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The ultimate guide to getting the most from your Canon

Get started Master the mode dial Essential Canon kit

Canon Camera

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Photography is one of the most popular hobbies in the world, and one of the leading manufacturers in that eld is Canon. With its wide selection of cameras ranging from point-and-shoot entry-level IXUS compacts to 12,000 EOS DSLRs all boasting exceptional build quality and features, its easy to see why Canon is the brand of choice for many amateur and professional photographers. The Canon Camera Book is the ultimate guide to getting the most from your camera. We cover everything from basic photography skills and what your Canons mode dial can offer to advanced techniques and how to edit your images to perfection after your shoot. Each in-depth feature is packed full of expert tips, tricks and advice to help you achieve the incredible images that your Canon camera is capable of.

Canon Camera
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Head of Publishing Aaron Asadi Head of Design Ross Andrews Production Editor Dan Collins Senior Art Editor Greg Whitaker Senior Designer Sarah Bellman Photographer James Sheppard Printed by William Gibbons, 26 Planetary Road, Willenhall, West Midlands, WV13 3XT Distributed in the UK & Eire by Imagine Publishing Ltd, Tel 01202 586200 Distributed in Australia by Gordon & Gotch, Equinox Centre, 18 Rodborough Road, Frenchs Forest, NSW 2086. Tel + 61 2 9972 8800 Distributed in the Rest of the World by Marketforce, Blue Fin Building, 110 Southwark Street, London, SE1 0SU Disclaimer The publisher cannot accept responsibility for any unsolicited material lost or damaged in the post. All text and layout is the copyright of Imagine Publishing Ltd. Nothing in this bookazine may be reproduced in whole or part without the written permission of the publisher. All copyrights are recognised and used specifically for the purpose of criticism and review. Although the bookazine has endeavoured to ensure all information is correct at time of print, prices and availability may change. This bookazine is fully independent and not affiliated in any way with the companies mentioned herein.

The Canon Camera Book 2013 Imagine Publishing Ltd ISBN 978-1909758230

Part of the

bookazine series

Learn more about your camera with our handy guide

A guide to your Canon camera

Guide to Canon
08 Your Canon camera
We get to grips with the brands top-selling models

Using your Canon

46 Use your Canon to compose
Composition rules and how to apply them

86 Portraits

18 Guide to Canon lenses

Whatever the scene, let us help you capture the full picture

52 Work with lighting

Take advantage of different types of light

26 Essential kit for Canon

Gear and gadgets to help you take better images

60 Metering with Canon

Open the door to accurate images

34 Guide to Canon modes

Discover how your Canons mode dial can help you to develop your skills

66 Canon exposure exposed

Control the exchange of light between your subject and your sensor

74 Shutter speeds
Create special effects and more

78 Master HDR on your Canon

Set up and shoot perfect HDR images

26 Essential kit

Whatever the scene, let us help you capture it Canon has long been a brand

that photographers from all over the world could trust

148 Master travel photography

Advanced techniques
86 Shoot better portraits with Canon
Use your Canon to improve your portraits

Edit your images



Shoot architecture

98 Creative landscapes with Canon

The mindset, potential and elation

Editing your Canon images

166 The essential guide to editing
Transform images from average to awesome

110 Working with Wildlife

Advice on how to capture wildlife

174 Fix your photos

Vital edits and how to achieve them

120 Shoot for sport on Canon

Improve your action-packed portfolio

180 Smooth skin

How to get perfect skin in your snaps

130 Urban landscapes

From skyscrapers to street life

182 Master RAW conversion

Get the most out of your file processing

140 Use Canon to shoot in black & white

Create contrast and elegance

184 Fix photos in Camera Raw

Transform your photos instantly

148 Travel the world with your Canon

187 Create an action

Reduce your editing time

140 Shoot for monochrome

Capture shots of people and places

156 Capture architecture

Explore your options for shooting buildings

188 Restore your old photos

Bring fading photos back to life with these Photoshop techniques


Your Canon camera

Canon camera
We get to grips with the big brands top-selling models to help you learn more about your camera

A guide to your


Your Canon camera

anon has long been a brand that photographers from all walks of life, from all over the world, could trust. Regardless of brand persuasion most photographers will acknowledge that Canon has a reputation for crafting cameras that present cuttingedge technology in durable bodies, capable of capturing industry-leading image quality. The brand divides its product line into two main portfolios: compacts and CSC/DSLRs. Its compact collection consists of two styles of camera: PowerShot and IXUS, and these fall into six different genres to target various demographics: expert, bridge, superzoom, Wi-Fi, point-and shoot, and rugged. The compact range is also sectioned into series for a more dened approach for

penetrating each market sector. So the PowerShot G and S series offer high-end features with full manual control, whereas the main boast of the PowerShot SX-series is powerful optical zooms. The PowerShot N-series presents creative shooting in an Any Way Up camera design, while the PowerShot A-series gets back to basics for beginners, and the waterproof PowerShot D-Series is tough enough to appease the most demanding outdoor enthusiast. Completing Canons compact line-up is the fashion-savvy IXUS range; presenting style in conjunction with substance. The EOS product catalogue of CSCs and DSLRs is separated into three sections: beginner, enthusiast and professional. The cameras residing in the beginner

arena are intended to support novice shooters as they make the step up from compacts to cameras that use interchangeable lenses. Here we nd Canons rst and only CSC the EOS M plus DSLRs: EOS 1000D, 100D, 600D and 700D, all of which combine helpful automatic features with creative tools and manual modes for when the shooter is ready for more control. The enthusiast branch includes the EOS 60D, 70D, 7D and 6D. The remit of the professional range is to provide an exceptional standard of image quality for the most demanding users and stocks the EOS 5D Mark III, EOS-1D X and EOS-1D C. Over the next ten pages well explain what some of the brands models have to offer, helping you to nd the perfect shooting partner for your photography.

Canon has a reputation for crafting cameras that present cutting-edge technology in durable bodies


Your Canon camera: Professional

The 100 per cent viewfinder is big and bright and the cameras autofocus system is among the best in its class

Canon EOS 5D MarkIII F

Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Lens data/Zoom Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Connectivity Weight Dimensions Batteries Storage LCD Viewnder Canon EOS 5D Mark III 3,000/$3,500 (body) 22.3MP 5,760 x 3,840 36 x 24mm CMOS 1/8000sec Auto, 100-25600 in 1/3 stops, can be extended to 50-102400 By lens Auto+, Program, Shutter priority, Aperture priority, Manual, Bulb CW, S, M No built-in flash USB 2.0, HDMI 950g 152 x 116 x 76mm Rechargeable Li-ion Compact Flash and SD 3.2 inches Optical pentaprism, 100% coverage and 0.71x magnification

One of Canons most popular models is a great choice for pros SRP: 3,000/$3,500
The image quality is absolutely superb and we were suitably impressed by the detail and colour in all our test images. Canon has included the new DIGIC 5+ processor in the 5D Mark III and the cameras general performance is fantastic. Even difcult scenes are rendered successfully, and for the most awkward subjects with extreme contrast, the built-in HDR feature is extremely useful. Canons recommended retail price has the EOS 5D Mark III at 3,000. This is where it starts to look rather expensive next to rival models, which offer signicantly higher resolution with a slightly lighter price tag. However, it really isnt easy to fault the EOS 5D Mark III, and Canon has clearly listened to photographers and focused its attention quite specically on improving areas of concern with the Mark II. The only thing that really seems to be missing from the camera is a built-in ash but this camera, otherwise, is a awless beauty.

or many, the EOS 5D Mark III represents an ideal compromise between high-resolution digital capture and ease of workow. The magnesium alloy body of the Canon EOS 5D Mark III feels solid and substantial, though its weight is by no means excessive, while the ergonomics are good overall and the cameras grip is very comfortable and pleasant to use. As you would expect from a camera at this price point, all the controls have a reliable and solid feel to them. The Quick Control dial, which allows instant access to Exposure Compensation in Aperture and Shutter Priority modes, can be locked to prevent unwanted adjustments. The 100 per cent viewnder is big and bright, which is one of the key advantages of full-frame shooting and one of the rst things that you will notice if you are used to using a crop-sensor camera. The cameras autofocus system is top notch, and represents a massive improvement on the nine focus points available in the Canon EOS 5D Mark II, with 61 autofocus points 41 of which are cross-type. These gures do vary slightly with some lenses but with the EF 24-70mm L II USM lens that we were using for our test, we had full access to the entire AF range and simply couldnt fault the speed, accuracy and overall reliability of the autofocus, with even the outer AF points performing highly responsively.

The latest in a line of popular cameras, its a great upgrade on the Mark II for the AF performance alone. The image quality is excellent; its easy to use, and its built with professional protographers in mind


Your Canon camera: Professional

Canon EOS-1D X
The rst of the next generation of elite shooters

SRP: 5,299/$6,799

Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Canon EOS-1D X 5,299/$6,799 18.1MP 5184 x 3456 36 x 24mm full-frame 18.1MP CMOS sensor Lens data/Zoom/Focus Lens dependent Shutter speed 30-1/8000sec ISO sensitivity 100-51200, expanded to 204800 Exposure modes P, S, A, M, Auto Metering options CW, E, P, S Flash modes E-TTL II Auto Flash, Metered Manual Weight 1340g Dimensions 158 x 163.6 x 82.7mm

trictly targeting professional photographers, the new 1 series camera combines speed with image quality, delivering a stronger shooting performance than ever witnessed before. The Canon EOS-1D X teams a full frame 18.1 MP sensor with the Dual DIGIC 5+ processor that hands the users greater exibility over depth of eld and produces pictures that exhibit rich, crisp details even when printed as large as A2. Sports, action and wildlife pros will rejoice at its shooting speed of 12fps, or 14fps in High Speed mode with mirror lock up, which can run to a maximum of 180 large JPEGs or 38 RAW les, and at ISO 32000 low-light enthusiasts can power out a phenomenal 10fps. Add to that a native gamut of ISO 100-51200 that can then be extended to a colossal ISO 204800, and the 1D X looks set to succeed in a very competitive market place. Amassing a muscle-straining bulk of 1340g, the 1D X is not for the faint hearted. Combine this with its large price tag and the camera falls perfectly in line with its target demographic. Theres no question that it is a heavy (and expensive) piece of kit, but it absolutely feels as well-made as it looks with vertical and horizontal grip on offer for easier handling. On the rear sits a larger than average 3.2 LCD outputting a relatively high resolution of 1,040k dots. A self cleaning sensor unit resides inside the camera, ridding the full-frame sensor of dirt and build up.

Theres no question that its a solid piece of kit, but it feels as well-made as it looks with vertical and horizontal grip on offer for easier handling

An equally viable option for semi-professionals moving up the DSLR ladder or for those upgrading from older shooters in the professional range, such as the brands stalwart camera the 5D

Canon EOS-1D C
Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Canon EOS-1D C 12,000/$15,000 18.1MP 5184 x 3456 36 x 24mm full-frame 18.1MP CMOS sensor Lens data/Zoom/Focus Lens dependent Shutter speed 30-1/8000 sec ISO sensitivity 100-51200, expanded to 204800 Exposure modes P, S, A, M, Auto Metering options CW, E, P, S Flash modes E-TTL II Auto Flash, Metered Manual Weight 1355g Dimensions 158 x 163.6 x 82.7mm

SRP: 12,000/$15,000

Fitting high-end recording technology into the form of a DSLR

(1920 x 1080 pixels) making the DSLR an ideal choice for those working in motion picture and television production. Whats more users can vary the capture rate from 24p to 60p for fast-moving or slow motion scenes and can enjoy complete control over exposure, audio capture and compression. The enviable native sensitivity extends from ISO 100 to 25600 for movies and ISO 51200 for stills, expanding to ISO 204800 making high-quality handheld night shooting a realistic possibility. Most impressive here perhaps, is the built-in Canon Log Gamma that captures footage with rich graduation expression that is synonymous with industrystandard cinematography, maximising both highlight and shadow detail retention. As the professionally-tailored 1D C matches the majority of the 1D Xs high-end feature arsenal, it isnt surprising that the two cameras weight is nearly identical with the former weighing in at 1355g.

Users can vary the capture rate from 24p to 60p for fast-moving or slow motion scenes

recision-engineered for professional lmographers, the Canon EOS-1D C shares many of the specications enjoyed by the Canon EOS-1D X such as the 18.1-megapixel full-frame CMOS sensor but adds video recording at a cinematic 4k (4096 x 2160 pixels) as well as Full HD resolution

The 1D Cs versatility means that its both a portable camera for high-quality movie-capture for film pros, as well as providing professional photographers with the means to sample highend film production
THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 11 Your Canon camera: Semi-pro

The EOS 6D does a great job at accurately metering the light for the best exposure results

Canon EOS 6D
Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Lens data Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Connectivity Weight Dimensions Batteries Storage LCD Viewnder: Canon EOS 6D 1,799/$2,099 (body only) 20.2 MP 5,472 x 3,648 36 x 24mm CMOS By lens By lens By lens 30-1/4000sec A, 100-25600 (expandable 50-102,400) P, A, S, M, Scene CW, S, Evaluative, Partial N/A HDMI mini, USB 755g (including battery) 144.5 x 110.5 x 71.2mm Li-ion SD / SDHC / SDXC 3 Optical pentaprism

Canons affordable full-frame ticks all the boxes on paper but how does it fare in the ever-expanding market? SRP: 1,799/$2,099

he EOS 6D is currently Canons smallest and lightest full-frame DSLR, which makes it the perfect companion on longer shoots and excursions. The controls are easy to navigate so you can change your exposure settings effortlessly during a shoot, and theres even a handy locking button around the mode dial thatll ensure that the mode youre working in doesnt change. The camera is pretty quick to focus and it offers an 11-point AF array; this is noticeably a lot less than the DX-format EOS 7D. However, youve got to expect some compromise for an affordable full-frame model. The EOS 6D does a great job at accurately metering the light for the best exposure results, even when faced with challenging light conditions. Theres also a multiple exposure mode so you can make the most of the shadows, midtones and highlights in the scene. Landscape shooters will also appreciate the in-built Live View mode and single-axis electronic level, which helps to ensure all of your horizons appear perfectly straight incamera. Wildlife photographers will also value the added silent-shutter mode, which enables you to shoot discreetly. Studio shooters, on the other hand, may nd that the EOS 6D isnt as well prepared for ash photography. If you dont have a wireless studio setup, youll be let down by

the absent ash sync port on the cameras body, which is present in all of Canons other full-frame models. You can still buy an adapter for the hotshoe of course. The cameras lower-than-expected megapixel amount has no bearing on the 6Ds image quality. We noted fantastic detail and warm, rich colour reproduction both reputable Canon traits. Shots also appeared perfectly sharp and well balanced in terms of exposure. Overall, the EOS 6D offers fantastic image quality and then some. In addition to great stills, the camera also records highquality video footage. Keen videographers can switch seamlessly between stills and video via the dedicated dial on the back of the camera body. In this mode users can set their desired recording quality and frame rate, which includes full 1080p HD at 25 and 30fps, and 720p HD at 50 and 60fps.

The EOS 6D is an impressive mid-range fullframe DSLR thats suitable for a wide range of photographers. Its aimed at the price-conscious consumer who wants pro-level kit and high image quality without it costing them the earth


Your Canon camera: Semi-pro

Canon EOS 60D

Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Lens data Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Weight Dimensions Canon EOS 60D 890/$899 18MP 5,184 3,456 22.3mm x 14.9mm CMOS EF/EF-S Lens dependent Lens dependent 30-1/8000sec A, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400 Auto P, A, S, M CW, S, Evaluative, Partial A, M, RE 775g 144.5 x 105.8 x 78.6mm

SRP: 890/$899

Despite being upstaged by newer models, the 60D is still an affordable and safe bet

aunched in 2010, the Canon EOS 60D is getting on a bit, and as such isnt able to bring to the table the same high-calibre specications as more recent models. That said, it brings more than enough for the avid photographer, including: 18MP APS-C CMOS sensor, 3 vari-angle LCD, a wide sensitivity range that is able to extend to ISO 12800 and a 63-zone metering system. Although the cameras somewhat dated body lacks the moisture and dust protection of its peers and feels immediately more plastic, it doesnt feel cheap. The slightly lowered and curved accent of the shutter button makes for more comfortable shooting and its enjoyable audible release evokes a nostalgic sense of purpose. Surprisingly, the 60D only offers a 9-point cross type AF system, but in true David and Goliath style it is able to meet and in some cases exceed the reliability and pace of its peers. Its vari-angle LCD is a boon for shooting overhead or down low, and goes a long way in allowing photographers to more accurately perfect compositions. Image quality in most areas of critique is resoundingly impressive. Colour interpretation is accurate, with bright, rich and honest hues provided throughout the cameras settings. The only area of weakness here, which is a tell-tale sign of the cameras age, is its noise performance, with evidence creeping in as low as ISO 800 and by ISO 6400 results are fairly distorted.

Its vari-angle LCD is a boon for shooting overheard or down low, and goes a long way in allowing photographers to more accurately perfect compositions

It may be showing its age, especially with newer models releasing every year, but the EOS 60D is still a more than capable DSLR with great image and build quality. Another great thing about this camera is its affordable price point

Canon EOS 7D
Technical data
Canon EOS 7D 1,700/$2,600 18.MP 5184 x 3456 22.3 x 14.9mm APS-C 18MP CMOS sensor Lens data/Zoom/Focus Lens dependent Shutter speed 30-1/8000sec ISO sensitivity 100-6400, expanded to 12800 Exposure modes P, S, A, M, Auto Metering options Evaluative, Partial, Spot, Centre weighted Flash modes A, M, MF, IST Weight 820g Dimensions 148.2 x 110.7 x 73.5mm Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information

SRP: 1,700/$2,600

Launched nearly half a decade ago, the 7D is still favoured by semi-professionals

blowing up high resolution pictures into large, walladorning prints. Next up is an ISO range that travels from ISO 100 to 6400, and yet can be extended to 12,800 which is more than adequate for the needs of most photographers, even those with a penchant for nocturnal shooting. The 7D also provides an 8fps burst mode, Full HD movie-capturing, a 19-point AF system, 63-zone metering, an electronic level for straighter compositions and an integrated Speedlite transmitter for controlling the camera remotely. Build quality, as with many Canon products, is superb. Its appearance and form follow the brands tradition of logically positioning controls at streamlined and intuitive places for easy access while shooting. Its magnesium alloy construction feels well-made and tough. However its battery and memory card doors are fashioned from plastic, yet like the rest of the device these areas easily convey a sense of durability.

Because its high-end feature set was so cutting edge, the Canon 7D effortlessly outshines cameras half its age

ake a look at the Canon 7Ds spec sheet and youd be forgiven for thinking it was a recent launch. In fact the prosumer shooter was introduced way back in 2009 and yet because its high-end feature set was so cutting edge it effortlessly outshines cameras half its age. Topping the bill is an 18MP cropped CMOS sensor that provides photographers with plenty of scope for

The Canon EOS 7D boasts a super build quality. Its appearance and form factor follow the brands tradition of logically positioning controls at streamlined and intuitive places for easy access while shooting

Your Canon camera: Enthusiast

With its touch-screen interface, it offers at least one very useful feature not found on higher-end models

Canon EOS 700DT

Technical data
Canon EOS 700D/ Canon Rebel T5i Price 620/$649 Web Megapixels (effective) 18.2MP Max resolution (pixels) 5184 x 3456 Sensor information 22.3 x 14.9mm CMOS Lens data 18-55mm f3.5-5 Focus/macro 0.25m - infini Metering options Evaluative, centreweighted, partial, spot Shutter speed 30-1/4000sec + Bulb ISO sensitivity 100-12800, plus expansion to 25600 Exposure modes P, A, S, M, Special Scene Flash modes Auto, On, Off, Red-eye Connectivity USB, HDMI mini, Eye-Fi Weight 580g Dimensions 133 x 100 x 79mm Batteries Li-ion Storage SD/SDHC/SDXC LCD 3, 1,040,000 dots Viewnder Optical 100% coverage and 0.71x magnification Model

The EOS 700D crams a lot of features into a compact body

SRP: 620/$649

he EOS 700D is a well-designed camera with a very logical control layout. There are plenty of external controls, which make accessing the main features simple and efcient. The menu system is also clear and logical, though once youve set the camera up to your way of shooting, you wont need to access it very often, thanks to the plethora of dials and buttons. However, the EOS 700Ds standout feature has to be the 3 articulated touchscreen, which makes the camera a real joy to use. Its use will be familiar to anyone who has used a smartphone. In Live View mode, you can move the focusing point around the screen, then use gestures to zoom in to either focus manually or via the highly accurate AF. In review mode, you can use gestures to zoom in, and then scroll around the picture to check sharpness and detail. In short, the performance of the 700D is excellent. The 18MP sensor captures images that have excellent detail and very pleasing colour. RAW les were just a little softer and had a touch more noise than expected, but responded very well to post-processing. One slight area of concern with image quality is with long exposures, where exposures of longer than a minute or two showed an unacceptable level of noise. This is easily remedied, however, by setting the in-camera long exposure noise

reduction. It doesnt have as many focusing points as some of the competition only nine but they are all cross-type, making the autofocus quick and accurate. The responsive autofocus and a frame rate of 5fps could give it some appeal to action shooters. The 700D is a feature-packed camera, but it certainly doesnt forget its target market. It offers a number of scene modes , such as Landscape, Sports and Close-up, together with handy on-screen guidance to the different settings. There are also several creative lters that can be applied when shooting) or post-capture, and include Grainy Black and White, Toy Camera, and Miniature. Priced at around 850 (including the 18-55mm kit lens) the Canon EOS 700D offers very good value for money. Although its branded as an entry-level DSLR, it has more than enough features to keep more advanced users happy.

There are a surprising number of features, like the zoom in and scroll option, which broadens the appeal of EOS 700D. Its a great option for beginners who are interested in learning the craft and for professionals seeking quality


Your Canon camera: Enthusiast

Canon EOS M
Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Lens data Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Weight Dimensions Canon EOS M 449/$599 18MP 5184 x 3456 22.3 x 14.9mm CMOS Lens dependent Lens dependent Lens dependent 30-1/4000sec Auto, 100-12800 (up to ISO 25600) Auto, P, A, S, M, Scene CW, S, Evaluative, Partial N/A 298g (including battery) 108.6 x 66.5 x 32.3mm

SRP: 449/$599

A great camera for everyday use, the EOS M is an all-round masterpiece

our years after the rst CSC hit the market, Canon nally offered up a contender in 2012 in the shape of the EOS M. As expected from Canon, the EOS M is packed full of consumer-friendly features, including an impressive 18-megapixel APS-C CMOS sensor, full-HD video, an extensive ISO sensitivity range for both stills and video capture as well as an intuitive touch screen. On test we found the EOS M was a lot like using a compact camera. Once accustomed to the touch-screen technology, it was easy to adjust exposure settings and switch between the available auto and manual shooting modes, as well as video. The camera, in general, proved a great option for everyday shooting scenarios and video opportunities. However, we found the Hybrid CMOS AF system to be a little slow, particularly when photographing fast-moving subjects. On the plus side, however, image quality is superb. True to Canons great reputation, all test shots appear detailed, sharp and full of rich and vibrant colour tones. We were also impressed by the EOS Ms ability to shoot in low light, as images appeared of a good quality with low noise levels even at high ISO settings above ISO 1600. The camera also sports a hotshoe at the top of the body. This is a great option for those who want to experiment with external ash and accessories.

The EOS Ms ability to shoot in low light is great with low noise levels even at a high ISO setting of 1600

There are currently two dedicated lenses available for the EOS M. However, its possible to shoot with all of Canons existing EF and EF-S SLR lenses too.

A great compact system camera thats perfect as either a back-up to your DSLR or for street photography. Its few minor drawbacks are far outweighed by its impressive results, such as the ability to produce great images in low light

Canon PowerShot G1 X
Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Lens data Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Weight Dimensions Canon PowerShot G1 X 700/$800 14.3 MP 4,352 x 3,264 1.5in CMOS f2.8-5.8; 28-112mm (equivalent) 4x optical 20cm (macro), 35cm (standard) 60-1/4000 sec A, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200, 6400, 12800 Auto, P, AP, SP, M CW, S, MS, Flash A, M, Fon, Foff 534g (without battery) 116.7 x 80.5 x 64.7mm

SRP: 700/$800

One of Canons best high-end compacts where you may not require the pop-up ash
Image quality is great although there was a slight tendency to overexpose which can be easily rectied. The lens is really excellent as is the built-in image stabilisation, which allows for a good four stops of steady shooting. The biggest revelation, though, is the high ISO performance. This is where that large sensor really shines with utterly superb, noise-free performance right up to around ISO 3200. Even at such a high setting there was still plenty of shadow detail and even ISOs 6400 and 12800 produced perfectly acceptable shots that could be happily printed at smaller sizes. Its one of the few compacts where you may never need to employ the built-in pop-up ash. Canon has stuck to the basics here great build and picture quality, top-end glass, a killer sensor and ISO performance to die for in such a small package. It may not be for everyone, but those who do fall for its charms will no doubt be absolutely smitten.

Canon has stuck to the basics here great build and picture quality, top-end glass, a killer sensor and ISO performance to die for in such a small package

he PowerShot G series has a long tradition of superb image quality in a small package, catering to a market that may primarily shoot with a DSLR but doesnt always want to carry one. This is a heavyweight camera, both literally and guratively, with a rock-solid body made from both metal and strong plastic. Reassuringly tough, it should be able to brush off the odd knock and scrape. Everything here points to a well-built piece of kit, as is to be expected from Canon.

Not classed as a system camera and not really a compact, that high ISO performance puts the G1 X at the top of its own field. Given its great overall performance and stunning low-light performance, its price is justifiable
THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 15 Your Canon camera: Amateur

Aimed at the less experienced, the 100D has the usual PSAM modes, with scene modes like Landscape and Sports

Canon EOS 100D

Its the worlds smallest and lightest DSLR, but is this at the expense of handling and features? SRP: 570/$649 (body only)
Technical data
Canon EOS 100D/ Rebel SL1 Price 570/$649 Web Megapixels (effective) 18.2 Max resolution (pixels) 5,184 x 3,456 Sensor information 22.3 x 14.9mm CMOS Zoom By lens Focus/macro By lens Shutter speed 30-1/4,000 sec ISO sensitivity 100-12800 Exposure modes P, A, S, M, Scene, Special Metering options Evaluative, centreweighted, partial, spot Flash modes Auto, On, Off, Red-eye Connectivity USB, HDMI mini, Eye-Fi, remote (RC-6) Weight 407g Dimensions 117 x 91 x 69mm Batteries Li-ion Storage SD / SDHC / SDXC LCD 3 Viewnder: Optical viewfinder, 95 percent coverage Model

nown as the EOS Rebel SL1 in the USA, the 100D shares many features with the 700D, including the 18MP sensor, a nine-point AF system and DIGIC 5 processor, but in a much smaller package. The body also contains the same hybrid AF system (combining phase-detection and contrastdetection systems), which improves the accuracy and speed of autofocus in Video and Live View modes. Apart from the size, the main difference between the 100D and 700D is the screen. The xed 3-inch Clearview (1,040K dot) screen is large enough, bright and has decent clarity for critical work in most lighting conditions. Overall, the 100D handles well. The form factor and minimal weight will appeal to those moving up from compacts, who are put off by the thought of lugging around a bulky DSLR. A small camera body is pointless unless you have small lenses to put on it and with some of Canons better lenses, the camera doesnt balance that well. That said, the target market for the camera is obviously rst-time SLR users, who are more likely to use it with one of the lighter lenses. The 100D is aimed at the less experienced user, so as well as the usual PSAM modes, there are scene modes such as Landscape and Sports, as well as special scene

modes including Kids, Night Portrait and Food. There are also creative lters available as one of the many custom functions. These include grainy black and white, soft focus, toy camera and sheye effects. New shooters will enjoy playing with these, but experienced users may prefer the greater control they get using Photoshop. The 100D records full HD video at 25fps with other quality options available. It works well with the new STM lenses, which are designed for quiet focusing when shooting in Movie mode. It wouldnt be your rst choice as a video camera, but the Movie function is a good addition. The Canon EOS 100D packs an awful lot of features into a very small body and at 570 it provides excellent value for money. Its clearly a beginners camera, but one that those new to SLR photography will take quite a while to grow out of.

For a beginners camera, the 100D boasts an incredible number of features, all contained in an extremely compact and light body. Its a great step up for those graduating to DSLR from compacts as it allows room for experimentation


Your Canon camera: Amateur

Canon PowerShot G15

Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Lens data Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Canon PowerShot G15 550/$500 12.1MP 4,000 x 3,000 1/1.7-inch CMOS, 7.44 x 5.58mm EF/EF-S 5x optical zoom 1cm 15-1/4000sec Auto, 80 - 12800 Auto, P, A, S, M, Scene Selection, Movie, Sweep Panorama M, CW A, Fon, Foff, RE, SS, Second Curtain 352g (with battery) 107 x 76 x 40mm (4.21 x 2.99 x 1.57)

SRP: 550/$500

The successor of the G12 improves on its every spec to be a great point-and-shoot

Metering options Flash modes Weight Dimensions

he G15 has plenty of positives on offer. The most instantly appealing feature is the new f1.8-2.8 lens, which improves quite signicantly on the f2.8-f4.5 lens that was found on the G12. The 5x optical zoom capability offers a focal length range equivalent to 28140mm. The cameras dials and buttons are all right on the money for a camera at this price point, with nothing that feels loose or overtly cheap. A comprehensive mode dial, traditional exposure compensation dial and well laid-out buttons are the order of the day, resulting in an uncluttered camera thats beautifully simple and pleasurable to use. The cameras menu system is equally to the point, and you can essentially just pick the G15 up and start shooting without any problem which is precisely as it should be with a camera at this level. The 12.1MP 1/1.7 Canon CMOS sensor produces excellent results, admirably supported by the muchimproved lens that Canon has included. Colours are reproduced very well and the high ISO noise reduction (which cant be switched off, only adjusted) in the G15 is capable of controlling both colour and luminance noise most impressively. The close focusing is also a real plus point, allowing you to focus as close as 1cm to your subject. Focusing, incidentally, is fast and reliable, quick to nd focus with hunting rarely an issue.

A comprehensive mode dial, traditional exposure compensation dial and well laid-out buttons are the order of the day, resulting in an uncluttered and simple camera

Its hard to fault the PowerShot G15 it feels like its truly built to go the distance, with no loose dials or dodgy buttons in sight. Its a camera that you can start shooting with pretty much straight out of the box and be pleased with its results

Canon PowerShot SX50 HS

A camera with a stunning 50x ultra wide-angle zoom lens
SRP: 450/$400
record button and rotating selection wheel around the D-pad. As well as an Auto mode, 58 scene modes complete the shooting setup. For the skilled user theres the full range of manual and semi-manual modes, as well as the ability to shoot in RAW. Handling is a mixed affair; while shooting well-lit stationary subjects was easy, composing and shooting more-challenging subjects in less favourable conditions was a struggle for the SX50 HS. Despite offering shooters Intelligent IS to counteract shake and Zoom Framing Assist to help keep subjects in-frame, the camera used for this review did not reect these features in a favourable light. The AF struggled to lock focus a lot of the time and it was incredibly hard to keep the subject within the frame over long distances. On the whole the camera metered well, but there is an argument to say that the camera does lean slightly towards overexposing, in order to retain shadow details.

Technical data
Model Price Web Megapixels (effective) Max resolution (pixels) Sensor information Zoom Focus/macro Shutter speed ISO sensitivity Exposure modes Metering options Flash modes Weight Dimensions Canon PowerShot SX50 HS 450/$480 12.1MP 4,000 x 3,000 1/2.3 type back-illuminated CMOS 50x optical zoom, 4x digital 0 cm 15-1/2000sec Auto, 80 - 6400 Prog AE, SP AE, AP AE, M CW, S, E A, Fon, Foff, SS 595g with battery 122.5 x 87.3 x 105.5mm

On the whole the camera meters well, but it does lean slightly towards overexposing

nthusiastic photographers seeking a costeffective alternative to a traditional DSLR should take a look at the Canon PowerShot SX50 HS, with 50x wide-angle zoom and an equivalent focal length of 24-1,200mm. Theres also an onboard 12.1MP HS system with powerful DIGIC 5 image sensor. As with most PowerShots, the Canon shooter sports a hardy grip, ash hotshoe, electronic viewnder, pullout and ip-over vari-angle 2.8 LCD, one-touch movie

Image quality isnt quite as on-point as other PowerShots, but this Canon superzoom is still an excellent investment, especially if youre looking for a camera that can satisfy your wildlife and sports photography needs

Guide to Canon lenses

Canon lenses
Whatever the scene, let us help you capture the full picture with our guide to lenses
electing the right lens for the correct subject matter is crucial. Your lens is the eye of your camera and records or captures what it sees. In terms of cost and performance, it usually comes down to the more you spend, the better your results; however, if youre just starting out there is no point in splashing out on lots of expensive equipment straight away as you rst need to learn the basics of photography. A good lens is pricey; theres no getting around that fact. The cheaper kit lenses will produce good enough results for beginners, but when you need to take your photography to the next step you will have to invest in a couple of decent lenses. A lenss angle of view is measured in millimetres. An ultra-wide-angle lens will have a measurement that is less than 24mm, a wide-angle lens ranges from 2535mm, and a normal or standard lens is 36mm-60mm. Past this number the lens becomes a long focus lens or telephoto. Another thing to consider when looking for the right lens is the construction. There are prime lenses, which have xed focal lengths (ie the lens does not zoom in or out), and there are zoom lenses, where the focal point can be adjusted. The type of camera you have will also affect what lens you should shoot with. If you have a full-frame sensor then the angle of view is the equivalent to how it reads on the lens (a 35mm will be 35mm, for example). However, if you have a camera with a crop factor then the focal length will be different. If the camera has a crop factor of 1.6x then a 35mm will be equivalent to a 56mm angle.

Ultimate guide to...


Guide to Canon lenses


Guide to Canon lenses

Canon lenses for landscapes

ost photographers will opt for a wide-angle lens when capturing a landscape image, as they will want to include as much of the vista as possible. For most, a wide-angle lens is anything that is lower than 35mm. But remember that if your camera has a crop factor of 1.6x then you need a lens measuring 22mm to have a 35mm equivalent. When shooting a landscape scene there are some technical aspects to be aware of. If you want ne detail from the front to the back of the image then you will need to set a narrow aperture, ie anything higher than f16. This is when the lens is letting in the least amount of light, so to balance the exposure with the shutter speed you will most likely need to support the camera on a tripod. You should also compose your shot in thirds and look for leading lines in the landscape to pull the viewers eye through the image. On a landscape shoot it is best practice to use the focus on manual mode, as your eyesight is far more accurate than the camera lens and you should be aware of where you want the focal point. With landscape photography you have time to consider and control all these aspects, so you should use the camera and lens manually. Some lenses are so wide that they take on a sheye effect and the image becomes distorted in a spherical manner. For the 35mm format, a typical focal length of a sheye lens is between 8-10mm for cameras with a crop factor, and 15-16mm for a full-frame sensor. Whether or not you should use a sheye lens in your landscapes is down to individual taste some embrace this effect whereas others arent too keen on it.

The wide angle helps accentuate the sweeping view of the landscape image


A manual focus is always best when it comes to landscape photography as your eye is more reliable and there are many elements in a composition to consider as the main focal point


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They may not be the cheapest ones available to buy, but these are the best Canon lenses for landscape photography

In landscape photography the rule of thirds is generally a good one to follow as the image rests easier on the eye


Look for lead-in lines in the composition to produce superior results. Make sure you have a point of interest


Canon EF 1635mm f2.8L II USM

The retail price of this lens is pretty expensive, but Canon users will not be disappointed with the results of its 16-35mm. The zoom range is highly adaptable to any landscape scene, and the fact that its teamed with a wide f2.8 aperture makes this lens perfect in low light.
Price: 761.99/$999.95 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 14mm f2.8L II USM

This lens goes beyond human perspective, offering a massive 114-degrees eld of view. Its ultra-wide nature not only packs plenty into the frame, but also gives a strong separation between foreground and background elements. A maximum aperture of f2.8 enables sharp handheld shots.
Price: 2,809/$2,359 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF-S 18-55mm f3.55.6 IS II

This 18-55mm ultra-wideangle zoom lens from Canon has a decent focal range and works superbly well at its widest setting of 18mm. It comes with Intelligent four-stop Image Stabilisation, which automatically detects panning in order to deliver the best results possible.
Price: 199/$249 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Some lenses are so wide that they take on a fisheye effect and the image becomes distorted


Guide to Canon lenses

Zoom lenses arent as fast as primes, so you may need to up the ISO
Try to photograph people with lots of character. Old people and babies work particularly well for this type of photography

Take a look
These lenses will deliver great outdoor portraits every time


If youre using a shallow depth of field, make sure you keep focus on one part of the image. In portraiture photography the eyes are a key part


Canon EF 40mm f2.8 STM

The ultrawide f2.8 aperture means this lens from Canon will cope well in low light and with street photography. The ultra-slim design helps the photographer from scaring their subjects with a large lens, putting models at ease while also producing stunning results. The newly developed stopping motor is smooth and quiet, too.
Price: 229.99/$199 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 35mm f2 IS USM

For those wanting a wider angle, this 35mm prime lens from Canon is popular with street and portrait photographers. Like the EF 40mm lens, the 35mm option has a wide aperture, but this one goes as shallow as f2. Make sure you keep the eyes in focus to get the best results.
Price: 799/$649.99 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web: Come in close to your subject and stand slightly above to produce more flattering results. If you position yourself underneath the subject the chin will look bigger


Black and white is much more flattering and portraits generally look superior in this medium


Canon EF 2470mm f2.8L II USM

This standard zoom lens is a multi-purpose option that delivers top image quality from the wideangle 24mm to the telephoto 70mm. A nine-bladed circular aperture produces beautiful bokeh, creating the coveted blurred background in portraiture. Its also well-suited to low light conditions with its fast f2.8 maximum aperture.
Price: 1,499.99/$1,499.99 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon lenses for outdoor portraits

or portrait photography you want to shoot the head and the shoulders. Prime lenses will produce perfect results and Canon has plenty of options. However, some nd these hard to use as theyre xed in their focal range, which means any zooming you do will have to be with your feet. Despite this, the unique style that this type of lens produces is highly popular with industry professionals. Many prime lenses are able to open to a wide aperture and this can create a dreamy effect where the subject is sharp and the background is blurred, which puts the focus on your subject. On some lenses the aperture will go as wide as f1.4, meaning its effective to use in low light and for street/ documentary photography. Prime lenses are also generally a lot lighter than zoom lenses, so if youre out and about they can make a considerable difference to your comfort. Again, your cameras sensor will make a difference to which lens you should go for, and some people may prefer shooting portraits with a zoom lens. Something like a 1585mm can be most useful, as the versatile focal range is perfect for close-up portraits or if you want to get a wider angle. But remember that zoom lenses are not as fast as prime lenses, so you may need to up the ISO to compensate for the lack of light. Its best to set your camera to anything above 1/125sec if you want crisp results. Zoom lenses will also struggle to create the unique effects that prime lenses are capable of; however, they make up for any shortcomings with their versatile focal lengths.


Guide to Canon lenses

A versatile focal range is important for travel, as youll want to shoot a variety of subjects Make sure you protect your equipment by taking out a separate insurance policy on it


Take a look
Travel light with these three lenses

Canon EF 18135mm f3.5-5.6 IS STM

Dynamic Image Stabiliser technology smooths out vibrations and camera movements so that whether youre shooting hand-held or recording a video, the results are sharper and better quality. High speed auto focus locks onto subjects quickly and accurately.
Price: 239.99/$249.99 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 70-200 f2.8L IS II USM

This compact lens is ideal shooting sports, wildlife and portraits, making it perfect for the wide variety of subjects that a travel photographer faces. It boasts rugged durability and a four-stop Image Stabiliser.
Price: 2,799.99/$2,499 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Intimate portraits make for excellent images when travelling. Having a zoom lens allows you to get in close


Back up your images whenever possible. There are many storage devices designed specially for photographers on the go


Canon lenses for travel

f youre the adventurous type, then you may nd yourself on many big trips to some remote places. If youre a travelling photographer then the biggest thing to consider in your kit bag is the weight of your photographic equipment. You may have to compromise on image quality due to practical reasons, as if youre travelling alone you will soon get annoyed with lugging around two or three heavy lenses. This weight issue will most likely affect photographers with heavy professional DSLR camera bodies. For travellers, having the lightest but most versatile lens possible is important, so a large focal range is essential. The best option to consider to take on a trip is just one zoom lens with a focal range from around 18-200mm in 35mm terms this will equal 27-300mm. This means you have everything covered from landscapes to portraits.

At the full zoom of a zoom lens you will need to consider technical issues such as lens shake, so always check to see whether the lens comes with Intelligent Image Stabilisation to help combat blurry pictures. Also, if you have a good camera model you can always up the ISO and shoot in RAW to try to correct as much as possible in the post-production process. This also means that you need to take plenty of memory cards and a portable external hard drive to back up your images whenever possible. When youre travelling as a photographer you may nd your expensive equipment could make you a key target for pickpockets, but dont let this put you off. Take out a fully comprehensive insurance policy and try not to show you have lots of ashy equipment. Some photographers deliberately make their gear look worn out by putting tape or plasters on their camera body and lenses.

Canon EF-S 55-250mm f4-5.6 IS II

Light, compact and great for those on the go, this55250mm lens from Canon weighs just 308g. It has been designed to be an affordable, versatile lens for generalpurpose photography and it is a must-have item for any Canon users kit bag.
Price: 329.99/$299 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

The biggest thing to consider is the weight of your photographic equipment


Guide to Canon lenses

Canon lenses for macro

n close-up photography, a macro lens produces consistently great results. There is of course a variety of matter that can be shot in macro form, but macro lenses are most often used for product photography, while bright colours, owers and insects generally make excellent subjects too. A macro lens could measure any focal length, but a 30-60mm range is typically used for product photography and small objects. A 90-105mm range is the standard focal range used for owers and small objects, and a 150-200mm range gives more working distance and is typically used for shooting insects and other small animals. There are a few zoom lenses out there that provide a macro option, but they generally do not allow a one-toone magnication. In macro photography, if you want detailed results then its best to use a narrow aperture, ie anything above f16. This ensures that the whole image remains sharp and in focus. But if you want to blur the background and have just one focal point in the image, then youll need to use a shallow depth of eld. Most macro lenses arent as fast as primes, and usually only open as wide as f2.8, but this should be enough. If you want to use macro lenses with a shallow depth of eld, its unlikely youll need anything much wider than f2.8. But those who dont want to take the plunge on a macro lens need not fear, as extension tubes are available as an alternative. Extension tubes are a fair bit cheaper than a macro lens and can be attached in between the camera and standard lens. Tubes vary in length and can be stacked, decreasing lens-to-subject distance and increasing magnication. Less light will reach the sensor with an extension tube, so a longer exposure time will be needed to compensate and a tripod will have to be used.

Flowers and insects make excellent subject matter. Set your camera up next to a pollinating flower to let the insects come to you


A manual focus is always more reliable, and in macro photography you have time to control this


Take a look
Get up close and personal to your subject with some of our favourite moderately priced macro lenses from Canon

A macro lens is anything that produces an image at a ratio of 1:1 or larger


Bright colours are good for macro photography and subject matter becomes more abstract the closer you get


Canon EF-S 60mm f2.8 Macro USM

The EF-S 60mm f2.8 Macro USM is the rst true Macro lens in the EF-S series from Canon. With its ability to focus crisp and sharp life-size images onto the sensor, the EF-S 60mm f2.8 Macro USM offers true macro photography performance.
Price: 539.99/$469.99 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 100mm f2.8 Macro IS USM

This lenss 100mm focal length enables a comfortable distance between photographer and subject, meaning that theres less chance of scaring insects and small creatures away. There is also less chance of casting a shadow and spoiling your image.
Price: 749/$1,049 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 50mm f2.5 Compact Macro

Light and compact, this generalpurpose macro lens can also function as a exible standard lens. The large f2.5 aperture enables fast, ash-free shooting in low light settings, and creates gorgeous blurred backgrounds for portraits as well as close-up captures.
Price: 247.74/$269 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

A macro lens could measure any focal length, but a 3060mm range is typically used for product photography and small objects

Guide to Canon lenses

Be aware that the more you zoom in, the more you will have to compensate with the shutter speed

Take a look
Get in close to the action with a long zoom lens

Canon lenses for action and wildlife

Canon EF 70300mm f4-5.6L IS USM

This telephoto zoom lens from Canon has a decent focal range and supports an eight-blade circular aperture, which creates a beautiful background blur and makes your subject stand out. Its an ideal lens for zooming in close to whatever action youre trying to capture.
Price: 1,600/$ 1,599 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

or action and wildlife photography it is essential to be at the heart of the action. But this is not always physically possible, so a zoom or telephoto lens is the next best thing. Most photographers wanting to get up close will use a camera with a crop factor as it makes a difference to the length of the lens; for example, a 200mm lens on a 1.6x crop becomes 320mm. There are other aspects to be aware of with a longer lens, as the more you zoom in the more you will have to compensate with the shutter speed. A monopod can be a good accessory to have to hand as it provides the user with exibility, yet it still adds that extra bit of support. Most zoom lenses also come with some type of image stabilisation feature. We recommend ACTION

you keep it on, but it could affect the continuous burst mode, so check to see how your camera model handles this. You may also nd that this feature uses up the battery life on your camera faster than normal. There are many lenses on the market to choose from and with long lenses they do become pricier the longer they get. This is because they are complex in their design as there are many elements that make up the construction. You want to be careful not to bash the lens when out on location if one of the elements gets knocked out of place, it can be expensive to x. You may not notice that its broken until you get back to upload your images onto your computer and realise that theyre all out of focus. COMPENSATE

Dont miss any moment and get into the heart of the action with a zoom lens

Make sure your shutter speed is set to compensate for the length of the lens. You may need to up the ISO to make up for this

Canon EF 200mm f2L IS USM

Fixed focal length lenses such as this one generally offer a wider maximum aperture. Canon offer a xed lens for every shooting scenario, and this one is geared towards the wildlife, sports and news photographers that crave a telephoto lens to bring them close r to the action. The lens also comes with a dedicated, detachable hood.
Price: 959.99/$819 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon EF 135mm f2L USM

Canons L-series of lenses promise to combines superior performance with superlative handling, and they are resistant to dust and moisture to boot. This the ideal optic for indoor sports.

Creative angles can work well with sports and action photography, so try to experiment 24 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK


Many lenses have the option to turn on the image stabilisation setting. This is recommended for action photography


Price: 1,359.99/$1,089.99 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Guide to Canon lenses


Canon lenses for creativity

reative photography has become increasingly popular as the digital medium has developed. Effects such as sheye and lenses like tilt-andshifts are at the forefront of this advancement. Its not only the high-street consumer that has become fascinated by the alternative effects, as industry professionals are using them for their advertising and editorial work to try to produce something unique for their clients. Tilt-and-shift lenses work by adjusting the lenss optical axis and controlling the depth of eld. They can be tricky to use, and even professionals have admitted they can have problems with them. Architecture and ne art photographers are the most likely to use this type of lens as it can help correct barrel distortion, which is a common problem with architectural images shot from the ground. It can also be useful in the city where the distance between the photographer and building can be restricted and a wide enough angle cannot be composed. The tilt-and-shift lens can also make subject matter appear as if its miniature by blurring the top and bottom of the image. This type of effect is appearing in most cameras as a creative lter, so anyone thinking of investing in one of these expensive specialist lenses should rst consider how much use they will get out of it. Fisheye lenses are not as tricky to operate as the tilt-andshifts and can simply be used like a normal lens. Fisheye lenses can be good for interior photography or where the photographer needs to get an extreme wide-angle view. There are some sheye lenses that are subtler and some that are more extreme; the one you should buy depends on the kind of impact that youre after.

Take a look
If you want to produce creative images then check out these lenses

Canon TS-E 90mm f2.8

This is a short telephoto lens that comes with perspective and depth-ofeld control, which enables you to produce images not possible with normal lenses. It is perfect for architecture, portraits and product photography. You can also focus down to 0.5cm, boosting its versatility.
Price: 1,669.99/$1,399 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Professionals are using creative lenses for their advertising and editorial work
The fisheye effect can work well with landscape, sport/action or even people photography Another creative effect, the tilt-and-shift lens has become highly popular in recent times


Canon EF 815mm f4L Fisheye USM

This robust Canon 8-15mm lens has been specially made for rough weather conditions, while the all-important front glass has been treated with a distinct uorine coating that makes it much easier to keep clean. For users with a crop factor this lens will equal 12-24mm.
Price: 1500/$1499 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

Canon TS-E 17mm f4L

The tiltand-shift lens effect has proved to be very popular in recent times; however, special tilt-shift lenses can be notoriously tricky to use. Optically, this Canon lens is one of the best on the market and is used by many architectural photographers, but, like most pro-grade lenses, the price is steep.
Price: 2919.99/$2499 Contact: 0870 514 3723 Web:

As the angle of the lens becomes wider, the image begins to look more distorted and curves the edges of the image around


Industry professionals are using these creative lenses as they try to produce unique styles



Essential kit

Essential kit for your Canon

Buying a Canon camera is an investment whether its a small compact camera for snapping holidays and events, or a bigger DSLR model for professional purposes or for pleasure. When it comes to adding accessories, the choices are so vast and stretch from gizmos and gadgets that are fun play with, to more serious pieces of kit such as tripods and cleaning equipment. Chances are that, if youre passionate about photography, your kit wish will never end as you aim to build as many options as possible to help you shoot better images using different techniques. Weve compiled a list of essential accessories that perfectly complement your Canon camera and explain briey about how theyll help you. We start by looking at tripods, often the most bulky piece of equipment after your camera

Gear and gadgets to help you take better images

itself. We then move on to bags and cases to keep your camera safe, as well as ones that are easy to carry from one adventure to the next. Next, we delve into Flashes and Speedlights and explain what the two terms mean and which model will offer you best results for your camera and level of skill. Finally, we look at remotes, SD Cards and the cleaning products you need to keep your gear in top condition.


WorldMags.netEssential kit
Keep it stable
Top picks in tripods and collars
BENRO TRAVEL FLAT A0180T TRIPOD 109.99/$177.92
If you travel often for shoots, youll need a tripod thats easy to carry and the Benro is made with this in mind. Save yourself the hassle of lugging around a full size tripod by investing in this model that folds up neatly for easy storage. This Benro model goes from 17.3 inches when folded to between 49.6 61.4 inches when you need to use it. The model also offers stainless steel spike or rubber feet and a removable twosection centre column.

One of the biggest enemies of good photography is the inevitable camera shake that comes along with capturing everything by hand. Mounting your camera to a tripod means that you can be sure the unit remains absolutely still as you snap a shot. This allows you to start being a bit more creative with shutter speeds and manual settings. Many of Canons compact range come with a built-in antishake function but this can only get you so far if youre hoping to push your artistic boundaries. There are many options, such as the Gorilla Pod, that are small enough to complement your compact gear but still allow you to nd interesting angles to shoot from and, above all, keep it steady as you go. We look through some top options on the market thatll be a perfect match with your Canon.


The Y-tube centre column of Giottos Silk Road series makes the unit 30% more compact when folded compared to a similar size tripods. It also features useful additions such as quick easy lever leg locking systems and graduated leg markings. The YTL9253 kicks off the series at an affordable price tag while still offering a weight capacity of 5kg and a max height with a centre column of 166cm.


Made with the professional photographer in mind, Manfrotto offers up a lightweight yet durable tripod which forms part of its 055 series. The body is made from 100% carbon bre and the centre column is constructed from aluminium. Though it is on the expensive side, it is a worthy investment for any serious photographer and will become an indispensable item in your photography kit. The tripod includes a low-angle adapter which can be used as a short column. It can safely take up to 8kg making it ideal for DSLRs. At its maximum height, it reaches 177cm, which is good enough for great landscapes and portraits.

Chic in black The tripod comes in a smart black finish and has a closed length of 61.5cm

Lightweight and durable The carbon fibre build can take up to 8kg of camera weight while weighing only 1.78kg itself

Flexible angles Angle the legs of the tripod at varying degrees between 23 and 89 to fit your terrain and required camera positioning


Mount your Canon point and shoot on this bendy legged mini-tripod that can be used on any surface or wrapped around railings or trees for very creative photographs. The custom stainless steel screw ts right into the bottom of your camera while the rubberised ring and foot grips provide stability on smooth or rough terrain. If youre a compact camera user, then check out the GorillaPod Hybrid model.

Mounting your camera to a tripod provides stability when capturing an image


Essential kit

Change the angle
Tripod heads to reposition shots

Tripod heads
When shooting with a tripod the legs do the bulk of the heavy lifting but its the tripod head that provides the functionality. Entry-level tripods often come as a kit with both the legs and the head included but as you move up, these two ranges of gear are often sold separately. Some manufacturers, such as Manfrotto, offer kits that include both components but its not uncommon for photographers to mix and match according to their immediate shooting needs. As with all camera equipment, the price of tripod heads range dramatically from the very highly priced top range to offerings aimed at amateur photographers. The most important aspect to keep in mind is how much exibility you will need while youre shooting. Highend models aim to give photographers a seamless experience when moving their cameras from one angle to another and try to reach as many angles as possible with minimum effort. Look for a head that is sturdy, compatible with your camera and that lets you move around as much as you need to for your level.


Built to work best with the 055 Tripod series, this head is extremely precise and offers extra smooth movements, which is especially important if you use your Canon for the dual purpose of lming and photography. Its most useful features include the 90-100 degree portrait angle selector and an independent pan lock. Its constructed from light-weight magnesium and it comes with a traditional disk attachment.

Look for a head that is compatible with your camera and that lets you move around as much as you need
Independent movement The three-way system has the added advantage of setting up angles independently using the locking handles

Monopods ha ve some signi advantages cant over lightweight an tripods because theyre d less hassle to set up than tripods. If yo ure using on e, th to match wil l give you grea en a head ter exibility Manfrottos . 234CR tilt he ad with quick releases giv es you the op tion to turn your camera to 90 degree s and shoot in both landscape an d portrait mode .

Monopod head attachm ents


At a basic level the design of ball heads are based on a large ball that sits inside a socket which is locked by a clamping screw. This model by Gitzo features the same basic design but with an added emphasis on balance and smoothness for the photographer. The head features all the standard measures and features you need to get your compositions perfectly straight and includes a 360 degree panoramic rotation.

Aluminum build The unit is constructed from die cast aluminum and has a durable and attractive enameled finish

VELBON PH-157Q 3-WAY PAN/ TILT HEAD 39.77/$63.92

This 3-way head gives you independent and smooth movement with its long panhandles. The panhandle is useful as it also locks the heads pan and tilt movement. The Velbon is constructed from die-cast aluminium which makes it strong and robust without adding an excessive amount of weight to the top of your tripod. It comes in at an affordable price and makes a good option for photographers who are just getting started with kit essentials.

GIOTTOS MH5001 3-WAY HEAD 53/$85.67

This reasonably priced three-way model from Giottos offers something to suit every photographer with precision angles and usability at the core of its design. Each axis of movement on the unit is controlled independently so you can adjust one angle without disturbing the other two. This means that you can achieve the perfect shot even without aligning all your axes. The two bubble levels ensure that your camera is sitting perfectly straight, which helps level out the camera and the X axis; and nally the large locking handles help you position it properly for that perfect shot.

Quick release If you work with multiple camera setups, youll need a tripod head that enables you to quickly interchange between setups without wasting time. Two safety catches allow you to quickly attach and remove your camera as you change shots, which makes for effortless interchanging


WorldMags.netEssential kit
xxxxxxxx Protect your kit
xxxxxxxxxxxx Robust but stylish Canon bags


Protect your gear from bumps as well as moisture and dust with an attractive shoulder bag thats built to t either one or two DSLR bodies and up to four lenses (depending on their size). The internal padding serves a dual purpose of offering protection and making it comfortable to carry around. The Velcro inside the bag is adjustable to t your particular gear. Theres also enough space for memory cards, batteries and other peripheral accessories.

Canon bags
A good sturdy camera bag serves the dual function of making your gear easy to transport and protecting it wherever you go. When you choose a camera bag take into account the type of camera you have as well as the amount of gear and accessories you have to go along with it. There are plenty of options on the market and Canon produces its own range of bags too. Whether youre a compact camera lover or you shoot with a DSLR, theres a bag made for your model and some options to make sure your bag ts your shooting style too. Be sure any backpack you try out has sufcient padding to keep you comfortable too. Shoulder bags are good options for a DSLR body with one or two lenses and small accessories.


Save some space for extra goodies and gadgets you might need with this over the shoulder bag designed to t a digital SLR body, two or three lenses, as well as smaller accessories such as memory cards and batteries. The bag is made from waterrepellent nylon giving you extra protection if you shoot outside a lot and encounter the odd shower or two.

Packing a ba important as g correctly is just as buying the co your gear. Yo rrect bag for u think that a ho impressive, but when it co st of zips look mes to getti your gear ou ng t wh down to ease en you need it, it all boils of access. Wh en you pack make sure th , at you cards and ba can get to memory tte these two are ries quickly as the most likely pieces of kit youll need in a hurry.

Pack mindfully

CANON DCC-1200 SOFT CASE 34/$54.88

If you own a compact Canon camera, then your main aim should be a case that keeps it secure and one that will allow you to access your camera quickly. Keep your compact safe with this neat soft pouch thats designed to t snugly across a range of Canons IXUS models. The inner lining protects your unit from scratches and the magnetic clasp makes it functional and easy to grab quickly. Keep your camera just a quick reach away by looping it onto your belt with the built-in belt loop.

Shoulder fit Sling the bag over your shoulder for easy transport

Extra space Fit your smaller accessories, such as memory cards and cleaning cloths, in the detachable outside pouch for easy access


Easy organisation Fit your equipment snuggly into the main compartment by adjusting the internal padding
Protect your PowerShot camera with a case designed and made by Canon to t the unique body shape of the unit. The custom case features a smart textured material in chic black which keeps the whole thing small enough to slip into a handbag or travel bag. The case also comes in a leather version to give your camera some extra protection in the event that you need it.


Essential kit

Canon speedlights
Learning to use a ash properly is a big step in any photographers career and one that will take your images to a whole new, well-lit, level. Many Canon DSLR models come with a built-in ash, but as these are attached to the camera they offer little exibility for how theyre angled and the intensity of ash they transmit. Investing in a ash means opening yourself up to new creative possibilities as you learn how light works and how to manipulate it to achieve evenly-lit and radiant results. Canon offers a range of speedlights from small and basic options to those that include ash to work alongside constant LED light, for video work. If you buy ash units not manufactured by Canon be sure to check that the one you buy will t with your camera. Most units come with ttings for specic brands such as Canon. Be sure to check you have the right one or ask before you buy.

xxxxxxxx Flexible lighting

xxxxxxxxxxxx Illuminate your images

CANON SPEEDLIGHT 90EX 143.99/$232.36

Simplicity is the main quality of the Canon 90EX. This no-nonsense unit is perfect for regular, everyday shots and is an ideal t for an amateurs kit. It is an apt speedlight for portraits and does wonders to evenly light up indoor scenes. Its slim design means it can slip into any size camera bag and its quick, discreet and fully automated, ready to be pulled out a moments notice. The unit is powered by AAA batteries so be sure to carry some spares with you.

ographers, ssional phot Aimed at profe eedlight Transmitters Sp of e oic ch signed to re Canons -E3-RT are de such as the ST hguns over distances of as compatible ency means e radio frequ up to 30m. Th ash without having to a er you can trigg it and a monster model rol up be in sight of one can cont such as this s. Units are to 15 ashgun dust and st sealed again moisture.

Control remotely


An ideal lighting solution for both photographers looking for ash and videographers that need a constant light source, the 320EX has a feature line up worth taking note of. The system is lightweight and portable but has enough power to light up a fair-sized area and distant subjects. For videographers the built in LED light means enough illumination to evenly light a scene.

CANON SPEEDLIGHT 270EX II 136.99/$221.07

For use with EOS models this ashgun has a lightweight and compact design while still offering a range of functions. One of its useful attributes is the ability to use the speedlight both on and off the hotshoe of your camera. The bounce ash head allows for variable angles of cover and, like other similar models, you can expect quick recycling times between ashes and accurate exposure even when youre bouncing light off objects to get the correct exposure for your shot.

Bounce the light Use the bounce-and-swivel flash head to direct and diffuse light as you shoot

Learning to use a flash properly is a big step in any photographers career



Off camera Use the wireless slave for TTL flash when you want to change things around and liven things up Quick and quiet The speedlight offers fast and silent recycling so you dont have to wait and waste time before taking your next shot
If youre a macro photography enthusiast then a ash to t your forte is a great way to enhance your images and open up new creative opportunities. The Canon Macro Ring Lite MR-14EX mounts to the front of macro lenses and provide ash and exposure as you shoot. The two ash tubes on the front of your camera can be red as one or independently from each other, and you can also use the unit as a wireless master ash.

WorldMags.netEssential kit
Secure it
Keep you camera by your side

If youre living lar telephoto len ge and working with ses, youll kn sheer size th ow by their at they could extra suppor do with some t wh Invest in a len en carrying them aroun d. s strap such as the Cano Lens Wide St n rap, wh black and, wh ich comes in plain ich is with lenses su compatible ch as 300 mm f/2 the EF .8L IS II USM.

Straps for your lenses


Keep your PowerShot camera safely around your neck with this smart and stylish leather strap. The nylon ends feed easily into the eyelets on the body of your camera and you can use the clips on the side to adjust the strap to suit you. The style of the strap ts perfectly with both Canons soft and leather case for PowerShot cameras, which makes this a nice all-rounder.

Canon straps
Fit your camera with a nifty strap to keep it safe from falling while you shoot and make it easy to carry as you scout new angles to shoot from. Hand straps are a good option for smaller cameras as they can be easily wrapped around the wrist as you point and shoot. For bigger DSLR models, and even for PowerShot cameras, a neck strap gives you the freedom to go hands free when you need to. Thicker or padded straps are preferable if youre out on a long days shoot or taking your camera along as you explore a new location. The wideness of the strap material will help distribute the weight while the padding will offer you some additional comfort. Straps are largely interchangeable between camera makes and models and most are threaded through a small opening on either side of the body of the camera. Care for your strap by keeping it away from harsh chemicals and strong sunlight. The most common damage to straps is fraying and weakening of the fabric due to excessive use and sweat.
Get your model Choose the strap that goes with the model of your camera or pick a plain one, to be on the safe side


Get more grip with this neoprene wrist strap thats ideal to keep smaller cameras securely around your wrist while being able to detach them if needed. The strap can take up to 1.13kg, while the thick and wide strip of material makes sure its a comfortable t. Attach and detach your camera to the strap with a plastic clip that loops through the body of your camera. Wrist straps are ideal to secure smaller cameras, ensuring you dont let go while taking that adventurous shot.

Brand Canon Wear the Canon name proudly with the logo stitched into the fabric of the strap


Canons wide straps are designed to spread the weight of your camera as you rest it around your neck. The durable fabric is embroidered with the Canon name as well as the name and make of your model. Look out when purchasing which model name you buy. If you dont fancy shouting about the make you have, keep an eye out for the plain Canon camera straps that will complement your shooting setup.


The JJC Quick Release is padded and offers added functionality by including a zipped pouch to hold SD cards or spare batteries. A tripod socket connects your camera to the tripod without removing the plate meaning quick transition time between shooting xed and handheld. The strap is built to be worn diagonally across your body and the extra padding comes in handy if youre carrying a weighty unit.

Wide fit The wide strap fabric offers comfort as you hold your camera around your neck or over your shoulder


Essential kit

Store the memory
The bank vault of your camera


This high capacity and high performance microSD is perfect for any Canon camera that requires the smaller sized SD card. The card offers quick transfer to your computer and is built to absorb shock so that minor bumps dont compromise your images. While some computers have slots to read an SD card, you may have to invest in a card reader to take images. If you have more than one SD card (phone and camera, for example), you can get a card reader that reads multiple cards.

Memory cards
Its all about numbers when it comes to selecting a memory card. Theres the size, the speed and, of course, the price. There are so many memory cards in the market it can be tricky to know where to start and what to invest in especially as large cards can set you back a fair amount. Compatibility is the rst thing to check while selecting a card. Point and shoot models such as Canons IXUS cameras will only take micro cards, while some PowerShot and most DSLR models take full-sized cards. There are also many manufacturers offering similar products, but, as your images are so precious its worth going with a reputable name recommended for use with Canon gear. The size and speed of the card you buy depend largely on the type and level of photography you do. Professionals, of course, need larger cards but if youre a casual shooter an 8GB card will serve you well.


The main difference between CF and SD cards is the speed and the size. CF cards are much quicker but dont t into all cameras, and theyre costlier. This high speed SanDisk card is available from 16GB to 128GB and offers write speeds up to 90MB for the smaller cards and up to 100MB for the 128GB card. The price of these make them an investment in themselves but one thats well worth it if speed matters to your photography.

The card you need depends on the level of photography Keep it safe that you do
For everyday shooting the Extreme range by SanDisk is a good choice. Available from 4GB upwards the card offers plenty of storage with the 8GB card also allowing for HD video recording. The Extreme is quicker than the entry-level cards on offer and if you felt the specs are higher than you need, then there are other SanDisk ranges to consider, but for a marginally higher price its worth the extra investment. This card is perfect for both amateurs and semi-pro photographers.

Memory cards are small and fra costly pieces of gile but equipment. A car d case is a good way to kee p them safe, esp you use a lot of cards and switc ecially if h between them. If youre out on a shoot and lling up cards quick ly, a good tip is to mark used cards wit h a small piece of tape to avoid shooti ng over them, especially if you re unable to back them up immediately.

SANDISK EXTREME PRO 64GB 93.99/$151.06

For professional photographers the SanDisk Pro SD card is a rugged choice which will do all the hard processing and transferring work for you. The card offers a 90MB/s write and 95MB/s read rate and its available from 8GB all the way up to 64GB. Each card has built in protection which offers some peace of mind if you drop your card or accidentally get it wet. These cards are ideal for images of high resolution and also for HD video footage.

Mix and match Keep the same card in as you switch between shooting HD video and images

Quick downloads Backup your images and video faster with write speeds of up to 20MB/sec

Canon approved SanDisk memory cards are compatible to be used with Canon products that require SD sized cards


WorldMags.netEssential kit
Keep it clean
Keep your camera dust-free
Dust off weary lenses with the Original LensPen that merges a retractable soft tip pin with a non-liquid cleaning element designed to never dry out. The pen can be used on all lenses including binoculars and eye pieces which makes it perfect for all types of Canon lenses too. The LensPen comes in different varieties but the original model is a good place to start.

Retractable Retract the pen tip when youre done. Remember to clean the pen tip to keep it dust free until next time. This is also good practice

Keep it soft The advantage of the soft pen tip is that it cleans the lens but it is also gentle enough so as not to damage the camera lens

Clip it on The pen design means you can clip the unit onto your camera bag and never be afraid of losing it or being caught without it


Use the SpeckGrabber pen to get rid of pesky bits of dust or debris on your camera. The unit has an adhesive surface to simply pick up the dirt and remove it. The pen works best with spots, hairs or dust youve identied as being a problem. Its especially handy to tackle debris on the sensor where you might not want to take the risk wiping over the entire surface. This is a handy way to clean your lens without risking it being accidentally damaged. Always be careful when handling the lens.

Lens cleaning fluid The Canon lens cleaning fluid can be used on all types of camera and surface lenses. Dont use too much of it


A good alternative to buying every component of your cleaning kit individually (which you can do) is to purchase an all-in-one kit like this Canon Optical Cleaning Kit. It comes with a soft retractable brush, lens cleaning uid, microber cloth and lens tissues.


Keep your EF lenses sparkling with this neat Canon Lens cloth made from fabric soft enough to wipe away dirt and dust but not scratch or damage the lens. Always make sure to store the cloth away and keep it clean so you dont introduce additional dust as you clean. Dont wash the cloth with your clothes and keep it free from dust or dirt. Never use a regular cloth for cleaning your lens as its the most sensitive part of your camera and needs to be treated with special care.

Cleaning products
In the last few pages, weve featured the peripherals that will increase the functionality of your camera, but keeping the main body clean and dust-free is just as important. Your camera represents a signicant investment and keeping it clean and in working order is important not only to make it last longer but also to get the best everyday results from it. Dust is the common enemy of every camera - from the smallest point and shoot to the biggest, professional model DSLRs. Dust and grit around the moving parts of the camera is just as

All in one
If you dont ow n a cleaning kit but are thinking yet of purchasing you , one, then pick up a cleaning kit r rst that has everything tha t you need includ ed. In most kits youll nd a lens cleaner wit h a cloth as well as a brush and lens tissues that can be used once and then thrown aw ay. Canon does their own kit thats useful to get new camera ow ner start. You get all- s off to a good in-one cleaning kits that are che aper than individual parts .


Whoosh away dust with this powerful blower that has a double valve system able to produce a powerful jet of air. Blowers are especially advantageous as you have no contact with the camera unit and so avoid risking adding smudges as you clean. Try it out between the creases of your bag after a day shooting on the beach - it works wonders on any remaining sand and specs of dust that may have found its way on to your lens.

harmful as dust around the lens and delicate sensor and lenses. A good basis for a cleaning kit is a blower and a soft cloth. Getting into the habit of giving your camera body and lenses a quick once over after use will go a long way and its always preferable to keep gear clean as you go than let dirt build up and then attempt to remove it all in one go. Always be very gentle when cleaning and avoid touching the sensor of your camera. Dont use harsh chemicals when wiping the body either; a soft anti-static cloth is all thats needed.

Getting into the habit of giving your camera and lenses a quick once over after use will go a long way

Guide to Canon modes

Explore your Canon cameras mode dial with us and discover how it can help you to develop your skills

Get to know Canon modes

our Canons mode dial has something for every photographer whether youre an expert or just starting out. Theres a variety of modes available, which range from basic auto to full-blown manual control over exposure settings. Whether youre working with a high-end Canon compact, CSC or DSLR, most mode dials feature the same essential selection of options, which means you can follow along with us as we explore whats really on offer here. Most mode dials are positioned on top of the camera, although some may be found within the cameras menu interface. Your mode dial has an important role to play in the photo-taking process, and can essentially determine how well your shot turns out. To use your mode dial, simply rotate it around to a mode that youre comfortable shooting in. If you are just starting out, you should select auto, while step-up shooters should move into a scene mode by selecting an icon that reects the subject theyre shooting. More experienced photographers, on the other hand, are likely to explore the more advanced P, Av, Tv, M modes, which offer you more control over your exposure settings and ultimately, the creative outcome of your captures.

Youll nd there is a fantastic selection of modes to choose from, but understanding what each one does is essential to ensuring you get the results youre after in camera. To help you get to grips with your mode dial and discover the secrets behind each setting, join us over the following pages. Well start by taking you through the advantages of Auto before exploring some of the most popular scene modes that are available. Youll not only learn what each one does but well also share some practical advice and tips on how best to use them. Enthusiast-level photographers will also learn more about the semi-manual and manual modes that are available to them, as we cover how to control exposure using P, Av, Tv or M. Join us as we work through the useful Programmed Auto setting rst, before exploring creative effects you can achieve in Aperture Priority and Shutter Priority (also known as Time Value). Once youre more condent with adjusting exposure settings, you can join us in Manual and discover how to use your shutter speed and aperture settings to get a well-balanced exposure every time you shoot. So grab your camera and follow along as we give you the knowledge to help take you from a beginner-level shooter to condent photographer.


Guide to Canon modes


Guide to Canon modes

Using Auto mode, you dont have to worry about understanding exposure

The Auto mode usually does a pretty good job at getting the right settings for you, especially on scenes with simple lighting

Auto mode
he Auto mode is the most noticeable icon on the mode dial and its also the most basic option. Regardless of whether youre shooting with a high-end compact camera, CSC or DSLR, the Auto mode is really no more advanced than the one you would nd in a basic compact camera. Designed for complete beginners, the Auto mode doesnt require any input from the photographer when it comes to selecting your exposure settings, meaning your only role in the process of producing a picture is to point your Canon at the scene and press the shutter. Many mistake the Auto mode for being the best option when it comes to taking a quick capture. Although its probably the most familiar, there are much better modes to select, including specic scene mode options that will change your cameras settings to suit the specic scene youre shooting, whether its Fireworks or Pets, for example. Another great option to explore is the Programmed Auto mode that enables you to make little tweaks, but well cover this a little later on. Using Auto mode, however, means you dont have to worry about understanding exposure. The Auto mode works by evaluating the lighting in a scene and determining what shutter speed, aperture setting and ISO you will need to shoot at. The camera will even consider the automatic use of ash. Auto cannot recognise what subject you are shooting, however, so although youll often get a good, even exposure, the settings may not offer the most professional results possible. Portraits for example are unlikely to include a artistic shallow depth of eld effect (blurred background), as the camera will have used larger f-numbers for the best even exposure. As youre without control over the exposure, use your Auto mode in other ways. Use it to concentrate on developing your eye for composition, as you dont have to worry about settings. Focus on framing well-balanced landscape scenes and positioning models effectively in portraits. Advancing your skills in this area as a beginner will come in useful when you begin to explore more

Discover the benets of shooting in Auto mode and get inspired to step up to your Canons scene modes or manual settings
advanced modes. Knowing what makes a good image is essential; the right exposure settings can come next. Alongside the Auto mode, your mode dial may feature a Flash off mode. This is essentially the same as the full Auto mode but it instead prevents the camera from selecting the ash automatically during an exposure when you may not want it. Use this mode when you want automatic results but want to avoid ash illumination on your subjects. Although its the least creative mode on your camera, youll nd the Auto mode useful for improving your framing skills. Once youre ready to move out of the Auto mode, explore the fantastic array of scene modes that are on offer before advancing to the step-up Programmed Auto mode and then further to Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority (Time Value) and full Manual control.

Using Auto mode, you dont have to worry about understanding exposure. Use it to concentrate on developing your eye for angles and framing


Guide to Canon modes

Scene modes
cene modes are a lot more advanced than your standard Auto mode setting. They are programmed to automatically capture your chosen subject using the best possible settings for the scene. The selected exposure settings are based on those that are traditionally used by photographers, in order to get creative results when shooting the likes of portraits, landscapes, sports and still life. The Landscape scene mode, for example, ensures more of the picture appears in focus by selecting smaller aperture settings to increase depth of eld. Other scene modes make similar adjustments to optimise images, including blurring the background in portraits. To select a scene mode, simply rotate the mode dial to one of the icons, depending on what youre planning to shoot. In some Canon cameras, you may need to select the

Discover the potential in your scene mode settings to take a little bit more control and start getting great shots from your Canon
scene symbol and then choose a specic mode from the menu options on the LCD screen. Scene modes are a great starting point for those who want to step out of Auto mode and begin getting creative results. Using scene modes, youll be able take more control over the outcome of your images, which should in time build your condence towards exploring the more advanced modes available to you.

Portrait mode
Q Select the Portrait scene mode to shoot attering photos of your family members and friends. You can use this mode to frame one or more people in the photograph too, provided they are stationary youll need to switch to the Sport or Child scene mode if youre photographing fast-moving people, however, to avoid blurred results. Using the Portrait scene mode, your camera will automatically determine the correct exposure settings for the shot. The Portrait scene mode is designed to softly blur out the background of your image by using wider aperture settings, which creates an artistic shallow depth of eld effect. This is a great way to isolate the person within the photograph, making them the main focus in the frame. The Capture professionallooking portraits without having to adjust your exposure settings using the Portrait scene mode Portrait scene mode also takes care of skin tones, as the camera automatically adjusts how certain colours are recorded, resulting in a much smoother and more natural nish. Although the Portrait scene mode takes control over your exposure, you can still adjust your in-built ash settings. Opt to turn the ash on, off or select a red-eye reduction mode, depending on the conditions that youre working under. Your camera will then take the ash into account with the exposure before you take the shot. You can use the Portrait scene mode to photograph people on location or inside. If it is possible, select the face-detection focusing mode to ensure sharp and professional shots.

Use your Night scene mode to capture impressive low-light shots using wider apertures and your on-camera ash

Night mode
Q You dont have to put your camera away after the sun has gone down; using your Night scene mode, its still possible to capture some great low-light images. Some Canon camera models will feature a standard Night scene mode on the dial; however, others can offer much more specic night modes, including Night Portrait and Night Landscape. You can use the Night Portrait mode to photograph your subject in low light using the cameras built-in ash. To ensure that you get professional and attering results, the Night Portrait mode will slow down your shutter speed so that once the ash has illuminated the models face, the camera can still record ambient light in the background. Youll need to make sure your model is stationary throughout the duration of the exposure though, in order to get blur-free shots. The Night Landscape mode, on the other hand, is ideal for capturing nighttime city scenes. It works by making the camera let in more light, which involves using slower shutter speeds. For the best results, set your camera up on a tripod to avoid capturing any unwanted camera shake which could ruin the end result. A general Night scene mode works in a similar way to the more specic Night Landscape mode in that it makes the most of limited light by using the best possible settings. You can use it not only when youre shooting in a low-light location, but also when youre shooting indoors under dimly lit conditions.

Guide to Canon modes

Shoot with your Landscape scene mode selected and you can capture vibrant vistas that are full of colour and light

Landscape mode
Q Capture vibrant vistas using the Landscape scene mode. Ideal for those who love to explore the outdoors, this setting will make the most of the scene by increasing overall image contrast and colour saturation. Youll notice in particular that blue and green hues really stand out when shooting in this mode, which helps to create a bold, picture-perfect shot. To ensure you get the best possible exposure in camera, the Landscape scene mode will also select a much smaller aperture setting to shoot with, which increases depth of eld. This will result in the landscape appearing much sharper in the foreground, remaining sharp right through to the background. Provided youre shooting in bright conditions, youll be able photograph with the camera handheld. Lowlight landscape scenes that are taken during the golden hours (sunrise and sunset) may require a tripod support, however. Supporting your camera avoids capturing camera shake, which is a result of the camera selecting slower shutter speeds for an even exposure. In Landscape scene mode you wont have to worry about getting a good exposure, which means you can focus more on framing. Follow traditional photographic rules such as positioning the horizon a third of the way up to get balanced compositions. Dont forget to experiment with perspective either; changing your vantage point can often completely transform a scene.

Close-up mode
Q Use the Close-up scene mode to capture abstract and detailed still life shots. Its an ideal mode for photographing owers, food, jewellery and many other interesting items. It works by selecting a wide aperture, which in turn creates a shallow depth of eld effect thats perfect for isolating a subject from a busy background. For the best results in camera, work in well-lit areas on location or by soft window light indoors. You can opt to use ash in this setting too, which is useful if you want to illuminate subjects that are backlit. Remember when shooting up close, youll want to capture as much detail as you can, so pay attention to how the light falls onto your subject. There should be enough contrast in the scene to add a sense of depth to the nal photo. Its important that you use the correct focusing mode too. Close-up captures that are out of focus are noticeable. Use your autofocus mode and select a specic area on your subject for the camera to focus on. Alternatively, use your manual focus setting, which offers more control over where in the frame the shot will appear in focus. You may nd that some standard kit lenses are limited when it comes to focusing, as all optics have a minimum focusing distance. Specialist macro lenses, however, are designed to focus incredibly close to subjects, which is ideal if you want to capture true macro shots or abstract images. Dont forget to use your tripod when photographing close-ups too to stabilise your camera, ensuring clear and crisp results that are free from devastating camera shake. Get some great close up shots of your subject using the specialist Close-up mode and a macro lens

Close-up mode is ideal for photographing owers, food, jewellery and many other interesting items

Guide to Canon modes

Kids mode
Q It can be difcult to get sharp and focused shots of children while theyre playing, but by using the specialist Kids scene mode, its not impossible. Unlike the commonly used Portrait mode, the Kids scene mode is designed to freeze action but still promises to deliver attering portrait results at the same time. Using this mode, your Canon will automatically select faster shutter speeds, which are ideal for capturing energetic children and even adults. Switch over to the Kids scene mode icon to photograph childrens parties or play dates at the park. Activities that involve a lot of movement, however, such as cycling, roller-skating and sports will require the use of the Sports scene mode, as its capable of setting much higher shutter speeds, which are necessary for particularly fast-paced action shots. As the Kids scene mode is an extension of the Portrait mode, youll nd it also has a attering effect on your young models face. Youll notice that skin appears softer in pictures with clearer colour tones too just as it does in Portrait mode. Although the Kids scene mode can produce great results in a lot of situations, you dont always have to use it when photographing your offspring. Provided they are sat relatively still, you can shoot some great close-ups with the standard Portrait scene mode, which will creates an artistically blurred background effect too a result of the camera selecting wide aperture settings. As a rule, you should only need to use the Kids scene mode when theres unfolding action and youre afraid to miss a priceless moment and great shot. In those situations it is a very useful mode indeed.

Work in the Sports mode to freeze any action on the pitch. Using faster shutter speeds, youll get clear crisp results

Your Canon will automatically select faster shutter speeds, which are ideal for capturing energetic children
Use the Kids scene mode to photograph your kids at play. With fast shutter speeds you wont miss a minute of the action The Sports mode is ideal for wildlife and pet photography too as youll be able to freeze unpredictable movement

Sports mode
Q Avoid capturing blurry action shots by freezing it as it unfolds using the dedicated Sports scene mode on your mode dial. You dont have to shoot just sport with it either; in fact, its useful for other action-packed activities too, and can even come in handy if youre photographing wildlife or energetic pets. Switch over to the Sports mode if youre shooting your local football team, surfers on the beach or kids riding their bikes, and youre in a better position to be able to capture all the action as it happens. In fact, the Sports scene mode works in a similar way to the Kids scene mode, but uses much faster shutter speed settings and disables the use of ash. With faster shutter speeds assured in this mode, youll be able to shoot handheld and get up close to the action for more dynamic shots, which are able to be taken from a more unique perspective. To ensure your subject appears sharp and in focus within the nal photo, always check that youre using the correct autofocus setting too. Continuous AF or Tracking AF are ideal for use with your Sports scene mode setting, as they will keep your subject in focus as they move. Action-lovers can use Sports scene modes while they are learning, but stepping up to Shutter Priority (Tv) will let you take even more control over your action captures. Until then, Sports scene mode can help you get some stunningly sharp photos of movement, though.

This scene mode has a attering effect on skin tones so youll get fantastic actionpacked portraits

With faster shutter speeds assured in Sports scene mode, youll be able to shoot handheld and get up close to the action for more dynamic shots

Guide to Canon modes

Setting a wide aperture in your Aperture Priority mode will result in an artistic shallow depth of eld effect

Av mode
perture Priority mode is marked simply as Av on your Canons mode dial and is known as a manual-enabled mode. Using this setting, youll be able to select a suitable aperture for the shot youre taking, while the camera is responsible for determining the ideal shutter speed for the best possible exposure of your shot. Aperture Priority is particularly useful for stepup users who are keen to explore the creative possibilities manual control has to offer, without having to grasp the balancing act of exposure just yet which is something you need a good understanding of if youre working in full Manual mode. Most photographers use Aperture Priority to control depth of eld in their photos. Depth of eld determines how much of your frame is in focus. A shallow depth of eld creates an artistically blurred background, which is popular in professional portrait photography and still life. The effect is created using a wide aperture setting, or whats known as a small f-number (between f1.4-f5.6). The wider the aperture the more light is let through the lens, which is why faster shutter speeds are generally set with them so as to avoid overexposing the image something thats difcult to rescue in the postproduction stages. Although wide apertures provide more creative results, you need to be wary of extreme settings. By using small f-numbers, such as f1.4, you will be limiting your focus range considerably, which may result in only parts of a models face appearing in

Using a narrow aperture will cause the image to be sharp from front to back

Discover some of the fantastic creative effects you can achieve using your Canons Aperture Priority mode, which lets you control the depth of eld
focus when shooting portraiture, for instance, which is obviously not desirable. When youre exploring the Aperture Priority mode, its important to remember how f-numbers relate to settings. The smaller the f-number, the wider the aperture and so the shallower the depth of eld. The larger the f-number (f8-f22) however, the smaller the aperture is, which results in more depth of eld the image appears in focus from front to back. Large f-numbers are popular with landscape photographers as they can ensure the scene appears sharp in the foreground, right through to the background. For clear landscapes shots, start in f-numbers around f11; the camera may opt to select slower shutter speeds as a result so dont forget to have your tripod at hand to stop camera shake being an issue. The lens youre shooting with essentially determines the aperture settings that are available to you. Check the top of your lens to nd out what aperture range it offers. Top-quality lenses generally offer much wider aperture settings but are also more expensive than standard optics. Experiment with your Aperture Priority mode, to determine how essential wide apertures are to you shooting and whether its worth investing in a new lens. Use a wide aperture when shooting portraits to softly blur out the background and add focus to the model

There are so many creative uses aperture has to offer, which is why it is one of the most popular modes to explore when you are rst starting to experiment out of the comfort of auto. Using the sweet spot, or focused area, which is created by wide apertures youll be able to take great artistic images. Another advantage is that by using a wide aperture, you can let in a lot more light, which is great for shooting in low-light conditions such as at indoor parties or for night portraits. Start exploring your aperture range and discover how it can really affect the outcome of your images.

There are so many creative uses aperture has to offer, allowing you to take some artistic images


Guide to Canon modes

P mode
he Programmed Auto mode is marked as P on your mode dial. Its all too often overlooked as being a straightforward auto setting but, in fact, it offers a lot more exibility than you might at rst think, which makes it one of the best modes to explore after you get out of shooting in Auto and the available scene modes. Using Programmed Auto, the camera will determine the best combination of aperture and shutter speed for an exposure. Theres still room to be creative though, as you can take some control over the nal image results by adjusting settings as you shoot, which makes it a more exible exposure mode. By changing one of the settings during a shoot, the camera will take care of the other, ensuring you still get an even exposure every time. Its a lot more advanced than your standard Auto mode too, as Programmed Auto is capable of roughly determining what it is youre photographing so that you get the best settings for the shot, this makes it a great mode to explore if youre ready to take the next step with your photography. Unlike the standard Auto mode youll also be able to adjust other camera settings, including ash and ISO among others. You can set your ash to illuminate low-light scenes or ll-in shadow areas on a backlit shot, but if you want to work without ash, experiment

Give yourself a better understanding of exposure by experimenting with your Programmed Auto mode, a much more exible setting than Auto
with adjusting your ISO. ISO is an important part of the exposure puzzle, as it essentially increases the cameras sensitivity to light. This means that if your ideal shutter speed and aperture wont expose the image well enough, you can up your ISO to help lighten it up. Be wary of high ISOs settings, however, as they can produce noise within the image. If youre unsure, always revert back to auto ISO and let the camera take care of it. Once youve selected the Programmed Auto mode on your mode dial, the camera will meter the light through the lens; it will then determine exactly what settings youll need to shoot. From this, you can make further adjustments depending on what it is you want to incorporate into the scene. You may notice, for example, that the aperture setting is narrower than you would like. To adjust it and get a shallower depth of eld effect, simply rotate the command dial to set a smaller f-number. The same can be done to adjust shutter speeds too if you want to freeze action or add some motion blur. As Programmed Auto can produce endless exposure combinations, you can use it to shoot absolutely anything that you could want to. However, if its really creative effects youre after, you will have to progress to your full Manual mode or the Aperture and Shutter Priority settings. In the meantime, however, use Programmed Auto to help improve your understanding of exposure. Spend time experimenting with different aperture and shutter speed combinations, which you can then compare to see what really works for you. When youre ready to work in Manual mode, take the same settings from Programmed Auto and see rst-hand how slight alterations can affect the outcome of your shots. This really is a great mode for beginners looking to progress their skills.

Spend time experimenting with different aperture and shutter speed combinations, which you can then compare to see what really works for you

Programmed Auto is a more exible shooting mode for beginners

In Programmed Auto you can experiment with setting combinations without having to fully understand exposure


Guide to Canon modes

Use a slow shutter speed to blur moving water, creating an artistic effect that really stands out

Tv mode
ow its time to rotate the mode dial around to Tv (Time value) to select the Shutter Priority mode. It works in the exact opposite way to the Aperture Priority mode, in that while you select your ideal shutter speed, the camera takes care of the aperture to ensure a balanced exposure of your image. Using the Shutter Priority mode, youll be able to experiment with much shorter or longer exposure times, depending on what youre shooting and the effects you want to capture on camera. Using this mode on your Canon camera, youll essentially be able to determine how much light reaches the sensor from the lens. Faster shutter speeds, that are only a fraction of a second, will let in the least amount of light, so to avoid underexposing your image, the camera will compensate by using wider aperture settings, to let in a larger volume of light. Fast shutter speeds are ideal if youre shooting action-packed images, as theyre quick enough to freeze movement, preventing blurry shots. Always work with faster shutter speeds if youre photographing children, wildlife, sports or pets. Slow shutter speeds on the other hand, can range between 1/60sec to a full 30 seconds. An increase in exposure time means youll need to use a tripod to ensure you get a steady shot. As a general rule, its still possible to shoot handheld with the camera, provided youre working with shutter speed settings that are no slower than 1/60sec, depending how stable your handling of

A fast shutter speed has been used here to freeze movement and capture every drop of water

Learn how to freeze action and incorporate motion blur in your shots using your Canons Shutter Priority mode, a great setting for action shots
the camera is. To avoid overexposing an image that has a longer exposure time, the camera will set a smaller aperture, which will reduce the amount of light thats let in through the lens to the sensor. If youre working with extreme long exposures, however, youll need to use an ND lter to further reduce the amount of light that passes through the lens. ND lters are commonly used by landscape photographers who want to capture cloud movement or misty water effects in their scenes, by extending shutter speeds and using smaller apertures for increased depth of eld. Generally, long exposures are ideal if youre shooting stationary subjects under low-light conditions or at night. Some cameras even offer whats known as a Bulb mode, which means you can open the shutter for as long as you like, until you opt to press the shutter release button again to close it. This is great for creative effects and is often used to capture scenes such as star trails across the night sky. There are plenty of other creative shooting techniques you can explore in your Shutter Priority mode. Panning, for example, is a fantastic way to illustrate speed in a sport or energetic subject. Simply set a slow shutter speed of around 1/50sec and focus on your subject. Once you

Use your Shutter Priority mode to incorporate a sense of speed in your shots. The camera will determine the aperture for an even exposure

open the shutter, youll need to pan with them until it closes ensuring that you minimise shake as much as possible. The results should allow your subject appear nice and sharp while the background is softly blurred. You can also create a zoom burst by zooming out quickly while the shutter is open for a creative, directional blur. Youll nd some fantastic shooting techniques are possible in Shutter Priority mode, which makes it worth experimenting with a bit before youre ready to step up to full Manual mode.

Using Shutter Priority, youll be able to experiment with much shorter or longer exposure times


Guide to Canon modes

M mode
he Manual mode is the most advanced option on the mode dial, as it can offer complete control of your exposure settings. Rotate the dial round to M to select the manual mode on your Canon camera and then program in your ideal shutter speed and aperture setting for the shot. Using the Manual mode, its possible to experiment with different photographic effects and techniques, offering you complete creative control over the outcome of your images, although this will take a bit of trial and error until you are fully comfortable using it. Before you get ahead of yourself in this mode, however, its a good idea to get a basic understanding of what makes a balanced exposure. You can nd this out exploring the Programmed Auto, Aperture and Shutter Priority modes rst. Using these modes youll be able to select either your shutter speed or aperture setting while the camera takes care of the rest, to ensure you get a well-exposed image as a result. When youre working in these modes, you should pay attention to how the camera compensates for the setting you select as this will help you when you move to manual. If youre working with a wide aperture for example, notice the shutter speed setting that the camera opts for. You can then dial in the same settings as a starting point using the Manual mode, Use a narrow aperture to keep it sharp from front to back

Its nally time to take complete control over your Canon in Manual mode and discover all of the creative possibilities available
and begin exploring different combinations of shutter speeds and apertures. When youre working in Manual mode, select a shutter speed, remembering that faster speeds freeze movement, while slower ones capture motion. You can then select your aperture, remembering that the smaller the f-number the wider the aperture. Dont forget that wider apertures create a shallower depth of eld, which is fantastic for close-ups and portrait captures, while a narrow aperture (high f-number) keeps the focus sharp from front to back. As youre setting your exposure, always preview the light meter, which is visible inside the viewnder. This will give you a clear indication as to whether your settings will under-, over- or correctly expose the scene. Based on this, you can adjust your exposure settings until youre ready to shoot. Ideally, the marker should appear below O. If its too far to the right, your shot will appear underexposed; if the marker is too far to the left it will be overexposed. After youve taken your shot, preview it on the back LCD screen. Check the histogram, which will let you know how much detail youve managed to capture in the shadow and highlight areas. A histogram of a wellexposed photo should show a mountainous range in the middle; it shouldnt spike up at either end as this means you may need to re-adjust your settings. Once youve got a good grasp on how to achieve a balanced exposure, you can begin exploring all of the other creative photographic possibilities. Using a tripod, for example, you can extend the shutter speed when photographing a seascape and water will appear as mist. You can also discover the potential in wide apertures by embracing the shallow depth of eld effect when photographing portraits. Dont be afraid to experiment.

Using the Manual mode, its possible to experiment with different photographic effects and techniques, offering you complete creative control over images
A wide aperture will cause the areas surrounding your focus point to blur out


Using your Canon

Compose with your Canon

Using your Canon

46 Use your Canon to compose
Composition rules and how to apply them

Essential techniques for taking great photos with a Canon camera

52 Work with lighting

Take advantage of different types of light

60 Metering with Canon

Open the door to accurate images

66 Canon exposure exposed

Control the exchange of light between your subject and your sensor

74 Shutter speeds
Create special effects and more

78 Master HDR on your Canon

Set up and shoot perfect HDR images

Master metering with your Canon


Using your Canon

66 Master exposure on your Canon

Control your shutter speed

Using your Canon

Understanding the principles of composition can help to complement your natural eye for an image. Here is a guide to the rules and how theyre best applied

Use your Canon to

Using your Canon

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

Dennis Reddicks image of Selsey Lifeboat Station shows that empty space can be a strong compositional element in itself. Note how the converging diagonal lines of the jetty lead your eye into the smooth, still expanse of the sea
Dennis Reddick

Works best with



Using your Canon

Rod Lawton

Just by changing your own viewpoint, you can completely change the appearance of the photo
Shapes are one of the simplest compositional elements and work especially well as silhouettes. Here, a long focal length has isolated this boy sitting on a rock against the glow of a setting sun


The jagged, angular feel of this picture was deliberate and has been emphasised by the zig-zag arrangement of lines 48 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK


omposition is the way you organise the different elements on the scene in front of the camera. Its tempting to imagine that the world is just the way it is, and all you can do is just turn up, point the camera and take the picture, but theres a lot more to it than that. In the real world its usually not possible to move objects around to t your ideas but you generally dont need to. Just by changing your own viewpoint, and sometimes the focal length of the lens youre using, you can completely change the appearance of the photo and the objects within it. Composition in photography is like the rules of grammar in writing. If you dont put what you think in the right order, using the right words, with the right punctuation, no ones going to understand what youre trying to say. Its the same in

photography. If you just shoot at random, your pictures are going to look visually incoherent with no clear point of focus or meaning. But with a little compositional awareness, its possible to draw the viewers attention to your subject, create interesting juxtapositions between objects and get them to see and feel exactly what it is that you want them to. Composition isnt just about making the meaning of your pictures clearer, though. Photographs can also be satisfying, challenging or intriguing on a purely graphic level, and this is down to the arrangement of the shapes, tones and lines in the picture. The best-known rule for creating graphically pleasing pictures is the rule of thirds. This says that you should never put your subject in the centre of the frame, but a third of the way from the top or the bottom, or from the sides. In fact, many

Canon cameras can display grid overlays on the LCD or in the viewnder, which show you exactly where these thirds are. If you were shooting a landscape, for example, you might position the horizon on the lower horizontal third and a solitary tree on the left or right vertical third. This is a pretty weak kind of rule, though. Its a good fallback if you cant think of a more interesting way of composing the picture, but thats about all. If you see an arrangement which you think looks better, you should use it. There are other rules to follow. For example, you must make sure that your subject is looking into the frame rather than out of it, and you should avoid any composition that leads your viewers eye out of the frame. But maybe you want to emphasise the symmetry between the landscape and the sky, or the central, isolated position of a lone tree? Maybe you

Using your Canon

Rod Lawton


With a 100% viewfinder and excellent 3.2inch LCD, the Canon EOS 5D Mark III is a great camera to compose images with

Rod Lawton

This is the classic example of the perspective and movement of lines converging in the distance. These lines can go both ways, though! Because the train is pointing forwards, the movement is from top left to bottom right



Using your Canon


Dennis Reddick
Web: Dennis Reddick is a professional photographer who spends his time shooting stunning landscape shots of Britains South Coast using a selection of lenses and polarising and graduated filters. Here he talks to us about his views on composition. Composition clearly plays a big part in your photography. Do you believe in rules of composition? Rules are simply guidelines to help individuals think about composition. They are not cast in concrete or anything like that. If you did manage to make up a viewfinder with the lines embedded in the viewing screen and followed that consistently, you would more than likely ultimately wind up with some unexciting images. You can think about the rule of thirds when preparing to make an image and see if it works for the given situation, but dont let it get your imagination stuck in the mud. Do you plan the composition of a shot as you take it, or trust experience and instinct? Experience and instinct, mostly, which can only be enhanced by going out with your camera on a regular basis. There are occasions when Ive seen an image by a fellow photographer and Ive added a slightly different angle which, to my mind, may add a bit more character to the whole scene. How long do you spend composing photographs, and do you aim for one single right one or take a variety? Believe it or not, with about 90 per cent of the photographs from my website I have intentionally gone for that one right shot. I tend to stay with the camera fixed in one position for composition and shoot various exposures, especially at sunrise and sunset. What do you think is the single most important thing to get right when you frame a shot? Making sure there is no unwanted object or empty space which distracts you from the main subject. If I shoot an individual object I tend to compose it so that approximately two thirds of the area is filled. I have taken images with space as the main concept, but you have to be careful that it doesnt detract from the whole image. Do you have a favourite editing technique for enhancing your shots later, such as burning in, for example, and why? If I want to add a bit more depth or clarity, I tend to duplicate the image and add a slightly darker exposure and erase the unwanted bright areas. I then add a duplicated bright exposure to the unwanted dark areas. I find on some images this gives me more punch throughout the photograph than when using the levels or curves.

Rod Lawton

You can find natural frames all around you here the archway to a churchyard has been used to frame the church itself
Rod Lawton

like having your portrait subject looking out of the edge of the picture, because it hints at some unseen event and introduces a note of tension or unease? Rules are there to be broken, especially rules of composition, but this only works if you know what they are in the rst place, and you break them clearly and deliberately and for a reason. The arrangement of objects and shapes affects the meaning and mood of the picture, and they also affect the sense of movement in the image. The eye doesnt absorb the whole photograph in a single instant as a static image. Your eye moves from one object to another, sometimes in curves, sometimes in zigzags. This movement is a key part of the photographs appeal, or at least the extent to which it holds your attention. Its perhaps why you can quickly get bored with a photo that initially looks great, but become more and more fascinated by one which doesnt have a big initial impact but does have a lot of compositional complexity. The most obvious way to create this movement is with lines. These can be very literal, such as railway lines converging in the distance, or implied, such as the direction of the subjects gaze in a portrait. Pictures can have a single, dominant line or they can have a number of lines which direct your gaze in a certain direction, following a certain route around the picture, or form a more complicated interlocking structure. Shapes are very important in photography, too. They might be easilyrecognised shapes such as human gures or silhouetted trees, for example, which gain extra power when they stand out starkly against a contrasting background, or they could just be areas of tone rather than specic objects. These are just as important in terms of composition, however, because they contribute towards any pictures feeling of balance. Shapes can be used as natural frames to draw attention to your subject and to prevent the viewers gaze from wandering out of the picture. Look out for archways, overhanging branches, gates, hedges... you can nd natural frames almost anywhere. Composition is part-science, partinstinct. The science is the way elements of the picture work together and affect the way you see it. The instinct is the way you as a photographer combine those elements in your own unique way.


There are many different ways you can shoot the same subject. The spiders web in the shot on the far left has been used as a framing device to focus attention on the spider itself. With a very small change in viewpoint, the shot on the left shows that you can produce a totally different result. Here the spiders been silhouetted against the early morning sky to emphasise its shape


Using your Canon

Focal length and perspective

We normally think of zoom lenses simply as a tool to get more in or bring distant objects closer, but in terms of composition theres a lot more to it than that. Instead of using the zoom to change the size of the subject, try moving closer or further away and then adjust the zoom to keep the subject the same size. What you discover then is that the focal length you use has a big impact on the relationship between your subject and its background. A short focal length makes you get closer to the subject and makes the background look smaller and further away. A longer focal length means you move further away, and this makes the background look larger (its simple geometry really, but the effects become obvious when you try them out). Telephoto lenses effectively enlarge the background, making it easier to find neutral areas to act as a backdrop for your subject, or to emphasise the scale of a landscape. Its often said that wide-angle lenses exaggerate perspective and that telephotos flatten it, which is another way of saying the same thing. Stop thinking of your zoom lens as a substitute for walking, and start using it as an aid to composition!

Denniss eye for strong composition is obvious here. The horizon has been placed on the top section, and the strong lines of the partially submerged tree trunk in the foreground lead your eye straight to the distant tree on the horizon
Dennis Reddick



Using your Canon

Take advantage of different types of lighting to produce your best-ever images on your Canon

Work with
hotography is all about light; the word itself means drawing with light. The type of lighting that photographers look for, or try to create, is often the cornerstone of the images that they produce. This is because it directly informs the other chief fundamental of photography, exposure. Lighting even inuences the choice of lens, ltration and composition that photographers select. Its worth remembering that good lighting wont automatically result in a successful image. You dont always need dramatic, striking light to take a great photo either not every image is entirely dependent on the lighting involved in order to work. But its vital to understand the key ingredients of lighting and the way it affects the mood and feel of your images or else you are leaving a lot to chance in your imagery. There are three types of lighting to make the most of in your photography: natural lighting, lighting that you create yourself and lighting that combines both natural and articial light. Over the next few pages, well cover all three scenarios. The lighting that you use will depend largely on the type of scene or subject that you are photographing. Landscape photographers work almost exclusively with entirely natural light rarely if ever modifying the lighting, other than by using lters to control the way the light enters the lens. Portrait photographers, on the other hand, frequently work without any recourse to natural lighting but create the light that they use from scratch using studio ash heads and modiers like softboxes. In this masterclass well cover both approaches and give you plenty of practical tips and advice to help you improve your understanding of lighting. 


Using your Canon

Learning to manipulate the light is a key skill to master and will greatly improve your images


Canon EOS 60D

Works best with

Using your Canon

High-key lighting
Create bright and airy shots for fresh portraits with Canon
A favourite type of lighting among many studio photographers is high-key. As with many terms in photography, there are different ways to interpret this style. For some people, high-key lighting means very bright images with limited shadows, while for others it simply means very bright images with overexposed highlights. White backgrounds are a key component and punchy, saturated colours are often incorporated in order to add to their impact. High-key lighting sometimes knowingly obscures some details through sheer brightness and deliberate overexposure, which often results in a slight softening effect. In order to achieve the effect in a studio, at least three lights are generally used and reasonably powerful ash heads are required. The effect is often associated most closely with modern portraits and product photography. High-key lighting lends itself well to portraits in which the aim is to create an impression of fun and

vitality. Studio portrait photographers who like to capture a sense of movement and spontaneity in their work tend to favour this type of lighting as it complements this aim perfectly. High-key lighting also works well for portraits of young children for the same reason. Product photography also makes use of high-key lighting, as the overall brightness and bold colour palette creates a sense of vibrancy and sparkle. This makes high-key lighting a popular choice for food photography, as the brightness helps to convey

freshness where the colours of the food can come to the fore to imply a full avour. This style allows the product to be put on full display, with nothing hidden or obscured. Always be careful when shooting high-key images that you dont lose important details in your subject due to overexposure. If you nd yourself in any doubt, its best to err on the side of caution. You can always brighten the results up slightly in post-production later on, whereas retrieving lost detail from a shot is a much harder task.






Using gels is an accessible way of producing different looks in the studio and adding something extra to portrait


High-key lighting is ideal for producing both modern portraits and product shots. Images of food often work particularly well when captured using a high-key lighting setup




Top 3 studio lighting products

Lastolite 1.8m x 2.15m Collapsible Background
Price: 220/$400 Web:

Interfit RSBR1014 100 x 140cm Softbox

Price: 159/$258 Web:

Bowens Streamlite 330 Kit

Price: 527/$693 Web:

This reversible white/black background is ideal for high-key work in the studio. Its also washable, which is rather handy as white backdrops are prone to getting scuffed and dirty, resulting in a lot of retouching work.

A softbox is one of the cornerstones of any studio lighting kit. It allows you to produce a diffuse and attering light. They come in various sizes and shapes, so think about what you need before purchasing.

Two Streamlite 330 lights, two threesection stands and two lights with daylightbalanced uorescent bulbs, plus Cocoon 70 light tent and stand makes this kit from Bowens ideal for studio product shooting.


Using your Canon

High-key imagery is easy to create in a studio environment with just a few bits of equipment



Using your Canon

Low-key lighting
Discover how to capture atmospheric, brooding images with just one light in the studio in this guide to low-key lighting
Low-key lighting is, as you might well guess, the opposite of high-key lighting, and has long been a popular choice for studio portraits. Unlike high-key images, there are plenty of shadows present in the shot and black or very-dark backgrounds are used. The key element of low-key lighting is a tight control of the spread of the light. In order to achieve this, its very common for just a key light to be used. If a second light is to be incorporated as a ll light, this will be dialled right down and used extremely sparingly, so as not to eliminate shadows created by the key light. In low-key portraits, a hair light might be used, but a snoot or honeycomb grid will be used to ensure that this light source doesnt spill beyond a very specic, limited area on the subject. Low-key lighting endows a subject with a sense of intrigue and mystique, and is the premise of the classic Hollywood style of portraits. Low-key portraiture is usually combined with moody posing and expression in order to create a sense of seriousness and a degree of formality, with dark clothing usually used as well. The most important thing to remember with low-key portraits is that its the shadows that really make the images; in other words, low-key lighting is often more about what you cant see than what you can. Showing your subject seemingly emerging from the shadows makes him, her or it look elusive, enigmatic and important. Although we often associate low-key lighting with portraits, it works really well for still-life studies too. One of the best things about low-key lighting is that, as a general rule of thumb, it doesnt require a large number of lights or particularly powerful lights to achieve. In fact, one hotshoe ash unit placed off-camera and triggered wirelessly is absolutely all you need in order to achieve the kind of lighting required; your main challenge will be in limiting the spread of the light and preventing it from bouncing back off ceilings or walls which are generally white, reective surfaces. One quick x for this problem is to strategically position pieces of black card to absorb stray lighting. Black card will also work perfectly well as a background. Beautiful low-key portraits can also be captured using only window light. Brighter sunlight will produce a higher-contrast effect, but a diffuser panel can be used to reduce the intensity of the light. Alternatively you can simply move your subject slightly further away from the window and experiment with different levels of light. Low-key lighting lends itself very well to black and white, and if you search online for images with low-key lighting youll be presented with far more monochrome images than colour ones. However, theres no rule that says you cant shoot low-key images in full colour, so experiment with different settings in your editing software and see what you can come up with.






For low-key portraits, often only one main light source a key light is required. How you position and pose your subject in relation to the light will affect where the light falls and the shadows are produced

4 portrait lighting setups

A quick-reference guide to the key setups to try for sultry images

01 Narrow lighting

In narrow lighting conditions the subjects head is turned slightly towards the shoulder nearest the key light, increasing the amount of shadow visible from the cameras perspective. This will generally slim the subjects face.

02 Split lighting

In many portrait lighting setups, the key light is positioned at about 45 to the subject. To create split lighting, the key light is moved to a 90 angle relative to the subject, with no ll light, so that only half of the subject is illuminated.

03 Mid-key lighting

Mid-key sits halfway between low-key and high-key lighting. One light is required to produce the effect and the key element is that the overall tonality of the image equates to a midtone. However a grey background isnt essential.

04 Broad lighting

Broad lighting means that the subjects head is turned away from the shoulder nearest the key light, reducing visibility of the shadow side of the face. This can make the subjects face look broader, so it wont suit everyone.


Using your Canon

Low-key portraits look elegant, timeless and sophisticated. They suit subjects of all ages but are particularly fitting when you want to create a sense of authority or mystery



Using your Canon

Controlling natural light

How to get the best out of the light you already have
There are times when you have to work with natural light on a shoot. However, often the light does not quite deliver what you what you need and you have to nd a way to control, modify or add something to it, one way or another. Often, youll want to retain the integrity of the natural light rather than overpowering it, and fortunately there are some handy bits of kit that make it relatively easy to do just that. Two of the most popular and useful ways of controlling natural light on a shoot are to employ llin ash or a reector. The great thing about both of these techniques is that they can be used incredibly subtly, to the extent that many viewers of your image would not realise that anything other than natural light was present. When the optimum subtlety is required, a reector will work wonders, but you may not be able to ll in darker shadows with this approach. Fill-in ash is so-called because its purpose is to simply ll-in underexposed areas. In theory, modern DSLRs that feature complex TTL (through the lens) metering systems make ll-ash simple for photographers. The camera will tell the ash unit how much power to output in order to produce an exposure in which the ash is suitably balanced against the natural light. However, there may be times when you will need to use your cameras exposure compensation and/or ash exposure compensation to create the desired effect. You can also take advantage of the myriad of wireless ash options that are now available, giving you the freedom to position the ash off-camera while still utilising the benets offered by TTL metering. The only potential disadvantage of using ll-in ash is that, by its very nature, its often fairly obvious when ash is present in an image, which is where reectors come in. Reectors are a vital piece of kit when you want to work with natural light. They are available in various congurations, with white, silver and gold all commonly used for adding around one extra EV stops worth of light into the scene. White reectors provide the most natural and subtle results, while silver reectors will produce a slightly harsher (but not necessarily less attractive) feel to an image. A gold reector is more dramatic, as it inherently throws a distinctly warm glow back onto the subject. Because of this, the presence of a gold reector is much more likely to show in the nal photo. One more thing to remember is that you can use anything you want as a reector it doesnt have to be a purpose-made product. A piece of white card or a white shirt stretched taut will both do the job well enough to control the natural light. 

10 tips for working with natural light 01 SEEK THE SHADE

Look for a shaded areas outdoors for the advantage of softer, more even light, and a reduced dynamic range to work with.


A reector is incredibly useful for throwing a touch of light back into a scene and brightening up shadow areas.

What a reector cant handle, llash will. TTL metering will tell your ash how much power to output, and use exposure compensation to dial the ash down a touch.


This doesnt just apply to landscape shoots. Make use of natural light at the beginning and end of the day, when the sun is low in the sky and a beautifully soft, warm and golden light often lls the air.

When optimum subtlety is required, a reflector will work wonders

Quick gear guide The kit you need to succeed
Canon Speedlite 600EX-RT
Price: 470/$550 Web:


A diffuser can serve as a softbox and allow you to create a softer type of lighting.


Photographers often avoid shooting into the sun. But if you need to, its much better to deal with the issues than to have subjects squinting and looking uncomfortable .

Lastolite EzyBalance Card

Price: from20/$40 Web:

Lastolite Diffuser

Price: 90/$112 Web:

This professional Canon speedlite can be used on and off the camera. It offers plenty of power for fill-in flash techniques with natural light and can be controlled remotely using a built-in radio trigger from up to 30 metres.

Mixed lighting outdoors can throw your cameras exposure metering and white balance off course so having one of these compact, collapsible cards with you is the ideal solution for getting your settings right quickly.

Ideal for those situations where the light is just too harsh and decent shade cant be found. Reach for this diffuser from Lastolite and you can quickly and easily calm the intensity of the light down by a full 2 stops.

Many photographers actually seek to make a virtue of lens are caused by shooting into the sun. It wont suit every type of subject and you have to make sure it isnt ruining the image but lens are can often make an image look modern and engaging.


Look out for the way the light is falling though leaves, branches or window blinds indoors as this can result in the formation of interesting patterns.


If youre working with window light, you can reduce the contrast by simply moving your subject further away from the window. Your subject will be less bright and the shadows wont be as deep.

Dont be afraid of overcast conditions. The clouds will act as a giant softbox, ensuring that the light is even and easy to work with. You could consider using a gold reector to throw warmer light back onto the subject.


Using your Canon

Using a spot of fill-flash is an ideal solution when you want to throw some light into shadow areas while working predominantly with natural light, as its just enough to lift the image without taking over


Off-camera flash triggered using a modern wireless system allows you to lift awkward shadows when working with natural light



Using your Canon

Canon EOS 6D
All of the action is in the centre of the image, so with the camera set to centre- weighted metering, the edges of the frame play no part in the calculation
David Clapp

Works best with



Using your Canon

Mastering metering can open the door to accurate images and creative control of your Canon. This section uncovers the principle, technology and application of metering

Metering with Canon

Using your Canon

Everything we see contains varying levels of light intensity... A good photograph renders the scene balanced, as it appears to the eye

ith Canon camera technology breaking boundaries as the digital revolution advances, photography is looking like a complicated ship to steer. Camera controls are becoming so sophisticated that as the manuals get thicker, the technological soup seems harder and harder to wade through. Camera metering, its modes, functions and subjectivity can be just as confusing, so just how do you learn to read the light? Everything we see contains varying levels of light intensity. From bright light streaming through a window to the dark shadow tones in a room corner, a good photograph renders the scene balanced, as it appears to the eye. All modern cameras, from an everyday mobile phone to a professional Canon DSLR, have metering capabilities to assess these levels of light correctly for the ideal shot.

Prior to digital technology, the only way to measure light was by using a separate handheld light meter. Before camera technology advanced and in-camera metering became more commercially viable in the Sixties, there was simply no other option. Imagine it no histograms, not even a viewnder needle to assist; just a handheld meter and some good understanding. Despite feeling somewhat underpowered, many photographers still use handheld meters as a preference. Portrait photographers cant work without them and these feelings are still alive in the word of landscape photography, too. Remember, also, that lm is far from dead. As large-format landscape photography is making a popular resurgence, many photographers are enjoying the slower pace and discovering the accuracy of handheld metering. Its the only form of measurement available

to them, as the camera is electronic-free. The rst concept to fully understand is the two distinctly different ways that light can be measured using handheld meters and cameras alike. Reected metering is where, like all through the lens in-camera metering systems, the camera takes measurements based upon the light reected from the subject surface towards the camera. The second method, incidental metering, is the measurement of light falling onto the subject from a light source, using a handheld light meter. Reected light from the subjects surface is not measured in the reading. Unfortunately, reected light can cause problems. Different surfaces and textures reect light in different intensities, varying greatly from subject to subject. In-camera metering tries to combat this problem by basing its calculations on light reected from a tone in the middle

Spot metering from the grey lamppost stopped the camera from metering the confusing background incorrectly


David Clapp

David Clapp

Spot metering this eider ducks plumage and exposure compensating by overexposing by +1.5 stop keeps those whites bright



Using your Canon

David Clapp

Expert advice
Learn how to choose the correct Metering mode for the scene and set the appropriate focus points on your Canon
DIFFERENT METERING MODES: Most cameras are equipped with a number of different in-camera metering modes, but understanding how they work and when to use them will only add greater creativity to your photographic approach. Lets examine the five main styles of metering systems: CENTRE-WEIGHTED AVERAGE METERING: When pointed at a scene, the camera biases the light reading towards a central zone and pays less attention to light values at the extreme outer edges. PARTIAL METERING: Similar to centre-weighted metering, but the light-gathering area is rapidly reduced to a smaller zone (10-15%) in the centre of the frame. SPOT METERING/MULTI SPOT METERING: The metering area is concentrated in a small spot (3%), ignoring all light levels outside this greatly reduced zone. Cameras that have multi-spot metering let the photographer use this small zone to take spot readings from key points around the composition. The camera then averages these readings. AVERAGE METERING: The camera does not add any specific weight to any zone when measuring the light across the frame. Instead, it averages the light reading from edge to edge without bias to any particular tonal area. MATRIX/EVALUATIVE METERING: By far the most technical metering system and one that photographers love. The screen is divided into small segments and individual readings are taken. The camera then evaluates the light in each segment and evaluates the correct exposure. AF POINTS: It is also important to remember that as you change the AF point, so the camera can bias the exposure. This is particularly useful when autofocus is tracking an object, or when a static subject is not positioned in the middle of the frame. Some cameras also give the option to link or unlink this facility.

David Clapp

Spot metering (A), centre-weighted average metering (B) and matrix/evaluative metering (C) as they appear in the viewfinder. The difference between these three popular metering modes is based on biasing the results. Although centre-weighted average and spot metering are essentially reacting in the same way, the spot metering zone is much smaller. Evaluative approaches metering in an entirely different way, taking readings from each of the segments

This scene is ideal for evaluative metering. It contains a wide range of tonal values from dark to light. These zones are not uniform across the frame, so the camera segments the readings to achieve an accurate exposure


Using your Canon

David Clapp

Canon metering options

How your Canon camera controls metering
Your Canon camera can offer you a choice of four metering modes. Each one is useful for certain kinds of shot under certain kinds of lighting conditions. The metering sensor inside your Canon camera measures and responds to light to help you balance your exposures and compose creatively. Set your metering options to one of the following depending on the kind of shot youre taking. Evaluative metering is used to get an all-round even exposure. It meters the light within the entire scene and balances the highlights and shadows for clear unbiased results. This is perfect for well-lit scenarios such as daytime landscapes, but less suitable if youre working with directional light such as a sunbeam or spotlight, or if youre trying to capture dramatic contrast. Centre-weighted average metering is designed to meter the majority of light in the centre of your photograph. It will still take the surrounding edges into account but to a lesser degree. Centreweighted average metering is great for face-on portraits as you can balance the lighting on the subjects face, making it into a focal point. Partial metering and Spot metering are similiar to Centreweighted average metering, however, the central focus area that the camera meters the light from will be much smaller. Partial metering is also more precise, and wont take the surrounding light into account, just the central region. Spot metering focuses on an even smaller central area and like Partial, it will not take into account the edges around this region. Although limited, these options are great for shooting more dramatic and creative captures such as low-key studio lighting effects and heavily contrasted scenes.

With an even spread of blacks and whites, the camera makes easy work of this situation using evaluative metering


David Clapp


A problem some photographers can face when metering a scene is colour. Most cameras metering systems, unlike our eyes, dont see the world in colour; they measure light in luminance. Colours that appear extremely vivid to the human eye, are interpreted simply as tonal shades by the camera, without the intensity we attribute. It can therefore be difficult to predict exactly how metering will be affected, which can cause problems with setting the correct exposure settings. In recent years however, Canon has resolved this issue and all of its current DSLRs now feature an iFCL (intelligent Focus Colour Luminance) metering system. This smart technology takes into account both colour and brightness information when metering, as well as the focus setting thats selected, so youre sure to get accurate exposure results.


Using your Canon

David Clapp David Clapp

David Clapp

In-camera metering will try to push reflected whites of this cotton grass towards middle grey, underexposing the shot and making it murky


Metering systems are very sophisticated, but still get confused with tricky conditions
of the luminance range, a midtone or middle grey. Incidental metering doesnt suffer from this miscalculation, as it is based on a measurement of light falling onto the subject. The subject can be any tone, reective or not, and the light reading will remain consistent. Portrait or product photographers, in particular, base their metering calculations on handheld incident metering, rather than reected in-camera metering to get a more realistic reading. Despite this however, if the image has a wide range of reected light and tones, in-camera metering still works well. Metering systems are very sophisticated, but still get confused with tricky conditions. The biggest issues occur when a single luminescence lls the scene, like a blanket of snow. As the camera tries to evenly measure, it is bombarded with reected light. It tries to position the white in the middle of the tonal range, as it is convinced this is where the correct exposure should be. This results in a shot that is signicantly underexposed. The same thing occurs when shooting excessively dark subjects; the camera will lift the blacks towards the midtone leaving you with a shot that is overexposed. With modes like aperture priority (Av) and shutter priority (Tv), in-camera metering can be difcult to get right. As the camera bases the shutter speed or the aperture on the in-camera meter reading, the image can be prone to over- or underexposure. This is where the Exposure Compensation mode comes into its own. Lets consider the snow scene once again. With so much reected light, the camera will consistently underexpose unless the camera is set to compensate. By setting the camera to overexpose by around one and a half stops, the whites will remain bright and clean. The same approach in the opposite direction works with darker subjects, too. For lm photographers, both amateur and professional, understanding metering and gauging correct exposure is vital. Getting to understand photography in this intimate way is a true art form. Digital photographers must also pay heed to these rules, but there is a huge safety net to fall back on the histogram. With instant exposure feedback at the ngertips, a quick test shot can sort out any problems and let the photographer make any necessary adjustments accordingly. Get it right in-camera to avoid time editing.

The histogram bunches to the right as it recognises the amount of light tones in shot


Using your Canon


Canon exposure

Using your Canon

Canon EOS 7D

Works best with

Controlling the exchange of light between your subject and your sensor is ultimately what photography is all about

heres nothing more fundamental to taking a photo than exposure. In fact, by taking a photo all you are actually doing is exposing the light-sensitive sensor in your camera to light. The two big factors involved are how much light is falling on your subject and how much of this light is recorded by the sensor the latter being a direct response to the former. In some situations its possible to modify the exposure by reducing or increasing the amount of light on your subject, whereas in landscape photography, for instance, its necessary to adjust the exposure purely by changing various factors on the camera itself. Perhaps the most important thing to keep in mind with exposure is that its actually entirely

subjective. As with how a Shakespeare play or a Mozart symphony is interpreted, there are often many different valid options as to how a scene should be exposed. Though there is such a thing as a badly exposed image, absolutely correct exposure is difcult to dene and is very often a matter of opinion. It also frequently depends on the effect you are trying to achieve. This is particularly true in the digital world, as photographers now often shoot images with imperfect or unbalanced exposure properties with specic purposes in mind for the subsequent image-editing process. Exposure is the principle that underpins photography as a science, but its also one of the main things that makes it a creative artform.


Using your Canon

There are three main variables that can be modied by photographers to control exposure in-camera. The rst of these is the aperture, which controls how much light can get through the lens and reach the sensor. A wide aperture, indicated by a lower f-number, will result in a brighter exposure than a narrow aperture, which is indicated by a higher f-number. The second is the cameras shutter speed, which determines the length of time that the cameras sensor is exposed to the light for. Slower, longer shutter speeds enable more light to reach the sensor and create a more brightly exposed image. Third, you can adjust the cameras ISO setting. This alters the light sensitivity of the sensor, so by raising the ISO value away from its base setting, which is most commonly ISO 100, you can make the exposure brighter without the need to open up the aperture or lengthen the shutter speed. As with everything in photography, theres a ne balancing act at play, as each and every one of these adjustments affects your images in a different way and there is always a trade-off of some kind. For example, if you open up the aperture from f5.6 to f2.8, youve gained two extra stops worth of light, but youll lose depth of eld in the process. This means that important areas of your image are not in sufciently sharp focus. Similarly, extending your shutter speed will grant you a brighter exposure in low light, but go beyond a certain point (depending on the focal length you are shooting with and how steady your hands are) and youll introduce the risk of camera shake, making a tripod necessary. Thankfully, the high ISO capability of modern digital sensors means that raising it to the dizzy heights of 1,600, 3,200 and even 6,400 is not the automatic image-quality disaster that it once was. Nonetheless, you are still trading quality for the convenience of working in low light and/or avoiding a tripod. Of course, you can retain the same exposure value (EV) between images, even if you choose to adjust one of these variables. Opening up the aperture from f11 to f8 increases the light thats able to reach the sensor and so will create an image thats one f-stop brighter, but if you also switch to a faster shutter speed 1/125sec to 1/250sec you have effectively counterbalanced the change in aperture and the exposure value (EV) will stay the same. 

As with everything in photography, theres a fine balancing act at play, as each and every one of these adjustments affects your images in a different way

What they do and why theyre so essential to editing

One of the best things about digital photography is that you now have the ability to see at the time of capture how your images have turned out, by pressing a review button on the back of your camera. Before digital, photographers had to wait until the film was developed to discover if their images were over- or underexposed. By that time, it was too late to change anything and also difficult to know just what it was that you did wrong which made it harder for beginners to learn from their mistakes. However, rather than just looking at the image itself on the cameras LCD, its important to pay attention to the histogram, as this tells you precisely how the scene has been recorded. The centre of the histogram represents the mid-point, sometimes described as 18% grey, between pure black at the far-left and pure white at the far-right. How high the peaks in your histogram ascend to indicates how many pixels of that tone there are. If everything in your photo is bunched up to the right, particularly if the peaks are reaching up to the top of the histogram display area, then you probably have an overexposed image. Equally, if everything is grouped at the left of the histogram, with peaks reaching up to the top, your image is likely to be underexposed.

Hello to histograms

In this image, the subject is backlit, with more light coming from behind them than falling onto their front. Exposing with the subject in mind is obviously required, but the best option is to make the lighting slightly more balanced



Using your Canon

The subjects eyes looked rather flat and dull, as simply going for a brighter exposure doesnt compensate for an absence of light. Using a reflector gives a much better result


Simply going to a lighter and brighter exposure for the subject will also overexpose the light behind the subject, which leads to a softening effect around the image. Using a reflector instead solves this problem


By introducing a silver reflector, we can throw some light back onto subject and make the overall exposure more balanced and even


The correct skin tones will be achieved if the exposure is correctly balanced. Again, a silver reflector produces much better results on the models skin



Using your Canon

One of the things that thrilled our ancestors about photography when it was rst invented was the ability to freeze a moment in time and preserve it forever. Back then, actually freezing a moment in time was difcult, as the plates used lacked the light sensitivity required to avoid long exposures of up to several seconds or even minutes for an ordinary photo. Fast-forward to the photography of today and many cameras feature fast shutter speeds of 1/4,000sec or even 1/8,000sec. So its ironic that one of the most popular techniques in modern photography is to purposefully shoot with very long exposures to capture movement and a sense of the passage of time. Whether the goal is to create beautifully smooth water, or to convey the journey of clouds across the sky or even to capture human activity long exposures are a powerful creative tool. For the earliest photographers, whose goal was to be able to capture images without the need for long exposure times, this would probably seem bafing. There are still times when long exposure times are forced upon photographers. Landscape photographers, for example, often cant avoid long exposures, unless they are willing to sacrice a degree of image quality by using a higher ISO setting. As most photographers want the best quality, offered by the sensors base ISO (usually 100), shooting in low light at the beginning and end of the day will demand an exposure of several seconds. However, there are times when photographers want to capture movement in their images when the light levels arent low. Simply setting the camera to Manual mode and dialling in an exposure of 20 seconds isnt an option, as even at a narrow aperture and a low ISO, overexposure will inevitably result. In recent years, the use of Neutral Density (ND) lters has caught on, as these effectively solve the problem with overexposure when shooting long exposures. In a way, ND lters take us back to the early days of photography, but instead of making the sensor less light-sensitive they limit the amount of light thats able to reach the sensor in the rst place via the lens. There are various densities are available, with ten-stop ND lters with a density of 3.0 such as the Lee Big Stopper or Hitech 4x4 ProStop IRND Glass Filter 3.0 at the most extreme end of the spectrum. Ten-stop ND lters are ideal for situations where the light levels are quite high, but theyre less useful in low light. This is because the shutter speed required to achieve the correct exposure can go up to a minute or more, presenting a case of diminishing returns. In almost all situations, a 30sec exposure is plenty long enough and waiting around for a 60sec or 120sec exposure simply means that youll be able to take fewer images and have greater problems with longexposure noise.

Whether the goal is to create beautifully smooth water, or to convey the journey of clouds across the sky, long exposures are a powerful creative tool

By simply using a tripod and a Neutral Density (ND) filter, youll be able to capture long exposures of several seconds or more


Ghostly portraits
Long-exposure shots dont have to be conned to landscape photography

During a long exposure, if a person is only in a particular position for a limited amount of time, theres a fair chance that, depending on the amount of time relative to the length of the exposure, they wont appear in the nal image at all. This is useful if you want to take a photo of a popular tourist spot, but dont want to capture all the tourists

milling around! Use a tripod and a Neutral Density lter and, provided no one stands still for too long, theres a good chance that youll be able to make the scene appear as if no one was there at all. You can experiment with this approach when taking portraits, then if you keep the light low you may not need to use any lters.


Using your Canon

Using a long exposure enables you to capture the movement of the clouds across the sky, which adds atmosphere to your shots


You wont always be on your own when taking landscape images, but a long exposure will ensure that any members of the public strolling along a beach or hilltop wont spoil your shot


Though there are times when its best to capture the turbulence of crashing waves, long exposures can be used to capture smooth and tranquil water, creating a very restful effect



Using your Canon

Plenty of detail has been retained in the sky by virtue of the shortest exposure of 1/4sec at f16. The only other option would be to use a twostop ND filter positioned over the sky


Elements of the midtone exposure have been used for some of the surfaces on the foreground rocks, which were too dark in the highlights exposure and slightly too bright in the shadows exposure


An exposure of 1/4sec at f16 and ISO 100 ensured that the brightest parts of the image the highlights were not dramatically overexposed. However, as you can see in this frame, the shaded areas are far too underexposed


This exposure at 1/2sec, f16 and ISO 100 is the best compromise, but neither the shadows nor the highlights are correctly exposed in this image. However, this exposure is still useful for the blending process



Using your Canon

Compromises very often have to be made with photography and you may have no choice other than to decide which area of the scene is most important. You can then base your exposure on the need to make that part of the image look good. However, in extreme situations where the difference between the darkest and brightest areas of a scene is particularly signicant, its simply not possible to get good results, no matter what you do. The problem this presents is that the highlight areas of your image will be overexposed, or the shadow areas will be underexposed. In a landscape scene, neither of these scenarios is acceptable, although there are occasions when a photographer might choose to accept a degree of underexposure of shadow detail for example when shooting a silhouetted subject. With sunrise and sunset being such popular times for shooting landscape scenes, dealing with very bright skies frequently with a setting Sun and signicantly darker foregrounds is an almost constant challenge. Over the years photographers have attempted to combat this problem by using graduated ND lters. These are typically positioned so that a longer exposure can be used, enabling foreground shadow to be correctly exposed, without overexposing the much brighter sky. Digital photography has made it far easier to use these lters, whereas in the days of lm it was relatively easy to misjudge the position of the lter and end up with the darker ND half-cutting into the lighter foreground. Digital capture enables you to see precisely what sort of results youve achieved with lters like these, affording you the opportunity to correct any mistakes immediately. However, digital imaging goes a step further, negating the need for photographers to carry and use ND lters if they prefer not to. The downside is that this comes at the expense of more time on the computer. However, this time spent in your imaging software can result in powerful and precise exposure blends, which would be impossible to produce with lters.

Its vital to keep the aperture constant so as not to affect the depth of field
Instead of using lters, the only thing that needs to be done in the eld is to shoot two or three images with different exposure values, covering the different areas of the scene. In a situation like this, its vital to keep the aperture constant so as not to affect the depth of eld. You might shoot an image to correctly expose the highlights at 1/4sec and f16, as well as one to expose the shadows correctly at 1sec and f16. You could also shoot an image that averages the two, thereby covering the midtones at 1/2sec and f16. The difference between your longest, brightest exposure and the shortest, darkest exposure is two EV stops, so to achieve a similar result with a graduated ND lter youd shoot at 1/15sec and f16 with a two-stop ND grad lter positioned over the sky.

Thanks to the brightest exposure, the final blend shows good detail in the foreground rocks and across the backlit fields on the horizon


Easily nd the perfect balance between shutter speed and aperture value
Exposure value or EV simply refers to the effective combination of any shutter speed, any aperture and how different combinations relate to one another. Theres a rather confusing equation that can be used to calculate the EV based on any given shutter speed and aperture combination, but fortunately there are plenty of tables online and of course apps that negate the need to be an advanced mathematician. Assuming that ISO 100 is being used, a landscape scene at sunset will often have an EV of around 8 or 9. In other words, theres a good chance that youll be shooting at something like 1sec at f16, or 2sec at f22. This EV table is the origin of the sunny 16 rule. As a sunny day generally equates to EV 15, assuming ISO 100, you can shoot at around 1/125sec and f16 knowing that your exposure will probably be close to correct. 1/250sec and f8 also equates to EV 15, so will also be applicable for a sunny day.

An fantastic exposure system including 63-zone Evaluative, Center-weighted Average, Partial, and Spot options means the EOS 7D is a great Canon camera to master exposure with


This exposure, at 1sec, f16 and ISO 100, is the brightest of the three exposures two stops brighter than the exposure for the highlights. This ensures that the shadows are correctly exposed



Using your Canon

Canon EOS1D X
Doug Harman

Works best with

Shutter speeds
Control your Canons shutter speed to create special effects
This shot of Tower Bridge was taken using a very long exposure of around 25 seconds. A low sensitivity (to keep noise to a minimum) and use of a tripod and remote camera release helps prevent camera shake. If your camera has it, use its mirror lock-up function to stop that from vibrating as well


hutter speed one simple phrase that every photographer knows and one that describes something utilised by your camera every time a photo is taken to help get a correct exposure. So, why take control of shutter speeds? Whether you want to photograph stunning star trails at night-time using very long exposures, or freeze the eeting motion of a bird in ight to reveal

the detail of its beating wings, learning how to control your shutter speeds is key. There are other aspects of shutter speed control you can take advantage of, such as the relationship between focal length and shutter speed, which can help to reduce camera shake. Plus, there are ways of using shutter speeds for specic effects using rules that apply across every type of photographic style.


Using your Canon

Doug Harman

On a basic level, the most important element of shutter speed control is simply to help ensure an image is correctly exposed. If the shutter speed is too fast, you risk underexposing the picture and vice versa. Also, if you have a more creative bent, controlling shutter speeds will help you freeze that fast-moving action to crisply render every detail or, conversely, you might want to allow the very same motion to be revealed within a shot to deliberately add blur. The slow shutter speed conveys the feeling of the true speed and power of a subject or event. Most high-end Canon digital cameras, and certainly their DSLRs, will provide control over the shutter speeds at their disposal. The exact range of control on offer will vary from camera type and model, but expect to nd a range of shutter speeds starting at around 30 seconds to 1/4,000sec. Some cameras may have a Bulb mode where the shutter can be set to remain open for as long as the shutter button is pressed; some may not and others will offer even faster shutter speeds too. But of those that offer shutter speed control, all will provide a good level of control. If you have a Canon that provides full shutter control, be it via the shutter priority setting (where you control the shutter speeds and the camera automatically picks an aperture to get a properly exposed shot) or through full manual control (where you can change both the apertures and shutter speeds as needed), then you have total power over how motion or the lack of it in your composition is recorded within your images. In essence, the faster the shutter speed you use, the less motion will be evident in any shot; the more the image will appear to be frozen and, bear in mind, the

faster the action being snapped, the faster the shutter speed youll need to use in order to freeze it. This usually involves a lot of trial and error. However, as shutter speeds get faster, less light is allowed to reach the cameras sensor, so larger apertures will need to be employed or increasing the cameras sensitivity (the ISO setting) will become necessary in order to ensure enough light is captured for a properly exposed shot. The intuitive response to using very slow shutter speeds in bright daylight is that the shots will overexpose. If you have control over apertures on your Canon, then you can close the aperture down to, say, f22, reducing the amount of light entering the camera and ensuring the shot is not overexposed. This technique lets you include motion blur for creative effects, such as capturing passers-by as ghostly blurs, making waves on the seashore become smooth velvet blankets or rendering creatively blurred waterfalls. However, if employing this technique, watch out for brighter backgrounds, which can lose detail by becoming too bright. To help prevent this leaching of detail, use an accessory lter called a neutral

As shutter speeds get faster, less light is allowed to reach the sensor, so larger apertures will be needed in order for enough light to be captured

Freezing action can be great where detail is paramount and you want everything to be sharply rendered in a shot. However, by using a slower shutter speed, you can help emphasise the power and grace of fast-moving subjects


Shutters and shutter speeds

Cameras have within them a device called a shutter that allows a timed and finely controlled amount of light to enter the camera. It can take the form of a focal plane shutter, such as that found in DSLRs, or a more simple leaf shutter, as found in most compact digital cameras. The shutter is usually positioned in the camera body behind the lens and in front of the sensor as with DSLRs, where it can be clearly seen when you swap a lens. This is a focal plane shutter. Or it can be inside the lens (the leaf shutter type) as with compact digital cameras. Whatever the case, as the shutter travels it reveals an open slit to the outside world that allows focused light to enter and hit the sensor. The velocity this swath of light crosses the sensor is the shutter speed.

Flash and shutter speeds

Including a puff of flash at any shutter speed your camera is capable of using (the flash synchronisation speed) can add greatly to an images impact. Using a burst of flash by forcing it to fire even if it is not needed in daylight can lift shadows, help add sparkle to a shot or freeze an action due to the fleeting duration of the burst of flashlight. It can also make your subject stand out against the background to add emphasis. When combined with slower shutter speeds, flash can help you create impressive blurring effects combined with sharply defined action, such as when you combine a slow shutter speed (and, so, very shaky) with a low ambient light exposure, but include flash to help produce a motion-freezing burst of flash. By doing this, youll get a funky, fill-in flash effect, where the main subject of the photograph is frozen and is sharply rendered by the brevity of the flash, but seemingly pinned against a blurred and fuzzy background of ambient lighting.

Shutter speeds and focal length

There is a direct relationship between the shutter speed and focal length you use when taking pictures and, once you get a grasp of it, it means you can reduce the risk of camera shake. Simply put, always use a shutter speed that is the reciprocal of the focal length in use. If you shoot using a zoom lens set at 100mm, then also ensure you use a shutter speed of 1/100sec. If you use a lens focal length of 200mm, then a shutter speed of 1/200sec is required, and so on. This will help you get sharp shots even if the camera is not supported on a tripod, though, of course, a tripod is preferred in order to help with camera stabilisation.

Using your Canon

Slow shutter speeds can offer up some very neat creative effects such as this zoom burst technique. This was shot with a slow shutter speed of 1/3sec, but combined with zooming the lens during the exposure to create this dramatic effect

Doug Harman

Doug Harman

density lter; it will help even out the range of

brighter and darker areas without affecting the colour temperature or white balance of the shot. Another tip is to use lower sensitivities, say ISO 50 or ISO 64, in order to reduce the light processed by the camera and get even slower shutter speeds on tap. On the upside, youll be able to retain slightly more control over the apertures used depending on the sophistication of your camera and the exibility of its ISO settings; youll also get less image noise too. On the downside, youll probably have to support the camera on a tripod to stop unwanted blur from camera shake. A camera with aperture priority control only (typically most mid- to high-end compact digital cameras), where you control the aperture values and the camera automatically chooses the correct shutter speed for a properly exposed picture, is going to be much less exible than being able to employ direct

shutter speed control. However, you can deliberately use a specic aperture in order to get a slower or faster shutter speed. For instance, use a small aperture to force the camera to pick a slower shutter speed, and vice versa. It is worth bearing in mind, however, that this technique has an impact on the depth of eld; the smaller the aperture the greater the depth of eld will become. Moreover, using slower shutter speeds on any camera may mean you need to support the camera using a tripod or monopod to help minimise the risk of camera shake. So, what happens if you have a camera that lacks shutter speed control? The more basic digital cameras, like point and shoot compacts such as the lower end of the IXUS range, provide little or no control over their shutter speeds; often, point-andshoot models will have an all-auto program setting where the camera does everything for you.


Using your Canon

Try using the night scene mode to Shutter speed tips force the camera to use a slower-thannormal shutter speed
Use slow shutter speeds to creatively blur your subject, be it a waterfall or waves on a beach, to convey the feeling of motion in a subject. Using flash can help freeze motion as well as a fast shutter speed. Use a neutral density filter if you have problems with detail bleaching out when using longer exposures in daylight. Always use a shutter speed the reciprocal of the focal length in use to help reduce problems from things like camera shake. Bump up the cameras ISO sensitivity to help get faster shutter speeds at your disposal. If using slow shutter speeds, always support the camera with a tripod or monopod.
Doug Harman

Use a fast shutter speed to freeze a fast-moving subject. The faster the action, the faster the shutter speed needed to freeze it.

This shot uses a burst of flash, long-ish focal length and a slow shutter speed. Flash has kept the happy couple sharply defined while the slow shutter speed used helps convey the emotion and atmosphere of the happy moment


This shot was taken using a relatively fast 1/420sec shutter speed to help freeze the motion of the backlit fountains water droplets to help create this quite dramatic effect


These cameras usually have a set of subject (or scene) modes and while these predene the way the camera behaves for specic subjects, such as portraits, night scenes or sports subjects, you can take advantage of them too, as there will be an element of automatic shutter speed control you can turn to your advantage. For example, in bright daylight, where you want to use slower shutter speeds, use the cameras night scene mode (crucially, without ash) to force the camera to use a slowerthan-normal shutter speed. This could be ideal when snapping fast action, particularly if you want to include some creative motion blur. Obviously, this mode is usually used in low light or at night with or without ash, and used in its proper fashion, it enables you to shoot an ambient light exposure using a slow shutter speed and the burst of ash will help illuminate any foreground subject giving you the desired effect. Used during daylight, the night scene mode with a burst of ash or the cameras ll-in ash mode if it has that setting can help create a ll-in effect, lightening the shadow areas. The short duration of a burst of ash can also help freeze motion, so it can be worth turning your ash on wherever you want an extra crisp result. Alternatively, use the cameras landscape mode to force the camera to bring into play a smaller aperture (smaller apertures ensure greater depth of eld, ideal for landscape photography) and this will then drive the camera to use a slower shutter speed. Conversely, try using the cameras sports mode here the aperture used will be much bigger to get at those faster shutter speeds and use the sensitivity (ISO) to your advantage by increasing the ISO to help freeze the action. In essence, however, because theres no direct control over the shutter speed and youre subverting the cameras mechanisms to help get an effect, trial and error is the key. Try practising using the wrong setting for special effects and see what happens. But watch out for unwanted or odd effects, such as the wrong white balance setting being used, which could skew colours in a shot. Its best to experiment with your settings to see what gets the best result. Once youve an idea of how the camera behaves (or misbehaves), youll be able to predict what mode to use.

Using your Canon

Master HDR on your Canon


Using your Canon

Follow our detailed guide on setting up and shooting perfect HDR images, the right gear to buy and the best way to process your shots

Works best with

Canon EOS 5D Mark III

ave you ever looked through your viewnder to see a stunning scene and been excited about the prospect of capturing an awardwinning image, only to depress the shutter and be dismayed by the image on your LCD? Even the most expensive medium-format cameras have a relatively low dynamic range compared to the human eye, so the amount of data the camera can collect is limited. Many high-end cameras will allow you to purposefully underexpose a shot and pull a large amount of detail from shadows in postproduction, but this will often result in noisy images with a lack of accurate colour representation. This is where HDR comes into its own. High Dynamic Range imaging is the process of combining several exposures into a composite image to capture a wider dynamic range of light than is possible from a single photograph. It is a technique that has been used for many years and is regularly the subject of controversial debate over its validity as a photographic technique. However, when used sensitively HDR can produce stunning images that accurately represent the original scene. Over the next few pages you will learn how to set up and correctly capture the shots you need and then take those shots into HDR software to create a stunning image. We will also look at the best kit for the job and compare HDR imaging to hyperreal photography.

Images Chris Humphreys

Gear guide
Manfrotto 055XPROB Tripod
Web: Price: 170/$223

To take multiple exposures with a range of shutter speeds for HDR, you need a good sturdy tripod. The Manfrotto 055XPROB tripod has an incredible range of adjustment combined with good stability to ensure that your camera will remain steady in any position.

Pixel TC-252 remote timer

Web: Price: 40/$50

A good remote release will allow you to minimise vibration when shooting multiple photographs on a tripod. The Pixel TC-252 timer is a wired shutter release (a wireless version is available) and can be set to automatically take multiple exposures.

HDR Efex Pro 2

Web: Price: 62/$100

Nik Software has been developing this program for a number of years and it really shows in this latest release of HDR Efex Pro 2. Upgraded algorithms and improved control give the user a powerful tool for creating stunning HDR images.

Nodal Ninja 4 with RD16 Rotator

Web: Price: 402/$440

Take your HDR photography a step further and shoot HDR panoramas. Simply bracket each part of the panoramic image using the pano head to prevent parallax error, and then combine the panoramas together in HDR software for stunning results.

Using your Canon

How to set up & shoot an HDR image
Taking the shots for an HDR scene is just the starting point, as you wont see the nal result until youre back at your computer. Its good to make a few notes or a mental picture of the scene while you are shooting. Does it have warm light, cool light, how much detail can you see in the shadows, how vibrant is the colour? This is important if you want the nal shot to be an accurate representation of the original scene. You will need a sturdy tripod and a remote release to ensure that the shots properly align and to eliminate the possibility of camera shake on longer exposures. The basic camera settings are the same for any landscape or cityscape shot you might capture. You will need the ISO set at the cameras native lowest setting (around ISO 100-200) and to use a narrow aperture to ensure front-to-back sharpness (between f11 and f16). Shoot in RAW to collect the best possible data for the software to work from. Before you put the camera on the tripod, use aperture priority mode (Av on the mode dial) and spot metering to aim the camera at the darkest part of the scene and make a note of the shutter speed, then do the same for the brightest part of the scene (making sure you dont aim directly at the sun). Make a note of the shutter speed once again. Then place your camera on the tripod and switch to manual mode, set your aperture to the same as you had it previously and adjust your shutter speed to expose for the shadows rst. If the difference between your shadow shutter speed and highlight shutter speed is 10 stops, then start taking shots at 2 stops apart, increasing your shutter speed incrementally until you have reached your highlights shutter speed (six shots). If you are short on time, meter once for an average well-exposed shot and set your camera to bracket two stops either side of this and re off three or ve bracketed shots. There is no hard-and-fast rule as to the number of shots you should take for a good HDR image as it depends on the scene; just try to keep it between three and nine. At the lower end of the scale you are limiting your amount of dynamic range available to work from and at the higher end you will increase the chance of images not aligning or ghosting becoming an issue. However you take your shots, make sure you keep your camera steady throughout and allow a second or two between shots to let any camera vibration subside. Finally check the shadow and highlight exposures to ensure the histograms are reading correctly. (See the box on the right about understanding your cameras histograms). You can now transfer the images to your computer and into your favoured HDR editing program. You should aim to create your HDR image as soon as possible after taking it, while the memory of the reallife scene is still fresh in your mind.

Using the histogram

The histogram displays a visual representation of how the luminance and colour data is spread across the range of the image. The left-hand side of the chart represents the shadows and the right-hand side the highlights. The graph shows peaks where most of the data sits. A classic smooth curve up to the midtones and back down to the highlights is generally what you will achieve for an HDR shot. But this isnt always the case. A bright-white room for instance should be exposed so that the histogram is showing most of the data bunched up toward the right-hand side of the chart. For HDR shots, use your histogram to check that the shadow exposure is nudging the lefthand edge of the chart and highlights exposure is at the right-hand edge, but with no clipping (this means data falling off the chart).
This is the histogram from a bright-white room with a dark floor; notice how the data is distributed

There is no rule as to the number of shots you should take for a good HDR image, it depends on the scene


Standing on a cold bridge in Edinburgh, tripod firmly wedged against the barrier and using the LCD display to check the histogram for each set of shots


Using your Canon

Expose for highlights
This shot has been underexposed at -2EV to retain detail in the sky. Notice how the main bump to the right-hand side of the histogram (the sky) is wholly within the chart and shows no clipping. This will later allow us to extract some nice detail and colours from the sky.


Expose for midtones

This shot has been exposed correctly at 0EV. The aim of this shot is to retain details in the midtones. We are less concerned with the sky, which is now pushing off the right-hand edge of the histogram and showing some clipping. The shadows are still deep and lacking detail.


Expose for shadows

This shot has been exposed at +2EV to bring out shadow detail. The sky bump of the histogram has fallen off the right-hand side, so this area is now clipped and contains no data. The shadow bump has moved to the right and now occupies more of the midtone area.



Using your Canon

How to create your HDR image
There is a range of software available to edit your photographs and combine them into a single HDR image. Some of the more commonly used programs are Photomatix, Photoshop and HDR Efex. They all have similar functions but process the shots with different algorithms, meaning the end results will vary. Each piece of HDR software works by extracting the best data from the highlights, midtones and shadow areas of each photo and combining them in different ways to produce the desired effect. Here we take a closer look at Nik Softwares HDR Efex Pro 2.

HDR imaging can be used in any situation where a wide dynamic range is needed to create impact. Certain genres such as portraiture dont work well with HDR unless deliberately trying to create a surreal effect. HDR will often be seen in advertising situations where combining exposures and different parts of images is commonplace to sell products. Forms of HDR will also be seen on interior architecture shots, but this will be in a very subtle way.

Other uses of HDR imaging

HDR software works by extracting data from the highlights, midtones and shadow areas of each photo

Load source images The first step is to load your source Ghost reduction In the Merge Image dialog box we images onto your computer and into the software. 1 have the option to set ghost reduction, to eliminate 2 Depending on the program you may be able to load RAW artefacts when combining images with moving objects. files. With HDR Efex Pro you need to covert to TIFF first. Do so in 16-bit format to retain as much detail as possible. 82 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK Here we select the overexposed image as it contains movement of the big wheel which we want to retain.

Chromatic aberration You may have chosen to reduce or eliminate chromatic aberration in your RAW 3 conversion software, but it can also be done here by using the close-up loupe. Use this to see areas of the image that may be affected and adjust the sliders accordingly.

Using your Canon

Presets HDR Efex will take a short time to process the Dont overcook it Some of the presets in the Artistic images and apply all of the settings that youve made or Surreal section will produce some striking but 4 5 so far. You will then see this interface, which has presets unrealistic images like this one. Generally you will want to along the left-hand side to choose from. These are a good starting point to work from. use one of the presets from the Realistic section as a base for your edits.

Tone compression The tone compression setting is Tonal adjustment Under the Tonality section you can the one which will have the most impact on how natural adjust the images general exposure, boost shadows, 6 7 or surreal your HDR image ends up looking. Start with the increase or decrease the amount of highlights and add default or one of the Realistic presets and slide the tone compression slider up to around 20%. contrast. Generally you should be fairly familiar with all of the settings from normal photo editing.


With our finished HDR image we have retained a natural look with a good tonal range throughout the image to aid depth perception. Details have also been subtly boosted along with the colour range Colour adjustment The next section allows global Add structure The Structure slider adds micro contrast adjustment of colour temperature and tint to the image. to your image. Again this is a slider that is best used 9 8 We have a problem with this image however, as warming up sparingly if you are going for a natural look. Use the zoom feature to close in on a section of the image and see the detail as you adjust it. the foreground also warms up the sky which we dont want to do. This is where we introduce control points.

Control points Control points are particularly useful Fine control With a control point selected you can Finishing touches The last section of options covers as they allow us to adjust specific parts of the image 10 increase and decrease the size of the area affected grad filters and curves to add those finishing touches. 11 12 without affecting others. Nearly all of the same options and the control point will try to find areas of tone and colour Generally speaking though, final adjustment will still be as the global adjustments are available. This allows us to locally adjust the temperature and detail of the foreground. of a similar nature within the defined circle. Selections can be shown and hidden to fine tune. needed in Photoshop to make a crop, clone out dust spots, adjust final levels and sharpen. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 83 Advanced techniques

Working with wildlife

Take great portrait shots

Advanced techniques
We help you to take your photography further
86 Shoot better portraits with Canon
Use your Canon to improve your portraits

130 Urban landscapes

From skyscrapers to street life

98 Creative landscapes with Canon

The mindset, potential and elation

140 Use Canon to shoot in black & white

Create contrast and elegance

110 Working with Wildlife

Advice on how to capture wildlife

148 Travel the world with your Canon

Capture shots of people and places

120 Shoot for sport on Canon

Improve your action-packed portfolio

156 Capture architecture

Explore options for shooting buildings

Shoot speed and sport

84 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK Advanced techniques

Master monochrome

Creative landscapes


Expressing urban scenes

Advanced techniques

Portraits can be incredibly engaging to look at and are great fun to create. There are so many different ways of shooting a portrait, and no two faces are the same


Canon EOS 6D

Works best with

Advanced techniques

Portraiture has long been popular with photographers, but theres a lot more to it than meets the eye. Find out how you can use your Canon camera to improve your portraits

Shoot better

with Canon
e humans have created images of each other in some way or another throughout our entire history and fully edged, detailed portraits of human faces have been produced for thousands of years. Unsurprisingly then, it didnt take long for photographers in the 1800s to exploit the new medium available to them for capturing portraits. Back then, the combination of long exposure times, lack of familiarity and the general belief that a portrait was a formal document meant that most images taken during that time featured what, to our modern eyes, look like rather dour subjects. Perhaps because we are now so used to portraits adorned with natural, relaxed poses and big smiles, moody portraits with serious-looking subjects are now often considered the most fashionable. The edgy portraits of today often have plenty in common with the work of 19th Century photography pioneer Julia Margaret Cameron. In fact, in the 21st Century, anything goes in the world of portraits, with arguably fewer hard-and-fast rules than in other elds of photography which perhaps goes some way towards explaining the magnetic appeal of portraiture. But it is perhaps our very condition as human beings, as social and inquisitive creatures, which draws photographers to portraits so prolically. Over the next few pages, well take a look at the many different styles of portraits that photographers take today and reveal the thought processes and techniques behind them. Youll discover how to pose your model, work with props and shoot great street portraiture.

Selecting models Creative captures Using your props Street portraits



Advanced techniques

Choose a concept
Pick your model and the type of portrait you want
Very often, we tend to associate portrait photography with women, and young women particularly probably because these are the images that were bombarded with the most frequently by the media. Were subliminally told that to be worth looking at, to be beautiful, is to be young and female. As a result, budding photographers often put their energies into building a portfolio based around young, attractive women, ignoring the potential of other subjects. In fact, for those who are looking to get truly creative, capturing older, male subjects can work very well indeed. This is an idea that evidently wasnt lost on Julia Margaret Cameron, if her well-known portrait of Sir John Herschel is anything to go by. In the 1860s, Cameron had no choice other than to shoot in black and white but a touch of monochrome magic still works wonders with older subjects especially older men. Black and white is simply great at drawing out textures and patterns in weathered skin and it seems to allow the stories that older faces have to tell to come to the fore and hit home with the viewer. If you dont want to go for
Adrian Dewey

the full monochrome look, you can experiment with a judicially desaturated effect, which can also work really well with less conventional models. At the other end of the age spectrum, children make great subjects for portraits full of character and life, but they can be challenging models. Keeping children happy and engaged during a portrait session isnt always straightforward, and you may even need to design the lighting itself differently to accommodate the very young, as pro photographer Adrian Dewey explains. Babies tend to pretty much stay where they are put, but toddlers and smaller children will run around a lot more so the lighting has to be less fancy and more about ooding the total area. A great portrait image doesnt necessarily need to feature just one person, either. Getting a group of friends or a family together for a photo shoot has the huge advantage of making people look relaxed and

Black and white is a popular style for many portraits, but colour can be used very effectively too, particularly with well-judged postcapture work in Photoshop


happy, as no one individual feels like the spotlight is on them. You can, of course, move on to taking some individual shots later, after the group image has been completed. For pro portrait and wedding photographers, group shots are a central component of what they do and vital to their success in terms of sales. Though many people will be inspired to book a photographer because of the creative prowess that their portfolio demonstrates, when it comes to group shots, people will often err towards the conventional and favour images where everyone looks happy and everyone is looking at the camera. One of the biggest challenges in shooting groups and families is the fact that with a number of people there is always someone not looking, or laughing or blocking the light of someone else, thus creating unwanted shadows and dark areas, explains Adrian Dewey. The trick is to make sure everyone is lit evenly and to get everyone to look at the camera at the same time not always an easy task! Professional portrait photographer Katrina Christ knows more than a thing or two about capturing groups successfully and has built her reputation on photographing people of all ages. A group portrait is a whole lot more fun if everyone is into it, she says. Its also important to have everyone looking into the camera and smiling if you cant get that then you may end up with an unhappy customer. Katrinas biggest tip for capturing great Katrina Christ group shots is to be well prepared and shoot Katrina Christ is a pro photographer fast. You need to be organised and know and her speciality is monochrome everyones name. Make it quick as soon images of children and families. In as you know youve got it, move on to the 2011 she was made a Master of next composition or the next group. Lastly, Photography by the Australian be fun and be positive.
Institute of Professional Photography (AIPP).

Photographing children is one of the key challenges that portrait photographers face on a regular basis. You cant always predict how they will be on the day, but making the shoot fun and building a rapport with them is vital. Katrina Christ offers this advice. I always try to ensure that we work around the youngest childs best time, and makes sure the shoot is never going to interfere with anyones sleep times.

Working with children

Especially when there are lots of young children involved, large groups can be one of the biggest challenges for portrait photographers, but have great sales potential when done well


Katrina Christ


Advanced techniques

Black-and-white images with plenty of texture are ideal for older male subjects, bringing a grit and edge to the portrait that creates a fitting sense of gravitas


The subject is laughing with her eyes closed, her mouth open and her head back. Some would claim that this breaks the rules, but a sense of character counts for much more


Richard Mayfield

Richard Mayfield

Create lots of banter to help capture great expressions as well as real character
Working with older subjects
Pro photographer Richard Mayeld spoke to us about working successfully with models of all ages Richard Mayeld is a professional portrait, fashion and beauty photographer, as well as being the creative director of Venture Photography. In 2012, he was named Photographer of the Year by the British Institute of Professional Photography. passions, they relax and thats when we can capture the best shots. What lighting techniques do you use when working with older models? I consider my lighting techniques very carefully when shooting older models. When shooting females, I use lighting that will atter the subject. When shooting men, I often take the opposite approach and choose a harder light source to exaggerate marks and blemishes, and to bring out the character in their features. What tips do you have for working with reluctant or camera-shy subjects? As professionals, we need to be technical and lighting masters but we also need to have the interpersonal skills to direct sitters and generate the right level of energy in the shots. I see it as my responsibility to help my subjects relax, reduce their inhibitions and enable them to build condence in me. What would your top three pieces of advice be for portrait photography? Firstly, be yourself. Secondly, be genuinely interested in the sitter. Listen to them and get to know them. Thirdly, practise, practise and practise! Is there anything that aspiring portrait photographers need to avoid? Dont think that the session is about you, your lighting or the technical side of what we do. Also, portrait photographers should avoid chimping looking at the
Richard Mayfield

What differences do you notice when photographing older subjects? Photographing somebody with more life experience than me is always fascinating. They have more stories to tell and strong opinions on what they believe in. This always makes it easier to build rapport quickly and create lots of banter to help capture great expressions as well as real character. Do you have any particular techniques or approaches that you normally use for older models? We all have different levels of condence, different anxieties and different experiences. I am always genuine with my sitters but I also have to be very adaptable. As a professional photographer, I have to be acutely aware of how models are feeling. With older subjects, I always try to nd something that they are passionate about, because as they talk about themselves and their

Great portraits can be made even more impressive with expert toning and selective saturation adjustments. Many pro portrait photographers are very skilled at this


back of the camera when they could be connecting with the sitter. Lastly, never blame the client if something goes wrong. Whether its a tired child, a hormonal teenager or a grumpy dad, it is our job to get the best possible portrait of them.


Advanced techniques Manage your pose

Create an engaging composition with pose, lighting and background

Direct eye contact with the camera draws the viewer into the scene. Your subject doesnt need to be looking into the lens but the models eye-line always needs be considered as it has a big impact on the photos



The shape created by the placement of the models arms and hands adds interesting curves that mirror the curves of her hair and the shape of her face. Subjects usually need to be given something specific to do with their hands as this affects their entire posture


How much of the model is included within the frame is entirely a matter of choice for every single photographer, however this is often at least partly dictated by the pose. Here, it makes sense to focus on the head and shoulders only


Getting the light set up the way you want it to look is the first the objective when taking portraits, and you can then worry about the models poses and clothing as you work 90 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK


The warmth of the subjects skin and hair colour provides a visually pleasant counterpoint to the blue-grey shade of the background. As in all colour photography, portrait shooters need to consider the use of complementary colour tones within the image

Advanced techniques Work with props

Bring out your subjects character and interests using props
 No form of photography is easy but, rather like
teachers, portrait photographers often face challenges that would make many people shudder. Put simply, portrait photographers often nd themselves attempting to capture a subject that doesnt want to be photographed. Children and babies are the most immediately obvious culprits, but its not only the very young who can create problems for portrait photographers. When photographing family groups, many dads are prone towards showing at least a little bit of reluctance towards the idea of having their photo taken, and many people are simply anxious about how they will look on camera. Different photographers have numerous tried-andtested techniques that they use to break the ice and help subjects to relax during the shoot. One approach taken by many portrait photographers and studios is to make use of props. While props are also used in order to add A triector is a fairly simple piece of interest to the nished equipment that allows pro-style portraits image, their ability to help to be captured with relatively minimal subjects to relax and feel equipment. As their name suggests, they at ease is also a major consist of three reective panels that are benet to the shoot. arranged slightly beneath and either side of A camera-shy child the model. With a ash positioned above and can suddenly become an slightly in front of the model, an appealing enthusiastic subject when type of lighting thats often referred to as given the opportunity buttery lighting can be created. to have photos with a favourite toy and, on shoots with a whole family, making PROP SHOTS just one person laugh and smile can have a similar Including props within your portraits can bring several effect on everyone else. benefits, including helping your subjects feel comfortable Some portrait studios will have a stock of their and providing a means of incorporating babies and young own props that they can reuse as and when required. children more successfully

Try a triector

Adrian Dewey

There is absolutely no limit to the kind of props that you can use during a shoot
How to use props effectively
Professional photographer Adrian Dewey reveals his top tips for using props in your portraits Adrian is a highly accomplished and diverse freelance photographer, illustrator and designer. His work has been published in numerous publications including Vogue Italia, ZOO magazine and Totally Modied. What are the advantages of using props for portrait shoots? Using props in group portraits and family portraits can often help to balance the image, creating interesting or uniform shapes. With a group of people, usually everyone is a different shape or size and using props and furniture can help tie all this together. I often nd that the use of props can help to keep children entertained, as they get bored very easily. Not only will things like large building blocks or coloured balls keep children interested but they can also add something extra, more colour and shape to the nal image. What do photographers need to consider before including props in their images? Props need to be used intelligently. If you ood an image with props you can lose the subject and take away from what you are trying to achieve. Also, the props need to be consistent with the image. It is no good adding props for the sake of it. Consider if they will really work, if the colours match and t the overall shape you are trying to achieve with the image. You also need to make sure that props are sized correctly, although sometimes it can be fun to play with scale.

The advantage of this is that the photographer gets to know what sort of shots work with each particular prop, which increases the chances of getting a good result with relatively minimal effort or consideration which can be a big advantage if a portrait session isnt going entirely as planned. However, this can equally be a disadvantage, as the use of the same few props repeatedly can stie creativity and make the portraits you produce too uniform, as Richard Mayeld notes. I have seen the same props brought out of the props cupboard in lots of peoples work and for me that takes away all of the personalisation of portraits and creates a cookiecutter approach to photography. Instead, Richard recommends the use of personalised objects. Personal items that are brought to the session by the sitters themselves can be fantastic, and we use these to great effect in the studio at Venture. They are a great way to start a conversation owing about their passions, and I nd that having some of their own things around them helps people relax. Most importantly, it ensures that the shots that are produced are personal to them. Technically, there is absolutely no limit on the kind of props that you can use to your best advantage during a portrait shoot. The more unusual the props, the more creative potential there is for interesting and compelling portraits to be taken. The only possible drawback that you might need to consider when using props is that young children may be reluctant to discontinue using a prop if it is something that they really love, so it might be necessary to structure the session around this, allowing for the potential for this issue to arise. 

Advanced techniques

David Gibson

David Gibson

Capture candid shots

Snap spontaneous moments and expressions

Not all portrait shoots need to involve studios and prearranged models. A bold breed of photographer favours taking to the streets and capturing their public website. subjects unawares. Provided you use a bit of However, having taken all of these common sense and know where to draw the line, considerations into account, street photography and there is nothing illegal about photographing people candid portraits can still be incredibly compelling while out and about, as we cannot expect privacy forms of photography, simply because the range when we are in an obviously public place. of subjects is endless; there is always something or You will run in to trouble, however, if you choose someone new or different to capture. to follow someone around in pursuit of a photo or There is also the undeniable buzz of trying to invade someones personal space in a way that they capture the people around you without them taking could interpret as threatening. If you do, they will any notice of you. My whole ethos is not to be seen, then have every right to state that you are harassing explains street-photography expert David Gibson. I them and any nearby police ofcers may take the really dont want any kind of interaction with the view that you are causing a public nuisance, at which people in my photographs. Thats the whole point of point you will have stumbled into less legal territory. street photography that its real. Its also a very bad idea to photograph Street photographers adopt many children or law-enforcement ofcers, different techniques when both for obvious reasons. capturing candid portraits, Remember, of course, that Prime lenses offer a few select with some swearing by how you use the photos once advantages over zoom lenses, and shooting from the hip and you have taken them also many photographers swear by them. others preferring to take matters. Essentially, you First of all, their physical design lets more their photos with the can only use the images light reach the sensor than a zoom lens camera up to their eye for non-commercial use at the same settings. A number of prime to compose and shoot. so if you are intending lenses, such as the classic 50mm f1.8, Photographers also tend to make money from are small and light, yet still deliver great to disagree over whether the images in some form optical quality. Lastly, prime lenses offer candid portraits and or another then you ultra-wide apertures for creating images street photography images cannot do so without a with incredibly shallow depth of eld. should ever be cropped, as signed model release form some image-makers feel that from your subject. Youll Based in east London, David Gibson has been taking street photographs for over 20 years and leads workshops in London. Throughout 2012, he has also led three-day workshops also create potential difculty for in Athens, Amsterdam, yourself if you upload obviously Warsaw, Singapore and unattering pictures of someone to a Stockholm.

David Gibson

Prime time

Although images like this may look like pure serendipity, street photographers often look out for interesting instances of synchronicity


You need to be bold, brave and a little lucky to capture great candid portraits, and ready to pounce on an opportunity quickly before the moment is lost


cropping a candid photo can destroy the original integrity of the image. Many people avoid taking candid portraits and street photography in general as they are concerned that an unpleasant situation could arise, but David Gibson believes that there is no real need for this. In 25 years, I have had just two or three negative encounters. I do not go looking for uncomfortable encounters and I honestly believe that, when I am in the right frame of mind, I am half-invisible. 


Advanced techniques

Public portraits
Loc Brohard shares some advice on how to capture great candid portraits A prolic Flickr contributor and enthusiastic blogger, Loc knows a thing or two about capturing great candid portraits in public places. He is the administrator for the Flickr group Street Photography & Candid Street Portrait (The Very Best). Where do you prefer to shoot your candid portraits? I tend to go to public events and famous tourist locations, as they are both places where everyone has a camera! I nd them to ideal environments to take pictures of street scenes or candid portraits, because no one really cares or takes any notice of exactly what or who you are taking photos of. What techniques do you use? I never shoot from the hip or by holding the camera up and above, as I dont much like these techniques. Usually, I quickly point, compose, focus and shoot. You may miss some opportunities, but this gives the best chance to get a good outcome. If the background is an important element of the composition, I set up the camera with the focus in the right place and wait for somebody to walk into the frame. Are there any problems that you encounter? Counter-terrorism measures have sometimes been a burden for photographers, although its not at all illegal to photograph in a public place. The weather is an important constraint, as you can only really work outside using natural light. Its crucial to nd the right places to avoid bad conditions like harsh sunlight. What kind of faces do you look for in a candid portrait? All street photographers try to concentrate on a single human moment the decisive moment. I try to create a beautiful strong image that the subject would be proud of if they were to see it. It can be anything at all. A strong face, a smile, a nice or interesting expression; an old man or woman, a strong character and so on. What do you say if anyone asks you what you are doing? Ive never experienced negative or violent reactions. Generally, it doesnt even matter too much if some [people] notice you, as most will instantly think they have ruined your photo and may even apologise. For the ones of them who do realise, usually they wont mind, you can even get some interesting reactions when they do.
Loc Brohard

With the right lens, the EOS 6D is the perfect partner for any enthusiast who wishes to shoot portraits


Street photographers adopt a number of different approaches, and its ultimately all about what each individual photographer feels works best for them


Well-composed and exposed candid portraits have a natural charm about them that is hard to recreate in a posed, studio portrait


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There is no real limit to how and where a portrait can be created. Napie Moksin liked a challenge, so opted to pursue underwater portraits, which require both careful planning and specialist equipment
Napie Moksin



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Napie Moksin


Underwater portraits push a photographers skills to the limit, but a successful shot has an intrigue and wonder about it that makes for truly compelling viewing

Portrait photographer Napie Moksin shares his underwater portrait secrets Napie rst contemplated the idea of photographing underwater portraits ve years ago. After some scuba diving training he began experimenting with shooting underwater images in 2009. He attributes his decision to pursue this genre of photography to his love of a challenge. How do you go about creating your amazing underwater portraits? It starts with the planning of the desired concept and the selection of a suitable date and time for the shoot. The swimming pool must be booked in advance so that no other parties can use it at the same time. Model selection will be made and there will be training on at least two occasions, usually a week or two before the shoot. Normally, this training is only required if the photo shoot involves a depth of more than two metres. The makeup used should be able to survive at least for a period of 40 minutes and I use bright colours for my underwater work. The clothing should have a space that is capable of letting air out. Then of course there is the technical side in terms of the backdrop and lighting that should be there. What sort of lighting equipment and setup do you use for this type of shoot? I use outdoor swimming pools and shoot with two different types of light. Theres natural light from the sun, and I also use three Lowel DP 1000-watt video lights just outside the water. In the water itself, I use an Inon Z-240 strobe (a dedicated underwater unit) underwater to ll in any shadows. What do you enjoy about setting up and photographing underwater portraits? Underwater photography is very challenging and more fun than photography on land! Every time [I shoot] theres something new to learn. How long does it take to produce a portrait? It chiey depends on the models ability and experience. If they have experience [underwater] it will take around one to two hours. What instructions do you give to your models? Before the photo shoot starts, I show them pictures of underwater photography as a reference so that they know what I am hoping to achieve. I also give them a brieng and teach them how to pose in the water and how to take care of facial expression. I often tell them that when they are in the water they need to be able to handle many tasks at once and in a short time. What are the main challenges and problems presented by underwater photography? Underwater equipment is very expensive and its sometimes difcult to get a swimming pool. You can count with your ngers how many photographers have done underwater portrait photography like this and I believe that I am among the earliest photographers to do so.

Creative ways to work with portraiture


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If you are working with an uncomfortable or reticent subject, try incorporating a prop into the shoot. Most people will feel much more relaxed and a lot less awkward when they have something specic to do such as holding an object of some kind, particularly if it is something personal to them.

01 Pick up a prop

15 foolproof portrait tips

Weve selected our favourite portrait photography tips and tricks to help you make the most of a shoot

Adrian Dewey


Keep the energy up Portrait photographers need to be enthusiastic and inspire the same sort of enthusiasm in their subjects. If your subjects feel inspired by you and your energy levels then they will try harder themselves, which in turn will help you to keep coming up with different ideas.

03 Safety in numbers

Where possible, start portrait sessions with a group shot especially with uneasy models. Camera-shy people will feel far less threatened and nervous when they are not the only one being photographed, and they will probably be quite happy to pose after a warm-up.


Dont assume that you need lots of different lights to create a pro-looking portrait

Aperture matters A wide aperture, like f2 or f1.4, will produce extremely shallow depth of eld that can look very attractive in portraits. But be extra careful with your focusing to ensure that the eyes are sharp. The eye thats nearest to the lens should be the main focal point when youre using shallow depth of eld.

Negative space in a portrait can look incredibly effective. The only point to remember is that your subject must not be looking away from the negative space, and negative space usually works better towards the left of the frame, with the subject on the right, rather than the other way around.

05 Negative space works

Napie Moksin

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07 Simple light

Work quickly Keeping things moving during the shoot will prevent your subject from getting restless and it also helps them to have more condence in your abilities. Spending too long on something makes you look less purposeful and will make the client think that things arent working.
Dont assume that you need lots of different lights to create a pro-looking portrait. Many of the best portraits are taken using just one carefully positioned light. Using several lights often only serves to make everything more complex and doesnt necessarily improve the shots.

08 Get gritty

Whereas some subjects suit soft, attering light that suppresses imperfections and blemishes, other subjects including older men often work well with processing that really highlights every nuance and detail of their face and skin.

beyond portrait lenses 09 Consider the crop 10 Go

Creative or unusual crops can make a massive difference to a portrait. Dont be afraid to crop in really tight on your subjects face, perhaps even cropping out some of your subjects face. Try breaking the conventional portraiture rules for dynamic images.

David Gibson

You often hear photographers describing an 85mm lens as a great portrait lens. However, that doesnt mean that you cant shoot great portraits with a wideangle lens. Never be afraid to experiment and go for creative compositions.

11 The eyes have it

Pay close attention to your subjects eyes. What expression do they have? Where are they looking? How sharp are they? Ask yourself these questions when you are posing your models and composing your portraits, and youll see the difference in your shots.

14 Have a plan ready

12 Edit your shots

The work you do in Lightroom and Photoshop can make a difference to the quality of your portraits. Experiment with different crops and different contrast levels. If you shoot RAW, you can also tweak the white balance.

Black and white Some portraits simply work better in black and white. Shadowy lowkey images are a classic example, but dont overlook the potential of high-key conversions. Always try out an image in mono before committing to colour.

Its very important to have a plan for your shoot so that you have something to go on once the subject is there and the session has begun. When you dont have to think of ideas during the shoot, because youve already planned them, youll nd that plenty of ideas will come to you as you work.
Katrina Christ

Avoid direct on-camera ash Using just an on-camera ash as your main light source will rarely result in top-quality portrait images, so avoid using it. Without bouncing your ash or modifying it with a small softbox, the light produced by the on-camera ash is very likely to be harsh and unattering.



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Moments where light bursts through the clouds can illuminate the landscape in ways that are unimaginable. This side-lit scene from the Quiraing, Isle of Skye, is testament to this


Words and images David Clapp

Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8 II USM

Works best with


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Creative landscapes with Canon

here are, of course, many different genres of photography. However, landscape photography is without a doubt one of the most rewarding forms of the medium. Its fair to say that there is nothing simpler, or more exciting than capturing the great outdoors. Forget nicky studio lighting, props and equipment complexities; lets embrace the beauty of the natural world and experience a whole new creative understanding. Landscape shooting is popular because of its synergy of high-spirited adventure, technical mastery and creative expression. What is remarkable is the broad overlap within its core. Are you a technical person that nds art unfathomable? Then theres room for you within this medium. Are you artistic but far from a painter? There are so many creative doorways opening, you dont have to be either. As technology simplies a once-bafing art form, there has never been a better time to start exploring the genre of creative landscapes. So all this sounds exciting and rather straightforward visit a beauty spot, stay until

We explore the mindset, potential and elation behind looking for the perfect creative landscape and photographing it with your Canon
sunset and snap? The scatter-gun approach will satisfy photographers who are just starting out at rst, but dont expect the buzz to last too long. Intrigue will ultimately lead to confusion, then perhaps to what we can term the runners wall. Many view this as a spiritual journey and enlightenment is not easy to nd. It takes myriad elements to capture that beautiful crescendo. So if youre condent that you want a piece of the glory, get tuned in and be willing to do everything in your power to make it happen.

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Although location-based vistas make up a large percentage of landscape photography, there are many ways of interpreting the natural world around you. Landscapes dont have to be shot from the top of a treacherous mountain or while risking it all at a stormy coast. They can be minimalist, intimate, simplied, abstract, diffused or even patterned. Shooting a landscape image is fun and exciting. Just a little research, some minimal camera gear and a spring in your step can lead to some exciting times. Once your kit bag is packed, remember that capturing a gorgeous vista doesnt have to be complicated. By sticking to a number of important principles it can be very simple. Firstly choose a clich, an over-photographed icon and do this without concern. Photographing a clich removes the need to assess composition, which can often be unfathomable at the start. Lets take a classic Scottish castle scene. Its very shape and context makes it a joy to behold. The photographic experience is about waiting for great or unusual light, while the technical experience is about camera technique and timing. The composition and framing of the picture are gifts handed down from photographer to photographer, and there is nothing wrong with that. Dont worry about standing in the same place where an admired photograph was once taken. Its a bit like learning to play a cover song on a new guitar. Its too early to scrutinise integrity, its all about getting a feel for the rhythm. The lessons learned from capturing a successful photograph can be carried forwards to new locations, clich or not. Full of newfound condence, consider repeating the same idea in different locations. This creates the one thing all artists desire style. Then take a leap of faith into new and uncharted locations. Use your skills to interpret the landscape and match technique with new creative understanding at the coast, in woodlands, national parks and beyond. Build a portfolio of classics and be proud of them. Its fair to say that many landscapes often contain lots of complication and clutter. But when youre shooting, remember that they dont always have to be lled with texture, density and dimension. The mind enjoys a simplied view, with space to breathe. Where do we nd such subjects? This depends on how far you wish to go with a ne-art approach. Start with natural subjects like single trees. A few clouds and a single tree atop a hill can be all that is needed to create a great landscape. It could be from a distance, photographed with a telephoto lens. It could be entirely isolated, but dont stop there. As winter rolls in and covers the landscape in a blanket of snow, nature simplies our vision even further. Soft, sculpted shapes from windblown snow can make remarkable photographs. Even simple man-made structures like fencing or telegraph poles can create really interesting compositions. Other simple scenes can be found at the coast. Divide the frame with differing percentiles of sand, sea and sky. Why not try some camera movement? Use a long exposure and move the camera smoothly. Experiment to discover if this style suits your style.

Still and tranquil lakes are hard to find, but although this view has been photographed many times, the conditions make this worthy of repeating 100 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK


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Elements of a great shot
QThe image comprises a simple set of colours whites, soft greys and a very slight blue tint. They are all complementary and balanced. QThe tones in the image are simple; pale gradients of snow and sky against the slight texture of the hoar frost and snow beneath. QThe tree trunksallow visual exploration of the image without being attention grabbing. There are ve bolder tree trunks that balance the compositional rhythm. QSlight darkening to the upper and lower parts of the image create a ceiling and base that generates interest at the centre of the frame, helping to balance the overall image.

A simple roadside shot like this needs no focal point, just a balance of lines and tones that give it a sense of compositional rhythm and a stately elegance


Creative use of polarising lters

If youre starting out in landscape photography, the use of creative filters can be rather confusing. The polarising filter in itself is probably one of the most powerful creative tools that you can use, as it has such a drastic effect on the landscape and sky in particular. Photographers often misconstrue that the polariser is actually increasing saturation, when in fact it is cutting reflection and allowing the true colour of the subjects to come through. Imagine waxy leaves on a tree; they are reflecting so much daytime light that the green becomes very washed out. The polariser cuts this reflection and the true colour of the leaves is visible. This effect becomes very prominent in the sky. By reducing the reflective light emanating from particles of moisture in the atmosphere, the sky reduces in luminosity, which makes the clouds stand out far more significantly. Its effectively doing exactly the same job as on the tree, which is often a little difficult to understand at first. Creative use of polarisers is tricky, especially when working with wide-angle lenses. However, with a little practice, working with these little bits of kit will become second nature and youll discover a wonderful world of colour that goes unseen. Polarisers can even work remarkably well when shooting after sunset, in black-andwhite and also in infrared.

Taken using a polarising filter, reflections are significantly reduced which reveals the vibrant, true colours of the scene

An image taken without the use of a polarising filter will appear more washed out, as the daylight is reflected by the subjects


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Advanced techniques

The use of simple colours in your landscape images can also be a powerful tool. Perhaps the rst thing that springs to mind when shooting images with simple palettes is macro and ower photography, but you can shoot beautiful landscapes in simplied tones. Remember the importance of harmonious balance in an image, with compositional elements and also the placement of colours themselves. Take a cold winter scene. The colours are somewhat monochrome, with whites and greys offsetting each other. Yet sunsets and sunrises can also contain a simple balance of colour. Ochre, reds and yellow sand can have a wonderful warm feel, without the need for complicated composition. Now think about a cloudless dusk sky, with simple bands of blue, orange and magenta. The balance of complementary colour can make all the difference to the way a landscape feels. Spring landscapes in particular are a variety of primary colours. A bluebell woodland or a eld full of rapeseed or poppies all contain simple washes of soft colour, usually against distant green elds and favourably blue skies. The eye loves to see simplied colours working together in harmony, as they often create a painterly feel in a photograph. Another atmospheric and natural subject that can add an extra element to your landscape portfolio is mist and fog. These meteorological wonders create fantastic possibilities for creative photography. There is nothing more magical and ethereal than a dawn shoot overlooking mist and fog in the valley

Landscapes through a long lens

You dont need a DSLR to deal with the long distances involved in landscape photography
You might think that a DSLR is a requirement when it comes to serious landscape photography, but thanks to Canon you can save yourself some cash and get lightweight performance with an incredible zoom. The Canon PowerShot SX50 HS is a bridge compact with superzoom capabilities. This 12.1 megapixel shooter offers a 50x ultra wide-angle zoom great for capturing distant horizons at a good price: it costs just 449/$480. As a compact its also lighter in weight than even a DX-format DSLR which means that its great for extended treks in search of perfect scenes to shoot it weighs just 595g.

Get out early, as mist rarely lasts long. As the sun rises, the air currents warm and condense the mist even further. This was taken seconds before being completely engulfed



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below. And the possibilities dont end there. It doesnt have to be all about high-level vistas; fog and mist can be some of the most useful conditions for shooting inside forests as well. Its the diffusion that provides the magic, softly losing detail with distance. Mist is created by cold air condensing with warmer air above. Pockets of cold air sit in valleys, especially during the spring and autumn months when nighttime temperatures drop signicantly lower than daytime. You can get a good indicator of when mist and fog will occur by looking at the dew point, or humidity. Websites like the Met Ofce or your local weather service provide good information on this. One of the most exciting places to shoot mist and fog is to nd an east-facing viewpoint that overlooks elds and hillsides. Using a telephoto lens rather than a wide angle allows you to pick out more intimate compositions within the landscape. Mist and fog usually occur under clear skies, so the rising sun can create some wonderful golden light. Sometimes when mist and fog is too thick, the vista can be lost. With the landscape engulfed, its better to get away from the views and get into the forests and woodlands. This is often where the tree magic can

happen, especially if the mist is so thick that there is no light penetrating through. Find a woodland that feels particularly creepy and let your imagination run riot. Shoot delicate details of trees trunks fading into the white, or perhaps pick out a forest glade. Remember, there are no shadows when shooting in fog, just midtones and highlights. Push your exposures to the right of the histogram to capture the right tones correctly and make sure you get up early enough, as a lot of the magic happens before dawn! The more often you head out to shoot in these adverse weather conditions, youll notice that good landscape photography is not only about the magic of light but it can also be about the lack of it. Certain photographs will work well with certain conditions, so dont always assume the photography is about capturing the spectacular. Magnicent lighting doesnt have to be colourful; it can be based around contrast, something entirely different. Imagine a scenario where a torch is lit through a crack in the door. This is almost the same as heavy grey clouds, with the sun ltering through a crack on the horizon. Although it may be intense to look at, the side lighting can turn the world into a very surreal place.

This sort of light occurs in places with unpredictable weather patterns, like mountains or moorland scenes. Some of the best conditions for landscape photography can be when the weather is at its absolute worst. Strange things happen in the mountains in particular, and just when you think you have light all sussed out, it will unfold and redene your understanding. Another thing that the light is very good at creating is patterns, but you dont have to stop there. We have all seen patterns and shapes in sand at the coast, and there is great potential to nd patterns within the landscape as well. Some of the most wonderful patterns occur from mans interaction with the land, for example ploughed elds or stripes in mown grass. Alternatively, explore some of the places where nature creates the most unusual and intricate of designs, such as the coast at low tide. The receding tide can often leave some very fascinating impressions as currents form and shapes lie within the sand. Often, as water runs underneath the sand, it can collapse to leave some extremely interesting branches almost like the branches of a tree. These are denitely worth seeking out.

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Finding images with just two or three colours makes a harmony and simplicity that does not involve composition. Colours with similar hues, like the green sea and blue sky, can complement beautifully


Thinking in black and white

Moonlight photography, astrophotography, infrared and black-and-white are all interpretive mediums where the camera reveals a world that is otherwise unseen. Black-and-white doesnt require any expensive equipment and is a great rst step toward understanding how to interpret photography in a different way. Look for interesting textures and ll your coastal foregrounds with rock patterns alongside a lack of colour. Washed-out sunsets can often make compelling monochrome images. Try setting your cameras picture style to black-and-white and experiment with shooting mono imagery, attempting to translate the colour tones you see around you before you press the shutter.

In colour, this image of Westcombe in Devon looks a little flat. The colours are muted and do no justice to the scene In monochrome, the beautiful textures in the sand are highlighted, as is the moody atmospheric sky


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 On a much smaller scale, change your lens to a
macro. Youll soon nd that this will open up huge potential for patterns that can be found within nature. Frost, snow and ice can create some of the most remarkable forms, especially when photographed close-up. Rocks themselves make some of the most fascinating macro possibilities. Is this truly landscape photography? Perhaps not, but it is part of the landscape portfolio. Before you head out in search of photographic perfection, consider what you need for the job. There are three distinctive areas that must be conquered to compose a great landscape image. There is the wideangle with a focal length of 17-30mm, the mid-range focal length of 30-70mm and nally the longer-range zoom, between 70-300mm. Each has a different discipline that will excel in different scenarios. Wide-angle lenses are excellent for creating a sense of dimension and density to your landscapes. The mid-range zoom provides a sense of reality in your images, portraying the world as the eye sees it. The longer-range zoom is ideal for exploring intimate details in the landscape. Ensure your framing is accurate, tidy and well-policed before you hit the shutter. Let your eye ow over the scene for images with a natural harmony, using light, tonality and obvious compositional elements. While you are composing your scene, allow colour to play its part. There are three main types of palette or colour harmony that you can use. The most obvious to use is a natural colour harmony, which is based on the colour combinations that we see in nature lots of different hues and shades of green, gradients of blue and pops of brighter colours. This makes the natural scheme perfect for strictly representational landscape images, when youre photographing an iconic place that you want the viewer to recognise. Another colour harmony that most photographers will have heard of is complementary colour, where lters or post-production are used to create a visual juxtaposition between colours that are opposite each other on a colour wheel. The opposing colours make each other pop. The most common complementary colour combination is a primary with a secondary colour. However, tertiary colours such as bluegreen and red-orange can often create a richer complementary colour harmony. This brings us on to analogous colours those that sit next to each other on the colour wheel. A coloured lter or a monochrome post-production treatment can help you to achieve this effect. You can create it with three shades of the same colour, like purple-red, true red and orange-red, or combine a primary and secondary like true red, orange-red and true orange. Whatever your level of photography, there is always room to expand and explore. Creative landscape shooting is about developing an eye alongside an understanding of the landscape and weather. Above all, get your camera and get out there.

A volcanic landscape in the south of Iceland, rich in colour and texture


Canon gear guide

Canon EOS 6D
Web: Price: 2,519.99/$2,899.00

This fantastic full-frame DSLR is lighter than other models, making it the ideal companion for a landscape photographer. It comes with a 24-105mm kit lens for the prices above.

Canon EOS 700D

Web: Price: 759.99/ $899.99

Lee Pengelly

The affordable DX-format Canon EOS 700D is a great camera for landscape enthusiasts. Offering 18-megapixels and an extensive ISO range, you can capture high-quality images in low-light with little noise.

Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L II USM

Web: Price: 1319.99/$1699.00

This professional ultra wide-angle lens offers a constant f/2.8 maximum aperture, which is great for low-light landscapes.

Canon PowerShot SX510 HS

Web: Price: 289.99/ $249.99

The new Canon PowerShot SX510 HS is a great second shooter as its lightweight, compact and has a powerful 30x optical zoom lens attached. It also comes equipped with Wi-Fi so you can share shots instantly.

Canon EF 200-400mm f/4L IS USM Extender 1.4x

Web: Price: 11,999.99 / $11,800
Lee Pengelly

This high-end telephoto lens offers an extensive focal range, which is great for getting in closer to your landscape scenes or photographing wildlife from a safe distance.


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Lee Pengelly

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The wave formations of the orange-toned desert rocks against a bright-blue sky provide a great example of complementary colours in landscapes



Advanced techniques

Top 10 creative landscape tips


Midday shadows Shooting at midday is frowned upon by many, but overhead light can create dramatic shadows, especially in the landscape. Look out for unusual shapes and patterns thrown by buildings etc
Dont be afraid to shoot at strange angles. If you are shooting close-up with no horizon, a quirky angle can create an unusual take on a common subject. Look for natural lines and try to make them run diagonally.



By using longer focal lengths on a telephoto lens, you can crop in on landscape details and section off interesting patterns within the landscape.

Getting enough light can be tricky when shooting macro studies. Use a hand-held reector to bounce light back into the shaded side of the subject.


Theres no denying that tripods are useful for keeping the camera steady and freeing up your hands. Once you have framed the shot, lock the tripod up to concentrate on the lighting, composition and timing.


Focusing manually will ensure the camera focuses where you want it to, and by setting exposure manually you can be more creative. Use the spotmetering mode to measure the light for the best results.

Gorillapods, miniature tripods and clamps are all handy gadgets. If you nd a great landscape-withina-landscape, get in close to shoot. Small clamps can be used to hold back vegetation or even to clasp a reector.


Shoot within the ranges of f2.8-5.6 to throw distracting backgrounds out of focus and direct the eye to your subject. Wider apertures give faster shutter speeds, so you can shoot without worrying about shake.

Live View is a handy function to aid composition. Some cameras even offer live histograms.
Words by Lee Pengelly

With the camera on a tripod, zoom in on your subject. Use a shutter speed of 1/8-1/30sec and just as you trip the shutter, twist the zoom lens back out. This produces a zoomed effect, which is very eye-catching. Try the technique with any static subject.


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Working with

e share our planet with Mother Natures most fascinating subjects. Wildlife has the ability to captivate all of us, and so it seems only natural that we would want to capture our experiences with it on camera to share with the rest of the world. In this feature, well be exploring the photographic genre in detail and unearthing the practicalities of working in the wild with unpredictable, and often elusive animals. Youll discover what it means to be a wildlife photographer, and learn how to use your skills to document the natural world and help raise awareness of conservation efforts. Youll also learn that wildlife photography is not all about safaris and the exotic species that roam the savannah; its also on your doorstep and can be just as enthralling to photograph. Well cover expert shooting techniques, ideal camera settings and all the equipment youll need to get the shots. The professionals will also be talking with us, keen to share their experiences and advice on working in the wild. 

Uncover practical advice and pro insight on how to capture natures intriguing creatures with your Canon


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Shah Rogers Photography Photographers Anup Shah and Fiona Rogers specialise in close-up wildlife photography. They frequently shoot fantastic close-ups of African wildlife in Tanzania. Here, they share their advice for those whod like to follow in their footsteps. There is no date at which we became full-time wildlife photographers. It was a gradual transition, an evolution. The approach we take is to spend a lot of time with our animal subjects, get to know them, and photograph them on their terms. A location we return to time and time again is the Gombe National Park in Tanzania. When you photograph animals on their terms, you get good close-ups when they come to you, driven by curiosity. On their terms youll [capture] relaxed animals that behave naturally


Never put yourself at risk when working with wild animals. Take appropriate precautions and use your zoom lens

Works best with

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II USM


Shah Rogers Photography

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Direct eye contact is essential for animal portraits. Be sure to keep the focus sharp too


Gear guide
Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II USM
Web: Price: 1,1722/$1,449

Its not the farthest-reaching telephoto out there but the Canon 70-200mm offers fantastic-quality optics that are ideal for wildlife photography. This professional lens includes a fantastic f2.8 wide aperture setting, which is constant through the entire zoom range, and it can also focus almost silently at a minimum distance of 1.5 metres.

Canon 18x50 IS All Weather

Web: Price: 1,089/$1,449

The Canon 18x50 IS All Weather binoculars are fantastic for wildlife photographers and enthusiasts. Offering a clear 18x magnication view with image stabilization built in, they are great for surveying a scene before you shoot, which is perfect if youre photographing the more aggressive kinds of wildlife such as big cats. You also have a wide eld-of-view of 67 degrees.

Gitzo Mountaineer 6X tripod

Web: Price: 610/$500

If youre working with large lenses you need serious support. A tripod like the Gitzo Mountaineer will save your wrists and shots from camera shake. Made from crossed layers of carbon bre, this Gitzo tripod is lightweight and absorbs vibration. It also comes with a simple leg-locking system.

Lowepro Flipside 500 AW

Web: Price: 150/$250

Its important to ensure your kit is safe on a wildlife shoot. A hard-wearing bag like the Lowepro Flipside 500 AW is ideal and can hold pro-sized camera gear including a 500mm lens. Theres even a tripod mount, all-weather cover and storage space for personal items.

Having a passion for wildlife is integral to this area of photography, as is patience and persistence. Its a demanding genre and working outdoors against the elements can quickly take its toll on you and your kit. However, investing in the right equipment will help to maximise your time out on a shoot. Youll need to be willing to part with a fair few pennies, as what is considered essential doesnt always come cheap. A standard kit lens might be great for the back-garden variety of wildlife but if youre intending to venture into the wilderness, youre going to need some specialist optics that can keep up. A good-quality telephoto lens such as Canons own 70-200mm is indispensable, as it will offer far-reaching focal lengths thatll enable you to crop-in closer. In some situations, these lenses will also ensure your safety, as its possible to work from a distance. Although youre guaranteed better quality optics with prime telephoto lenses, you will be restricted in focal range. A telephoto zoom lens is a much more versatile option and you have the exibility to frame both wide and tight. In addition to selecting your ideal optics, youll also need to invest in some serious accessories

that are able to withstand the sort of terrain and elements youll be working in. A good-quality tripod will offer support and can save your shots from camera shake, particularly when working with long telephoto lenses. A durable camera bag is also essential as well to keep your kit safe and dry when its not in use. Spending more money up front for better-quality kit will save you in the long run, as you wont have to pay out for pricey repairs or replacements as quickly. But dont rush into purchasing every gadget that promises improved photos, work with the essentials rst and build up your kit bag as your shooting skills develop. Preparation is fundamental to any shoot but for wildlife photographers, research is imperative. Particularly if youre working with rare or endangered species. As a wildlife photographer its your responsibility to have a good understanding and appreciation for the animals youre working with. The right knowledge will also help you to make informed decisions that can ensure both your safety and that of the animals. Use research as a tool to help you take better photos by uncovering interesting facts that detail a particular 


Working with wildlife Advanced techniques

Paul Joynson-Hicks

Watch out for speedy subjects and animal action. Capture motion using faster shutter speeds and selecting your cameras tracking autofocus function to keep subjects sharp

Wildlife photography requires the use of farreaching focal lengths. You can zoom in to your animal subjects from a distance, which is great for both your safety and shooting close crops

Wild insights
Professional wildlife photographer Victoria Hillman shares her advice and top tips for capturing successful wildlife shots at home and away
Name: Victoria Hillman Bio: After studying a degree in zoology with marine zoology, Victoria undertook a masters degree in wildlife biology and conservation. She says, My focus is not just to photograph wildlife but to use my knowledge to acquire a deeper understanding of interactions and behaviours. She was recently appointed research director of the Transylvanian Wildlife Project and her work has received a number of awards.
Victoria Hillman

images but also for the welfare of both your subject and yourself. My rst port of call is researching my target species, its behaviour and any patterns it may follow, and also its habitat. The welfare of that species comes rst even if it means missing the shot. Whats your most memorable animal encounter? It has to be seeing a greater bamboo lemur in the wild in Madagascar. I had spent some time with one individual watching him sleep, just as I left he woke up and started to eat. At that moment he looked straight into my eyes and feeling his stare brought tears to my eyes. In your opinion what makes a great image? A good wildlife image for me has to show an emotional connection with the subject. There has to be something striking about an image that is both thought-provoking and tells a story.

What are your top tips for wildlife photography? Research your subject and its habitat, and concentrate on just one species or habitat at a time. Always put the welfare of your subject rst and remember that patience really does pay off! Know your equipment inside and out I cant emphasise this enough, the better you know your equipment, the better the results. Victorias images are available for use in publications and to buy as ne-art prints from her website vikspics. com. Canvases are also available on request. Contact Victoria for details on tailor-made talks and photographic tuition too. She is also a UK local hero of the Manfrotto School of Xcellence and runs webinars through their website throughout the year; Victorias previous webinars are available through the webinar archive section at Is research important in wildlife photography? Researching your subject is vital, not only for capturing


Advanced techniques

You wont have control over the light so use a lens hood to help prevent glare and keep you from worrying about the sun


Avoid detection by shooting discreetly. This is the best way to capture natural animal behaviour in your photographs


Remember the three Ps: practice, patience and persistence. And it also comes down to being in the right place at the right time


 creatures habitat, life span and behavioural traits. With this information youll know more about where to nd the animal, the best time of day or year to photograph them and what characteristics are distinctive to the species. Knowing more about the animal will not only ensure that your work stands out, but also help towards building our understanding of the natural world, which in turn can help aid conservation efforts. Of course no two animals are the same, so dont expect the research youve unearthed on one subject to apply as easily to another. Photographing wildlife in the Sahara for example, is entirely different to photographing those that are native to the British Isles. Its important to bear in mind that an animals habitat can also have a considerable effect on the outcome of your shoot. It goes without saying that you should always look into the weather conditions leading up to your shoot and prior to setting off so that youre adequately prepared. In addition, dont forget to research how the season generally affects the wildlife in the area youre working in. This is an easy way to establish what other species may be around. Fortunately, wildlife photography really is a year-round genre and youre certain to discover plenty of intriguing critters throughout the seasons. Photographing during the spring and summer months will guarantee you a lot more natural light and improved weather conditions; early morning starts and later evenings will enable you to t in

much more shooting time. The warmer weather will also bring out hibernating species that have been tucked away over the cooler autumn and winter months. Animals in general are a lot more active this time of year and youll nd greater opportunities to capture their new offspring on camera too. Always do research into this area rst though and be wary of nervous mothers, you dont want to be responsible for scaring off a mother who in turn abandons her young or attacks you. Keep a safe distance at all times and remember to remain respectful when working in their environment. Springtime will welcome back migrating birds. Venture out to local wetland areas for better sightings of much rarer species. Capturing these eeting subjects on camera though can be challenging so youll need to stay alert. A fast shutter speed is essential and will enable you to freeze motion and ensure your shots appear sharp. When working with a telephoto lens, in any situation, always remember to ensure your shutter speed is set higher than the focal length youre working at. For example, shooting at 300mm means your shutter speed should be set to at least 1/350sec or above. This will help to eliminate the possibility of camera shake. When working with speedy or skittish subjects such as birds or elusive mammals, make your subject the priority. Focus on freezing the action rst and exposing the image second. In some scenarios, its unlikely that youll nd time

to manually adjust all of your exposure settings, in these situations, switch over to using shutter priority (Tv mode). This lets you decide the shutter speed setting, while the camera determines the best aperture for a balanced exposure. Dont worry if your camera underexposes the image as a result by a stop or two. Its easier to work up a slightly darker image than it is to rescue blown-out highlights. If the animal youre photographing is known for speed, dont be afraid to incorporate this characteristic into the frame too. Use your cameras continuous autofocus setting (AL Servo AF) and set a slightly slower shutter speed of around 1/80sec. Start by focusing the camera on the animal and then pan with them as they move, while you release the shutter. For seamless results, tuck in your elbows and move your whole body at the hips. The subject appear sharp while the background is blurred, representative of movement. During the autumn and winter months, the landscape will transform. Take advantage of the natural warm colour tones during autumn, which can make for incredible backdrops in your wildlife captures. Early risers should set off at sunrise to really make the most of the light quality and colour tones. At this time of the day, a lot of animals remain relatively relaxed and are often focused on nding food. But dont be fooled into thinking this distraction means you wont be seen. All species are built for survival and as a result have extraordinary instincts. Consequently, bounding across the

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Top tips for looking after kit

Always take out appropriate insurance that covers you and your kit. This way youll have peace of mind no matter what happens on when youre on an unpredictable wildlife shoot.

Invest in waterproof covers that will protect the camera and lens from extreme weather conditions. Dont forget to use your lens hood too, itll help shield the glass from ugly water spots.


If youre working in wet, damp or humid conditions, place loose rice grains inside your camera bag to help absorb moisture that can have an adverse affect on your equipment over time.

Use a blower brush to remove loose particles from your camera after an outdoor shoot. If you changed lenses, you may also want to clean the sensor to keep things in top condition.


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Andy Rouse

This workshop offers a truly unique one-to-one imaging experience for taking stunning shots of hares, owls and otters.



Aperture Academy

Alaska, USA
Contact: Wild Life

Photo Tours

This tour guides you through the Yellowstone National Park for images of wolves, elk, bison and moose.

Book onto one of these great courses to capture shots of whales, bears, salmon and eagles.

Contact: Norfolk


Wildlife Photography Web: Take on the rainforest to frame some capuchin monkeys, parrots, sloths and exotic frogs.



Where in the world?

A global roundup of the planets most amazing creatures and the pro imaging courses to help you photograph them
Contact: Tatra Photography Web:

Going Digital Web: Explore Gambia and gain expert advice on framing hyenas, hippos and crocodiles, to name but a few.

Galpagos & Ecuador

Book a place and drink in the beautiful wildlife with giant tortoise, sea turtles, sea lions and albatross are all at home here.


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Contact: Wild Arena Web:

Grasp the opportunity of a lifetime to observe and photograph Finlands enigmatic population of brown bears.

Contact: Create Away Web:


Wild white horses are beautiful subjects, so book a place and head to Camargue for inspiring equine imagery.

Contact: Steppes Discovery Web:


Spend an exciting seven days in Indias premier tiger reserve and photograph these wonderful cats with expert tips.

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Take a true walk on the wild side and let the pros help you photograph lions, cheetahs, rhinos and elephants.

Contact: Trekabout


Photography Workshops Web:

Contact: Natures Images Web:

South Africa


Map by Abigail Daker

Not many people come face to face with the terrifying majesty of great white sharks, but you can grab a close-up here.

Venture down under to capture the animals of Oz, such as bandicoots, pythons and geckos.

Advanced techniques

Dont be afraid to experiment with camera settings to get more artistic images. Slow down your shutter to illustrate motion in fast-moving subjects and add emphasis the action taking place in the scene


Use wide apertures to embrace a shallow depth of field effect. The artistic blurred background will also draw the attention to your subject, which is great for majestic creatures such as big cats


 savannah or a meadow with your camera in

hand wont get you the shots youre after; youll need to take a much more considered approach. If you can, try to position yourself downwind of the animal and move slowly. Natural-coloured clothing that blends in with the surroundings will help you to remain undetected. You can take it a step further if necessary by waiting it out in a hide. Once youve set up your kit, its really all about patience, but provided youve done your research, you should be able to locate a good spot. To avoid blowing your cover at the last minute, remember to set your camera to its silent mode settings. More advanced Canon lenses offer an in-built ultrasonic motor (USM) that makes autofocus adjustments undetectable. High-end camera models will

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African adventures
Photographer and African-wildlife expert Paul Joynson-Hicks shares some pro shooting advice
What is your most memorable animal encounter to date? Holy mackerel there have been many. I was charged by a humongous silverback gorilla in Uganda in 1993, it was a mock charge (probably) but still hugely alarming. Thankfully he was also dragging a tree and couldnt decide whether to drop the tree or try hitting us with it. In the end he thought better of both... Ultimately though, my most extraordinary wildlife experience was spending two days in the Serengeti ecosystem, in a place called Piyaya watching one pack of wild dogs hunting. It was mind blowing to the extreme. They are the most beautiful and amazing creatures on this planet. Lions pale into insignicance next to their brilliance if there was a Top Trumps for African predators, wild dogs (alternatively known as hunting dogs, Lycaon pictus) would win. They are approximately 80 per cent successful in their hunts. They are highly sociable, they look after other females puppies, they can run faster and further then any other predator (except the cheetah on a sprint) and tragically they are extremely vulnerable to human predation. Have you ever been in any particularly dangerous situations when out photographing? The gorilla charge was pretty hairy! That aside, we were once in a vehicle and charged by a stroppy and very sick elephant. Thankfully the reverse gear of our old Pajero was just faster than his charge. Another time I was about to jump into a hollow baobab tree to shoot some bats when we thought we had better check rst. I found a large black-necked spitting cobra curled up right where my feet would have landed close shave that one! Ive been lucky, but also, as long as you follow a few simple rules to the bush you can avoid getting injured. Just be sensible and you can still get incredible photos. Whats your most important piece of kit when working out in the eld? Apart from the cameras and lenses, of course, you arent going to get far without a good vehicle and I am very lucky to have an old land cruiser which takes me up mountains, through gullies, across rivers and only rarely gets stuck. So, that and my big tripod! Do you have any top tips for photographing animals in the wild? Take the time to get to know the animal and the area youre capturing and understand about light early AM and PM. Always look to the animals eyes rst. Be bold and brave when youre photographing dont always follow the rules use light and composition to change the way you think about your images. Always enjoy where you are, have fun, respect nature and the wild and you will come away with a richly fullling experience.

Paul Joynson-Hicks

Name: Paul Joynson-Hicks MBE Bio: UK born and bred, Paul has spent the last 20 years as a professional photographer in East and Central Africa. He has published many photography books, is an Associate member of the Royal Photographic Society and is uent in Swahili. In addition to his photography, Paul has also set up a number of very successful charitable organisations. In Uganda, Paul worked with street children and set up the Tigers Football Club ( In Tanzania he created the Goat Races (, and in 2004 he established Wonder Workshop (, which enables handicapped men and women to produce highly commercial creative metal artwork, wooden toys, recycled paper products, and handmade soap, which are now taking commissions from around the world.
Paul Joynson-Hicks How did you rst get into wildlife photography? Being a photographer and living in London, I came to Uganda 20 years ago to spend six months producing a photographic book on the country. I loved it and stayed. Since then I have spent much of my time shooting wildlife its the perfect place to be! Whats the best time of year to photograph African wildlife? All year round! In the rainy season you can get some great shots of beautiful green grass and happy animals, dramatic skies and so on. In the dry season animals congregate around water so its a bit easier. Shooting at either time is equally enjoyable. How important is it to research the animals that you intend to photograph? This is crucial; the more you know about an animal, the more you will be able to interpret their behavior or predict whats going to happen next, where they might be or when they are calving, for example. Also, if its 10am, and very hot, and you see some lions lying in the shade panting you know not to bother (well, usually!) hanging around waiting for any action. There wont be any. You can come back later that day and still nd them there! Is there a preferred time of day to photograph African wildlife? Early morning and late evening with the sun low to the horizon the quality of light is so beautiful, ooding the land and the wildlife with a stunning golden light. Also, perhaps more crucially with wildlife, the low light brings catchlights into the eyes and lls the face with light. At midday the eyes would be in shadow.

also offer a silent shutter mode thats great for minimising noise. Once winter takes hold youll notice a change in the weather, scenery and active wildlife. This can apply to photographing wildlife at home and on safari. If youre shooting in cooler climates, dont be put off by adverse weather conditions. Frost and snow wont stop the animals from foraging for food so theres still plenty to see and shoot. With less foliage around though it can be more of a challenge to remain unseen and fewer daylight hours will also be restrictive so youll need to work around the hours of the day that the animals are most active. Although some landscapes look a lot bleaker during the winter, its still worth framing wide to add context to wildlife captures. Use the rule of thirds or negative space to keep the composition engaging and work with wider aperture settings in order to draw focus to your subject. Always remember to ensure that the animals eyes appear sharp too, as this is where the viewer will be drawn to rst within the frame. Wildlife photography on the whole requires a lot of patience, practice and persistence. If you can stay undetected, youre guaranteed some great shots. Never forget that youre working in an animals habitat and always be mindful of what impact it could have on the wildlife of the local area.

I was charged by a humongous silverback gorilla in Uganda


Advanced techniques

Improve your action-packed portfolio by keeping pace with all the latest Canon techniques and speedyshooting tricks

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8L IS II USM

sport on Canon
Works best with


port is often considered one of the most difcult and expensive photographic genres to get into. Many photographers shy away from it, thanks to the misconception that in order to photograph sports well, you need pro-access, an extremely long lens and a bumper kit bag full of expensive accessories. What really matters, however, is your skill level as a photographer its not what kit you have that counts; its what you can do with it. In the action-packed world of photographing sports, theres no instant replay. If you miss a shot, the moments gone, so the pressure is really on to get it right rst time. Join us as we reveal some of the pro shooting tips, tricks and techniques to ensure you never miss a moment of the action. To help you master all of the key shooting methods, we speak to some of the industrys top sporting photographers to uncover their secrets behind shooting the game 


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Just like the athletes youre capturing, prepare and stay focused. Plan out what you want to shoot first, so you can keep your eyes on the action
John Hicks



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Panning techniques


Jordan Weeks says it all began for him with surfing and a storm
Web: I have been photographing sports ever since I picked up my rst SLR at age 18 and I found myself at my local beach, a few days after a storm the surf was perfect. I grabbed my camera, and started to take pictures. I sent these off to a local surf magazine and, to my surprise, they were published on the magazines introduction page. I was so proud, and I havent looked back since. Over the years, my passion for sports photography has grown to include various other sports, including surng, cycling, running, and triathlon. Essentially, any sport or adventure lifestyle that involves being outdoors and exploring the world.

ports that involve a level of speed are some of the hardest to shoot. As the photographer, its up to you to determine the best way to capture the action, whether its to emphasise motion with a panning technique or simply freeze it as it unfolds. Professional sports photographer Jordan Weeks ( says, Sometimes its great to freeze motion when youre capturing sports. With a surf photo, for example, if you were to capture the action at just the right moment using a fast shutter speed, you can freeze all of the water as it sprays from the bottom of the surf board. The surfer is pin sharp, and the results can be really impressive. However, there are times when capturing movement can really change the mood of your photo. Take the same scene as described, but now shoot it with a slower shutter speed. This time youll create an image that is smooth and calming, the spray becomes an elegant fan of water, and the motion of the surfer is blurred and ghostly. A panning technique is often popular when shooting sports that require speed to win, such as cycling, motor racing and even running. Its an ideal way to illustrate motion, as although your moving subject remains sharp, the background will become artistically blurred. As a technique, panning takes patience and plenty of practice so its unlikely that youll get right rst time around.

Typically, a successful panning shot requires a shutter speed that is slower than 1/60sec. Switching your camera settings over to shutter priority mode is preferable, as this way you can select a suitable shutter speed, while the camera determines the best aperture setting for a balanced exposure. Working in burst mode will also open up a lot more shot opportunities should you miss on your rst attempt. To ensure your subject is sharp, youll also need to work in Al Servo AF mode, this will enable you to concentrate on your shooting technique while the camera takes care of focus. To pan effectively, you need to get physically involved with the action, moving your body in-line with your subject while you release the shutter. Jordan says, Itll usually take a few shots until you get the effect that you want. Its really important that you maintain a smooth panning action, moving your camera with the subject, to make sure that it remains sharp, while blurring the background only. I typically rotate my whole body from the hips when panning. I nd that this helps to achieve a smooth panning effect. Its important to be aware, however, that panning wont always be possible, particularly if your subjects are well-lit indoors or out, as longer shutter speeds in bright conditions will result in overexposed images. Situations such as these lend themselves well to faster shutter speeds that can freeze the motion as a result.

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Be prepared to stand around for hours, waiting to capture that killer shot Itll be worth it!

Understand the sports that you photograph in order to predict when and where the action will take place.

Visit your local athletics or sports club and nd out what activities they offer. Ask if its okay for you to come down and shoot this is a great way to get in some practice before you head off to shoot any big sporting events.

Top tip

Dont get caught up thinking that you need better camera equipment. You can get great results with a basic DSLR. Make sure you understand your camera in-depth. Youll need to be familiar with every single one of the settings, so that you can quickly adapt to the changing situations.

Plan your photo shoots. Go out with a good idea of what you want to achieve, and concentrate on capturing that particular photo or series of photos during the session.

You can keep up-to-date with Jordans latest sports photography by subscribing to his blog at You can also follow Jordans latest endeavours on Twitter and Facebook with details available via his website.

Working with the athlete and explaining the type of image that I wanted to capture enabled me to get this cool, low-angle view

All Images by Jordan Weeks


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There are times when capturing movement can change the mood of your photo
I wanted to capture a simple, minimalist photo of a cyclist, which captured the movement from a unique angle. For this shot, I climbed onto the roof of my car, and photographed the cyclist as they passed underneath me. A slow shutter speed allowed me to capture the motion

Where to apply panning

Panning is fantastic for shooting subjects at speed. Try it out on activities such as, cycling, motor racing, horse racing, running ice-skating and football

This photo was taken from the cliffs, looking directly into the sunlight. I remember struggling to get the exposure correct, as the glare from the sea was so strong. However, after a few attempts, I managed to capture a true gem

Put panning into practice Use this technique to incorporate speed into your shots

Camera setup Select shutter priority (Tv) and set your Get ready Focus on your subject as they come into The result There are different degrees of panning to shutter speed to 1/60sec. Keep your ISO low and opt to position. When youre ready, hold down the shutter experiment with. Capturing extreme motion is possible 1 2 3 shoot in burst mode. You will also need to switch your AF release and pan. Remember to rotate your whole body and with slower shutter speeds but slightly faster settings can settings over to Al Servo for sharp shots. hips to keep the action smooth for the best results. still provide great action-infused results. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 123

Advanced techniques

reezing motion is fantastic for action-packed sports. This technique is ideal if you want to capture facial expressions or poignant moments that can determine the winners of a sport. In the same way that shutter priority mode is great for panning, its also works for freezing motion as it enables you to set much faster shutter speeds without compromising the exposure. This is very important if youre shooting sports handheld, as your shutter speed setting will be directly affected by the focal length of your lens. If, for example, you are photographing your subject with your lens at 300mm, your shutter speed will need to be 1/300sec or higher to counteract shake and prevent motion blur. Investing in a monopod can help. These are great for adding in slight motion blur with slower shutter speeds and without having to pan. When working with fast shutter speeds in shutter priority mode, your camera will automatically select a wide aperture setting to ensure enough light is let through the lens. This is great for creating a shallow depth-of-eld effect, which will help to isolate your subject from any surroundings, just ensure your subject is sharp by working in Al Servo AF mode too. When selecting a lens for sports photography, always look out for a wide aperture setting, ideally around f2.8, as this will mean its quick enough to keep up. Unlike with panning techniques where you can illustrate motion and speed, freezing action shots rely heavily on whats going on in the frame. This not only involves capturing the right moment but can also affect the composition. In order to keep your images original, shoot from unique perspectives or get creative with angles. Youll nd that some sporting subjects really benet from being photographed at slight angles as it can help to infuse energy into the frame. Visualising what you want to get from a shoot before setting off is a great way to prepare. Adam Pretty (www. is an award-winning sports photographer who shoots for Getty Images. He says, I almost always have a plan; however due to the unpredictable nature of sports and photography, usually the plan falls apart and you need to adapt, which can be great because you often get something surprising. When setting up to shoot, get yourself in the best position around the track or eld, ensuring its somewhere you know a lot of the action might take place. Adam says, I try to be prepared as much as possible and position myself in the place where I think I might be able to get the best-possible picture. I also try and avoid following the crowd, as if you are stationed next to a bunch of other photographers your chances of getting something different decrease. He adds, The athlete is not the only one competing the photographers are also trying to get the best image from the same situation, most of the time with the same equipment. Sports is all about timing and being in the right place at the right time. Doing your research prior to the event is important this way you will get to know the sport and be able to predict possible events before they unfold. Jordan Weeks says, If youre familiar with the subject that youre photographing, then you are better able to predict when and where the action will take place. This in turn will enable you to press the shutter button at the precise moment, which captures the action in all its glory.

Freezing motion


Vadim Kaptur and Timofei Hordeichik of Belarus compete in the mens synchronised 10m platform preliminary round on 17 July 2011 in Shanghai, China
Adam Pretty/Getty Images

Its all about timing and being in the right place at the right time. Doing your research is important
This shot shows the importance of POV. I wanted to create the feeling just before the kite surfer steps onto the board, so I placed the camera over his shoulders

Where to apply freezing

Sports such as boxing, swimming, gymnastics, athletics, tennis and all kinds of team sports
John Hicks

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Adam Pretty discusses travelling the world to bring the action home

Top Tip
Sports photography doesnt have to just be about capturing the athletes. Turn your camera to the faces in the crowd, or even on the coach, to capture the emotions and passion of everyone involved.

Adam joined Getty Images in 1998 after working as a news photographer at the Sydney Morning Herald, with the desire to work as a sports photographer. Since joining the Getty Images team, Adam has been based in many locations, including Los Angeles, Sydney, Beijing and Tokyo, where he continues to work today. Having photographed ve Olympic Games, he has covered assignments around the globe for high-prole magazines including Sports Illustrated, Life Magazine, Time Magazine, Harpers Bazaar and Marie Claire. Alongside his award-winning sports photography, Adam also shoots advertising for big clients including Adidas, Nike, Acer, LOreal, BMW and Coca Cola. What advice would you give to someone who is looking to get into sports photography? Keep taking pictures, making mistakes, and showing your work to other photographers, editors and friends. Look at books, exhibitions and just really have a passion for your work. If you view photography as just a job I dont think you will achieve too much. It is a passion and, in my opinion, to be successful you need to view it this way. It is a competitive industry and you have to want it really badly. Dont stop doing what you love as eventually you will break through, and editors and agencies really respect photographers who never give up. If someone tells you no, ask why? Make sure you learn from mistakes and then go back and try again be persistent, and keep experimenting.

Put freezing the motion into action

Capture some intricate details to make your shots really stand out

Camera setup Adjust your settings so your camera is ready to freeze the action by selecting shutter priority mode (Tv). 1 Set your shutter speed upwards of 1/200sec and ensure your AF mode is on Al Servo to keep your subjects sharp and in focus.

Get ready If youre shooting from a distance, extend the 3 focal length of your lens to get in close. Set your camera to 2 burst mode and follow your subject through the viewfinder while keeping your other eye open to see whats coming up ahead.

The results Provided youre working with the right shutter speed for the sport, you should be able to capture all of the action effortlessly. Dont be afraid to crop in during postproduction if you have a high-resolution camera, it shouldnt affect the quality or outcome of your images.

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Look for a clean background. Always keep an eye out for where to shoot. Dont recycle old ideas look for new, surprising images. Arrive early and leave last for the best shots you need to be dedicated. Shoot sports and then shoot more sports you need loads of practice. Dont get hung up on big events, you can take great pictures anywhere.


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Lighting techniques
sing ash is a great way to freeze motion and light your subjects for a more commercial and stylised shot. John Hicks ( is an awardwinning advertising sports photographer who embraces the use of ash in his work. He says, Flash is great for freezing movement and can also be used to add a creative edge to your shots too. Personally, I like to shoot sport portraits at twilight, wide open [aperture] and on slow shutter speeds to create blur around the edges, I then use a very small amount of ash to ll in and freeze the motion. Understanding how light works and what it can do for your images is important, as John points out, You need to develop a real knowledge of light and learn how to use both natural and articial light together to enhance your shots. It takes time and practice, but light like the camera is a tool that you have to get skilled at using. Knowing what works best for the sport and the environment youre working in is also important. John suggests, Learn how to master shooting sports at fast and slow sync speeds depending on the conditions. In high ambient-light levels youll need a lot of ash in order to overpower the ambient light. You also need highspeed ash syncs to successfully freeze action. However, a little ash combined with slow sync speeds at twilight can create very effective ash-and-blur sports portraits too. Of course, ash isnt suited to all sports and there are some situations where it can be more of a hindrance than


Seasoned sports pro with 15 years in the biz, John Hicks offer his advice
Web: How long have you been shooting sports photography? Ive always liked style and moving images and have a natural instinct for the decisive moment, so shooting sports photography was a natural progression for me in my commercial career. I started in photojournalism, moved into fashion and got paid to shoot sports advertising so Ive been doing it for over 15 years now. What equipment would you recommend to someone who is looking to get into shooting sport? A good-quality DSLR and the best fast lenses you can afford. In my camera bag I have a Canon EF 16-35mm, 24-70mm and 70-200mm all zoom lenses and all at f2.8. Zooms are ideal because theres no ddling about changing primes when youre tight on time and the action is passing fast in front of you. I like fast lenses because I can shoot wide open at f2.8 without having to bump up my ISO beyond 100 which is great for quality. If youre shooting watersports youll also need a waterproof housing such as Liquid Eye or Ewa Marine. What type of lighting equipment would you recommend for an aspiring sports photographer and why? It really depends on the type of sports photography youre looking to shoot and the conditions you have to shoot in. I work mostly on location and have a full kit of Profoto battery-operated ash lights and lighting accessories. This setup is designed as a portable lighting studio. For high-end portraits and celebrity sports images it instantly adds that glossy edge to your work. For a more lightweight option that ts in a rucksack and allows for more spontaneous photography, I also use ash systems like the Canon Speedlite 580EX II and Qash, both of which are powered by portable Quantum Turbo batteries. John runs regular photographic workshops and courses throughout the year. For more in-depth expert advice, check out

a help. John says, Although I have photographed horse riders with ash, it can be tricky if the animals react badly to the ashlights popping off in their faces. Flash may not always be able to keep up with the pace of the sport either, as John points out, You need to know how long it takes your ashgun to recycle, particularly if youre shooting fast-paced action. This is the case when photographing water sports without a battery pack for example, in situations like this its always best to work with the elements rather than against them. Flash will also be restricted by distance so some sports may limit you to work only with the available ambient light. However, shooting sport for stock or advertising means you can embrace more complicated lighting setups. John explains, Flash can create a threedimensional feel by adding layers of lighting in the front, side and/or back of the image that will help separate your subject from the background and give your shot a high gloss, highly stylised advertising look. He continues, On commercial jobs, you have to produce on the day no matter what the weather throws at you. Without good natural light, your pictures may look at and uninteresting so a basic three-light ash setup, can produce an amazing light that will recreate sunlight and keep your clients happy. Most importantly, keep your shots uniform in their lighting style. As John says, If you build a signature style within your photography, stay true to it. Ideally you want to get to the point where people can see your shots and recognise that you took them.

I used a wide-angle lens set at 22mm. I was very close to the subject and he fired the balls over my head. All of the flying dust was caught in camera
John Hicks

Flash can create a three-dimensional feel by adding layers of lighting in the front, side and back of the image


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I wanted to capture this athlete with a prosthetic leg at a peak moment showing that his disability does not hinder his performance

Michaels top tips

Find a good athletic model Find an enthusiastic assistant Devise a comprehensive shot list Research your ideas in detail Aim to create a simple and
Michael Svoboda

clean composition

Shooting sport for stock

We speak to Michael Svoboda, an established sports and iStockphoto photographer, to nd out the benets of working for both sport and stock
Web: / Blog:
Michael Svoboda

How long have you been shooting sports photography? I have been shooting sports photography for over ten years. The rst couple of years were just for fun, getting shots of friends rock climbing in Yosemite National Park, but I soon started submitting images to climbing publications and catalogues and realised that my hobby could make me money. What encouraged you to join iStockphoto? I was encouraged by a friend who had already signed up and was starting to sell images. I was always interested in stock photography but it seemed impossible to get involved with stock photo sites, until my friend told me that it was actually a relatively simple process. It seemed like a great opportunity to expand my career and my portfolio. What are the benets of joining stock sites? There is a tremendous benet in joining stock sites. Firstly, your images are inspected closely, which is a great way to learn quickly how to meet industry standards. Through submitting (and getting rejected!) you start improving your photography and learn what it is that the industry wants to see. I have watched my acceptance percentage increase throughout my

years of being an iStockphoto photographer. The submersion into the world of good photographers really started the creative snowball for me. I spent time studying what other photographers were doing and, most importantly, not doing! Do you create sports-related imagery specically for stock purpose? I do create imagery specically for stock now, but this wasnt my original intention when I got involved in photography. I have always had an interest in sports, from playing college basketball myself to rock climbing, mountain biking and surng. I found that photographing what I enjoyed was a natural extension of my sporting hobbies. I am an advocate of shooting what you are interested in. The photos I capture are part of what I do in my spare time and I feel it gives me an understanding of photographing it and most importantly knowing the best people and locations to capture. What advice would you give to someone who is looking to get into stock photography? I would advise budding stock photographers to be open to improving and be patient. It takes years to grow it, improve it and understand it. Sales can be slow at rst when you have a very small portfolio.

Michael Svoboda

Shot for stock, I wanted to show the extreme flexibility and mechanical form of a golf swing

Advanced techniques

20 tips for action shots

Jordan Weeks

When shooting sports, the lighting can very often be out of your control. Up your cameras ISO settings to ensure that you capture enough light while using fast shutter speeds

01 High ISO

Stay on top of the action by switching your camera over to burst mode. Set up to shoot in the highest-possible frame rate without reducing image quality or size

02 Increase your frame rates

A telephoto lens is great for getting you in close, but dont be put off using wide angles as well they can also capture great results, particularly in sports where theres a lot going on.

Your cameras built-in ash is not powerful enough to illuminate your subject at a distance. Ensure its turned off to avoid bad exposures.


Advanced techniques

Research and get to know the sport youre shooting, this way you can predict moments that are well worth capturing.

It goes without saying that your sport shots need to be sharp. Switch your autofocus setting over to Al Servo to keep up with your subject in among the action.


When freezing action, avoid static shot results by shooting at an angle. This will help to add energy into the frame.

Strong sport photography shots feature sharp faces. Remember if you want to sell your images on as stock, your subjects need to be clear.


Its easy to get caught up in just the sport, but try to be aware of what else is going on around you. Shots of the crowd or coaches help add a narrative to the event.

Always shoot in RAW for the best results. Itll give you more exibility when it comes to editing. You can also correct white balance later if youve been shooting indoors under bad lighting.

Dont get distracted by your back LCD screen, nows not the time to review what youve already taken, keep shooting until the actions over otherwise you might miss a great shot.


To get crystal-clear sport shots, youll need to hike up your shutter speed settings. Switch over to shutter priority mode (Tv on the mode dial) and work in settings above 1/200sec.

05 Pan for speed

Theres so much energy in sport it would be a shame to miss it! Set your shutter speed to around 1/60sec or lower, focus on your subject and then release the shutter while you pan for great motion shots
For dramatic results, use a shallow depth of eld to isolate your subject and remove distracting elements from the background.

20 Zoom in
For any sports photographer, a long telephoto lens is essential as you never know where youll be positioned to watch the games unfold. For exibility, use a zoom that offers around 300400mm in focal range

Seek out the best location that gets you close to your subject. This way youre guaranteed to never miss a moment of the excitement.


The rule of thirds isnt just great for landscapes, use it when photographing sports too, it can really help to strengthen your composition.

If youre shooting high-res RAW images with a good-quality camera and your lens just cant seem to reach, you can crop into your image later on. This wont affect your image quality too much.


After your sports shoot, dont be afraid to sharpen up your shots in Photoshop or even add a little motion blur in postproduction that will help to enhance the look of speed.


There are so many types of sport out there, dont limit yourself to shooting the popular ones. Consider photographing something a little different for more original results.

Advanced techniques

Shoot from fresh angles to capture powerful urban landscape images like this one


Works best with

Canon EOS M
What you will need Essential kit for city shooting
Canon EF-S 10-22mm f3.5-4.5 USM
Price: 990/$860 Tel: 0844 369 0100 Web:

Canon EF 35mm f/2 IS USM fixed lens

Price: 799.99/$849.99 Tel: 0844 369 0100

Canon TS-E 17mm f/4L tilt-and-shift lens

Price: 1,959/$2,499 Tel: 0844 369 0100 Web:

Manfrotto 055XPROB Tripod

Price: 170/$223 Tel: 0129 358 3330 Web:

This fantastic wide-angle zoom lens will help to ensure you can t everything in the frame. Whether you want to create a panorama or shoot structures from the ground or at a height, theres enough room to get it all in.

Canons fantastic 35mm prime lens will ensure you capture superb quality images on the go. Offering a wide f2 aperture, its ideal for shooting the urban environment in low-light conditions.

This 17mm wide-angle tiltand-shift lens ensures your shots are all correctly in perspective. Adjust the lens angle to remove distortions such as converging verticals or use it to create a miniature effect on the city.

This durable and relatively lightweight aluminium tripod is fantastic for shooting on location. Great for shooting interiors or low light, you can even attach a pano head for seamless panoramas of the urban landscape.


Advanced techniques

d ot n a ho i t i s f f o ra n t g s, ano e g rC d i r ou b to se y s r u e ap can r sc ou y sk fe, y m t li o Fr tree s

he urban landscape is a mineeld of fantastic photo opportunities. Once youre caught up in the buzz of these dynamic environments, you rarely get a moment to really take in whats going on around you. As a photographer, its your job to slow down and compose captures that reect not only the environment in which youre shooting but also your own artistic style. Sharing your perspective on the world with the viewer is what photography is all about, but being original in spaces that have been photographed multiple times can be challenging. Join us over the following ten pages as we take you through the reality of shooting the urban environment. Along the way, weve included plenty of practical projects and lots of professional advice from photographers who specialise in this style of photography. This type of shooting comes under so many different genres; its really up to you as the photographer how you perceive the metropolitan landscape theme. Many professionals approach it in a documentary style, while others angle their images more towards architecture. Professional urban landscape photographer Billy Bye (www. says, To me, an urban landscape is anywhere man has inuenced the landscape beyond the natural environment the culmination of this is manifested in the city, I nd suburbs fascinating, the places we simply ignore photographically or dismiss through familiarity are often the most interesting. 

Advanced techniques

Shoot in the city

Powerful perspectives
 Shooting an urban environment from a fresh
perspective is key to capturing original shots, particularly if youre photographing a well-known location or landmark. Simply changing your viewpoint can completely alter the outcome of your images. Pro urban landscape photographer Nick Delaney (www. says, Perspective is everything. The difference between an image that works and a run-ofthe-mill image is all in the perspective from which it is taken. If a shot isnt working, try changing the position youre shooting from. This works particularly well with the likes of skyscrapers or high-rise buildings. The familiar sight of these dominating structures means it can be quite a challenge to get unique, standout shots. If youre looking to highlight their powerful presence within the environment, shoot from ground level, looking up. You wont get architecturally accurate results due to the keystoning effect from converging verticals, but this is a great perspective if you want to emphasise the buildings weight and dominance within the frame. To really embrace this effect, get in closer to your subject using a wide-angle lens. Pro Billy Bye says, A fast standard zoom lens is usually adequate but a wide-angle zoom around 10-20mm especially, is great for looking up at tower blocks, I love converging verticals! You can also try kneeling down from a distance to introduce more foreground detail into the shot, this not only builds upon the effect but can also help to lead the eye into the image.

Explore the city and experiment by shooting from new angles and perspectives. Look for shape and structure and then get down low to compose. This angle will help emphasise the dominance of the structure within the frame. Make sure you switch your camera over to aperture priority mode, and set a small f-number so that the entire frame is in focus. Ensure the camera is working in shutter speeds faster than 1/60sec to avoid camera shake. Before you begin shooting, adjust other important camera settings. Youll need to keep ISO low if youre shooting in the day and ensure your white balance setting complements the light youre working under.

Introduce more foreground detail into the shot, this builds upon the effect and helps to lead the eye into the image


Advanced techniques

Life in the big smoke
If, of course, converging verticals dont work for you, they can be easily corrected in Photoshop. Alternatively, prevent them entirely in-camera using a tilt-and-shift lens which can counteract the effect. For awless shots of cityscape structures, youll need to shoot from a height. This will not only ensure your photographs are free from obstructions but also give you the opportunity to encompass more of the urban environment within the frame. Planning these details of your shoot before you leave is therefore essential in order to locate high-rise public buildings that will permit you to photograph from their roof terraces or restaurants. This way, youll be able to shoot the skyline from set positions around the town or city at specic times of day or night. Be warned though, some buildings and landmarks have strict security rules that prevent you from photographing their exteriors or interiors without permission. Its worthwhile spending some time doing your research on a few specic areas or structures before you set off. This way, youll be able to avoid any problems you might have with your portfolio when it comes to commercial image usage. 

We speak with pro Mark McGowan for the inside scoop on capturing a sprawling city Whats your denition of an urban landscape? My denition of an urban landscape is one that focuses on the city or town that people live in, showing the structures and details that surround them including buildings, bridges, subways etc. What aspects do you look out for when shooting an urban environment? I particularly like to include reections, textures and leading lines, all of which I feel can add to a shot. I think in every location its important to try and nd a shot or angle or detail that Ive not seen before. Do you use compositional rules when framing your cityscape photographs? I try not to stick to the compositional rules and prefer to look at each shot on an individual basis to ensure that the uniqueness of the location is captured.
Mark McGowan

What are your top equipment recommendations for this type of photography? I think a wide lens is essential I mostly use a Sigma 10-20mm when shooting urban landscapes as it gives such a unique perspective. I also use a vintage 24mm lens that requires manual focusing and metering but its still very sharp. I will also use Cokin gradual density lters to match or darken the skies. How important is post-production? Processing is massively important to the way I approach my photography I use HDR for a lot of shots as I feel it adds a dimension of realism when used in the right way and it can emphasise details that make a shot stand out such as texture and shadow. When I nd a scene that I feel would make a good image, I often consider what processing I want to do in order to maximize its impact. I use a combination of Aperture, Photoshop, Photomatix Pro and the Efex suite of programs to process my shots.

Dont forget to look down as well as up when exploring the urban environment


Changing the angles you shoot from will result in more abstract and engaging images


Shoot from a distance, the converging verticals will look a lot more dramatic



Advanced techniques

Consider the compositional rules when framing. Lead-in lines work really well and help draw the viewers eye into the photograph

Before you shoot, walk around your subject to see how the light and perspective changes


Convert your urban landscape captures to black and white if there are conicting colours in the frame. This will help to ensure focus is back on the light, subject, shape and form. To enhance this, adjust the tonal range and contrast in Photoshop when converting the shot.

Convert to monochrome

Commanding composition
 In order to get the best out of any urban landscape
location, youll need to consider all of the possible angles, light options, structures and shapes. Pro Mark McGowan ( says, If you nd a location that is interesting, try and think of a way to get a series of images out of it, not just one maximise the return of images from your time in each location. Exploring man-made metropolises will not only test your camera skills but also your eye for framing a great photo. Looking beyond the facade of the skyscrapers is key to discovering other fantastic photographic opportunities. Billy Bye says, Try to look beyond the obvious, the backs of buildings, the dark alleys and the remnants of society; I look for textures, contrasts, silhouettes. I love reections and the play of soft light on harsh unforgiving surfaces and always, great skies. I love the contrast of the natural sky against the harsh qualities of the man-made concrete, bricks, glass and steel. Embracing an abstract approach to framing can result in more artistic and original images. By paying closer attention to whats around you, youll be able to nd and frame unique shapes and structures that will result in stronger compositions. Unlike a standard landscape shoot, which is balanced by a foreground, focal point and sky, an urban landscape can be composed more creatively. Disregarding the

compositional rules in photography is a great way to free up the frame and strengthen your own eye for composing. Billy says, I think the rule of thirds is imprinted into my mind for ever as is the need to nd a strong focal point, but rules are there to be ignored. For me, lead-in and lead-out lines are the most important elements within the frame. The balance of the image is also very important, as is the relationship between colour, shape, tonal qualities and form, all of which can affect the overall unity of the image. As a rule, you should shoot for impact to make a clear statement. I always look for elements that will create the wow factor in my photos. Pro Mark McGowan says, I prefer to keep my compositions simple and not too distracting. Shooting at sunrise or sunset is ideal as the city is quieter and the small number of people that are around can be used to add scale and contrast to a shot. Working with the available light is important, particularly when youre composing abstract-style images of structures or shapes. Learning how to handle changing weather conditions in the city can be tricky, but dont let it put you off. Billy says, You cant beat the warmth and directional qualities of evening light that make an urban landscape come alive. Bad weather, especially rain storms, can be great to shoot in and when they break, will bring out superb light. 

Landmarks and the law

In some cities, there are landmarks and buildings that are illegal to photograph and sell commercially without prior permission. Always do your research to ensure you dont need a building-release form to photograph the interior or exterior of some structures. All of the following landmarks do not permit isolated shots for commercial use but will be considered as part of a cityscape provided they are not the main subject in the frame and youve obtained written permission. The London Eye, London, UK The Gherkin, London, UK Beijing National Stadium, Beijing, China Burj Al Arab Hotel, Dubai, UAE Chrysler Building, New York City, USA Empire State Building, New York City, USA Sydney Opera House, Sydney, Australia Some landmarks have specialist restrictions. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, for example, has copyright restrictions at night. The lighting display is owned by a private company, so you need permission before you can use your shots commercially. Visit the shutter buzz website at veefyQ for lots more on image restrictions.

Advanced techniques

You can get people-free urban landscape shots like this by using a filter and slower shutter speed settings


Remove people from the frame with lters

During the day if you want to remove or blur people out of an image youll need to use a filter with slower shutter speeds in order to avoid overexposing your shot. A Lee Big Stopper or strong ND (neutral density) filter is essential. To avoid capturing camera shake in your shots when youre using slower shutters, set your camera up on a steady tripod. If your camera has one, make sure to check the spirit level to ensure its straight before you shoot. Use a small aperture and set a shutter speed of around 1sec; you can slow it down further or increase the time if you need to. Keep your ISO low, focus manually and use a remote shutter release.


Advanced techniques

When the sun is at its highest, the light will be fairly flat and the sky lighter, make sure you dont blow highlights off reflective surfaces. Use the histogram to ensure a consistent exposure with the morning shot


Think very carefully about the first shot of the day, youll be setting up your tripod for an entire day so make sure you think about sun path and orientation. The sky will be deeper blue and the shadows longer, creating more contrast


Stitch it all together

Once youve taken all of your day-to-night panoramas, youll need to stitch them together in Photoshop. Use the Photomerge tool to do this for each one. You can then use layers and the Eraser brush to blend them all together seamlessly. MIDDAY: The middle portion of the day (and

 An urban landscape can change dramatically

Leading with light

throughout the course a day. The shots youll get early in the morning in comparison to those taken at midday or late afternoon will be dramatically different, so getting to know where the sun rises, sets and falls in the landscape is important to the success of your shoot. A great way to illustrate the natural progression of light from day to night is to capture it in a series of panoramas. This is not only a great practical shooting project but its also a fantastic way to offset the beauty of the natural world against an urban environment. With careful blending using all of the nal shots, youll be able to create a seamless and striking day-to-night panorama AM: Before shooting you need to think about your orientation, and most importantly where the sun path will be throughout the day. If you want to include the sun, decide if it will feature in the image once, many times or not at all. The easiest orientation is due north as this will give a fairly even light distribution across the scene. Early morning shots will result in long, deep shadows and high contrast among buildings. Fix your ISO and aperture and use the shutter speed as the variable to control exposure. Its best to avoid using polarising lters for this type of shot, as these will often result in blending difculties across the panorama. Try to also pick a day that is forecast to have fairly consistent weather, otherwise youll nd great difculty in blending the nal panorama. Colour temperature will vary throughout the day from cooler in the morning to warmer in the late afternoon to cool again at night. Shoot in RAW to allow white balance adjustment in postprocessing should you need to adjust or correct this.

the panorama) presents its own challenges. With the sun at its highest, the light will be fairly at but with bright spots off reective surfaces. Exposure control is critical here, so check the histogram to ensure an even exposure that will be consistent with the other panoramas, which form the nal image. If there are moving subjects in the scene such as trafc, consider using a three or six-stop ND lter to create some movement. This will give a more seamless transition into the dusk shot which will require longer shutter speeds. When you plan your day-to-night panorama, think about the time of year and the different times of day you want to blend across the scene. Shooting in winter has the advantage of shorter days, but this is countered by lower sun angles which produce high-contrast shots. PM: Late afternoon and dusk shots are probably the most difcult to blend into a day-to-night panorama, as the light is so different. Its best to shoot the last night shot when there is still a little light left in the sky, as the transition will appear more seamless. Pay close attention to colour temperature as the cooler afternoon sun transitions into late evening warm sun and nally cooler dusk colours. There is no easy way to deal with this and every image will be different, so try experimenting with different blending points to see what works best for you. Another point to think about is how to blend in any light trails and movement in the evening scene into your daytime shots. Shoot the nal shot for your panorama when there is still a little light on the foreground buildings, as it is good to be able to see some detail. 


Advanced techniques

The late evening and dusk shots are the most difficult to blend successfully into the pano, shoot when there is still some light in the sky and you can see the detail on buildings

Chris Humphreys

Set up your panorama

General setup In the summer months you may 1 need to leave your camera and tripod in one place for up to 15 hours, so think about a sensible place to shoot. This shot was set up from an office window. Mark the tripod position so if you need to move it you can put it back in the same place. Pano head A good panoramic tripod head is 2 important to prevent parallax error and give a consistent overlap between shots. This shot was created from five full panoramas blended together. This gives the best control over where the blend occurs. Levelling tripod To simplify the creation of the 3 individual panoramas and give the best chance of matching them up in Photoshop, try to level the tripod head so that it rotates at the same angle. You can use a levelling tripod such as this or a levelling base. Settings Use a low ISO and fix the aperture 4 somewhere around f11-14 to give optimum depth of field. Vary shutter speed throughout the day and keep an eye on the histogram for a consistent exposure. Think about where in the final pano the particular shot will feature and expose well for that area.

You can use a levelling tripod such as this or a levelling base


Advanced techniques

 An urban landscape doesnt have to be your typical

Discovering details
wide-angle shot of a skyscraper or skyline. Pro Mike Seaborne says, For me, urban landscape photography is all about documenting the ongoing process of change within the urban environment. Its a kind of archaeology, revealing the layers of time and the relationships between past and present. Finding details that are unique to your surroundings is not only a great way in which to illustrate the history of a location but will also give your urban landscape images some context. Mike adds, I tend to look for details that make a visual connection with a particular time or place. In my Facades series, for example, I sought out shop fronts with signs whose style and/or content made a link with a particular time in the past (eg Victorian or 1960s). Im personally not really interested in photographing something derelict just for its own sake. Photographing subjects that generally interest you is a great way to engage with the urban landscape and explore it in more detail. Pro Nick Delaney says, I tend to shoot exclusively in colour so I look for colourful environments, grafti is quite a prominent part of my urban landscapes, but I dont really seek it out, its more the colours that I look for. I also hunt down symmetry and lines to give a powerful aspect to the image. Urban landscapes dont just have to be taken outside either; you can incorporate interiors into your project too. Of course, shooting indoors means youll need to consider your exposure settings more carefully. Remember to keep your ISO up high if light is limited and use wide aperture settings, particularly if youre shooting details up close as you can throw the background out of focus for an artistic shallowdepth-of-eld effect. If youre shooting inside cathedrals, churches or museums, look up detailed ceilings make great subjects. Generally, these man-made structures offer plenty of shape, detail, texture and form. Having a sheye lens can come in handy here, as the distortion created by the lens will enable you to t more in the frame. The results are also a lot more engaging and artistically abstract. Shooting urban cityscapes and details on location doesnt always require a kitbag full of equipment. The great thing about this type of photography is its exibility. A lot of fantastic urban landscapes have been captured on compacts and even camera phones. Its how you compose your captures that really matters. Seasoned pro Billy Bye points out, I will often shoot urban landscapes using a micro-four-thirds camera. These smaller camera formats are great; as you dont stick out like a sore thumb, which can be important, if like me, you want to blend into the environment youre shooting. Plus, they can pack a punch photographically.
Nick Delaney

Run-down buildings make great subjects on an urban landscape shoot. Look out for locations that are off the beaten track, but dont illegally trespass on private land


Things to look out for

When youre exploring, youll nd countless interesting subjects to shoot. Heres a few things to look out for Grafti, signage, derelict buildings, broken windows, lamp posts, post boxes, locks, brickwork, facades, gates, bikes, statues, bridges, reections, subways

Youll find lots of graffiti in urban environments. Do a bit of research to locate the best spots 42 138THE THECANON CANONCAMERA CAMERABOOK BOOK


Advanced techniques

Project metropolis
We speak to Mike Seaborne about his urban landscapes, projects and upcoming exhibition Bio: Mike trained as a historian and curator. He has spent most of his working life with the Museum of London, undertaking urban landscape projects such as Docklands, housing estates, shopping centres and suburban high streets. Now working freelance, Mike has recently completed a project on the Thames Estuary. What are your top equipment recommendations for urban landscape photography? I think you can use any camera or lens provided you use it intelligently and know its capabilities and limitations. My advice is to keep it simple and really get to know your equipment. I dont have a best camera or lens as each piece of equipment I use has its own particular strengths and weaknesses. I do like sharp, detailed pictures, though, so I do pay particular attention to lens quality and my most important accessory is a good tripod, for the same reason. This was an absolutely essential piece of equipment in the days when I shot 5 x 4 lm and I continue to use one with my DSLR, partly because it makes the picture-taking process more deliberate and prevents me from becoming too snap-happy, which is all too easy with digital. Whats your advice for aspiring urban landscape photographers? Look at the work of established urban landscape photographers and other image-makers both for inspiration and technical guidance but seek your own path rather than simply copying. With millions of digital cameras being sold each year, all capable of taking technically perfect photographs without much input from the photographer, you need to develop a personal style to stand out from the crowd. An exhibition of Mikes recent work will be at the Foto8 gallery in London between the 15-27 October 2012. London: A Landscape in Transition charts the evolving urban landscape of London and the Thames Estuary. For more information on the exhibition location and opening times, visit

When youre working on location, the light is changeable so always be prepared to adjust your exposure settings


What do you look out for when photographing urban landscapes? I generally work on specic projects dened by location and/or subject matter and adopt a consistent approach across all the shots. I might be looking for examples of a particular subject (eg empty shop fronts) or for visual relationships between entirely different things (eg an old road sign and a modern supermarket). My approach is documentary and I generally avoid the purely abstract. How do you ensure consistency in your Facades project shots? I take a standard approach when it comes to positioning the subject, framing the shot and to the lighting so that it gives a consistent look to the Facades series. I took all the photographs with the same xed-lens camera and shot in diffused light or when the shop front was in shadow. I wanted to avoid harsh contrast and overly saturated colours to maximise subject detail and to give a feeling of the shop fronts fading into the past.

Mike Seaborne


Advanced techniques

Canon EOS 100D

Works best with

Ian Rolfe

Black and white is a wonderful medium for capturing rugged landscapes, like this classic scene of the Old Man of Storr



Advanced techniques

Black &white
Create contrast and elegance with your Canon
ome things in life seem to have a resilience that dees expectation. Just as vinyl records have survived the arrival of both the CD and digital downloads among music fans, black-and-white photography has never gone away. In the early days of photography, black and white was the simpler option, with reliable, faithful and durable colour photography proving a signicant challenge to achieve. Naturally, while monochrome was the only option, the desire to produce practical colour lm was inextinguishable. By the

Use Canon to shoot in

end of the Thirties, colour was no longer merely a dream for general photography. However, if anyone expected colour to subjugate black-andwhite photography or render it moribund, they were wrong. Despite the availability of colour, black and white remained at least as widely used and, even in the digital age, its still popular among novice and pro photographers alike. Over the next few pages, youll discover how to make the most of black and white with your Canon camera and how to take your best monochrome images yet.

Advanced techniques

Black and white simplifies and redacts a scene down to its core elements of shape, texture, pattern and contrast
A great many of the very best monochrome images are the direct result of a photographer very consciously and deliberately setting out to produce a quality black-and-white result. While luck may factor in some cases, rigorous planning is often essential. Its not unusual to hear photographers referring to black and white as a go-to means of recovering an image thats been deemed to have gone wrong in colour. Though its true to say that the format can, at times, have a healing inuence on errant colour photos, brilliant monochrome images are only sometimes stumbled upon by accident during the post-production and photo-salvaging process. If you really want to master monochrome, and are seeking to build a portfolio of bold and beautiful black-and-white images, attempting to see in black and white is the best starting point. Instead of heading out with your camera capturing several hundred frames and then peering through them in Lightroom wondering if any, perhaps, will look better in black and white try going out with the conscious, deliberate intention of shooting in monochrome. This simple switch alone will make a surprising and pleasingly quick difference to the way you shoot and you could be startled by the extent to which your eye will shift towards seeking out potential black-andwhite images. But what does all this mean exactly? As black and white simplies and redacts a scene down to its core elements of shape, texture, pattern and contrast, its often the case that many of the best black-and-white images depict scenes in which these facets are inherently vital. Its also important to remember that, although monochrome has a purifying inuence, its often best to look for scenes that are naturally fairly clutter-free, so that the viewers eye can focus in on the shape, texture, pattern or contrast that you want them to appreciate. Black and white is also brilliant for capturing moments in time; reportage-style freeze-frames. Once again, this is due to the way that the format simplies an image and enables its core elements to come closer to the surface. The use of monochrome also endows the subject with a sense of reverence, which again makes it ideal for documenting serious subject matter and for producing portraits in which creating a sense of character or intensity is important. One of the great things about black and white is that you dont need to be shooting under any specic set of conditions in order to achieve great results, because its an incredibly exible format. However, its vital to be aware of how things will actually appear in black and white, so that you can make decisions with this in mind. For example, black and whites simplifying impact, discussed previously, can work against you at times. If an area of a scene is fairly blank and uneventful, with relatively little going on, stripping it of colour can potentially make it rather dull and uninteresting, for instance.

A popular way of presenting black-and-white images is to add a subtle tone to them, often sepia


Create and enhance contrast with lters

How you can use colour to control black and white

One way of controlling the appearance of black-and-white images that photographers could use in the eld was coloured lters over the lens. This is often replicated in digital cameras, with these lter options built into the Monochrome shooting mode. A yellow lter slightly lightens tones such as reds, oranges

and yellows while a red lter produces dramatic results, greatly brightening red tones and sending blue skies nearly black. A green lter is used for making foliage stand out in monochrome images and a blue lter can be used for creating interesting portraits, as they darken down skin tones signicantly.




Advanced techniques

reasons to shoot black & white

A black-and-white image has a timeless look to it thats hard to conjure in colour. Black and white is ideal when shooting a series of images, as issues of distractingly inconsistent colour are negated. By removing colour from the equation, black and white simplies a scene, de-cluttering it almost instantly. Black and white enables you to emphasise shape, form and texture.

Ian Rolfe

The format means you can deal with tricky mixed lighting conditions, such as inside a church during a wedding ceremony, with relative ease.


Advanced techniques

Mono studio
High- and low-key lighting and exposure styles can all work well in black and white
Black-and-white portraits can be captured brilliantly with either high- or low-key lighting. Black and white is all about simplicity, so restricting the tonality of a shot is a logical move. High keys use of high levels of bright, white tones, and low keys use of high levels of dark, black tones can provide something of a head-start when it comes to creating black-and-white studio portraits with impact.

Perhaps the best example of this is a blue, cloudless sky. This may or may not work in colour images, depending on factors such as the time of day and the colour temperature of the light. When working in black and white, however, there is a good chance that this area of sky will look deeply uninteresting and lifeless, as its colour is arguably the chief redeeming feature. For this reason, landscape photographers often seek out stormy and dramatic skies for black-and-white photos, as the contrasting shades, and apparent textures created by the clouds, work fantastically well in monochrome. Scenes that contain a truly comprehensive spectrum of tones, ranging from deep, dark blacks to pure, bright whites, are ideally suited to monochrome, although lower-contrast scenes can sometimes work well too. Remember to also keep a close eye out for interesting or striking patterns, textures and shapes. Although ensuring that elements work well together and complement each other successfully is important in all photography, in black and white this is particularly vital. When you cant enchant the viewers eye with rich colour and the warm glow of early morning or late afternoon light, its doubly necessary to create images in which issues of framing, composition and exposure are well judged. Far from providing an extra layer of protection, as is often believed, monochrome can actually lay your photography even more bare. A misjudged blackand-white image can end up having less impact than a colour photo and its on these occasions that it can appear to the viewer as if black and white has merely been used to paper over the cracks of a generally weak image. Accordingly, if youre serious about black and white, its best to try to purposefully shoot in the format from the off. To help with this, set your Canons picture style setting to Monochrome and capture RAW les. This quickly and easily takes a lot of the guesswork out of seeing in black and white, as your camera will preview the images you shoot in black and white while preserving the full colour information, enabling you to convert to black and white with more precise care and attention later on, using your image-editing software of choice. One of the things that makes the RAW le format so useful is the fact that it doesnt matter what picture settings you were using when you captured the image all the original data is still there, enabling you to process the le from scratch. Additionally, when you shoot using your cameras Monochrome mode, the previews you see on the back of the camera are merely that previews.

Perhaps one of the best things about the digital era is the fact that, where once upon a time it was only a minority who could experiment with their own image-processing and printing, as a traditional darkroom was an expensive and space-hungry endeavour, its now possible for pretty much all photographers to work on a negative and turn it into a print that represents their vision. Indeed, this is probably the best way to think of Photoshop: as a signicantly less inconvenient darkroom. The biggest bonus is the fact that everything is reversible and can be perfected in a very nuanced fashion. From a sheer quality perspective, working on a RAW le in RAW conversion software such as Adobe Camera Raw or Lightroom is perhaps ideal, as its at this point that you have the maximum degree of control over the widest amount of image parameters. The ability to make quite dramatic adjustments to exposure, both globally and locally, as well as ne-tuning the nuances of both the highlights and shadows, rescuing detail as required or desired is a massive bonus offered by RAW. If you want to produce great black-and-white images, in which precise tonality is key, your RAW converter is powerful enough to get you there. This is now particularly true as converters such as Adobe Camera Raw and Lightroom contain adjustment gradients and brushes that enable very precise localised adjustments. You can now dodge, burn and contrast-grade in extreme detail without the need to go to the main Photoshop interface at all. That said, there are plenty of great black-and-white conversion options within Photoshop itself. Although converting to black and white can just be a matter

of dragging the Saturation slider in Hue/Saturation all the way to -100, this isnt the best way of doing things. Simplistic conversions like this dont offer much more than your cameras in-built Monochrome conversion mode, so negate the point of leaving your black-and-white conversion until you get to the computer. In this regard a simplistic conversion is little better than a crude Grayscale conversion, which should be avoided at all costs. Fortunately, Photoshop offers more nessed ways of taking a colour image and converting it to black and white and which one you choose often comes down to a matter of personal preference. If you are really a fan of the Hue/Saturation dialog, theres a way of using this adjustment that offers a little bit more control. Make a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer and then drag the Saturation slider all the way to -100. Then, click back on your main image layer in the Layers palette and create a second Hue/Saturation adjustment layer to sit in the middle of the stack. Change the blend mode of this layer to Color and double-click on the layers icon to recall the dialogue box. Here youll now be able to use the three sliders to ne-tune the look of your black-and-white image until nished. Recent versions of Photoshop have included a dedicated Black & White adjustment option, which offers six colour sliders for you to experiment with, as well as a good range of presets. However, many photographers are in the habit of using the Channel Mixer in Photoshop to convert to mono and this does still offer precise control. More advice on using the Channel Mixer to produce brilliant monochrome conversions can be found on the following pages.

Far from providing an extra layer of protection monochrome can actually lay your shots even more bare

Advanced techniques



Advanced techniques

5 tips for shooting black & white

Tap into texture Always keep an eye out for interesting surface textures when youre shooting black-and-white images. Weathered wood is a good example, but youll nd an endless supply if you explore the world of mono in macro. Hiding in the shadows Black-and-white shots are often at their best when theyre as much about what you cant see as what you can. Including plenty of shadows can create a tting mood and atmosphere. Contrast control Success when handling monochrome often owes much to your ability to judge and control contrast. Black and white can work well with stark, hard or soft contrast, but in every case it needs to suit the subject and the scene. See in shapes Pay close attention to the shape and forms present in your monochrome images. With colour taken away from the equation, these things will become much more noticeable and help to make or break your photos. Play with patterns Like texture and shape, patterns often become noticeable when you are shooting in black and white.

By setting the camera to Monochrome mode and shooting both RAW and JPEG simultaneously, its possible to compare the cameras own black-and-white processing with whats possible in Photoshop. The in-camera version is rather flat compared to the version as processed from a RAW file

Processed from RAW, the image has greater contrast and is more tonally interesting


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Black and white can work well with stark, hard or soft contrast, but in every case it needs to suit the subject
Mimicking monochrome
Approximate the look of classic black-andwhite lm stock with these handy Channel Mixer settings

There are many different ways to convert your photos into black and white, from using your RAW converter through to dedicated plug-ins. One of Photoshops most popular options is the Channel Mixer, which functions as both a straightforward adjustment option (go to Image>Adjustments>Channel Mixer) or as an adjustment layer. The format has long been popular with photographers, as its very easy to use. Simply check the Monochrome box and then slide the Red, Green and Blue sliders until you are happy with how the image looks in black and white. The basic rule of thumb is that the percentages of the three sliders should add up to 100%. To get you started with the Channel Mixer, here are some recipes for re-creating a few of the most appealing traditional black-and-white lms. Keep in mind, of course, that the unique appearance of grain was also a key component in the look of these lms, as was the amount of contrast they tended to produce.


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Travel the world with

your Canon

Canon EOS 1100D

Works best with

Discover the inside secrets of travel photography and learn how to capture memorable shots of people, places and cultures around the world


Advanced techniques

ost people return from holiday with a memory card full of images, but what elevates them beyond straightforward snaps is the approach. Of the professional travel photographers featured here, every single one emphasised the importance of research. These can be the most expensive photographs youve ever taken, so you need to plan your time carefully and bring the necessary equipment. It can be tempting to cram in as much kit as you can, especially since travel opens up a vast scope of genres. Take a look at our gear guide to get some ideas of what to bring, but try to stick to the essentials, and your back will thank you later. Youre unlikely to grow bored when youre composing vistas one moment and food the next.

These images should conjure up sights, sounds and smells, and every place is unique. Set out to capture what it was that made you want to visit and write down thoughts and feelings to help you add descriptions to your photos later. Gaining inspiration is easy, as the local tourist information centre will point you in the direction of popular photo hotspots. Even browsing postcards will reveal the must-see areas. If the primary purpose of your visit is a holiday, however, be content to take it easy in a caf or lounging on a beach. Youll soak up the atmosphere this way and familiarise yourself with the surroundings. Alternatively, if you want to take travel photography further, there are dedicated tours available, such as FR Vision ( Get a taster in this article, and stow away insider tips for your next journey.

Ostriches silhouetted by the setting sun, near Jacks Camp, Makgadikgadi Pan, Botswana. Look out for shots you cant get at home


Steve Davey


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Gear guide
Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8l II USM
Web: Price: 1,320/$1,700

Wide-angle lenses such as this one enables you to pack a lot more into the frame. Theyre perfect for landscapes and portraits, which are two of the biggest genres within travel photography.

Canon EF 70-200mm f/2.8 IS USM

Web: Price: 1,250/$1,700

A telephoto lens is incredibly versatile, reaching subjects such as wildlife and landmarks from a distance. The wider the focal range, the heavier the lens will tend to be, so a lighter second lens is useful.

Joby Gorillapod Flexible Tripod

Web: Price: 20/$20

Tripods can be cumbersome when youre trekking all day, so invest in a portable lightweight option such as this. Its exible legs can be wrapped around railings and branches for steady shots.

Lowepro Photo Traveler 150

Web: Price: 42/$55

Its important to choose a purpose-built kit bag in order to get the protection you need. Customisable padding compartments are a bonus, and comfortable straps will ease the strain of heavy kit.

Silicon Power Armor A70

Web: Price: 130/$109

Avoid losing photos by backing them up to a portable hard drive regularly. There are cheaper options, but this one is ideal for travelling, as its waterproof and shockproof.


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Immerse yourself in the culture simply by sitting and watching or joining in with a local tradition or activity
Kimberley Coole

Unforgettable experiences
Four of the best cultural events caught on camera
This loud and vibrant parade is held in February every year, and is famous worldwide. Street parties and band processions in downtown (Centro) and South Rio (the Zona Sul) provide ample opportunities to get candid portrait shots that are full of character. Try using a long exposure to capture the energy and movement of the samba dancers. If you want to get close to the action you will need tickets. For more info, visit

A young girl carrying sticks on her head along the banks of the Yamuna River, located next to the Mehtab Bagh, which is also known as the Moonlight Garden, India

Kimberley Coole


It is human nature to be nosey about other peoples lives, and portraits convey bags of information. We want to know what daily life is like, what the dress code is and what people eat, and a good portrait will tell us something about these things. However, unlike monuments and landscapes, people have feelings, and its only natural to want to avoid potential conict. Taking time to swot up on the traditions and customs of a place will help you to avoid offending anyone. Travel photographer Kimberley Coole emphasises the need to never take a photo, but to ask permission rst instead. On more than one occasion I have walked into a village to nd other tourists and photographers standing over the people, not talking or interacting, not getting to know about their lives and customs, but simply turning the people into objects and getting as many photos as possible, she says. Interaction is the key, and I often nd that after spending time with people, either chatting, using hand signs or having a cup of tea, they are much happier to be photographed. After getting to know the person a little more they relax, smile and laugh making a much better photograph. In some tourist destinations, people ask for money in exchange for a photo, and its completely up to you whether you wish to delve into your pockets. Its worth remembering, though, that some of these places are very poor, and what seems like a little to us could bring a big smile to their face in the photograph. Asking permission is not always possible if youre shooting a street scene, for example, but be sensitive and move on if someone looks uncomfortable. One way of appearing less intimidating is to ditch bulky equipment in favour of a lighter load and Kimberley only packs a Canon EOS 5D Mark II, a 24-105mm lens, a 16-35mm lens and a HOYA Pro1 Digital Filter for protection. So rather than rely on long lenses to pick people off like a sniper, build up the condence to approach people instead. This is often the hardest part, whether you speak the same language or not, agrees Kimberley. By simply having the courage to go over and say hello, people will generally attempt to interact with you. The best way of becoming friends is to try and make people laugh, which can be done easily if you dont speak the same language, as they will nd whatever you say amusing!

NEW YEARS EVE Sydney Harbour

The rework display over the iconic landmark is second to none, so practice shooting in low light in advance. Secure your camera to something, whether its a nearby wall or a monopod (as it will be busy) and ensure your horizon is straight. Shoot in bulb mode and keep your nger on the shutter button for as long as it takes for the rework to explode.


Chinese New Year is the most signicant day on the Chinese calendar. It runs from the rst day of the lunar month until the 15th, and is celebrated with reworks, temple visits and street festivals. The re is meant to drive away evil spirits, and people dress from head to toe in red for the same reason. These vibrant colours make for dynamic photos, and make sure you master the panning technique in preparation for the dragon dance.


The Pamplona Bull Run is one of the most tense and exciting traditions around. At 8am every morning from 7-15 July, a rocket is red to signal to the runners to pray, followed by a second one to announce that the bulls have been released. Switch on the continuous burst mode to capture the action, and book accommodation months in advance so you dont miss it.

Toomas Jrvet


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Ruined kasbah of Ait Benhaddou at sunset, with snow-capped mountains behind, Morocco. A familiar scene from photos and movies

Is it really a dream job?

Photographer and workshop leader Steve Davey explains exactly what being a professional travel photographer is really like
Name: Steve Davey Bio: Steve leads his own range of travel photography tours to some of the most exotic and photogenic parts of the world, where land arrangements are provided by some of the biggest names in the adventure travel industry. though, are the ones when you are actually out taking pictures, although there are far more of the other days than most people imagine. How do you manage to stand out in such a competitive industry? It is damn hard, but you need good quality work and good ideas. For editorial photographers the ideas are more important than the images in many ways, as they are what get people interested in you in the rst place. I also write pretty well, which makes me stand out, as I can research, write and shoot a story. Then, you just have to be good at business. Contact a lot of different outlets from magazines to agencies, and sell them on using you. What are your top tips for capturing landscapes? Light and locations are the key factors to bear in mind. It doesnt have to be perfect sunlight, but it denitely needs to be atmospheric and dramatic. Rain and storm clouds can be perfect for some subjects as long as it isnt bland and dull. You wrote the book Unforgettable Places To See Before You Die, but which one location would you tell people to visit and why? India is a great location for photography, and if you are into festivals then there are too many to mention and all exist on a grand scale. Even a relatively small festival might have 100,000 people turning up. I have travelled a bit recently in the mountain area of Ladakh. Here, the culture and religion are Tibetan Buddhism, and in many ways the culture is more untouched than Tibet, as it doesnt have the Chinese inuence.

Steve Davey Can you describe a typical day? It depends; sometimes the days are taken up with self-promotion and marketing, and at other times there is a lot of post-processing and captioning. I also run my own photography tours, so there is a lot of work getting those together and dealing with people. The best days,


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Wonders of the world
The globally famous landmarks that look even better through a viewnder
This 15th Century Inca site is absolutely loaded with history, and has the capacity to instil any image with a sense of wonder. Use the golden hours (dawn and dusk), where the light will be at its best, and dont be deterred if it starts raining, as bad weather will mean that the odds of tourists creeping into your shots is greatly reduced, and stormy clouds are notably renowned for stirring drama in landscape images.


The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still standing today. By capturing this symbol of dynastic Egypt on camera, you are in the process preserving a piece of history that still incites mystery and wonder today, despite having been built circa 2560 BC. In order to reduce the glare of the sun, attach a polarised lter to your lens. This will also protect it from sand and dust.


Weve seen King Kong climb it and Godzilla demolish it, and though its breathtaking height has long been surpassed by other structures, it remains the most popular viewpoint in New York. You can capture some stunning Art Deco architecture shots, and a ride to the top reveals an amazing cityscape. Buy a ticket before sunset and bump your ISO for a sky awash with colour and a city illuminated by a million bulbs.


Rome is brimming with classic structures, but the former Amphitheatre epitomises Italian architecture. Expect to queue for a ticket unless you purchase one beforehand. If you visit in summer, bring bottled water and sunscreen with you, as there is no protection from the burning sun. It can create some beautiful silhouette pictures, though, so try shooting with the sun behind the structure.

Cham dancer performing the Black Hat Dance (shana) with a drum in the courtyard of Korzok Gompa at the Korzok Gustor, Lake Tsomoriri, (Ladakh) Jammu & Kashmir, India

Steve Davey Steve Davey


You can also use shots of people to show a sense of scale and context in wide-angle outdoor images. Tourist spots, however, can sometimes be so busy that the composition becomes cluttered, so its best to use the early bird approach and arrive before sunrise. This is when youll nd photographer Steve Davey setting up for a landscape shoot, but he always stays long past the golden hour. There are never the budgets to only shoot in the rst or last few hours of light: you have to make the most of the light throughout the whole day, he reveals. What you have to do is temper your expectations, style and subject matter to the light conditions. Indoor markets, interiors and portraits out of direct sunlight can be shot throughout the day, as can food shots and just about anything not in direct sunlight. Obviously, for the great landscapes and cityscapes you need the best light, but you can and probably should shoot all through the day. Landscapes can vary from mountains to deserts, and forests to lakes, so youll have to adapt your approach. Aim to capture the essence of a place by focusing on what makes it unique. Prior research

helps, as Google Maps will enable you to visualise being there, while browsing galleries such as Flickr will give you an idea of the vistas a location has to offer. Look for lead-in lines to guide the viewers eyes through the image, positioning them either at the corner or the centre of the frame, and use the rule of thirds to aid composition. During your research, you will be likely to come across the must-see monuments, which make for popular photographic subjects that are difcult to create unique images around. So once youve taken the obligatory wide-angle shot, get creative by shooting straight into the sun to create a silhouette. If its a statue, for example, use an ND lter and a long exposure to blur the movement of the people to give context and narrative to your picture. Think about what the landmark represents and convey information about it. A commemorated war hero will look far more dramatic at sunrise or with stormy clouds looming, for instance. Most importantly it comes down to lighting, as Steve adds, The main challenge is getting in the right place for good or atmospheric light, so be prepared to revisit. Persistence pays off. 

Advanced techniques

Steve Davey

Look out for shots that give you a flavour of everyday life


Wild locations
KENYA East Africa

The best places to hunt with your camera

If you prefer marine life photographed from an idyllic-looking island, then book a ight to the Andaman Sea islands immediately. To the south lies the Mu Koh Lanta National Marine Park, with rainforests, mangroves and coral reefs. Over 500 species of sh can be found here, as well as endangered sea turtles. Invest in underwater housing for your camera in order to make the most of the numerous shooting opportunities that are available.
Dan Hartwright

Kenya is a popular destination for capturing the big ve on camera: lions, elephants, buffalo, rhinos and leopards. Its also pretty easy to get to, with plenty of major airlines ying there, and there are a number of photographerfriendly safari trips that you can go on. This way, you know that the driver will take his foot off the gas long enough for you to take your photos. A telephoto lens of 300mm or more is essential.
Dan Hartwright


This isolated island is full of variety, with over 200,000 known species and about 150,000 that can be found nowhere else. You will nd plenty of lemurs, frogs, birds and chameleons (if you can spot them). There are organised tours around the mountainous parks, or alternatively you can hire a vehicle. When framing your shot, go wide and capture the beautiful setting as well as the animals on offer.


It was on these islands where animals thrived without fear of predators that Charles Darwin came up with the theory of evolution. There are huge tortoises, blue-footed boobys and large land iguanas among the weird and wonderful wildlife, and you can get away with using a smaller lens since you can get really close. Book early, as peak season (between June and September) lls up fast.

Patience is especially rewarded when it comes to wildlife photography. You can boost your chances of capturing exotic beasts on camera by visiting a sanctuary or heading on safari, but you cant make them perform on demand. On the positive side, the time spent peering through the viewnder is far from wasted, as youll become familiar with an animals habits and possibly be able to predict their behaviour. In any case, you need to keep a safe distance and avoid making any sudden movements. Photographer Dan Hartwright found out the hard way. Probably my most memorable shot was when an elephant attacked us in Kafue National Park in Zambia, he recalls. The guy driving was seriously panicked, so I talked him through reversing away from the onrushing angry bull elephant. What made it worse for him was when I took the wheel and insisted on driving back up to the beast to take photos of it charging at us several times! Preparation counts for a lot in this challenging genre, as Dan points out. Dont turn up in the rainy season with a 15mm lens and look for leopards! Plan ahead for migrations, seasons, locations, types of wildlife in the region, access times, transport, etc. Unless you are


Dan Hartwright

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Zebras crossing the road in Lake Nakuru National Park in Kenya

lucky enough to live close to game reserves, you will have to make an expensive trip with limited time. He recommends recruiting a local photographer to be your guide, as they will know the best locations and what creatures youre likely to meet. A fast zoom lens is a must-have for wildlife shoots, and pack plenty of memory cards and spare charged batteries, since youll probably be far from an electricity port. If you can afford it, multiple bodies with different lengths, adds Dan. Consider using a cropped sensor body for the focal length multiplier, and invest in a bean bag to rest the camera on from the side of a vehicle for steady shooting in lower light. As for settings, your cameras burst mode can be really useful for rattling off multiple shots per second. Dan keeps his camera in program mode on a suitable ISO for both the lighting levels and highspeed shooting, and uses servo auto-focus to track a subject. But always be ready for the unexpected; like zebras running across the road behind you with a storm rolling in, he says. By being spontaneous and willing to experiment with every sub-genre of travel photography, youll return home with a slideshow that no one will groan at.

Secrets of success
Dan Hartwright explains what photographers should expect in the wild
Name: Dan Hartwright Bio: With experience of wildlife photography in over 40 countries, Dan has worked with a large cross-section of photographers and clients across Africa, Asia and Europe.
Dan Hartwright

How does the wildlife genre compare to other aspects of travel photography? Its frustrating, expensive and time consuming, but very rewarding when you successfully get that shot. The biggest pro is that you are also out seeing game in amazing places, but dont expect to compete with the National Geographic guys and their $100,000 worth of kit and support vehicles on day one! What advice would you give to a budding travel photographer? Go and try it out for a few weeks. Hire a locally based photographer to plan your trip and take you around to get the best value. If you want to go full time then nd a way to relocate close to the wildlife. It takes time on the ground to capture good images and patience.

What is the secret of a powerful wildlife image? Luck plays a large part, as Ive been out all day and seen very little to shoot, and other times its been amazing. When making a composition, think about the background. Too often I see what would be amazing photos of game if only the person had zoomed out or changed their elevation or depth of eld.


Advanced techniques

We guide you through the kit, techniques and tips youll need to photograph stunning architectural images

Capture architecture
Canon TS-E 24mm f/3.5L II
Works best with

Image Chris Humphreys


Advanced techniques

hotographing architectural forms successfully can be challenging. It can often be a frustrating process, involving changing light conditions, messy spaces, street clutter, stray signage, unpredictable people and all manner of factors that are outside of our control. But when it all comes together there is nothing more satisfying than knowing youre about to capture a beautifully designed piece of architecture in the best way possible. Photography can bring a building or space to life and show the true design intent behind a space in a way that no other media can. It can capture light and

motion, accentuate materials, enhance reections, and make a space feel bigger and brighter. But with geometry, proportion and perspective being critical to successful architectural photographs, you need more than just a basic grasp of composition to be successful. You also need to understand how to make the most of your kit and have one eye on how you want the nal image to turn out. Having an awareness of architectural styles will also stand you in good stead. A boxy Bauhaus towerblock will require a completely different compositional treatment to a soaring Gothic cathedral spire, for example. Books and city guides

can help you develop an understanding of key architectural styles or vernaculars so you can plan your approach. Over the next few pages we guide you through the way the professionals go about shooting architecture. Youll learn about composition, good-practice techniques and how to set up your kit to optimise your captures. We will touch on the lenses that work well in different scenarios and how to deal with difcult lighting situations. We also talk to two working professionals about two very different aspects of architectural photography and how they go about producing striking images.

Incorporate the surrounding space into the image to help lead the eye up into the structure youre shooting



Advanced techniques

Chris Humphreys

01 02 03 04

elements of a great shot

The window to the right, structure to the left and textured decking lead the eye into the shot and beyond.

The framed view is placed in the top third of the frame for a pleasing composition. This is also reinforced by the reflection in the window. The white swing chair has been included in the corner of the frame to anchor this side of the photograph. Its tone contrasts nicely with the decking. The tonality of this image works as it is largely dark, but balanced out by the focal point (the view) and the anchor (the chair).

Chris Humphreys

Including the outside scenery within the frame is a great way to add in more visual impact



Advanced techniques

There are many factors that go into making a pleasing architectural photograph, and one of the most signicant is composition. Building structures by their very nature are geometric forms, so using this geometry to give the photograph a good sense of balance and proportion will help to create a pleasing image. Conversely, a poorly balanced shot with odd proportions will result in a very weak photo, no matter how interesting the subject and lighting. There are many methods of creating pleasing compositions which can be used individually and in combination. Making the conscious decision to think about these as you are framing a shot will seem laborious at rst, but will soon become second nature as you learn to recognise certain elements in a scene. When shooting a large building and trying to give it some context, look for lead-in lines within the landscape that will draw the viewers eye into the shot. These might be trees, hedges, footpaths, railings and so on. You might also nd lead-in lines in a large internal space; look around for aspects such as stairs leading up to a focal point, strong patterns in the ooring material or pick up on strong geometry in exposed structural elements. However, the use of lead-in lines is not always completely necessary. If the focal point itself is strong enough, the viewers eye will be drawn there anyway. Something as simple as a brightly coloured piece of furniture or a well-lit entrance can be appealing. Think about where in the shot to place the focal point to make the composition work. Dead centre might be a bold statement and works well with symmetrical shots, but it is often better to place it off-centre using the rule of thirds as a guide. With symmetrical shots it is a case of all or nothing, if you are going to do it then make sure every element of the shot is perfectly balanced. The camera needs to be levelled and parallel to the target so the shot reads well in both the vertical and horizontal planes. Usually the shot would be based around a strong feature that would work well being centred.

Essential kit for architectural shoots

The best tools of the trade for shooting structures inside and out

Website: Price: 2,999/$3,499.95 Canons incredibly popular full-frame DSLR, the 5D Mark III features a 22.3-megapixel full-frame image sensor, 61-point AF and an extensive ISO range, which is ideal for shooting high-quality low-light interiors.


Seek out simple ways to ensure a structure stands out, such as turning on the inside lights

Website: Price: 170/$223 Stability is critical for long exposures and the aluminium 055XPROB tripod is a good compromise between stability and lightweight. It also has a removable main stem which can be rotated to a horizontal position, very useful for shooting over balustrades.


Website: Price: 1,319.99/$16,99.00 When you are backed into a corner trying to make the smallest of interior spaces feel bigger, only a wide-angle lens will do. This lens produces superbly sharp images right to the edges of the frame and at its widest setting.


Captures at dusk
We speak with Andrew Lee about photographing stunning images as the light begins to fade
Name: Andrew Lee Bio: Andrew has worked almost exclusively as an architectural photographer since 1996 after studying Fine Art Photography, following several years of being a keen amateur. He uses Phase One medium-format digital backs (IQ160) with a Linhof 679CS monorail and Rodenstock lenses. Your dusk shots have a wonderful sense of drama, what makes a good dusk shot for you? It may sound obvious, but for a shot to work, there usually needs to be a high proportion of the building that is either window or that is lit by its own external lights. Often the justication for a dusk shot is to allow the viewer to see into the building from the outside. Therefore, the appearance of the interior is as important as the exterior. It is also important that a dusk shot doesnt turn into a night shot with no detail in unlit areas. How do you go about achieving the perfect balance of interior articial light and external ambient light? Dusk is a very brief moment. It can sometimes only last for ten minutes. However, except in very rare cases, the camera cannot capture the human eyes perception of dusk in a single exposure. I set up my camera well before sunset and continue taking exposures until it is dark. The rst exposures are for foreground or background areas. Next, I record the building exterior followed by the interior. Finally, I expose for the sky once the sun has fully set and combine the shots manually in Photoshop. Tell us some key tips for dusk captures? In modern public buildings, many lights are controlled by light sensors, movement sensors and timers. You might need an assistant inside the building to reactivate lights that turn off automatically. It is also important to anticipate how street lighting might impact the shot: will some exposures need to be made before it comes on? What has your most challenging shoot been to date? A shot of the ats in Golspie St, Glasgow. I had to knock on about 40 doors to get lights on and curtains open.

Website: Price: 410/$556 A geared head is a must for any architectural photographer, cameras will often need to be levelled particularly when used with a tilt-and-shift lens. The precision controls on the Manfrotto 405 head combined with its quickrelease feature make it ideal for quick set-up times.


Website: Price: 2,399.99/$2,199.00 Canons specialist tilt and shift lens is the favoured lens of many architectural photographers. The shift mechanism enables vertical lines to be corrected without post-processing and the rotating bezel also enables awlessly stitched panoramas to be taken easily.


Advanced techniques

Familiarise yourself with the architectural shooters key imaging tool: a tilt-shift lens
You can eliminate converging verticals on any lens by levelling the camera, however in most cases this means missing off the top of a building. Most architectural photographers only use the shift mechanism which allows the image frame to be moved vertically or laterally to capture a different part of the image circle. Tilt-and-shift lenses also feature a rotating bezel which allows two different frames from the same image circle to be captured and stitched to create a panorama.

Learn to shift

Level the camera The most important step is to level the camera to give true verticals. It helps if you have spirit levels on the tripod head and fine adjustment makes things easier and quicker.

Manual focus and exposure Manually focus the lens, use Live View and zoom in to the area you want to focus on. Set exposure before shifting and use the live histogram if you have this available.

Making the shift Shift the lens up or down depending on where you need the frame moved to in the image circle. To do this unscrew the locking nut on the side and wind the shift screw. 160 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Rotate and stitch If you need to create a wider shot but with some vertical shift, you can do this by shifting more than you need. Rotate the lens bezel left and right and then stitch the two images together in post-production.

Advanced techniques

Consider the perspective that you shoot bold structures from to show them in the best light


Big spaces can be quite daunting to shoot as there is often too much visual information to capture. In these cases try breaking down the shot into smaller elements which work as their own mini compositions. The same applies for larger compositions, just think on a smaller scale. For instance; patterns in a oor, xed furniture or rooms with a view where the view through the window is the main element. Big external scenes also need to be well balanced. A large building set in a wide space can look isolated without something to anchor it. In these cases, look for strong elements to include at the edges of the frame to balance the composition. You might include some foliage in one corner of the shot to balance a building which is off to the side for example. Light and shade also has a big impact on the composition of a shot, this can be as basic as how much or little sky to include, or detailed as whether to boost the shadows in one portion of a room with a little ll ash. The key is to recognise how deep shade or strong light can help to balance a shot to draw the eye to a certain portion of the scene. As well as good composition, you do of course need to employ good technique to ensure you

capture the best-possible data for post-processing. If you consider the many different types of shot you might come across on a shoot; external, internal, dusk, detail, wide, panorama to name a few, they all require a slightly different approach, but some simple base settings will give you a sound starting point. Assuming you have the minimum kit necessary to get started (tripod, camera and wide lens), start by levelling your camera (particularly if using a tilt-andshift lens). A tripod head with a spirit level that has plenty of ne adjustment is useful. Failing this you can buy a hotshoe-mounted level for around 10 that does the job nicely. With your camera levelled you know that any shot you take will have true verticals. For tripod work with wide lenses, set your camera to its lowest native ISO setting. Do some research on your lenses and nd out at what aperture the high-res sweet spot is, it is likely to be around f11 to f16 after which diffraction starts to come into play. Set your aperture accordingly for maximum front-toback sharpness, it is a good idea to use a hyperfocal distance calculator and memorise the focus distance for you widest lens setting. On a 14mm lens at f14 for instance the hyperfocal distance is 0.75m.

Set up your shot using the ground rules for good composition and take a look at it through Live View. This is a particularly useful tool and from here you are better equipped to make your nal tweaks. Dont forget to check if your camera is level again. If your camera has Live View with a histogram, use it to adjust shutter speed accordingly. If not, you may need to make a test shot rst to ensure correct exposure. Using Live View, set your focus to an object in the foreground, preferably at or just beyond the hyperfocal point. Take a test shot and check the sharpness. For shutter speeds over 1/60sec it is good practice to use mirror lockup and a remote release. For longer-focal-length shots and hand shooting on the y the camera setup is slightly different. These types of shot are good for shallow-depth-of-eld images for focusing on a detailed part of the scene. If you are shooting indoors you may need a higher ISO, so to make things easy on yourself set your camera to auto ISO mode and set the maximum to around ISO 3200. Use aperture priority mode and set your aperture to something around f2.8. You can then concentrate your attention on selecting the right part of the scene to focus on.

Chris Humphreys

Advanced techniques

Shooting exteriors in good light is really all about waiting for the sun to move around to the right position and employing good composition and shooting techniques to capture the shot. Interior shots however require a little more consideration and can present more challenges. This is largely due to high-contrast lighting between the inside space and outside views through windows and the added complication of articial lighting. You will also face challenges from small spaces, reective surfaces, furniture and clutter. Your instinct may be to reach for your widest lens to capture as much of the scene as possible, but you

should consider how this will make furniture and objects in the foreground appear. Wide-angle lenses can distort objects in the foreground and detract from the nal image. It is sometimes better to shoot with a slightly longer lens, around 24mm, to give a more natural look to the shot. If you are taking a general wide shot of an interior, set up your shot and take a look at the Live View screen to adjust for composition. At this point you may want to move furniture slightly, remove unwanted objects from the scene and turn on or switch off lights. Dont be afraid to make the shot work for you rather than accepting what is in front

of you. Consider using people in the shot to create movement and interest it may take more than one attempt to get the placement right. For very large interiors, consider shooting with two different focal lengths for alternate nal images. The human eye has an equivalent focal length of roughly 45mm so a good 50mm lens is useful here. You will most likely need to deal with extreme dynamic range at some stage, shooting from a dark inside space to a very bright exterior through a view can be problematic. HDR is the obvious solution but it rarely works well for clean architectural shots. The best option is to expose one shot for the interior

Advanced techniques

Pro interior shoots
We speak with David Thrower of Redshift Photography about capturing striking interiors
Name: David Thrower Bio: David started Redshift Photography ten years ago with a view to providing high-quality interior and architectural photography aimed specically at lighting manufacturers who produce ttings for ofces and shops. He now produces work for a large client base and also has a small product and portrait studio. When shooting interiors do you use any additional lighting or just whats available? If Im shooting small hotel rooms I will take along some ash to provide some ll if needed, but for the vast majority I use available light. I try to keep postproduction to a minimum for the sake of my assistant Toni. I use an expo disc and a colour temperature meter to ensure the white balance is correct (especially important in mixed lighting conditions), and also use a light meter to check the exposure is right too. How do you deal with extreme contrast shots? If the room is small then ll ash is great (especially for rooms with dark nishes and large windows) but for larger interiors HDR is the answer. Straight out of the software (Photomatix) HDR images look unnatural so we do extra work to make them look more realistic. What are your thoughts on using super-wideangle lenses for interiors given the distortion, and do you have a favoured lens for interiors? I love my Canon 24mm tilt-and-shift lens and my 17-40mm lens for interiors. I always work with a tripod and use a bubble level to make sure the camera is totally level to avoid any difcult distortion. Lightroom and DXO both offer very good autocorrection for the 17-40mm lens which is a great help. If I need a wider view than the 17mm will allow. I like to take a series of shots with my tilt-shift lens and stitch them together to create a large super-wide pano with minimal distortion. What essential piece of kit would you recommend? Sorry to be boring with this one but a sturdy tripod is very important. If you can afford a tilt-shift lens when starting out I would strongly recommend one. How do you go about pinning down a brief with a client that doesnt know exactly what they want? We have brief form on our website that our clients can download and we do encourage them to ll this in. Just make sure you talk the project through fully to get a feel for the type of pictures they like. What interior space do you nd challenging to shoot and how do you approach this? Dark moody restaurant interiors. I do rely on HDR techniques quite a lot. Take a good series of exposures and aim to get an accurate colour-temperature reading too. Interior designers dont like to see their hard work look a funny colour when they get the shots back.

scene and one for the exterior view through the window (though expose this slightly over-metered to give a more natural appearance), then blend these shots manually in post-production. It isnt an easy technique to master but is worth the effort as it gives you ultimate control over the balance of exposures. When shooting from an articially lit internal space to and external view you will also need to deal with the differing colour temperatures. If you set your white balance for the interior space it will make the light coming through the window and the view outside look very cold. You can deal with this in one of two ways. Assuming that you have RAW

Think carefully about how the light, camera angles and settings will affect the way the space is recorded in-camera


les, you can either create two exported shots, one with an interior white balance and one exterior and then blend manually. Or you can use a selective adjustment tool in Lightroom or Adobe Camera Raw and take out the colour shift in the RAW le. As for external shots, look out for nice internal details to shoot. These work well with shallow depths of eld to place emphasis on the part of the image in sharp focus.

David Thrower


Editing Canon images

Master RAW conversion

Editing your Canon images

Making your photos the best they can be
166 The essential guide to editing
Transform images from average to awesome


174 Fix your photos

Vital edits and how to achieve them

Fix photos in Raw

180 Smooth skin

How to get perfect skin in your snaps

182 Master RAW conversion

Get the most out of your file processing

184 Fix photos in Camera Raw

Transform your photos instantly

187 Create an action

Reduce your editing time

188 Restore your old photos

Bring fading photos back to life

Editing your Canon images

The essential guide to Photoshop

Fix your photos

Dodge and burn

Editing your Canon images

The essential guide to

Use Photoshop to edit and transform your images from average to awesome in the post-production phase of your project

ver the years, Photoshop has become a hugely important part of the photographic process. More and more photographers now rely on this software instead of using the traditional on-camera settings, even though Canon offers its users all the control they could want. This is because in the postproduction phase you can push your images to the next level and achieve fantastic creative results that just couldnt be captured on your camera alone. Many factors can let down a photo-shoot, be it the weather, poor equipment or a shaky hand, but all of these aws can be edited out and corrected. When using Photoshop you only need to master a few key techniques to ensure that every editing project looks professional and your images perfect. Once you have these skills mastered, you can really start to develop and learn to hone your creative skills. Over the next few pages well run through all of the key Photoshop tools and features that youll soon nd yourself unable to live without. Follow along to learn how to achieve the best photographic-style effects such as retro and cross processing, high-key summer lighting, textured overlays and even how to create polished high-end advertising pieces. Well also cover all of the key features and tools youll need to get started. Read on, whet your appetite and get inspired to delve further into the creative possibilities that Photoshop can offer. 

Well show you everything you need to get creative in Photoshop for expert results



Editing your Canon images

This shot is now hugely improved, after just a few easy tweaks

This image looks dull and flat, and in need of some editing attention

You will learn how to...

QDevelop your style QEnhance portraits QCreate composites QCross process



Editing your Canon images

Finding a style
Getting your photography work recognised is vitally important as a photographer. Your images need to stand out from the overwhelming amount of photographers who are now displaying their work on the web and on social networking sites. Developing a unique and easily recognisable style will ensure that you get the coverage you truly deserve, and mastering Photoshop will ensure that this is the case. On this page well be covering a selection of current styles that are hugely popular both creatively and commercially. Building on your Photoshop skills and then transferring what youve learnt into your work will allow you to develop a style that you can easily apply across your entire portfolio. The style you choose to work with will need to suit the theme of your images, so dont be afraid to experiment with some different effects but also keep in mind what message youre trying to get across to the viewer. The effects applied to your photos can be as wacky as you choose, but your images dont need to look overly Photoshopped to get great end results. Even small subtle tweaks like the high-key lighting effect can really make your portfolio stand out against the competition. The key to nding a style is experimentation. Dont be too constrained, have fun and really explore what Photoshop has to offer. Combining Adjustment Layers and Layer Blend modes can produce stunning end results without hours spent staring at your computer screen. Get to grips with the few essential Photoshop functions explored here and you will realise how many amazing effects can be created quickly and easily regardless of your image-editing skill level. 

Creative cross-processing
Cross processing is a simple technique to master, involving increasing the image contrast and dramatically altering the colour balance. To do this we will use a Curves Adjustment Layer (Window>Adjustment>Curves). Click onto the RGB drop-down menu and choose Red. Click onto the line adding two anchor points. Now move these to create an S shape. Repeat this for the Green channel then swap to the Blue channel. Dont add any anchor points; just move the top-end downwards. The bottom left anchor must point up to enhance the blues in the shadows. Play around with these settings. Once happy, set this layers blend mode to Color.

A simple curves adjustment for the red, green and blue channels work excellently to achieve the cross-processing effect


One photo, four distinctly different styles. Experiment with them all and see what suits your style of working best. Who knows, you may discover a Photoshop trick that transforms your entire portfolio!


For the red and green colour channels, move the curve into an S shape. For the blue channel, move the top end of the line downwards, as shown here


Boost highlights and add blur for a high-key effect


PLAY WITH HIGHLIGHTS Creating high-key lighting 1 effects is all about increasing the highlights in your photos and enhancing the foreground. Duplicate the Background layer, then hide the top layer. Click back onto the original background layer and add a subtle Gaussian Blur effect. Make both layers visible once more. Now add a Mask to the top layer. With a low-opacity, soft-edged brush, paint away the area around the foreground object showing the blurred underneath layer, adding a sense of depth. Now add a Curves Adjustment Layer (set to Lighter) in the top drop-down menu. If you want to strengthen the effect, continue to push the line upwards. 168 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Editing your Canon images

Standout style
Web: Bio: Emma Davenport works alongside her husband Ian, shooting weddings and portrait shoots on location. They use pro camera bodies and a wealth of prime lenses. Big Bouquet is now in its fth year of business. How important is Photoshop to you in your professional career and how much do you use it? Because of the volume of shots I have to process on a weekly basis, and the quick turnaround time I need for my clients, I now do a lot of my basic image tweaking in Lightroom. However, when I turn on Lightroom for work, Photoshop is always powered up too. Its become second nature! For those feature shots, or images that need a little bit more editing work, Photoshop gives me a far more polished nish. What tools and techniques do you rely upon the most? Im a big fan of Actions - both those Ive created myself and have bought off the shelf. Ive got my own subtle S Curve treatments saved, which I use to give my images a boost. How did you develop your recognisable style, or was it a natural progression? The way I process my shots has changed a lot over the past few years and I owe this to some of the great, commercial Actions available. I see no shame in using these to help shortcut to a certain look. The Photoshop Actions I regularly use come from Totally Rad (, Kubota Image Tools ( but my absolute favourite are the limited-edition Vintage Film sets from Red Leaf Boutique ( I always use most of these Actions as primers though. The beauty of most of them is that theyre layered so you can manually tweak them. Its really important to remember that you cant get good results unless your straight-out-of-camera image is interesting and technically competent in the rst place. Did any other artists or Photographers inspire you to stylise your work? Theres such a friendly network of photographers out there for those looking to perfect their image editing. For example, Totally Rad has its own Recipe site where other photographers share their own work and give guidance on how they achieved their look (
Big Bouquet

Add texture and Layer blends for more depth

MIX UP YOUR TEXTURES Creating striking images with depth is very simple. To begin, duplicate your Background 2 Layer and go to the Layer Blend modes at the top of the Layers palette. Experiment with the options Multiply and Vivid Light produce exceptional results, but for this image we have chosen to use Color Burn. Double-click on the top layer once the Blend Mode has been applied and check the Texture option from the Layer Styles dialog box. We used a Stucco texture. Then on top of the Layers we added a Curves Adjustment Layer, bringing back some highlights and enriching the texture effect.

Create clean and sleek advertising effects

Pen tool

Blend modes

CUT AND POLISH 3 For this effect, first isolate the object and then place it onto a white backdrop with a natural shadow. Sharpen and then brighten with a Curves Adjustment Layer. If you have a simple object to cut out, try the Quick Selection and Refine Edge tools. If, however, your object is more complex, then use the Pen tool. Trace your object and save the Path. Make it an active selection and lift it from the Background layer. Make the Path an active selection once more, add a transparent layer underneath and fill the selection with black. Flip and position the layer and blur it. Finally use the  Gradient tool on a Mask to soften.

Emma at Big Bouquet relies on Lightroom and Photoshop to achieve these stunning results. Capturing the perfect shot is the hard part but then adding on a effect that complements the style perfectly finishes it all off to a high standard



Editing your Canon images

The success of every enhanced image lies in its attention to detail. In photography, retouching portraits has become a crucial step in the process, with the ability to completely transform a shot. However its all too easy to over-do it. The best attitude to have when retouching an image is that less is more lots of small adjustments add up to make a big difference! Professional image retouchers use a careful combination of Masking, Transforming and Blending modes in Photoshop to achieve awlessyet-authentic results. When you begin to tackle this kind of task, youll soon nd yourself becoming very familiar with the Selection, Warp and Layer Mask tools. The rst things to focus on are the skin and hair regions once youve perfected these key areas, youll have the ultimate foundation to work from. The skin is especially important, but synthetic effects can strangle all realism in your image, and so excessive skin smoothing isnt encouraged. Instead, using Channels and a little patience, you can easily work out those blemishes manually. The hair region can cause similar headaches, but once youve mastered the techniques, its easy to smooth out the strays. If your shot is still in need of a lift, you can then start to manually apply some cosmetic enhancements. Using existing make-up as a marker, the grafting of eyelashes, face-shape changes and eye-colour alterations are just a few clicks away. The real key to making realistic enhancements in your image is to be honest about what you have to work with. Here, well take you through the best ways to piece your portrait together and help you to ne-tune your application routine, for expertly retouched portraits in minutes. 

Skin cleaning with Channels

Amateur retouching is littered with clumsy, synthetic-looking portraits with over-smoothed skin. The real trick isnt to try and cover up blemishes, but take them out completely, which takes just a little bit more time and attention. One way of achieving this is to use the Channels palette. Open up the palette and pick the channel that shows the greatest contrast in light value which is Blue, in this example. Duplicate your Channel then apply levels to increase the contrast and enhance skin texture. Now copy and paste this duplicate channel into your layers palette; then activate your model layer and use the new Channel layer as a visual guide for editing blemishes. Using the Clone stamp zoomed in at 200% works well. Switch the visibility of your Channel on and off to preview the results.

Hair xing with Content-Aware

To get rid of stray hairs, make a selection around the edge of the model using the Pen tool. Choose Select>Modify>Feather>5px, then hit Cmd/Ctrl+J to duplicate your selection into a new layer. Now make a new selection that extends beyond the fringes of the models loose hairs, then activate your original model layer and press Shift+F5, applying Content-Aware Fill. This method is not always foolproof, so use the clone tool to clean up any strays. You can further improve the look of hair with hair grafting. Using the Lasso tool, select an area of hair then click Copy, Paste and place over the blemish. Hit Transform>Warp to reshape the new hair, and then integrate the edges with a Layer Mask to keep it looking natural.

See how to clean up and modify images with Photoshop

Apply cosmetic enhancements

If your portrait needs a little more impact, you even create your own subtle make-up using Photoshop brushes. To enhance modest eye and facial make-up, create a new layer and set it to Darken Blend mode. Select a colour by sampling the existing make-up on your model, then activate the Brush tool. In the menu, apply a 10% Opacity with Multiply Blend mode; then begin painting on top to gently enrich the tones. You can also use this technique to enhance the lips. Finally, add in a healthier complexion by applying a Selective Color Adjustment Layer. Tweak Magenta and Yellow sliders in the Reds preset for a natural glow.


Editing your Canon images

Enhancing the eyes
Adjusting the colour and sharpness of the eyes is important for creating a unified image. This can easily be achieved using the Elliptical Marquee tool. Make a selection and then tweak the Hue/Saturation sliders. Now use Sharpen> Smart Sharpen to enhance the eyes. Cleaning and shaping the eye region is also just as important. The eyelashes and eyebrows are essential areas in a head shot, so filling these will make for an immaculate final image. Simply copy and paste eyelashes, reposition and apply a Darken Blend mode. You can then edit any noticeable edges using a Layer Mask.

To remedy any stray hairs lurking in your image, carefully apply the Clone Stamp tool, with the Blend mode set to Darken Blend. Zoom in to 200% and sample from even areas to even out the strands. However, this is a time-consuming process. Always remember that you can only do so much.

Fixing hair strands

Modify face shape

Making subtle changes to the contour of a models face is relatively simple and can make a big difference to a portrait. Start by making selections of the face edges; then modify using either the Warp option, or Filter>Liquify> Forward Warp tool. Its best to stick to small adjustments here, otherwise you might end up with some blurring. The new Photoshop CS6 Liquify tool brush sizes are much larger and can manipulate more pixels, for sharper warping. You can also try straightening the jaw by copying and pasting a selection of this into a new layer, then modifying with the Warp option. Finish up by carefully integrating all edges with an applied Layer Mask.

The key to making realistic enhancements is to be honest about what you have to work with

Editing your Canon images

This image is pleasant, but lacks creativity and punch. However, by combining it with elements from other shots, we can transform the bland into the beautiful

The key to seamless photo blending is to match up the noise, sharpness levels, the colour and the lighting tones using as many Adjustment Layers as necessary


Editing your Canon images

When combining images, ensure that the sharpness and noise levels match up. If they dont, try adding an overall effect on top of all the layers to match them up a bit more and make the blend less noticeable

When youre out on a photoshoot, its all too easy to make a mistake. Horizons may be wonky, lighting not set up efciently, or the rule of thirds may be forgotten resulting in a distinctly average photo. But, all of this can be corrected afterwards in Photoshop. You can even merge and composite several photos together to get the ultimate seamless image for your portfolio. In the mini step-by-step below, we will show you how you can take the best parts of several photos and comp them together to achieve a brilliant, polished nal image. No more dull skies, blurred foregrounds or poor conditions. Well show you how to take specic sections within your photos and replace them with new and improved areas from another photo. Once the composition has been nalised, and the best parts of several photos pieced together, well show you how to blend the different layers, match up colour and lighting effects before attening and saving the nal image. The key to seamless photo blending is to match up the noise and sharpness levels and the colour and lighting tones using as many Adjustment Layers as necessary. The procedure sounds complex but once you have mastered it, you will be producing fantastically creative compositions in no time. For the best results, start building up your image stock library. You never know when a sunny holiday sky or model shot can be used to x or create a completely new scene.

Swap in a sky with these simple steps

You may not want to replace the entire sky, just add in a bit more interest. To do this, simply drag the new areas onto the canvas, position and alter the layers blend modes to suit and then mask away the layers edges to blend the images together.

Add in some interest

OPEN YOUR IMAGES With your main image selected, CUT OUT AND POSITION Drag and drop the selection source all other elements. In this example we want to add in into your main image. Resize and then hide this layer for 1 2 a new sky. Open all of the images into Photoshop and select the now. Use the Pen tool to trace along the horizon line and land Rectangular Marquee tool, draw over the area of sky you want to place into your main shot. area. Save the Path and then make it an active selection. Now lift the selection onto its own layer.

MATCH SETTINGS Make all layers visible and place a Levels Adjustment Layer on each one. Clip it so it only 3 affects the layer below. Tweak the settings to match the two layers colours and brightness. Finally match noise settings and add a Curves Adjustment to the top. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 173

Editing your Canon images

Fix your photos

As a photographer, Photoshop is vital we show you why you need to learn these editing skills and how to use them
Use this Photoshop feature to slim down areas within a photo. Use the Forward Warp tool to thin out noses or try adding more definition into the cheeks.


Learn the essential Photoshop skills to make your captures shine A quick way to fill an area or cover up a flaw is to first select the area, press Shift+F5 for the Fill options, and select Content-Aware. The selection is filled seamlessly with pixels from the surrounding area.



Discover how Adjustment Layers allow you precise control when editing your shots. Dramatically improve your images with improvements to colour, contrast, light or add in Filter effects in this palette.

Use these tools to brighten and darken areas in need. Great on landscape images but very useful on portraits. Use the Dodge tool to add in a little sparkle to teeth and eyes.


When retouching you can use a soft-edged Brush set at a low opacity, or try experimenting with the Clone Stamp and Healing Brush tools, both are excellent at removing flaws.


Pixel-perfect portraits with a helping hand

earning how to edit your photos in post-production is a vital skill that all photographers should master, regardless of skill level. Very few shots require zero editing, there is always something that can be done to improve the overall quality of the image and we are here to show you just a taster of what is possible, and how to do it in Photoshop.

Photoshop has some very powerful editing features that once explored you will not be able to live without. Above, we will show you how the professionals retouch their images, concentrating on portraits, the toughest type of image to edit perfectly and seamlessly. We will then move on to correcting some of the most common photographic aws, poor exposure, colour casts and sharpening blurred images. We will show you all of the options available

to you in Photoshop for correcting these areas so that you can work to your skill level condently. To nish off we will take you through how to prepare your images for sharing, both in print and on the web, including correct resizing processes that many people get wrong. So sit back and delve into our fantastic editing guide, and be prepared to expertly transform your images in every project you take on.


Editing your Canon images

This image is slightly underexposed in some areas, but fine in others

After just a few tweaks, this shot now boasts a balanced exposure

Dodge and Burn tool

Use the Dodge or Burn tool set at a low exposure and paired with a soft-edged brush to lift or darken specific areas within your photos. Its the perfect tool to use when your image doesnt need an, all-over exposure fix.

Four steps to ensure better exposures

chieving perfect exposure within your photos is vitally important if you want an image to be proud of. Incorrect exposure is often beyond our control when out on a shoot and will leave your image either too dark and bland or far too bleached-out with a distinct lack of denition.

If any of your photos are suffering from over or underexposure then do not fear, as Photoshop has all of the necessary tools you will need to correct any aws. Youll be left with stunning end results. In the steps below we will run through several Photoshop features that can help to rescue any images in need.

Get ready to edit Our start photo as Tweak tones Click onto the middle shown here is slightly underexposed in of the line placing an Anchor point, 1 2 some areas, however the light is just right in now to suit your exposure settings move others. To fix up our photo, firstly bring up the Adjustment Layers palette, Window> Adjustments and click onto Curves. A dialog box containing an angled line will appear. the line upwards to lighten your image, or downwards to darken. Add two more Anchor points and move these to boost or reduce light in the highlights and shadows.

Try out other features Instead of the Mask away areas If you just want the Curves tool, try a Levels Adjustment Adjustment Layer to affect certain 3 4 Layer, where you can alter the strength areas, use the Mask tool on the Adjustment of the shadows, midtones and highlights in one go, or by individual colour channels (also in Curves). Or try the easiest option by adding an Exposure Adjustment Layer. layer. Click on the Layer Mask, select the Brush tool, soft-edged, 80% Opacity, foreground/background colours set black/ white then paint to mask away areas. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 175

Editing your Canon images

You can add as many Adjustment layers as you want, great if you have a troublesome image that needs different effects applied to several areas. Experiment with the Layer Blends too, some great effects can be achieved!


The photo now has the rich, warm tones of a beautiful seascape Use a Curves or Levels Adjustment Layer to get rid of a colour cast. With either of these two features you can tweak colour levels by individual colour channels, allowing you to edit precisely.


These are nondestructive Photoshop tools that allow you to edit your images professionally. As long as you save as a PSD file (layered) you can go back and re-edit the Adjustments made at a later time.


If you want to edit a specific part within a photo, use the Mask feature that appears on every Adjustment layer. Apply the allover effect, and then simply paint away the unwanted areas.


This image was suffering from a blue colour cast and looked drab and dull

Correct colour balance

olour and tone are key to making a great photo. Too much colour and your photo will have an all-over colour cast, but conversely, too little colour and youre left with an image lacking denition and contrast. Within Photoshop sits a palette lled with wonderful Adjustment Layers that allow you to edit your photos in a

nondestructive way. Adjustment Layers are added as a Layer in the Layers palette so you can easily go back and re-edit the settings at a later date. If you have changed your mind and want to tweak any settings, simply double-click onto the layer. Read on to discover all of the professionals key colour-editing secrets and start applying them to your shots.

Select your Adjustment Layer Our Tweak individual channels To view example image is a little tricky and will the images individual channels, click 1 2 require us to work in two halves. We need to the CMYK drop-down menu in the Layers remove the blue from the sand, however we also want to retain the colour in the sky. To begin with select a Levels Adjustment Layer from the Adjustment palette. 176 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK palette, select Cyan. To reduce the levels of cyan, move the middle midtone slider and right white slider left. Switch to the Yellow Channel and move the middle slider right.

Reveal with a Mask Click the Magenta Reveal and tweak If you want to Mask Channel and reduce the levels for an area again, press X on the keyboard 3 4 more neutral tones. Click the Levels Layer to switch the foreground/background Mask thumbnail, select the Brush tool at soft edge, 70% Opacity, foreground/ background set black/white. Paint over the sea and sky area to reveal cyan shades. colours, painting in white reveals and black masks. Click onto the main Levels Layer, go back to the Levels palette and tweak the channel layers until satisfied.

Editing your Canon images

Sharpen your photos the right way

he are two key points to remember when sharpening an image: you cant add in details that dont already exist, and less is always more. You can keep building up the effect but adding too much can leave your photos looking pixelated and worse than when you started. If its done correctly though, you can enhance an image.

Remember that before adding any effect to your starting shot that is not an Adjustment Layer, you must rst duplicate the layer in question to make a copy of the original image. Applying a Sharpening Filter onto a layer is a destructive edit and once youve applied it, the only way to erase the effect is to click back through your history palette and start again.

A few quick tweaks leave this photograph perfectly sharp

Locate the tools Click onto the Filter menu in the top tool bar, select Sharpen. 1 You will see several different options here, some that apply simple automatic fixes, others where more controls can be found. Choose Unsharp Mask and its editing panel will appear with three key sliders.

Understand the sliders Amount is the overall strength of the effect, if its too 2 high, your photo will become grainy. Radius, is the size of the area of pixels you wish to enhance and halos will appear is this is set too high. Threshold affects the brightness levels, and is useful to help avoid noise.

A little soft around the edges, this portrait could use a gentle lift

Begin to sharpen Zoom in close to your image then set the Amount slider 3 to 100%. Now increase the Radius, for portraits with fine detail keep the value small to avoid sharpening skin pores and flaws. Now increase the Threshold slider, this will soften the overall effect.

Surface blur
If your image is noisy or you have over sharpened then to fix it, add a Surface Blur. Sounds weird we know, but go through the Channels Palette, select the Channel thats showing the most noise, now add a small Surface Blur to this Channel layer, smoothing out your image.

Experimentation Experiment with all of the sliders, seeing how the effects 4 can alter dramatically with just a small movement of the sliders. If you feel certain areas need more affect applied than others then simply duplicate the layer, add the effect then Mask away any unwanted areas. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 177

Editing your Canon images

Preparing your photos correctly for print or web

ou may wonder why you would need to re-size your photos if they have been shot at high resolution. If you wish to print your images, chances are you will need to enlarge them. On the other hand, if you want to share your photos on the web for all to see, then you will need to downsize them.

Learning how to correctly resize images in Photoshop is tricky as there are many different methods for both print and web. Read our two mini tutorials to see how to treat your images correctly and get the most from them however you wish to display them. Remember if youre unsure about resizing, then always make a duplicate rst!


Edit then bring up Image Size Increasing an image to a large format for print will show up any tiny blemishes 1 already present in your photo, so its important to eradicate as much Noise as possible (Filter> Noise> Reduce Noise, or by individual Colour Channel as described previously), and to Sharpen your image, then make all other edits required.

Set up your Image Check that all three boxes at the base of the Image Size palette are checked. Make sure 2 your Resolution is at least 300 pixels/inch, then add in your desired Width, the Height will update accordingly if Constrain Proportions is checked.

If you are resizing and exporting multiple files then save valuable time by creating a swift and effective Photoshop Action. Record what tweaks you make to one image and then drop and run your other photos through the Action for instant resized results

Save settings From the drop-down menu at the base of the palette, select Bicubic, which is best to ensure 3 smooth gradients when enlarging an image. To Save, go to File> Save and choose PSD as your file option. This leaves you with a large layered file suitable for print.


Edit then bring up Image Size Once you have edited your images to perfection, including removing any 1 traces of noise as mentioned in the previous step-by-step, then convert to RGB, if it isnt in this mode already. Go to the top tool bar and select Image> Image Size. 178 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Set up your image The place where you intend to Save settings Select Bicubic Sharper from the dropdisplay your shots on the web will determine the exact down menu. Go to File> Save for Web & Devices, select 2 3 image size. Check all three boxes at the base of the palette, JPEG, set quality to High, check the Optimized and Embed then add your Width, set to Pixels, the height value will update. Choose a resolution of 72-150 pixels/inch. Color Profile boxes. In the bottom-left corner the file size and download time is shown, if too large, reduce the file.

Editing your Canon images

Discover how to get punchier black-andwhite shots using the Dodge and Burn tools in Photoshop


Use Photoshops Dodge and Burn tools to add controlled contrast to your monochrome captures

Dodging and burning

Layer mask control
Once youve dodged and burned your image, you can go back to correct mistakes or remove parts of the effect from areas using a layer mask. Add a layer mask to your dodge-and-burn layer via the Add Layer Mask tab at the bottom of the Layers palette. Click on the white box to activate it and select the Brush tool. Set a brush size and high Opacity with the foreground colour set to black. You can now paint over areas of the image you want to remove the effect from.

hotoshops Dodge and Burn tools are the digital equivalent to the darkroom techniques that share the same name. These tools are much easier to master and dont involve the same level of skill that was required in the days of the darkroom. For those who are unfamiliar with these tools, Dodge is used to lighten select areas of your image while Burn is for darkening areas.

Dodge and burn techniques are commonly used when developing or converting images to monochrome. Use them to successfully increase contrast in select areas, which will help to enhance the appearance of depth. To help you get started weve put together a simple three-step tutorial. Join in using your own start image or work with the same one that we are, which can be downloaded from

Prepare the layers Once youve converted your image to black and white, duplicate the background layer via, 1 Layer> Duplicate Layer. Now select the Burn tool from the Tools palette and adjust the Brush size at the top of the screen to a small/medium diameter with a soft round edge.

Darken with Burn Select Midtones from the range Highlight with Dodge To bring out the newly shaded drop-down menu. Build on the effect gradually by areas in your shot, enhance the highlights. Select the 2 3 keeping your exposure below 15% and brush over areas you Dodge tool from the Tools palette and select your brush size. want to darken. You can change the range as you work to affect highlights and shadows too. Stick to working in the Highlights and Midtones range with the exposure no more than 10% and lighten up select areas. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 179

Editing your Canon images

Smooth skin
oull nd a huge selection of skinsmoothing techniques online, but many of these will leave you with an undesirable nal outcome. If you want a professional nal look for your images, then theres no cutting corners youll have to roll up your sleeves and clear away unwanted artefacts before you start smoothing. The best way to tackle this type of retouching is to start by simply agging the artefacts that you want amended. This is as simple as creating a new layer and adding annotations, much like you might do when sketching using a pen and paper. In this tutorial youll learn how to double-conrm areas using your Photoshop Channels as blemish maps. Only once this is complete can you begin to apply your healing tools. The skin-smoothing is still a long way off, but you just cant just hide blemishes and this is what leads to overly fake looks. Instead, use the prompts rst to target and lift all of the imperfections. Discover how to do this using the Spot Healing Brush and Patch tools. Youll notice

We show you how to perfect skin in your snaps, by combining three easy techniques using some of Photoshops standard tool sets
that theres not a Clone Stamp tool in sight, as our nal aim is to make singular and not frequent re-samples of skin areas. Once the healing is complete, we can then start softening the skin. This is a case of removing contour and contour is an effect of hard lighting. So here youll nish with editing lighting effects that will effectively even and smoothen the skin. Small measures have a big impact on believable looks, which is what youre aiming for in this tutorial.

Add annotations Start by creating a new layer and select Channel map Activate the Rectangle Marquee tool and Channels panel Hide the anno layer. Activate the the Pencil tool from the Tool Bar. Use this to mark out 1 select the duplicate Blue channel. Now copy and paste Channels panel and duplicate the Blue Channel 3 2 any discreet as well as noticable blemishes that you need (Cmd/Ctrl+C; Cmd/Ctrl+V) into your Layer stack, placing (Ctrl+click). Press Cmd/Ctrl+L to activate the Levels dialog to address. This is an important step as it will serve as a reminder of what needs fixing. box. Pull the Shadow and Highlight sliders closer to the midtone (middle) slider to create an increase in exposure. this beneath the anno layer. You can use this along with your annotations to pinpoint blemishes for editing.

What to target Activate the model layer, using the Spot Healing Brush Now its time for the close-up Noticeable directions Duplicate the model layer and get Channel map layer as a guide. Make sure to match 5 work, so zoom in at 200%. Select the Spot Healing rid of eye bags and any glaring texture mismatches with 4 6 application with the direction of the blemishes to match the Brush and activate the Brush picker menu from the options the Patch tool. Now decrease the Opacity of the duplicate overhead. Set brush Hardness to 50%. Now you can start to amend the blemishes. skin. This can take a while, so turn the Channel map layer on and off to check that youre making good progress. model layer to show through a little eye-bag detail. This creates a realistic, believable look.

Add Curves The annotations are there as a final reference, serving as a reminder for you to fix all the 7 key areas. Make a selection like in our example, using the Rectangle Marquee tool. After you have done this, apply a Curves adjustment layer. 180 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Paint out contour Activate the Curves Layer Mask Blend If option Your selection acts as a visual guide. and press Shift+F5. Fill it with black then select a soft, Raise your Curve to blow out highlights, then activate 9 8 30% Opacity white brush. Apply this to the mask to show Layer>Layer Style>Blending Options. Hold Alt and split the Blend If>This Layer highlights slider, dragging it into the middle of the slide bar. through effects and soften contours. This smoothes the skin and creates a natural look that still shows pores.

Editing your Canon images


The skin has been cleaned and image lighting has been edited to create smooth, clear and perfect skin


Editing your Canon images

Master RAW conversion

Get the most out of your le processing and create stunning looks for print and screen

hen it comes to the post-production phase after a successful shoot, many photographers share the same objective. And that is to optimise a photo for editing in Photoshop using Adobe Camera Raw software. To maximise your RAW images potential, Photoshop offers up many robust image-manipulation options. You may not want to perform too many edits using Camera Raw and use the versatile plug-in to simply prime your shot for the Photoshop treatment. However, if you are most comfortable using Camera Raw exclusively, then thats ne with us. The techniques we share here can easily be modied for either workow, so the choice is yours. In this tutorial well run through a roster of essential tools that will modify your exposure, light colour, texture detail and sharpness. These are applied to beautify your digital photographs, but the reason for application isnt merely aesthetic. The techniques that well cover here will also ensure that your photos are as suitable as possible for display on screen and in print. Essentially these steps will bring your images up to a picture-perfect standard from a production point of view. But before we get hands-on in the tutorial steps, its also really helpful to learn about the Workow options, which give you a head start in your editing projects. Activate this by clicking the text at the foot of your interface. Set Space to Adobe RGB (1998) as its the default gamut space used by all professionals in digital and print. A 16 Bit Depth is always a better choice if your computer can handle large les. Use this setting and youll appreciate more uid edits in return. Refrain from activating Open in Photoshop as Smart Object though you will nd out why later. Youll explore a few more hidden gems and useful nuggets of editing know-how like this throughout our steps. Now its time to grab your photographs, open up Adobe Camera Raw and get stuck in.

Camera Raw 8
Discover whats different in the latest version of ACR
Adobe Camera RAW version 8 is compatible only with Photoshop CS6 and Photoshop CC. For those of you who own this, there are a few cool new functions for you to add to your editing arsenal. The relevance of dayto-day use of these is subjective, which means they are easily avoided if instances for use fail to arise. However, there are those that you will have to adapt to if you want to process your imagery successfully. The new features in Camera Raw 8 include an interactive histogram, workow presets and renements to the Spot Healing Tool and Local Adjustment Brush. It also supports 19 new cameras and 21 new lenses. Explore the new editing options in the software and start transforming your shots.

Use the Histogram For a balanced exposure, activate both Clipping Warning icons in the Histogram. Slide to 1 negative and positive values to show blue (underexposed shadow) and red (overexposed highlight) previews. Set your exposure bar to minimise both selections. 182 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Bring back texture Adjusting the Exposure slider can Set light temperature Specify colour temperature eradicate texture detail in your photo. Remedy this by with one-click functionality. Simply select the White 2 3 simply applying the Fill Light tool. Be warned, though this Balance tool and click the midtones in an image. ACR will may cause haloing to appear. Luckily this is an easy fix by selecting Lens Correction>Remove Chromatic Aberration. give you what it believes to be the right settings, but these can easily fine-tuned using the Temperature and Tint sliders.

Editing your Canon images


Work with RAW for higher image quality and master light, colour and detail to create your own stunning visions

Advanced sharpening Photoshop has powerful Tackle noise Once youve started sharpening, noise sharpening tools, so boosting micro-contrast with the 4 can become an unwanted knock-on effect. Its best to 5 Clarity slider will be enough in ACR. The Detail>Sharpening fix it now using Detail> Noise Reduction. Set lower values tools are very intuitive. Hit Shift+Opt/Alt and pull your sliders to target affected surfaces and edges. in the Luminance sliders for smoother effects, but dont overdo it as this can create unwanted synthetic effects.

Open as an Object All settings give you the bestpossible base image to work with in Photoshop. Hold 6 Shift and press Open Object. Your RAW file is opened in the Photoshop layers panel as a Smart Object. Double click this any time to reactivate the ACR interface and adjust settings. THE CANON CAMERA BOOK 183

Editing Canon images

Fix photos in Camera Raw

amera Raw allows you to access and edit your photos in an easy-touse interface without ever using the Photoshop tools. Camera Raw has all of the main photo editing tools that you would need to x common image problems, ranging from lens imperfections to correcting colours, removing noise and sharpening. We will show you how to open up a RAW image and then correct it to Photoshop standard to give it a more professional nish. RAW is a generic term used to describe a type of le digital cameras can take which is completely unedited by the camera and holds all original image data within it. If your camera comes with a RAW option, its recommended to use it whenever possible. Each camera brand has its own le extension, so dont get confused if your camera les end differently to ours on the disc all of them can be opened and xed in the same way.

Transform your photos instantly with Camera Raw

Canons RAW le extension is CR2 or CRW and most Canon camera models, which offer RAW shooting, are supported by Photoshops Camera Raw plug-in. If youre upgrading your camera, however, be sure to update your software so that newer les are recognised and can be opened to edit. A full list of compatible Canon cameras can be found at kb/camera-raw-plug-supported-cameras.html. Camera Raw comes with Adobe Photoshop, and is constantly being updated to feature all of the newest camera models on the market. If the one you own isnt shown as a saved preset, you can add and save your make and model. We are using the Photoshop CS5 creative suite in this example, with Camera Raw 6.2. Newer and older versions of Photoshop and Camera Raw work in the same way, but some le types may not be compatible. To combat this issue, additional free plug-ins are available from the Adobe website though so you can still convert your les.



Editing your Canon images

Camera Raw
Fix and tweak photos

OPEN THOSE RAW FILES Double-clicking the RAW files wont open them up youll need to 1 drag and drop them onto the Photoshop icon. Theyll automatically open up into the Camera Raw interface, which is clean and easy to navigate.

LAYOUT If youve opened up multiple images, they will be 2 displayed on the left-hand side. Some Photoshop-inspired tools sit at the top of this window, but the bulk of the editing tools sit on the right-hand side. Click an icon and a panel of sliders will appear for each. TWEAK THE WHITE BALANCE 4 Clicking onto an area which should be white will lighten your image slightly for more improvement, go to the right-hand palette. Move the Temperature slider away from the cool blue end and the Tint towards the pink end a little if your image is still too blue.

WHITE BALANCE Start work on the Basic panel of tools on the right-hand side, the first tab available. 3 Select the White Balance tool from the top bar (I) and click on an area which should be a white or light grey, but isnt currently.

EXPOSURE Switch on the 5 Highlight clipping warning, which is the small triangle found in the top-right of the interface box, which will warn when image detail is being lost. Some damage will occur (turn red), but we will repair in the next step. Move the Exposure slider right slightly in order to brighten your image.

REPAIR ANY DAMAGE The red area in the shot is the loss-of-detail warning, caused when using the Exposure slider. To repair this, move 6 the Recovery slider right and the red will vanish. Were now going to lift the shadows with the Fill Light slider.

BRIGHTNESS AND CONTRAST 8 These sliders will do exactly what they say, boosting the images midtones and pixel contrast. Zoom in when youre working and start with the Contrast slider, moving it right to boost the image. If you need to, move the Brightness slider right by a very small amount.

MORE SLIDER TWEAKS This Fill light slider increases the lights in the shadowed area, leaving 7 highlights alone. Exact amounts will vary with image and personal taste. Move the Black slider a small amount to increase the darks in the image, improving contrast and lifting your image.


Editing Canon images

COLOUR BOOST The 9 next three sliders will improve the colour quality in your image. Move the Clarity slider to the far right this will improve the colours in all images, making for a stronger image. If the red warning marks appear again, move the Recovery slider until they vanish.

VIBRANCE AND SATURATION The Vibrance slider only really improves already brighter colours you may see no 10 difference in this example image. Moving the Saturation slider right will make a difference, especially in the sea, but dont overdo it or the greens will be too much.

REDUCE NOISE 12 Zoom in and move the Luminance slider to around 25% the pixels will blur/smooth out. Also available is the Luminance Detail slider, which allows you to preserve the images detail when smoothing out not too high, or more flaws could then be revealed.

WORK BACK THROUGH Our image looks a little yellow. To fix this, weve moved the Temperature 11 slider back towards the centre. Click onto the Detail tab. Within this tab we can Sharpen, but remember to reduce the noise in the image first.

Adjustment brush
This is the paintbrush tool at the top of the screen, and works like the Photoshop Brush tool. Choosing this will make new sliders appear on the right-hand side of the interface. With this tool you use the sliders on the right to adjust settings, then paint over precise areas within your image. To show where you have painted, check the Show Mask box under the sliders. Once you have painted an area you can keep altering the levels by pressing the + and - tools, at either end of the sliders. To return to the other tools, press the hand icon in the top bar.

MAKE IT STRAIGHT The horizon in this image is a bit wonky, but this can be fixed really easily. Select the Straighten tool in the top bar and draw a line along the wonky horizon. 13 You will get a crop box appear around the image, set to the correct angle. Hit Enter and your image will straighten out. 186 THE CANON CAMERA BOOK

Editing your Canon images

Learn how to create and save a style action that can be applied again to other images

Record an Action Open an image you want to edit in Photoshop. Now expand the Actions tab on the right1 hand side of the screen and click create a new action along the bottom of the palette. Name your action and click OK to start recording the editing process.


Create a style Select various adjustment tools from the create a fill or adjustment layer menu at the bottom of 2 the layers palette. Avoid making adjustments that are too specific to the image youre editing so that the action can be applied successfully to other images later on.

Create an action
Discover how to create your own actions in Photoshop and reduce your editing time

Apply the action Try to focus on creating an action that alters an images colour palette and lighting. Press Stop 3 when youve finished to halt recording. To apply the action to another shot, simply open the image, select the action and press play to apply the effect.

Signature styles
Creating an action is a great way to ensure all of your images share a similar style. Once youve started to record your action, you can select adjustment tools from the menu at the bottom of the Layers palette. Get creative and experiment here; you can use layer masks, the Opacity slider and various different blending modes to control the adjustment effect. As a rule, try to avoid attening the editing layers while youre recording. This will enable you to make renements to the layers once youve applied the action to a different shot.

here are endless possibilities to explore in Photoshop. An image can be transformed in a multitude of ways using some of the softwares fantastic editing tools and lter effects. Experimenting in Photoshop can be a lot of fun, but its frustrating if you cant replicate a successful result again. Learning how to record an action however, will take all the worry away from this, as it enables you to track and save all of the editing steps you

make in order to re-create the same effect on other images. Join us in this quick, three-step tutorial as we show you how to create your own actions and ultimately, cement your signature photographic style. In just few easy steps, youll be able to record and save your editing process and start creating a more coherent portfolio. Follow along and discover how creating and applying actions can cut your image-editing times in half.


Editing your Canon images

Restore your old photos

Dont let treasured images from the past fade away apply some Photoshop medicine and bring them back to life

Using a variety of Photoshops tools, you can patch up and repair even the most badly affected image

Editing your Canon images

his tutorial will help you get to grips with using Photoshop to restore, repair and recover old photos that have seen better days. The image that we are using here is almost a hopeless case, but it demonstrates that, using a wide variety of Photoshops tools and lters, you can patch up and repair even the most badly affected image. At the end of the process images can even be better than the source photo, but it is important to realise that in many cases the original image may not have a lot of detail, and there are limits to what you can bring back without turning the photo into a painting. All the standard colour, contrast and brightness tools can be used, such as Levels and Curves, but well also be using some

helpful features such as the Spot Healing Brush, Clone Stamp tool, Hue/Saturation and even a little painting to try to restore the damaged areas. The starting point with all prints, though, is the scanner to get them into digital format. The original print of this image was very small only around 3 inches by 2 inches. Its also over 40 years old, so combine the two and youve got quite a restoration challenge. When scanning you should always set it at a larger size than the original for two reasons. One is that you can then make a larger print when nished, and the other is that it gives you a bit more room when doing close-up editing. So, the scanning resolution was set to 1200ppi, which gave an image size of 3391 x 2306. Thats large enough for an 11 by 8-inch print.

If you have lots of old film photos, you can learn to repair them using our simple step-by-step guides

Basic image improvements

Restore damaged areas and correct tones

CHECK THE DAMAGE Duplicate the Background and COLOUR ISSUES A black-and-white image can display TRIM AND CROP If the photo isnt square, you need to rename it Working layer. All restoration can take place colour defects. To remove these, create a Black and trim the edge. You could use the Transform tools, but 1 2 3 here. Now add a Solid Color Fill adjustment layer, selecting White adjustment layer. Enter the values of Reds 40 and you want to avoid any further loss of quality. Using the Crop pure red and changing the layer blend mode to Color Burn. This shows where theres no emulsion at all. Yellows 60, leaving the rest at 0. If the original photo was sepia, tick the Tint box and add a similar colour. tool means a little of the damaged area on the far right of our image can be removed completely.

Key tools for common defects

Close-up detail on specific problem areas

Writing on a photo
If theres writing on a photo it can be fiddly to get off. However, the Spot Healing Brush is designed to remove different shades of tone from a singular or patterned background. If the writing covers two different backgrounds then it needs to be done in two stages. For the first, use the tool to mark the text on the patterned background.

Water damage
If you get water damage on an area, it can be fixed with the Patch tool, provided theres a similar area nearby that isnt affected. The Patch tool is designed for that, patching large areas in one go. Mark the part affected then grab and move the preview box to an area to patch from. Check the effect to see whether it matches and release.

Missing areas
When there are missing areas of emulsion, but still some patches of detail near to it, the Clone Stamp tool is invaluable for restoring detail. Simply set the mode to Darken and sample from a source that has the same tone and pattern as where the detail is required. Set the Opacity to 100% so the new detail is sharp, then clone it in.

REMOVE WRITING You can remove any writing with the Clone tool, but the Spot Healing Brush will also do 4 a good job. Select the Working layer and the Spot Healing Brush tool. A Size of 100px and Hardness of 100% is fine. Now mark all the text where it rests.


Editing your Canon images


Use curves to add more contrast

Lack of contrast
Old photos tend to lack contrast, and the ageing process only makes it worse, as the longer a photo is exposed to light the more it fades. Fortunately, a quick application of a Curves adjustment layer can add contrast. Create an S-shaped curve in the Curves box and you can tweak it towards the end of the restoration.

Patch up

Man the Healing Brush and Clone Stamp tools

PATCH THE REST The letter K is straddling two TACKLE THE CRACKS There are lots of cracks in areas in our image. Select the Patch tool with Source our image, so lets start with the one on the tall girls 5 6 ticked, draw a square around the letter and release. head. Select the Clone Stamp tool and zoom in to 200%. Now grab the marquee and move it down. This creates a preview of the patch based on where you move the sample box to. Change the brush blend mode to Darken and set the Opacity to 100%. Sample from the sides of the crack and paint over.

REMOVE DIRT There are dirt spots on our image. To RUB OUT THE CREASES The next crack or crease, get rid of them, select the Spot Healing Brush and 8 in this case in our image is between the little girl and 7 reduce the Size to 23%. Go over each gure, dabbing the boy with glassess legs. Use the same Clone brush

Layer structure
Final Curves Faces Color Fill Black and white Working layer Background

as you did in step 6 to clone in over the bricks, on the trousers and the foot of the girl.

on any spots. If the tool leaves a pattern or a hard edge, press Cmd/Ctrl+Z to undo it.

RESTORE EMULSION Set the Clone brush to CLONE OUT REMNANTS Any marks that havent Darken to tackle missing emulsion. Toggle the 10 been successfully removed with the Spot Healing 9 Color Fill layer on and reduce Opacity to 26%. Select the Brush tool can be tackled with the Clone brush. Select it and change the blend mode to Lighten. Now sample from areas close by and paint over spots. Working layer and clone in areas of clothing and walls into the parts that are lacking detail.


Editing your Canon images

Even out complexions

Use the Brush and Blur tools

3 of the best Tips for looking after old photos

FIX THE HAIR Although it seems like these children FACE SMOOTHING Duplicate the Working layer are going bald, its just the emulsion fading and and call the new one Faces. On any faces where 11 12 thinning, not their hair. Use the Clone Stamp tool with there is detail missing, use the Brush tool at 10-20% the Darken blend mode to put hair back into the smaller gaps. Clone in at 50% Opacity to ll out the large areas missing detail. Opacity. Hold down the Eyedropper to select a shade on the face and paint it into the mottled areas of the cheeks and faces.

Digitise your collection If youve got a lot of photos in your film collection, make some time to scan them and save them on to your computer. You then know, no matter what, that youll always have a digital version as well as the original, and you can edit it at a later time and in small batches.

Keep them safe Printed photos can fade in the sunlight, so keep them out of direct light. Keep them in photo albums to keep them as flat and safe as possible. This will stop too many sticky fingerprints ruining the surface as well as preventing some scratches and tears that can occur. Back up As with any photo collection, make sure you back up in more than one place, eg on a CD or hard drive, as well as on your computers memory.

PROBLEM AREAS The boy in the middle of our image is missing the lower part of his glasses. 13 Were selecting the Brush with a sampled dark colour and around 26% Opacity. Draw any missing parts in, then use a large brush at 5% Opacity to darken around the frames.


MISSING SHOULDER The biggest area missing is the shoulder of the girl on the right. Were using the Clone Stamp in Darken mode to extend the arm upwards, tapering it off. Were cloning more white over it to make it look faded as it gets towards the brighter part of the picture.


FINAL STEPS Add a Curves adjustment layer and lower the black tones to make them darker 15 and lighten the highlights slightly. It isnt really worth sharpening the image because the detail just isnt there. Delete the Color Fill layer and atten to nish.

Our image has been repaired and restored after our Photoshop edits

Clone in areas of clothing and walls into parts that are lacking detail

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