) investigar responsible adj responsable rest sust descanso restaurant sust restaurante result sust resultado retire v jubilarse. colocar v ponerse [ropa] sust pl pijama sust cuarto sust reina adj interrogativo sust pregunta adv deprisa adv completamente. recto. plaza adj segundo sust sedante sust alumno adj morado sust motivo. (to do ~s) hacer arreglos. hacer reformas. permanecer adj renovable v alquilar sust reparación. (~ next to) justo al lado. motivo v recibir adv recientemente sust recepción sust recepcionista v recomendar adj rojo. regio sust rugby v destruir sust ron v correr. (~ wine) vino tinto v reducir sust arrecife v remitir. reemplazar republic sust república research sust investigación. de acuerdo adv bien. (to do ~) hacer bien sust derecha.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH pupil purple purpose push put put on pyjamas (BrE) quart queen question1 question2 quickly quite radiation radio rain1 rain2 rampant range (AmE) rat rather real realize reason receive recently reception receptionist recommend red reduce reef refer refuse region regular related relationship relaxed relaxing remain renewable rent repair SPANISH ENGLISH rich ride riding right1 SPANISH adj rico v montar. mandar v rechazar. (for ~) en venta sust dependiente sust dependiente sust dependienta sust sal sust salero adj mismo sust sardina sust sábado sust salchicha sust genitivo sajón sust saxofón v decir v asustar adj asustado sust escuela. ir en sust hípica adj derecho. retirarse return ticket sust billete de ida y vuelta reverse charge call (BrE) sust llamada a cobro revertido review sust crítica. verdadero v darse cuenta sust razón. revisión revitalize v revitalizar rewrite v volver a escribir rib sust costilla rice sust arroz rice pudding sust arroz con leche right2 right3 ring rising rite river road (BrE) Rome roof room rose round row1 row2 royal rugby ruin rum run Russia Russian sacred sad safe salad salami sale salesclerk (AmE) salesman (AmE) saleswoman (BrE) salt salt cellar same sardine Saturday sausage Saxon genitive saxophone say scare scared school school-age scientist scissors Scotland Scottish scrambled sea seagull seaquake season seat second sedative CIVILIAN GLOSSARY -214- . correcto. bastante sust radiación sust radio sust lluvia v llover adj desenfrenado sust cocina. propósito v empujar v poner. conducir sust Rusia adj ruso adj sagrado adj triste adj seguro sust ensalada sust salchichón sust venta. (to make a ~) girar a la derecha sust anillo sust aumento sust rito sust río sust carretera sust Roma sust tejado sust habitación sust rosa prep alrededor de sust fila v remar adj real. enviar. hornillo sust rata adv bastante adj real. colegio adj en edad escolar sust científico sust pl tijeras sust Escocia adj escocés p pas de scramble revuelto sust mar sust gaviota sust maremoto sust estación. negarse sust región adj regular adj relacionado sust parentesco adj relajado adj relajante v mantener. temporada sust asiento.

oración sust septiembre adj grave. cursi sust nieve v nevar adv así sust jabón sust sociedad sust calcetín sust agua con gas sust sofá adj solar sust soldado sust solución v solucionar adj somalí adj alguno. significativo sust plata adj simple. despacio adj pequeño adv comp más pequeño v fumar adj fumador v estornudar v olfatear. compras v mod debería (o deberías etc). único sust señor sust hermana sust cuñada v sentar. (~ the table) poner la mesa adj varios sust alcantarilla pron pers ella sust oveja sust sábana v brillar sust camisa sust zapato sust tienda. colocar. pronto adj dolorido. sencillo. (to make a ~) pronunciar un discurso v deletrear v gastar sust especia sust pl bebidas alcohólicas. soltero. enseñar sust ducha sust gamba v cerrar v desconectar. oler sust snob. (~ lips) labios resecos sust sonido sust sopa sust fuente sust sur sust sudeste sust espacio sust España adj español v hablar sust conversación adj especial sust discurso. quiosco.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH see seem self-govern sell send sensible sentence September serious seriously serve serviette set several sewer she sheep sheet shine shirt shoe shop shop assistant (BrE) shopping should shoulder shout shout down show shower shrimp shut shut off sick sick-bag side sidewalk (AmE) significant silver simple since sing single sir sister sister-in-law sit sit down sitting room size skate skating skiing skirt sky sleeping pill slight slim slow SPANISH v ver v parecer sust autogobierno v vender v enviar adj sensato sust frase. algunos. debiera (o debieras etc) sust hombro sust grito v hacer callar a gritos v mostrar. alguna. licores v dividir sust esponja sust cuchara sust deporte sust punto sust primavera sust calamar sust día de San Valentín sust día de San Patricio sust escenario. mareado sust bolsa para el mareo sust lado sust acera adj importante. etapa sust estante. salón sust talla sust patín sust patinaje sust esquí sust falda sust cielo sust somnífero adj leve adj delgado v frenar ENGLISH slowly small smaller smoke smoking sneeze sniff snob snow1 snow2 so soap society sock soda sofa solar soldier solution solve Somalian some somebody something somewhere son song son-in-law soon sore sound soup source south southeast space Spain Spanish speak speaking special speech spell spend spice spirits split sponge spoon sport spot spring squid St Valentine’s Day St. algunas pron alguien pron algo adv alguna parte sust hijo sust canción sust yerno adv temprano. Patrick’s Day stage stall stand SPANISH adv lentamente. (past ~) pasado simple prep desde v cantar adj individual. apagar adj enfermo. serio adv gravemente v sevir sust servilleta v poner. (~ window) escaparate sust dependiente sust compra. sentarse v sentarse sust sala de estar. (book ~) quiosco de prensa v permanecer -215- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY .

despegar [avión] v sacar sust despegue adj alto sust grifo sust cinta adj rico. (~ cloth) mantel. (~ pool) piscina adj suizo sust interruptor sust Suiza sust pez espada sust símbolo v simbolizar sust sinónimo sust sífilis sust sistema. planta adj inflexible adv recto sust fresa sust calle. (white ~) té con leche sust maestro. (~ system) radiocaset sust bastón adv todavía. (~ booth) cabina de teléfonos v telefonear. llamar por teléfono sust televisión sust televisor v decir. venir bien. (to set the ~) poner la mesa sust cola. (~ time) hora del té. (petrol ~) (BrE) gasolinera. relato sust piso. (bus ~) estación de autobuses. (train ~) estación de tren. rabo v tomar. coger. (stereo ~) radiocaset sust mesa. (to be ~) estar seguro adv con seguridad. duro v empezar sust estación. (police ~) comisaría de policía. tensión p pas de stress estresado p pas de stress out estresado sust huelga v estallar adj fuerte p pas de stick atascado sust estudiante v estudiar adj estúpido sust materia adj sustancioso sust metro sust éxito pron como v sufrir sust azúcar v sugerir sust sugerencia. (tube ~) (BrE) estación de metro v permanecer. sin duda sust sorpresa v sorprender p pas de surprise sorprendido sust suéter. (~ cup) taza de té. convenir adj adecuado sust maleta ENGLISH summer sun Sunday superlative supermarket supermodel supper supply sure surely surprise1 surprise2 surprised sweater sweet (BrE) swim swimming Swiss switch Switzerland sword-fish symbol symbolize synonym syphilis system table SPANISH sust verano sust sol sust domingo adj superlativo sust supermercado sust supermodelo sust cena sust suministro adj seguro. (to lay the ~) poner la mesa. estación de servicio. profesor sust tetera sust cucharilla adj técnico sust pl dientes sust teléfono. contar sust humor sust fiebre stay steak steal stereo stick still stocking stomachache stomach stone stop1 stop2 storey (BrE) stork storm story1 story2 (AmE) straight straight strawberry street strength stress stressed stressed out strike1 strike2 strong stuck student study stupid subject substantial subway (AmE) success such suffer sugar suggest suggestion suit1 suit2 suitable suitcase CIVILIAN GLOSSARY tail take take off take out take-off tall tap tape tasty taxi tea teacher teapot teaspoon technical teeth telephone1 telephone2 television television set tell temper temperature -216- . (to make a ~) hacer una sugerencia sust traje v sentar bien. aún sust media sust dolor de estómago sust estómago sust piedra sust parada. (gas ~) (AmE) gasolinera. sudadera sust caramelo v nadar sust natación. sabroso sust taxi sust té. quedarse sust filete v robar adj estéreo. (bus ~) parada de autobús v parar sust piso. (~ lamp) farola sust fuerza sust estrés. (~ master) jefe de estación. planta sust cigüeña sust tormenta sust historia. (~ place) tener lugar v quitarse [ropa].Civilian Glossary ENGLISH stand for standing stark start station SPANISH v significar adj en pie adj severo. (to make a ~) hacer té.

esto dem esos. desconectar v encender. estas pron pers ellos . (to make a ~) causar problemas sust pl pantalones sust trucha sust camión adj cierto. a través de. (~ ball) pelota de tenis sust tiempo verbal adj terrible p pas de terrify aterrorizado adj terrorista sust libro de texo conj que v agradecer.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH temple tenant tennis tense terrible terrified terrorist textbook than thank thanks Thanksgiving Day that1 that2 the theatre their theirs theme then there these they thigh thin thing think third thirsty this those throat through Thursday thus ticket tie tiger till time SPANISH sust templo sust inquilino sust tenis. suyas [de ellos /as] sust tema adv después. TV twice twin type umbrella uncertainty uncle unclear unconscious uncountable under underground (BrE) tired to toast toe together toilet tomato tomorrow tongue tonight too tooth toothpick tornado -217- CIVILIAN GLOSSARY . aparecer sust bocacalle sust televisión adv dos veces sust gemelo. (in ~) en total sust turista. no numerable prep debajo de. dar la vuelta v bajar [volumen] v apagar. aquellos. (~ agent) agente de viajes p pas de travel viajado p pas de travel viajado sust bandeja sust árbol. la sust teatro adj pos su. confuso adj inconsciente adj incontable. creer adj tercero sust sediento dem este . hacia sust tostada sust dedo del pie adv juntos sust cuarto de baño. entonces adv allí dem estos. aquello pron rel que art el. (~ station) estación de tren sust zapatilla de deporte sust transaformador sust traducción p pas de trap atrapado v viajar. billete sust corbata sust tigre prep hasta sust tiempo. (~ agency) agencia de viajes. suyos. esas. aquel. esta. torcer. (to be at ~) ser puntual p pas de tire cansado prep a. mellizo sust tipo sust paraguas sust incertidumbre sust tío adj poco claro. eso. por medio de. aseo sust tomate adv mañana sust lengua adv esta noche adv demasiado sust diente sust palillo de dientes sust tornado ENGLISH total tourist tow away towards towel tower town town hall traffic lights train trainer transformer translation trapped travel SPANISH sust total. bajo sust metro traveled (AmE) travelled (BrE) tray tree trip trouble trousers (BrE) trout truck (AmE) true trunk (AmE) truth try try on T-shirt tube (BrE) Tuesday tulip tuna Turk turkey Turkey turn turn down turn off turn on turn up turning tv. sus [de ellos /as] pron pos suyo. (family ~) árbol genealógico sust excursión viaje sust problema. conectar v subir [volumen]. (~ you very much) muchas gracias sust pl gracias sust Día de Acción de Gracias dem ese. suya. (~ office) oficina de turismo v remolcar prep hacia sust toalla sust torre sust pueblo sust ayuntamiento sust pl semáforo sust tren. aquella. eas. (free ~) tiempo libre. (in the day ~) de día. presentarse. aquellas sust garganta prep por. verdadero sust maletero sust verdad v intentar v probarse sust camiseta sust metro. (~ station) (BrE) estación de metro sust martes sust tulipán sust atún adj turco sust pavo sust Turquía v girar. por completo sust jueves adv así sust entrada. (tea ~) hora del té. ellas sust muslo adj delgado sust cosa v pensar.

fuera de sust testigo v atestiguar sust mujer sust pl mujeres v preguntarse adj maravilloso sust palabra sust trabajo. abierto prep hasta. dentro de prep sin. (shop ~) escaparate sust vino. (~ wine) vino blanco sust la Casa Blanca pron int quién. (to do a ~) hacer un trabajo v trabajar. florero sust ternera sust verdura. muro v querer sust guerra. cuál.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH underneath underpants understand unemployed unemployment unexpected unfortunate unit United Kingdom (UK) United States of America (USA) university unless unlocked until up upon upstairs1 upstairs2 use usually vacation (AmE) valley valve vase veal vegetable vegetarian Venice verb very vice versa vinegar violin visit vitamin vodka volleyball volume waist wait wake up Wales walk wall want war warehouse warm warming wash wash-basin washing-up watch1 watch2 watchman water1 water2 SPANISH prep debajo de. forma. funcionar sust trabajador sust mundo adj mundial we wear weather weatherman wedding Wednesday week weight1 weigh2 welcome well Welsh west wh question what whatever when where whether which while whisky white White House who why wife wild will win wind1 wind2 window wine wine table winner winter wise with within without witness1 witness2 woman women wonder wonderful word work1 work2 worker world worldwide1 CIVILIAN GLOSSARY -218- . entender sust parado. desempleado sust paro. despertarse sust Gales v andar. aguardar v levantarse. (white ~) vino blanco sust vino de mesa sust ganador sust invierno adj sabio. colada. cuáles conj mientras sust whisky adj blanco. pasear sust pared. en lo alto de prep sobre adv arriba sust planta de arriba v usar adv normalmente sust vacaciones sust valle sust válvula sust jarrón. prudente prep con prep en. (to do the ~) hacer la colada sust reloj de pulsera v ver la televisión sust vigilante sust agua v regar ENGLISH way SPANISH sust camino. desempleo adj inesperado adj desgraciado sust unidad sust Reino Unido sust Estados Unidos de América sust universidad conj a no ser que p pas de unlock sin cerrar. almacén adj cariñoso. (you are ~) de nada. (to make a ~) hacer testamento v ganar adj eólico sust viento sust ventana. no hay de qué adv bien sust galés sust oeste sust interrogativa parcial pron int qué. lo que sea adv int cuándo adv int dónde conj si pron int qué. cuáles adv cualquier cosa. (to make ~) estar en guerra sust depósito. ventanilla. quiénes adv int por qué sust mujer. esposa adj salvaje sust testamento. (~ tea) té con leche. (red ~) vino tinto. (by the ~) por cierto pron pers nosotros. cuál. manera. bajo sust pl calzoncillos v comprender. afectuoso sust calentamiento v lavar sust lavabo sust . hasta que prep sobre. (a long ~) mucho tiempo. hortaliza adj vegetariano sust Venecia sust verbo adv muy adv viceversa sust vinagre sust violín v visitar sust vitamina sust vodka sust vóleibol sust volumen sust cintura v esperar. nosotras v llevar [ropa] sust tiempo metereológico sust hombre del tiempo sust boda sust miércoles sust semana sust peso v pesar adj bienvenido.

vuestro. ustedes adj joven adj pos tu. (to do ~) hacer mal sust yarda sust año adj amarillo adv sí sust interrogativa total adv ayer sust yogurt pron pers tú. vosotros.Civilian Glossary ENGLISH worldwide2 worship wounded wrist writer wrong yard year yellow yes yes /no question yesterday yoghourt you young your SPANISH adv por todo el mundo sust culto. tuya. su. vuestra. vuestras. vuestro. tus. sus [de usted /es] pron pos tuyo. vuestras. adoración p pas de wound herido sust muñeca sust escritor adv mal. suya. tuyos. vuestros. vuestros. vuestra. suyas [de usted /es] pron reflex tú mismo. tuyas. vosotras. suyo. suyos. usted. usted mismo sust paso de cebra sust zoológico CIVILIAN GLOSSARY -219- yours yourself zebra crossing zoo .

.

). emblema barbed wire sust alambrada barracks sust pl cuartel barrage sust barrera barrel sust cañón base sust base-acuartelamiento battalion sust batallón battery sust batería battle group sust grupo táctico bayonet sust bayoneta belt sust cinturón beret sust boina bipod sust bípode blank adj de fogueo -221- MILITARY GLOSSARY . mandar sust escalón de mando sust jefe sust pl transmisiones sust compañía sust jefe de compañía sust subgrupo táctico SPANISH interj media vuelta interj media vuelta v avanzar sust vanguardia sust antena sust acuerdo v apuntar a sust Ejército del Aire sust operación aerotranspotada sust aeronave sust portaaviones sust aeropuerto sust misil aire-aire sust misil aire-tierra sust tropa sust emboscada sust munición sust antena sust artillería antiaérea sust mina contracarro sust arma contracarro aircraft aircraft carrier airport air-to-air missile air-to-surface missile all file and ranks ambush ammunition antenna antiaircraft artillery antitank mine antitank weapon APC (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier) sust transporte de personal APC (Armo(u)red Personnel Carrier) sust vehículo de combate application form sust impreso de solicitud approaching avenue sust avenida de aproximación arm bandage sust vendaje de brazo armour squadron sust escuadrón acorazado armoured (BrE) sust acorazado armored (AmE) sust.acorazado Army sust Ejército Army Aviation sust FAMET (Fuerzas Aeromóviles del E.T.MILITARY ENGLISH about turn about-face advance advanced aerial agreement aim at Air Force airborne operation GLOSSARY ENGLISH blank cartridge blister blow up body bombardment booby trap boot boot camp bore branch break through brigade brigade headquarters brigadier bruise buckle buffer bugler bullet bunker burn burst butt caliber call sign call the roll camouflage campsite canteen captain cartridge casualty caution cavalry cease-fire chain of command chamber channel charging handle checkpoint chinstrap chopper code coded message colonel combat combat aircraft combat diver combat harness combat pack combat vehicle command command schelon commander communications company company commander company task force SPANISH sust cartucho de fogueo sust ampolla v explotar sust grueso sust bobardeo sust trampa explosiva sust bota sust campamento de reclutas (instrucción básica) sust ánima sust rama. arma v abrir brecha sust brigada sust pl cuartel general de brigada sust general de brigada sust magulladura sust hebilla (del cinturón) sust muelle recuperador sust corneta (persona) sust bala sust búnker sust quemadura sust ráfaga sust culata sust calibre sust indicativo v pasar lista sust camuflaje sust campamento sust cantimplora sust capitán sust cartucho sust baja sust prudencia sust caballería sust alto el fuego sust cadena de mando sust recámara sust canal sust palanca de montar sust puesto de control sust barbuquejo sust helicóptero v cifrar sust mensaje cifrado sust coronel sust combate sust avión de combate sust buceador de combate sust correaje de combate sust mochila de combate sust vehículo de combate v ordenar. helicópteros del E.T. arson sust incendio artillery piece sust pieza de artillería assault sust asalto assembly area sust zona de reunión assignment sust destino at ease interj descanso at ease-march sust paso de maniobra attack v atacar attack sust ataque badge sust parche.

archivo informático sust escuadra sust percutor sust posición de tiro. apagallamas sust guardamanos sust fortificación v fortificar interj de frente sust general de ejército sust pozo de tirador sust fractura sust fuego amigo sust fragata sust punto de mira sust congelación sust cabo primero sust gorra cuartelera sust elecciones generales MILITARY GLOSSARY -222- .Military Glossary ENGLISH company team compass computer concealment conscript soldier contaminated zone convoy coordination line copy cord corporal corps counterattack courtyard cover crawl creep crest crew deadline deck defeat defense defensive deliver demolition departure line deputy deputy officer destroy dial ditch division dormitory double action DP (Displaced People) drag dress uniform drill drill parade ejection port electronic warfare encircle endurance march enemy engineer entrenchment equipment ethnical cleansing evacuation exercise explosive extractor facility fall in fall out fatigue uniform SPANISH sust subgrupo táctico sust brújula sust ordenador sust abrigo sust soldado de reemplazo sust zona contaminada sust convoy sust línea de coordinación sust copia sust cable sust cabo sust pl cuerpo de ejército sust contraataque sust patio de armas sust cubierta v gatear v reptar sust metopa (de una unidad) sust tripulación sust fecha límite sust cubierta sust derrota sust defensa sust defensiva v distribuir sust demolición sust línea de partida sust segundo al mando sust oficial segundo en el mando v destruir v marcar (un número de teléfono) sust zanja sust división sust nave de dormitorio colectivo sust desplazado v arrastrar sust uniforme de paseo sust ejercicio sust ejércicios de orden cerrado sust ventana de expulsión sust guerra electrónica v rodear sust marcha de endurecimiento sust enemigo sust ingeniero sust fortificación sust equipo sust limpieza étnica sust evacuación sust ejercicio sust explosivo sust extractor sust instalación interj a formar interj rompan filas sust uniforme de faena ENGLISH fax feed cover feed tray fever FIBUA (Fight In Build-Up Areas) field artillery field jacket file fire team firing pin firing position firing range first aid first lieutenant five star general flagpole flak jacket flank flash suppressor SPANISH sust sust sust sust fax teja bandeja fiebre forearm fortification fortify forward-march four star general foxhole fracture friendly fire frigate front sight frostbite full corporal garrison cap general election GO (Governmental Organization) sust OG (Organización Gubernamental) grazing fire sust fuego rasante ground sust suelo group sust batallón group sust grupo guerrilla sust guerrilla guided weapon sust arma guiada gun sust cañón gunner sust tirador halt interj alto hammer sust martillo hand grenade sust granada de mano hand-to-hand combat sust combate cuerpo a cuerpo hard disk sust disco duro hatch sust escotilla headquarters sust cuartel general headquarters battery sust batería de plana mayor heavy weaponry sust armamento pesado helicopter sust helicóptero helipad sust helipuerto helmet sust casco hit sust impacto sust combate en localidades sust artillería de campaña sust chaquetón sust archivo. posición de fuego sust campo de tiro sust primeros auxilios sust teniente sust capitán general sust mástil de la bandera sust chaleco antifragmentación sust flanco sust bocacha apagafuegos.

destino mechanised infantry sust infantería mecanizada pothole sust bache MEDEVAC REP sust prisionero de guerra (Medical Evacuation Report) sust informe de evacuación PoW (Prisoner of War) printer sust impresora médica private sust soldado mess sust mesón. operator sust operador munición real outpost sust puesto avanzado loader sust cargador overall sust mono logistics sust logística papers sust pl documentación loot sust saqueo parachutist sust paracaidista loot v saquear parka sust chaquetón lorry sust camión parking place sust aparcamiento machine gun sust ametralladora path sust camino. senda magazine sust cargador sust patrulla magazine pouch sust cartuchera del correaje patrol peacekeeping mission sust misión de paz main gate sust puerta principal pill sust pastilla maintenance team sust equipo de pillbox sust casamata mantenimiento pilot sust piloto major sust comandante pistol sust pistola major general sust general de división pistol grip sust empuñadura maneuver (AmE) sust maniobra plaster sust escayola manoeuvre (BrE) sust maniobra platoon sust sección march sust marcha platoon position sust posición de sección march off interj de frente political asylum sust asilo político march past sust desfile polling station sust colegio electoral marksman sust tirador selecto poncho sust poncho mask sust máscara port sust proa mat sust esterilla post sust puesto. Internacional) Bacteriológico y Químico) jamming sust interferencia NCO join (up) v unirse a (Non Commissioned Officer) sust suboficial jumper sust jersey NGO (Non Governmental Organization) sust ONG (Organización No keyboard sust teclado Gubernamental) knife sust cuchillo night combat sust combate nocturno landing zone sust zona de lanzamiento sust visión nocturna landmark sust referencia en el terreno night vision obstacle sust obstáculo lead v liderar. mandar offensive sust ofensiva leader sust líder officer sust oficial left turn interj izquierda on duty adv de servicio left-face interj izquierda on leave adv de permiso lieutenant colonel sust teniente coronel on one rank interj en una fila light infantry sust infantería ligera one star general sust general de brigada light injure sust herida leve operate v operar light weaponry sust armamento ligero operation sust operación live ammunition sust munición de guerra. al cargo sust fuego indirecto sust fuente de información sust revista sust interferencia ENGLISH SPANISH minefield sust campo de minas missile sust misil mortar sust mortero motorised unit sust unidad motorizada mouse sust ratón movement sust movimiento murder sust asesinato name tag sust tirilla del nombre NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) sust OTAN (Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte) sust informe de inteligencia Navy sust Armada NBC sust OI (Organización (Nuclear Bacteriological Chemical) adj NBQ (Nuclear. cantina professional soldier sust soldado profesional message sust mensaje promotion sust ascenso military parade sust formación prow sust puerto military police sust policía militar pursue v perseguir mined zone sust zona minada -223- MILITARY GLOSSARY .Military Glossary ENGLISH hit holster howitzer humanitarian aid impact impact in charge indirect fire information source inspection parade interference INTREP (Intelligent Report) IO (International Organization) SPANISH v impactar sust pistolera sust obús sust ayuda humanitaria sust impacto v impactar adv al mando.

brigada sust camilla sust punto fuerte sust subfusil sust submarino v remitir.Military Glossary ENGLISH radio communication raid rank rate of fire ration RC (Red Cross) rear sight rearguard receive recognisance recovery lorry SPANISH ENGLISH sleeping bag sling sniper Spanish Legion special operations speciality splinter squad squadron team Staff staff sergeant stretcher stronghold sub-machine gun submarine submit sunstroke supply unit support suppress surveillance flight survival sword tab tactical communications tank tanker plane target task task force technical branch temporary officer tense tent terrain three star general to apply for to file towed artillery track trail trail trainer training Training Centre transportation trench trigger trigger guard tripod turret two star general UN (United Nations) SPANISH sust saco de dormir sust portafusa sust francotirador sust Legión Española sust pl operaciones especiales sust especialidad sust esquirla sust escuadra sust subgrupo táctico sust Estado Mayor sust sargento primero. disparador sust guardamontes sust trípode sust torreta sust general de división sust ONU (Organización de las Naciones Unidas) sust transmisión radio sust golpe de mano sust empleo sust cadencia de fuego sust ración sust Cruz Roja sust alza sust retaguardia v recibir sust reconocimiento sust camión grúa. senda sust huella. enviar sust golpe de calor sust unidad de abastecimiento sust apoyo v neutralizar sust vuelo de reconocimiento sust supervivencia sust espada sust hombrera sust pl transmisiones tácticas sust carro de combate sust avión nodriza sust objetivo sust misión sust agrupación táctica sust especialidad técnica sust oficial de complemento interj firmes sust tienda de campaña sust terreno sust teniente general v solicitar v archivar sust artllería remolcada sust cadena sust camino. rastro sust instructor sust instrucción sust Centro de Instrucción sust transporte sust trinchera sust gatillo. recuperador recruit sust recluta refugee sust refugiado regiment sust regimiento reinforce v reforzar reinforcement sust refuerzos replacement sust relevo report sust informe report v informar returnee sust retornado revolver sust revólver rifle sust rifle right turn interj derecha right-face interj derecha riot sust alboroto rocket sust cohete rocket launcher sust lanzagranadas round sust disparo rucksack sust mochila rush v avanzar rápidamente safe-conduct sust salvoconducto salary sust sueldo salute sust saludo salute v saludar sapper sust zapador screen sust pantalla seaman sust marinero second lieutenant sust alférez section sust pelotón seize an objective v tomar un objetivo self propelled gun sust cañón autopropulsado send v enviar sentry sust centinela sergeant sust sargento sergeant major sust suboficial mayor serve v servir (en el Ejército) service cap sust gorra (tb gorro) de bonito service record sust hoja de servicios severe injury sust herida grave shell sust granada de mortero shell crater sust cráter de granada shelter sust contenedor shock sust shock shoot v disparar shooting range sust campo de tiro shoulder arms interj sobre el hombro shrapnel sust metralla siege v sitiar signal sust transmisión simulation sust simulación SITREP (Situation Report) sust informe de situación MILITARY GLOSSARY -224- .

combate urbano vehicle sust vehículo vessel sust buque warehouse sust almacén warjet sust avión de combate warning order sust orden preparatoria warrant officer sust subteniente warrior faction sust bando combatiente warship sust barco de guerra wave sust onda weapon support company sust compañía de armas de apoyo wine sweeper sust dragaminas wing sust ala wire sust cable wireless adj sin cable withdraw v retirarse withdrawal sust retirada wound v herir wound sust herida.Military Glossary ENGLISH SPANISH UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) sust ACNUR (Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Refugiados) uniform sust uniforme unit sust unidad UNMO (United Nations Military Observer) sust observador militar de las Naciones Unidas urban combat sust combate en localidades. herido -225- MILITARY GLOSSARY .

d)9. e)Number three is green. meet you. f)daughter. f)six. c)third. g)uncle. a. b)parents. f)are. 4)a. b)fourteen. c)Good evening. b)The dog is theirs. 2) They are students. Exercise 4: a)sixty-eight. b)name. milk. f)I am. c)The sun is yellow. h)grandmother. d)this. d)It’s twenty to eight. h)twenty-three. oranges. h)Number thirteen is white. f)a. b)meat. 3)g. j)Number eleven is orange. 6)b. d)cousins. b) Is. e)are. h)thirty-three Reading comprehension: 2. f) The ball is his. j)10 (1) La solución para este apartado puede ser cualquier número. b)wife. your. b)The sky is blue. eggs. 4)f. b)Good afternoon. e)son-in-law. 2)c. Exercise 6: a)Peter has not a computer/ Peter hasn't a computer. 3)g. e)Am. d)These books are mine. c)Julian has not a house/Julian hasn't a house. c)am. h)years. b)4. h)three Exercise 5: b)What’s your name?. g)6. c)Number seven is red. k)mother-in-law Exercise 3: 1)c. f)3. g)The snow is white. b)their. b)a. Answers to the questions: 1) Miguel is twenty-four years old. 3) David Beckham is a Real Madrid football player. d)Good night Exercise 3: a)Number six is blue. e)niece. Answers to the questions: 1) My parents’ names are Anne and Paul. b)Number seventeen is black. b)twenty-one. g)a. television Exercise 7: 1)d. f) Number twenty is brown. f)grandson. g)Number twenty-nine is pink. f)meet. c)How. e)It’s is twenty-five to ten. 7)h. c)aunt. 2) Pedro’s favourite sport is football. c)7. c)That. d)fourth. c)For dinner I have soup /I have soup for dinner. f)these. i)grandmothers. -227- KEYS TO THE EXERCISES UNIT 3 . 6)c. e)a. lemons /Lemons. g)your Exercise 8: a)My tie is red. d)an. g)How. e)The note is yours. old. b)thirty. vegetables /vegetables. is. c)four. Exercise 5: a)The book is hers. d)Yes. you. k)number. f)your. g) The doll is hers. Exercise 7: a)my. 8)e Exercise 8: a)My mother’s sister is my aunt. 3)g. c)eggs. 3) Her telephone number is 7-6-9-1-6-4. i)Number nine is grey. h)granddaughter. e)I’m thirty years old. c)thirty-four. g)daughter-in-law. 4)b. h)5. g)sixty-six. Exercise 9: a)a. UNIT 2 Reading comprehension: 2. e)Julian’s car is very expensive. f)twenty-seven. fruit. c)Are. potatoes /potatoes. f)It’s ten past five. d)My name is. j)nephew. h)am not Exercise 4: a)fourteen. d)brother. e)My mother has not a dog/My mother hasn't a dog. j)nephew. d)Number one is yellow. h)It’s twelve o’clock/It’s midnight Exercise 5: a)Those. 5)f. d)our. 4)f. c)What’s your telephone number?. 8)d Exercise 9: En orden decreciente: i)1.KEYS TO THE EXERCISES UNIT 1 Reading comprehension: 2. Exercise 1: a)cousins. c)twenty-eight. b)second. his. b)these. Exercise 1: a)What. b)It’s a quarter to two. e)Are Exercise 3: b)student. e)8. 8)d (1) La solución para este apartado puede ser cualquier color. 7)a. e)fifth Exercise 7: a)sixteen. f)eleven. years. d)Am. f)I drink soda with whisky /whisky with soda. i)thirty. c)The house is hers. past. Answers to the questions: 1) Pedro is eight years old. e)Fine. l)is Exercise 2: a)Are. is. 2)b. d)My telephone number’s 456375. b)Hellen and Michael have not a computer/Hellen and Michael haven't a computer. e) midnight. c)her. i)am Exercise 2: a)Good morning. a Exercise 10: 1)c. c)It’s a quarter past two. c)husband. g)Louise has not a pair of shoes/Louise hasn't a pair of shoes. d)twenty-two. k)Number fifteen is purple. k)niece Exercise 2: a)sister. d)e)f)(1) . i)brother-in-law. d)Andrew has not a girlfriend/Andrew hasn't a girlfriend. b)I wake up at half past seven. e)Those. 5)e Exercise 4: a)It’s twelve o’clock/It’s midday/It’s noon. h)an. a)2. e)my. h)those Exercise 6: a)o’clock. j)twenty-five Exercise 8: 1)e. 3) My aunt’s sons and daughters are my cousins. 7)a. 4) They are Pedro’s friends. Exercise 6: a)first. fruit. 5)h. e)twenty-seven. g)It’s five past eight. d)sixteen. c)A. Exercise 1: b)morning. e)thirteen. g)Nice. 2)d. 3)a. d)Oranges. 2)e. g)twenty-five. f)She’s twenty-four years old. h)(1). d)The car is mine. d)you. 6)b. j)telephone /phone. 5)h. f)I have not a bag/ I haven't a bag. e)ten. d)sixty-seven. g)that. g)fourteen. 2) My brother is seven years old. car .

c)anyone /anybody. d)T. f)Any. f)is. June. g)a Exercise 2: a)many. 3)a. 3)a. Easter Day and Easter Monday. 3) The name of the opposite phenomenon to El Niño is La Niña. d)asleep. e)far. f)more easily. f)easily. December. most easily. 6)b. Answers to the questions: 1) (Peruvian fishermen call this phenomenon El Niño) because these effects on the Pacific Ocean occur around Christmas. most recently. 8)c UNIT 6 UNIT 5 Reading comprehension: 2. f)bedroom. e)is. b)after. greener. b)happier. c)window. b)thirsty. h)In the living-room/diningroom. c)nervous. 7)b. g)T 3. 6ªfila)bad. f)Is there a big bed in her living-room?. some.UNIT 4 Reading comprehension: 2. bathroom. November. February. b)much. c)are. 10)e (1) La solución para este apartado puede ser cualquier mes Exercise 3: a)later. g)is. c)most intelligent. c)Isn't there any sugar?. k)somewhere. e)What is the weather like?. April. b)In summer it is hot. b)less happy. furthest. d)nearer. e)much. d)are. Answers to the questions: 1) On the 25th of December people celebrate Christmas. May. best. latest. sofas. l)anything Exercise 8: a)than yours. c)more difficult. h)older Exercise 2: a)best. 5)h. 4) The 4th of July is an important date for Americans because people celebrate the Independence Day. h)carpets. 3)b. any.Patrick’s Day. g)less Reading comprehension: 2. television Exercise 9: a)How many children are there in the room?. h)some Exercise 7: a)some. e)We have an old bed. d)It is a cloudy day. e)cheaply. 2ªfila)good.really Exercise 2: a)further. f)Yesterday morning. September. c)Summer: June. f)most brilliant. c)some. least. 5)b. j)anyone /anybody. c)more recently. May. b)Are there two televisions in Thomas’ living-room?. d)better. carpets. i)In the bedroom. hotter. b)F. e)tired. 6)f. worst. 2)e. b)is. e)any. e)F. f)many Exercise 3: a)are. e)prettiest. television /sofas. 2)a¸ 3)g. Exercise 10: a)Is there a boy in the garden?. Exercise 1: a)taller. e)easier. e)Are there many people here?. July. b)My birthday is in (1). e)It/William's interview is in May. h)Tomorrow evening Exercise 6: a)happy. d)some. better. e)a. c)In the kitchen /bathroom /toilet. b)oldest/eldest. worse. Answers to the questions: 1) Charles Henry Harrod / He buys the store in 1849. less. b)any. f)interested. 2) The name of the famous businessman who buys Harrods in 1985 is Mohamed Al Fayed. g)seriously. d)nearer. g)late Exercise 6: Columna B: January. i)hottest Exercise 3: a)less clever. 6)g. g)less clear. March. g)scared. g)They/Sally's holidays are in April. d)some. 2) The biggest party for Irish people is St. Good Friday. g)less. 7)d. 8ªfila)dirty.“true” or “false” answers: a)T. 4ªfila)old. g)Someone. e)along/during the day. d)That lamp does not work. c)It/Julian's bithday is in July. h)less clean Exercise 4: 1ªfila)hot. b)In the bathroom /toilet. exhausted. least. g)worse. e)less blue. 9)g. d)In the kitchen. 2)i. d)much. February Exercise 8: 1)f. g)This afternoon. d)last week. f)cheaper. f)better. greenest. f)The sun shines Exercise 8: 1)d. d)an. h)thinnest. October. July Respuestas a las preguntas: a)It/Peter's wedding is in September. some. d)is. f)T. August. is Exercise 4: a)In the kitchen. Exercise 7: a)Spring: March. 3) The most important dates at Easter are the Festival of Passover. 5)c. b)formerly. 9ªfila)small. e)any. f)It/Summer begins in June. e)The. d)Is there any tea in the teapot?. f)out. Exercise 1: a)the. h)sad Exercise 7: a)In winter it snows. g)some. c)F. d)strongest. earliest. 7)h. d)Winter: December. j)In the kitchen. 9)j. dirtiest. c)Your living-room isn't very nice. 3) The stores motto is: “everything for everyone everywhere”. soonest Exercise 4: 1)f. b)This morning. j)sooner. e)better. 9)c Exercise 5: a)last night. April. d)almost. b)further. h)any. worst. k)In the bathroom /toilet Exercise 5: 1)e. f)some. hottest. d)perfectly. older. 4)i. 5ªfila)beautiful. 5)a. fridge.oldest. h)worse. d)It/Spring begins in March. 2) These fires create /The consequences of these fires are a cloud of smoke that chokes 20 million people and affect Southeast Asian cities. 2)e. 7ªfila) green. 7)i. nearest. h). b)toilets. 4) La Niña consists of a cooling of those same /the tropical Pacific waters (that changes the weather conditions). e)In the bedroom. c)early. b)a. b)There is not any sugar. g)richest. 8)c. 4)h. b)later. c)longer. Exercise 1: a)Unfortunately. January. dirtier. g)Is there some coffee in the coffeepot? KEYS TO THE EXERCISES -228- . more beautiful. curtains. smallest Exercise 5: a)here. 6)j. c)an. 8)d. d)less beautiful. c)It rains. c)many. best. 4)h. November. g)In the garage. most beautiful. f)In the kitchen. i)earlier. August. b)any. 3ªfila)little. b)Autumn/Fall: September. October. 10)f Exercise 6: a)any. f)the. c)frequently. c)at noon. c)less angry. i)anything. any. e)more wisely. 4)g. 8)d. g)shower. smaller. f)less cold.

I didn’t see her. Exercise 6: a)sugar. g)did Exercise 7: a)Yes. I didn’t drive my car all night long. olive oil. lettuce. tomato. g)Didn’t Peter lose his job?. c)were. d)El sol brilla en la ciudad. 3)b. f)When do you go to work?. she didn’t know the way. i)The war against that country is a failure. at about four o'clock. Aren't you tall?. 4) Italian mothers are thought to have the power of the family and to cook a lot of pasta and pizza. j)I usually paid him £5. h)Yes. b)Which sports does she like?. d)I did not drive my car all night long. f)Is he the best good-looking boy?. for example. g)Norwegian. f)Didn’t I see her?. they didn’t do their homework after dinner. i)Yes. g)Andrea was less beautiful than Joan. e)My parents did not drink beer.UNIT 7 Reading comprehension: 2. b)There is a cemetery under our house. h)Turkey. she knew the way /No. driving on the left side. 6)c. e)Don't I have a mobile?. l)I lay down after lunch. 4)f. d)Didn’t I drive my car all night long?. 8)h. 3) Pedro ate a very nice meal with his friend Julian in Covent Garden. f)I did not see her. 5)a. g)What is your mother-in-law's name?. c)Wasn’t she my best friend in London?. they did their homework after dinner /No. to be snobs. h)Did he play the piano? -229- KEYS TO THE EXERCISES Exercise 2: a)English. d)Are we Mary's best friends?. h)Didn’t we want those carpets?. g)No te vayas hasta que te lo diga. i)What do you eat today?. Aren't they interested in Geography?. b)When was your sister's birthday?. French. f)La silla está entre la puerta y la ventana. Exercise 1: a)At what time do you take your bus?. 4)b. c)When is your father's birthday?. d)Where. g)Are you my sister-in-law's brother?. I didn’t go to Scotland. b)Yes. g)How old are you?. d)Yes. I didn’t like apples. b)Do. g)Yes. they didn’t have to work hard. Exercise 4: a)Didn’t I like apples?. e)Didn’t my parents drink beer?. b)She liked oranges but she didn’t like lemons. She. he had a heart attack /No. d)Who ate the oranges?. Aren't you my sister-in-law's brother? Exercise 3: a)¿De qué ciudad vienes?. tomato. UNIT 9 UNIT 8 Reading comprehension: 2. 6)h. h)Four hours later we are tired. h)What is your favourite meal?. tea. b)Are they interested in Geography?. g)Peter did not lose his job. 2) English people are thought to do the opposite things European people do on the continent. pepper. pon tu solicitud en la mesa. c)Australia. e)Quédate a mi lado. 4) The last meal of the day is dinner. b)Didn’t I go to Scotland?. b)vinegar. Exercise 4: a)There is a cinema near my house. i)Didn’t I watch television at home? Exercise 5: 1)d. he didn’t come every day. ate. 8)g Exercise 6: a)went. c)Were they friendly?. 2) Yes. they had to work hard /No. 7)e. he didn’t want a new coat. I didn’t see you. onion. f)Europe was the cradle of civilization. f)turkey. chicken. much. d)In September it rains very much. g)Don’t you eat potatoes? Exercise 2: a)Are you tall?. h)Did Hellen and William win the match?. g)salad. Isn't she a pretty girl?. j)Do you eat this kind of fish? Exercise 2: a)Do you like football?. m)We slept badly. he came every day /No. d)Where are they from?. f)Italian. e)Holland. b)Germany. c)Doesn't she play the guitar?. d)vinegar. it is. from. Reading comprehension: 2. f)Is. am. Isn't he the best good-looking boy?. g)Which computer did you prefer?. c)La carretera pasa por el valle. I. h)Antes de irte. e)Why did she sing this song?. I saw you /No. 2)a. g)Did you take some milk for breakfast? Exercise 4: a)Did you eat meat?. She wasn’t my best friend in London. d)How did you make the bed?. f)I didn't eat potatoes buy I ate meat /I didn't eat meat but I ate potatoes. f)Who were they?. . knife. I didn’t see the difference. c)Yes. e)John gets married on Tuesday. d)Don't we buy any tickets for the theatre?. I saw the difference /No. 3)e. d)I met her on Tuesday. b)spoon. I didn’t watch television at home. f)Doesn't he take any pictures?. g)Madrid is 450 km far from Granada. oven. f)How many pupils are there in this class?. Answers to the questions: 1) British people have at least three meals a day. d)How do you spell it?. b)Pon el vaso en la mesa. e)Yes. c)She was not my best friend in London. b)I did not go to Scotland. Exercise 1: a)Don't you like apples?. 2)g. Exercise 1: a)I went to school. he wanted a new coat /No. i)Spanish Exercise 3: a)I did not like apples. e)When did they study?. e)Anke was my best German friend. 3) British people have tea in the afternoon. My parents didn’t drink beer. c)tea. d)French. e)Does he speak Greek?. e)When did you buy your car?. k)He rode every day. Exercise 7: 1)d. c)How are you?. c)Is she a pretty girl?. 2) Pedro arrived in London last Sunday. We didn’t want those carpets.-Answers to the questions: 1) It is an informal letter.-Answers to the questions: 1) Albert Einstein said that it is easier to split an atom than to erase prejudices. c)What are your names?. c)There is a supermarket behind the school. fork. 7)f. i)I did not watch television at home. b)Didn't they see you yesterday?. f)Yes. j)Do you speak Russian? Exercise 3: a)Do you work today?. Exercise 5: a)bread. Peter didn’t lose his job. i)Who wrote "El Quijote"?. Am I not five feet tall?. e)Am I five feet tall?. h)We did not want those carpets. to be always on time and to drink tea 3) Russian people are thought to drink too much vodka. they had eggs for breakfast /No. Aren't we Mary's best friends?. d)tuna. f)With one car is enough. Greek. e)Did. i)He left the / that house at six o’clock. 5)c. b)Don't they want a car?. they didn’t have eggs for breakfast. c)cook. e)sugar. c)Peter went to work by bus. h)She spoke slowly. he didn’t have a heart attack. didn’t. b)When do you go to school?.

c)since. 5)b. e)make. k)watched /watched Exercise 3: a)I am going to go to the cinema this evening /I'm going to go to the cinema this evening. realized. 7)i. o)15 Reading comprehension: 2. You are not /aren't listening to your teacher. m)They have sent her a present /They've sent her a present. f)made. was learning Exercise 4: a)Are you listening to your teacher?. f)giraffe. j)13. b)do. d)were playing /played. c)T. f)F Exercise 1: a)am spending. f)are having. 9)f. 4)a. Exercise 5: a)often.“True” or “false” answers: a)F. e)You have been the president /You've been the president. g)F. i)They are going to try to win the game /They're going to try to win the game. b)How does Charles see Séverine?. c)¿Cuándo fue (ella) a casa de Mary?. 6) The name of the most populated nation of the United Kingdom is England. Jones and Co. h)She is going to have twins /She's going to have twins. b)make. the Isle of Wight. d)since. b)3. i)They have tried to win the game /They've tried to win the game. b)is giving. b)T. the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands. 8)f Exercise 8: a)¿Quién descubrió América?. f)The party is going to start very soon /The party's going to start very soon. was. h)did. are shutting. f)are wearing. c)They have run for one hour /The've run for one hour. c)long. e)Are Jones and Co. i)5. f)The party has started very soon /The party's started very soon. f)make. d)Where does Charles see Séverine?. c)Is your sister studying at home?. f) Am I meeting Thomas at 5:30?I am not meeting Thomas at 5:30. i)carnations Exercise 8: 1)e. having a sale at the moment?. 6)j. g)make. g)is lying. 3)c. 2) The name of the capital of Wales is Cardiff. 5)b. 3)a. are not /aren't having a sale at the moment. d)did. b)F. saw. 4)h. c)Why does Charles see Séverine?. g)Dalila has been my wife's best friend /Dalila's been my wife's best friend. c) did not come. h)T. m)4. g)made. d)high. e)F. was reading. e)T. 2)g. b)cactuses. g) Are they thinking of going to the party?. h)was working. 10)g UNIT 11 UNIT KEYS TO THE EXERCISES 10 Reading comprehension: 2. g)11. h)are talking Exercise 2: a)is standing. The neighbours are not /aren't coming in to watch tv. f)big Exercise 6: a)12. b)British English Exercise 7: a)dog. were /been.“true” or “false” answers: a)T. f)F. b)¿Entendieron (ellos) la lección?. 3) Corporations and governments in developing countries should invest in renewable energies. l)Mary is going to buy a book for her father /Mary's going to buy a book for her father. tells /is telling g)is raining.Exercise 5: a)make. g) Dalila is going to be my wife's best friend /Dalila's going to be my wife's best friend. 3) It belongs to the United Kingdom. b)tall. d)tulip. b)She is going to buy one ticket to Berlin /She's going to buy one ticket to Berlin. h)do. d)ate /eaten. b)Are the neighbours coming in to watch tv?. b)Where did Charles buy his new car?. c)are putting. g)since. c)make. d)is leaving. d)Why did Charles buy his new car?. d)¿Cómo la encontraste? /¿Cómo la encontrasteis? /¿Cómo la encontró (usted)? /¿Cómo la encontraron (ustedes)?. e)for. l)Mary has bought a book for her father /Mary's bought a book for her father. 7)e. g)wanted /wanted. i)T Exercise 1: a)for. c)saw /seen. d)are closing. k)Lissa is going to play the piano /Lissa's going to play the piano. e)8. c)When did Charles buy his new car?. d)do. g)¿Llueve? Exercise 9: 1) a)When does Charles see Séverine?. d)He is going to walk along the street / He's going to walk along the street. e)¿Cuándo leyó Michael mi carta?. 2)h. Exercise 4: a)I have gone to the cinema /I've gone to the cinema. e)made. c)did. e)was traveling/ travelling. c)They are going to run for one hour / c)They're going to run for one hour. e)are having. c)9. was following. h)elephant. f)was. 3. 8)d. It is not /isn't raining now. passed. Your sister is not /isn't studying at home. e)You are going to be the president /You're going to be the president. was. n)2. are sitting. h)for Exercise 2: a)looked /looked. They are not /aren't thinking of going to the party. c)roses. j)We are going to play football and baseball /We're going to play football and baseball. i)make Exercise 6: a)made. f)¿Quién pronuncia el discurso?. 4) The Isle of Man is different because it is an internally self-governing dependency of the British Crown. h)She has had twins /She's had twins. f)am catching Exercise 3: a)was wearing. d)6. j)We have played football and baseball /We've played football and baseball. 2) a)What did Charles buy?. h)7. i)bit /bitten. e)seagulls. g)lion. l)10. k)14. c)T. -230- . 3. i)did Exercise 7: 1)c. the Hebrides. e)far. d)T. m)They are going to send her a present /They're going to send her a present. b)was walking. 5) Great Britain includes the main island (Wales. d)He has walked along the street /He’s walked along the street. d)F. d)Is it raining now?. f)1. b)She has bought one ticket to Berlin /She's bought one ticket to Berlin. 6)d. England. f)for. Answers to the questions: 1) The United Kingdom consists of two large islands (Great Britain and Northern Ireland) and 5000 smaller ones. k)Lissa has played the piano /Lissa's played the piano. b)since. wondered. e)is using. j)kissed /kissed. b)is working. h)wore /worn. Scotland) and some islands such as Anglesey. c)is putting. Answers to the questions: 1) This climatic change /It is mainly due to the use of fossil fuels. 2) Renewable energy sources /They offer abundant clean energy. b)loved /loved. f) understood /understood. e)How did Charles buy his new car? Exercise 10: a)American English.

d)Don’t open the door /Do not open the door. d)He will walk along the street /He'll walk along the street. h)Let’s not work together. d)will telephone. j)Isn't Michael going to read your article? Exercise 9: a)will give. f)We would not eat meat twice a week. i)Let’s not begin now. c)They were going to run for one hour. f)Don’t stop /Do not stop. c)Will Anne meet Peter tomorrow at half past one?. c)Wouldn’t they have a better job?. Exercise 4: a)Would you go to my new house?. d)He was going to walk along the street. 2) I can create an emergency communications plan. g)They would have breakfast at half past seven. I can assemble a disaster supplies kit or check on the school emergency plan of any school-age children you may have. e)They have not been in Madrid for five months /They haven't been in Madrid for five months. f)She would not like to see me. m)I will not finish my work tomorrow /I won't finish my work tomorrow. i)Won't I go to the zoo with you?. b)She was going to buy one ticket to Berlin. c)Make peace /Do make peace. b)We would not go to the hotel this morning. e)Let’s go to the cinema. e)Peter’s best friend would not play basketball. j)They were not going to write a letter /They weren't going to write a letter. f)The party was going to start very soon. e)Did you tell me the truth?. k)will bury Exercise 10: 1)c. 7)d. b)We’d go to the hotel this morning. n)It will not be a very nice summer /It won't be a very nice summer. g) Dalila was going to be my wife's best friend. l)Mary will buy a book for her father /Mary'll buy a book for her father. l)Mary was going to buy a book for her father. d)Hellen would come from Scotland. j)We were going to play football and baseball. i)I would write my curriculum. Answers to the questions: 1) The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon took place in 2001. h)You’d buy this vase. 5)a. Exercise 7: a)Don’t go home /Do not go home. e)Wouldn’t he drive faster?. k)Lissa will play the piano /Lissa'll play the piano. i)They will try to win the game /They'll try to win the game. k)Lissa was going to play the piano. g) Dalila will be my wife's best friend /Dalila'll be my wife's best friend. 3)d. g)Let’s not count the money. c)Paul wouldn’t meet his girlfriend this afternoon. Exercise 6: a)I will go to the cinema this evening /I'll go to the cinema this evening. f)We would eat meat twice a week. f)We’d eat meat twice a week. f)reads. l)Won't you stay here in winter? /Will you not stay here in winter?. e)Peter’s best friend wouldn’t play basketball. g)Weren't they going to come?. b)She will buy one ticket to Berlin /She'll buy one ticket to Berlin. f)They will not speak English /They won't speak English. i)Wouldn’t my mother make any suggestion? Exercise 6: a)Write a letter to your cousin /Do write a letter to your cousin. g)will steal. i)washes. d)I’d cook tonight for you. b)Don’t play this song /Do not play this song. b)Would he like to be in France?. b)stand.Exercise 5: a)I was going to go to the cinema this evening. d)She was not going to study the lesson /She wasn't going to study the lesson. h)Would I borrow your chair?. c)They will run for one hour /They'll run for one hour. h)Haven't they come soon? /Have they not come soon?. c)Paul would not meet his girlfriend this afternoon. g)Let’s play a song for her. e)You will be the president /You'll be the president. d)Hellen wouldn’t come from Scotland. i)It is not going to rain /It isn't going to rain. c)Paul would meet his girlfriend this afternoon. b)Let’s study for one hour. h)She was going to have twins. 8)g UNIT 12 Reading comprehension: 2. I can establish a meeting place. Exercise 2: a)I’d speak French. e)Michael wouldn’t go for a walk. e)You were going to be the president. i)They were going to try to win the game. Exercise 8: a)Were they going to write a letter?. c)Won't you come to my party tonight? /Will you not come to my party tonight?. h)She will have twins /She'll have twins. 2)f. e)will arrest. c)eats. m)They will send her a present /They'll send her a present. 4)g. Exercise 5: a)Wouldn’t I visit my grandmother?. 4)e. 5)a. d)Hellen would not come from Scotland. e)Peter’s best friend would play basketball. f)Would my legs hurt very much?. b)I will not ask you any question /I won't ask you any question. f)Say it /Do say it. g)She’d like to read a good book. h)Is her birthday on October the 14th?. b)We would go to the hotel this morning. i)I would not write my curriculum. g)They would not have breakfast at half past seven. 6)e. 8)b -231- . m)They were going to send her a present. h)Let’s start the work. h)You would not buy this vase. g)They’d have breakfast at half past seven. 2)h. 6)h. d)Come here right now /Do come here right now. h)You would buy this vase. d)Is he an English teacher?. i)I’d write my curriculum. Exercise 3: KEYS TO THE EXERCISES a)I would not speak French. Exercise 1: a)I would speak French. d)Would Martha’s father find a good place?. k)Hasn't she gone to our school this morning? /Has she not gone to our school this morning?. b)Would they not play the piano?. 7)b. j)make. e)Don’t sit down /Do not sit down. b)Have you taken some eggs for breakfast?. j)We will play football and baseball /We'll play football and baseball. h)doesn't open /does not open. c)You would make a mistake. Exercise 8: 1)c. f)The party will start very soon /The party'll start very soon. c)Don’t smoke /Do not smoke. f)Has she studied French since 1985?. 3)f. g)Aren't you going to sell your car? /Are you not going to sell your car?. g)Would Luise not study in China?. Exercise 7: a)I am not going to see my boyfriend /I'm not going to see my boyfriend.

c)I had to do my homework. of. e)Must Mary pass this exam?. on. with. 3)g. d)We needed to be accepted. b)should. i)Couldn’t she speak Russian?/Could she not speak Russian? Exercises 4: a)She couldn’t read your article. h)TV hasn't been watched by him. do not (don’t) have to. at. with Exercise 6: a)of. e)The warehouse is guarded by dogs. it is. in. 2) Spain. 8)d UNIT 14 Reading comprehension: 2. b)by. it wasn't /No. f)from./She was not able to read your article. g)could. of. should. d)on. could. se perdería ese matiz de obligación ineludible). e)Her explanations must be true. d)must. e)at. c)should not (shouldn’t). f)will be given. c)We cannot (can’t) do this exercise. h)at. d)I will need my pills.080 a)1-16 b)2-32 c)0. f)Must you not (Mustn’t you) work this afternoon?. e)might. d)were left. c)T. it is very difficult. now I can’t. b)I will have to study to pass my exam. from/of. in Exercise 7: 1)e. h)They could be right (la forma “be able to” no es posible ya que en este ejemplo existe posibilidad y no capacidad). f)at. 2)a. on. d)F.5-7-112 d)1-14-224 e)2-16-224-3. e)must. f)The children have been brought in Italy (by them). b)could. e)James will have to do an assignment. Exercise 5: a)should. b)The police was called by the watchman. f)should not/shouldn’t. 7)c. g)Cannot/Can’t you understand these sentences?/Can you not understand these sentences?. e)Se encontró que (ellos) eran culpables. Answers to the questions: 1) The euro became the European single currency in 1th January 2002. 3) No. g)was taken. Exercise 2: a)The milk is brought to my door by the milkman. d)At. b)Hellen must not (mustn’t) be late.000 a)2 b)10-0. f)Could you give me the name of the school/school’s name?. h)I will not/won’t be able to see your eyes. d)Se considera que (nosotros) somos ricos. f)Did you need to take music lessons?/ (También valdría: Needed you take music lessons?) g)They didn’t need to study at home/ (También valdría: The need not/needn’t study at home). b)F. his acting career was not successful /Bowie had no luck in his acting career /None of his films were commercial successes. with. 3) Yes. e)on. 6)b. with. b)Must he study to pass his exam? (También podría admitirse: Does he have to study to pass his exam?. d)can /could. f)You will have to pronounce perfectly.920 f)3-24-5. 4)a. c)Cannot/Can’t she act like a queen? /Can she not act like a queen?. c)might. Answers to the questions: 1) A friend paralyzed David's left pupil. c)The sick man is taken to hospital by an ambulance. 2)c.UNIT 13 Reading comprehension: 2. c)at. g)Se dice que su novia es de Japón. at. i) correcta. Exercises 4: a)Se dice que (él) es el mejor futbolista. might. i)T Exercise 1: a)Can you do it now? No. for./My cousins were able to dance flamenco. h)Will she be able to attend lectures during pregnancy?.85-2. h)Need you wear a skirt?/Do you need to wear a skirt? Exercise 2: a) I will be able to play a song for you with a guitar. g)You must/should go to London. i)I didn’t have to do this exam. on. h)could. d)He was found guilty by the Court. g)to. 5)h. f)might.5 c)40-2-1 d)320-16-8-2 Exercise 7: a)might. 4) His wedding present to his wife was an album called "Black Tie White Noise" (which received positive reviews). 8)b KEYS TO THE EXERCISES -232- . Exercise 5: a)to.5-30 c)2-6-72 d)4-48 e)1-220-660-7. f)T. c)was destroyed.840-190. b)to. Exercise 9: 1)e. e)Our questions had to be answered. b)Things from supermarkets are stolen every day by Joan and Julian. d)These boxes are cleared three times a day by the postman. for. f)Se sabe que la historia es falsa. g)You will not/won’t be able to understand these sentences. 2) (He changed his name to David Bowie) to avoid confusion with the Monkees' Davy Jones.h)F. to. g)must Exercise 6: a)1-3-36 b)2. e)Could James walk for hours?. c)You have to study the third lesson. i)He is often taken for his brother by Anne. Exercise 3: a)Can I play a song for you?. h)He cannot (can’t) be there next week. 3. i)should. e)I haven't been paid for the work by her. j)He has to work hard.584 f)1-17. f)These television sets are made by a Japanese firm. b)was not introduced. 6)f. sin embargo. Exercise 3: a)He was never seen in the dining-room by us. b)Se cree que (él) es un mal estudiante. g)He won't be taken to prison (by them). b)Next week I will not/won’t have to come. c)A slight injury was had by Tom. b)My cousins could dance flamenco. e)F. France. c)Se piensa que Charles es un buen soldado. g)T. c)She will not/ won’t be able to say it louder.85-142.280-15. d)Need they go on holidays?/Do they need to go on holidays?. j)have to Exercise 8: a)I might not go to the cinema. pero esto no significa que la primera esté mal.“True” or “false” answers: a)T. 5)h. it is a very beautiful/nice city. Exercise 1: a)was moved. at. 3)g. d)Alex and Raúl must buy their books. e)are asked. Germany and Italy. on. d)I do not (don’t) have to go to Sally’s office this afternoon. también se podría aceptar: I need not (needn’t) study that much. h)Se cree que John la ama. g)He was shouted down by the crowd. 7)f. i)into/to. in. c)in. 4)d. f)Should he do better at Physics?. g)They can swim but they cannot (can’t) play football. might.000-32.

Exercise 5: a)It is a quarter to two. i)easiest Exercise 16: a)sooner. b)underground. l)Neither would I. not to enter Exercise 7: a)bill. I do. c)thirsty. f)fill in Exercise 3: a)So am I. g)Neither have I. b)A. f)hottest. Organización No Gubernamental (ONG). e)flavors. h)granddaughter. b)trunk. I am not. l)So was I. e)I.. g)in Exercise 2: a)turned down. -233- KEYS TO THE EXERCISES . to listen. h)worse Reading comprehension: 2. c)bill. asking. f)nephew. h)So am I.). j)So was I. b)this. I did. g)hearing. g)an. g)busier. e)T. no obstante. f)further. b)Mi abuela es mucho mayor que mi padre (Mi abuela tiene mucha más edad que mi padre. b)clearer. d)I. flying. h)its Exercise 10: a) I am taller than your brother. b)It is twenty past five. c)a. g)So was I. h)a Exercise 14: a)nearer. c)are. b)after. c)less. m)faxes. b)going. I wasn't. c)chemist's. i)So have I. h)jogging.. b)name. c)It is a quarter past six. c)looking for. d)up. Exercise 11: a)half. e)more interesting. f)sidewalk Exercise 9: 1)g. g)That. c)to meet. f)I have eggs for breakfast. d)So have I. g)books. 3. Answers to the questions: 1) Stonehenge is situated in Salisbury (England). b)North Atlantic Treaty Organization. g)Fourth. Cruz Roja Exercise 11: a)So do I. red. b)Neither do I. i)So did I. k)father-in-law. puts on. I haven't. d)Winter is much colder than summer. g)days. d)It is half past eight. c)Non Governmental Organization.“True” or “false” answers: a)T. swimming. e)lift. h)cities. g)It is five past ten. d)grandson. d)leaving. I didn't. years. 3) Stonehenge was built from 2750 BC to 1500 BC. I have. f)a. c)F.. years. Exercise 6: a)These. f)telephoning. h)twenty-five Exercise 3: a)Mi hermano mayor se llama John. e)duties. d)collect call.. e)swimming. d)road. a. on. d)The dog is ours. 2)e. am.. d)Neither do I. d)watches. d)walking. b)brother-in-law. k)fusses. h)fatter Exercise 15: a)most expensive.. e)The cat is his. l)glories. k)Neither will I. c)happier.. c)niece. e)His. b)cooking. e)So do I. j)So will I. e)off. c)That. (También podría aceptarse “For breakfast I have eggs”. f)doing the washing up Exercise 5: a)to come. d)Our. la primera letra de “for” aparece en minúscula y no puede formar parte de principio de oración). d)better. Exercises 4: a)ironing. sin embargo. i)My brother’s wife is my sister-in-law.. f)It is twenty five to nine.. e)look up. c)seventeen. b)Neither do I. f)The novel is theirs. c)You are better at Physics than me. q)teeth.. e)It is midnight. b)looks after. g)longer. h)best. b)later. e)an. p)tornadoes. I do. 8)d Exercise 10: a)United Nations. f)travelling (BrE) /traveling (AmE). saying. ( “At a quarter past seven I have dinner” también sería una opción posible. mice. g)Her. j)daughter-in-law.. f)These. n)cities. i)sister-in-law.. 7)c. e)better. you. e)to buy. f)stronger. g)oldest. k)Neither would I. g)I have dinner at a quarter past seven. c)classes. b)My mother’s brother is my uncle. you. Organización del Tratado del Atlántico Norte (OTAN). f)out. women. b)oranges. 3)b. I would. e)So did I. 6)f. July Exercise 12: a)mother-in-law. e)Red Cross. d)Desgraciadamente mi primo no está aquí. d)worst. is. o)knives. June. j)trees. c)¿Qué hora es? Son las cinco y media. e)Spring. am. h)Neither have I. f)T Exercise 1: a)up. e)to explain. c)The walkman is yours. d)takes off. g)grandmother. I won't. 4)a. f)flat. Organización Internacional. power and endurance. i)catches. g)going. f)Men. Organización de Naciones Unidas (ONU). r)flies Exercise 8: a)strawberries.UNIT 15 REVIEW UNITS 1 TO 5 Exercise 1: a)Hello. f)blue. e)These boots are not mine.. c)reading. d)feet. b)T. your. i)rings. f)Neither did I. c)Neither have I. g)thirty... por las mismas razones que se han mencionado en el apartado anterior no se puede aceptar). h)That Exercise 7: a)businesses. c)on. h)people. d)an. 2) Stonehenge symbolizes mystery. cats. b)interested. d)Studying. f)your. f)twenty-three. d)Those. number. b)Their. b)thirteen. is. boxes. f)Neither did I. h)My book is not hers. I don't. d)angry. having Exercise 6: a)having. b)not to speak. Exercise 4: a) The computer is hers. e)Los viernes desayuno en el bar de mi primo. f)heroes. b)The text book is mine. f)Your. I don't. d)International Organization. leaves Exercise 9: a)my. g)is Exercise 2: a)eighteen. getting up. c)coldest. e)tomatoes. b)richest. c)to work. c)Foxes. i)thinking. d)F. c)So do I. e)This. d)earlier. d)nineteen.. geese.. 5)h. to look. e)wisest. centre Exercise 8: a)vacation. j)wolves. l)grandchildren Exercise 13: a)an. living. e)twenty-eight. c)Your. b)children. e)son-in-law..

/We go to the disco after dinner. will experience. will pick. e)Holland. after. f)Why did you go to Scotland?. b)from. c)lied. d)would own. b)will get. c)are going to buy. f)have changed. c)snows. b)When do you wake up?. h)did. c)Were you studying…?. b)Have you been. will take Exercise 9: a)will help. f)ate. asks. c)Why did you do it?. is going to stay. d)Is the dictionary on the table?. f)Were you going to travel. b)hasn’t (has not) snowed. d)any. b)will get. 12)for. g)will help Exercise 6: a)have never seen. 3)since. g)Any Exercise 4: a)something. b)Is it going to rain. h)would eat KEYS TO THE EXERCISES -234- . 7)for. b)They felt really bad. d)I haven’t (have not) seen. Who played the guitar?. d)Who brought these books?. h)Where did she go last week?. since. 6)for. b)don’t stop. don’t take. / There is a book under (underneath) the table. have changed. h)Didn’t the thieves (Did the thieves not) steal a famous painting? Exercise 10: a)went. f)After dinner we go to the disco. f)is. e)I have dinner at 7 o’clock. b)Anyone. 8)for. finishes. k)Europeans Exercise 12: a)When did you have lunch?. h)French. b)graduate. 11)for.. i)What did you say?. i)nothing Exercise 5: a)How much is too much?. arrives.. e)Are we going to eat. g)make. c)Haven’t you heard (Have you not heard). was... Exercise 6: a)Do you play the guitar?. d)were looking. g)What is the weather like?. c)Are they very tall?. g)were not going to buy Exercise 5: a) am going to write. g)There is nowhere like home. e)are. c)won’t (will not) tell. f)Russian. j)Scottish. b)is. 9)since. Which one did you take? Exercise 15: a)make. g)How much time does it take to arrive in/get to Manchester?. f)How long is the beach?. c)How often do you go shopping?. have been. f)Somebody.. 2)since.. e)will call. since. j)has never seen. b)How tall is your father?. f)Anywhere she goes she finds friends. k)How was your dog?. will be. d)Does she have lunch in a restaurant near (next to) my house?. c)Greece. haven’t (have not) seen. 13)since. much. e)Isn’t she the right person for this position?. g)much Exercise 2: a)are. is going to quit. will show.. c)Do you live near my house?. g)I always have breakfast before midday.. k)made. c)is. e)Did they rent her house?. Where did she go for holidays?. 4)for. When did they get married?. c)haven’t (have not) eaten. invite. e)will come. Why were you so upset?. d)Does. b)was not going to buy. d)This car is not big enough for five people. d)When do they get married?. f)some. was. e)There are too many fat people in this country. 5)since. g)Are you writing…?. saw. g)Is she in her classroom?. c)many. b)would live. anyone. for. f)am going to attend. e)arrived. didn’t. c)would know. e)Where does she go for holidays?. g)Are they going to have Exercise 4: a)was going to write. never saw. for. i)make. c)will turn. g)has written. b)Doesn’t he speak French?. c)do.. l)make Exercise 16: a)was writing. g)are Exercise 3: a)any. i) Doesn’t she (Does she not) drink alcohol? Exercise 7: a)Aren’t you interested in Literature?. e)How wide is the lake?. hear Exercise 11: a)Spain.. didn’t (did not). c)I didn’t find the keys in your house. took. b)Doesn’t she (Does she not) drink orange juice? . for. j)Which car do you prefer?. g)anywhere. e)many. b)some. e)is going to call. d)Is he in Manchester?. d)am not going to win. f)Why are you so upset?. was giving. f)Does she know perfect English? Exercise 8: a)There is a war against Italy. d)made. Exercise 2: a) have you been?. f) would travel. e)some. ask. h)haven’t had. REVIEW UNITS 11 TO 15 Exercises 1: 1)for. f)many. f)do. h)Does he read more than two books per week?. will you believe. b)made. are going to go. g)would stay. g)Did she sing in the concert?. m)have changed. f)Didn’t they (Did they not) sell roses in that shop?. Did you have a car?. d) are going to visit. l)has become. do. Dutch. call. d)much. e)Was she going to marry. g)Norway. e)Don’t we (Do we not) study very hard? . d)They didn’t lose the match. How did she drive?. h)Where are you from?.. 15)for. d)Nobody. c)I study from 5 to 7. Exercise 9: a)He drove that old car. e)was leaving. e)have worked. 10)since. e)paid. f)will go. decided. d)tell.. e)will come. for. l)Do you have brothers or sisters? Exercise 14: a)Do you have a car?. c)Were they going to spend. is going to get.. e)Where are you from?. b)is not (isn’t) eating. b)Nobody wanted to do an exam on Saturday. b)Under (Underneath) the table there is a book. d)How heavy is your table?. c)Fortunately. g)Did. i)miss. c)somewhere. am going to. b)How does she drive?. b)Irish. e)wouldn’t (would not) get. c)is.REVIEW UNITS 6 TO 10 Exercise 1: a)many. g)Which one do you take?. h)is not (isn’t) raining Exercise 17: a)How far is London from Barcelona?. d)Italian. has Exercise 10: a)would be. 14)since. h)I can’t do anything without you. i)England.. d)leave. d)is going to make. f)is not going to buy. d)Who went to the party?. e)do. d)hasn’t (has not) cut. d)is. d)was going to give. e)anything. j)did. g)Where did you buy this T-shirt?. won’t (will not) reveal. since Exercise 3: a)is not going to attack. b)much. b)How are you?. k)dreamed. will go. a lot of people came to the party. have grown Exercise 7: a)get.. French. i)How do you go to work? Exercise 13: a)Who went to the concert?. f)is shining. c)any. h)This present is for you.. e)Do you speak English?. h)nowhere. c)Do you eat strawberries?. f)have known. c)Who plays the guitar?. f)What is your name?. is Exercise 8: a)arrive. f)Do you write very long poems?.

. p)In. q)at. f)Most paintings were damaged by vandals. d)needn’t. d)Their reasons had to be explained carefully. l)can’t. j)We won’t (will not) have to waste time. g)Why wouldn’t she (would she not) tell her grandparents? Exercise 13: a)I will be able to eat a whole large pizza. e)Neither have I. d)Will they have to study the whole lesson?. c)Would you like to play football?. e)Wouldn’t he be able to come?. on. e)needn’t. You were able to make yourself. i)Won’t she (Will she not) have to invite her parents to dinner?... e)He won’t (will not) be able to read my mind. d)Neither am I. e)He was found dead. j)might.. e)would be done. d)be worked out.. b)can. h)What would he look like? Exercise 12: a)I would play football. e)not to buy. c)They had to hand in their assignments. e)Less money is spent on school books nowadays. g)are required. m)could. f)in. h)couldn’t. j)on. h)couldn’t. r)at. i)could. It is considered that Peter is quite social. h)Her car is being repaired at the moment. b)Would you play football?. j)Could he play the piano?. in. n)on. i)My telephone number was given to her by Paul. It is said that she wears a long blue dress. f)I was told his secrets. do not write in capital letters.. b)I will have to say the truth. d)So have I.. e)Did you need a visa?... f)could.. e)Don’t eat oranges.. f)You didn’t have to speak during the exam. g)might not. c)will be crowned. d)couldn’t.. c)Mustn’t he study a little bit harder?. j)needn’t. b)I will not be able to read the book. m)In.. on. h)to pay. g)Will they be able to understand the language?. c)Could you tell me your surname?. g)I won’t (will not) be able to explain why.. f)mustn’t. I don’t need to get up early tomorrow morning. b)mustn’t.. i)to sing. h)So do I..... b)A new book will be published (next year) by that company next year... c)Neither do I.. s)at. c)Will you be able to repeat the sentence?. h)was asked. c)Please. i)So did I..Exercise 11: a)Would I say no to your invitation?. f)I’d go to your house.. b)may not. d)writing.... e)Our plan is being considered by the members of the committee. h)So am I.. d)can. m)I don’t have to get up early tomorrow morning. b)Did I have to paint you a picture?. g)All sentences are corrected by the computer.... at. Exercise 24: a)I have never been called “stupid”!.. f)So will I. Should I go or should I stay? Exercise 16: a)might... Exercise 14: a)Couldn’t we take criticism?. k)studying. h)This notice has been altered. g)Reading.. o)In.. g)mustn’t. i)might.. i)Didn’t we (Did we not) have to follow their example?. e)can’t.. f)A prize will be given to whoever solves this problem.. f)Could. h)might... k)at. c)May... in. It is thought that Susan is in her mid fifties. i)is being interviewed Exercise 25: a)in. e)So was I. n)must. c)going.. i)couldn’t Exercise 20: Sally mustn’t miss lectures. b)So do I.. f)might not.. g)Why wouldn’t I go to your party?.. e)on. h)at.. i)You will be severely punished for this. h)He is known as Peter Smith.. g)She was given her birthday present. d)Peter is considered to be quite social.... in. f)She might play the guitar in the concert. h)needn’t. Was he able to play the piano? Exercise 15: a)She might not go to Paris.. g)Applicants needed to call 1800-486-624 for further information. b)correct. l)in. d)What would they say?. f)What would they write?.. e)Could. b)He was believed to be one of the three greatest mathematicians. b)have been planted. d)The books haven’t (have not) been returned yet. l)learning -235- KEYS TO THE EXERCISES . b)Our conversation was going to be taped.. Exercise 23: a)She is said to wear a long blue dress. c)Our address has been forgotten (by him). j)So am I. It is believed that he was one of the three greatest mathematicians. d)The secretary was introduced to her new boss. e)might not. e)He can’t tell you his secret.. g)The new policy would be approved by the executive committee. Exercise 27: a)So would I. b)to do... d)can’t. j)not to tell. h)Peter couldn’t stand the weather.. c)Susan is thought to be in her mid fifties. b)might not. c)might not.. f)So did I. b)Neither did I. d)at. g)may. g)Neither did I. c)Neither do I. h)You could make yourself. c)He will be asked many questions.. Exercise 22: a)Everybody was shocked by the terrible news.. c)may. i)So would I.. in Exercise 26: a)So do I. i)at. It was found that he was dead. h)Should I stay or should I go?. h)I will be able to dance ballet.. g)Can.. Weren’t we (Were we not) able to take criticism?. j)correct. d)They did not have to buy new clothes. k)I should ask you to do me a favour. i)Martha can’t run faster. k)could. g)He ought not to have come. c)needn’t.. b)on. c)at.. f)Won’t they (Will they not) be able to take a joke?. f)She need not study the whole lesson. Exercise 28: a)seeing. e)Need you drive so fast?. d)Do the homework. d)He has to earn a living. l)Might she call the fire department?. g)So would I.. i)mustn’t.. g)in.. t)in.. f)playing. f)has been decided. k)mustn’t Exercise 19: a)couldn’t.. Needed you a visa?. n)I need not get up early tomorrow morning. j)might Exercise 17: a)May. o)can’t Exercise 18: a)needn’t. o)Need he say anything else? Exercise 21: a)The injured man had to be carried. b)I would not take no for an answer.

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