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With an average market share of over 50 per cent, Yo soy Betty, la fea (I’m Betty, the Ugly One, RCN Televisión, 1999–2001), the story of an ugly duckling who becomes a swan, is one of the most successful telenovelas ever broadcast in its home territory of Colombia.1 But its success soon spread. It not only captivated Latin American audiences (an exception for Colombian productions), but it also reached millions of viewers in over 80 countries around the world. But the success did not stop there: over 15 country-speciﬁc adaptations have since been made,2 each of which display astonishing cultural diversity.3 Investigating the circulation of Yo soy Betty, la fea and its international counterparts this study offers insight into the global exchange of individual TV products and their formats. Firstly, it focuses on the Colombian original, to highlight the deﬁning characteristics of this show. I distinguish Yo soy Betty, la fea from other telenovelas to offer some explanation for its worldwide appeal. I then investigate the successful translations of Yo soy Betty, la fea, its adaptations and spin-offs. Looking at how these different products interact, and how the networks schedule them, allows me to draw conclusions about the prospects for success. One countryspeciﬁc adaptation stands out above the rest in terms of its method of production, content and export rates: namely, the US version, Ugly Betty (Ventanarosa Productions/Reveille Productions/ABC, 2006-present). This article concentrates on some of the obstacles faced by Ugly Betty, for example in the homeland of the original telenovela and also, surprisingly, in Germany, where US imports are normally high-rated products. These developments raise the following questions: what happens in countries with local adaptations of their own? Are local products more highly prized than foreign imports? Do countries with no domestic adaptations ﬁnd the imported versions enriching, furthermore are those with their own adaptations enthusiastic about foreign imports? The reasons for success and failure are evaluated and further developments are presented in order to offer further thoughts on what is next for the telenovela.
Critical Studies in Television 3/2
Once Upon A Time Prominent eyebrows, geeky shell-rimmed glasses and ﬁxed braces have become the worldwide trademark of Betty. Along with her distinct physical features her clumsiness, bad taste in fashion, intelligence and kind heart have, despite cultural variations, marked each production. Ugly may be sold to us as the new beautiful, but this story of the ugly duckling does not disturb cultural ideals of beauty. Instead what intrigues is how the series differs from the traditional telenovela. ‘Being different’ contributed to its huge success in Colombia. Most telenovelas share a similar plotline: the story tells of the poor but beautiful girl who after several challenges ﬁnds the (rich) man of her dreams. Yo soy Betty, la fea hardly deviates from this narrative formula, except that the girl is not beautiful at the start. Furthermore, unlike the heroines of traditional telenovelas, ‘Betty’ is not waiting for Prince Charming to rescue her, but is instead determined to climb the social ladder on her own. But the major difference is how Yo soy Betty, la fea uses humour as well as more realistic storylines, set as it is in a fashion company with the daily routines of ofﬁce life dominating. The main protagonist is intelligent and hardworking Beatriz Aurora ‘Betty’ Pinzón Solano (Ana María Orozco), who is not quite as attractive as her co-workers. Despite enduring continual taunts over her appearance, suffering humiliation and overcoming numerous obstacles, she wins the heart of her boss Armando Mendoza Sáenz (Jorge Enrique Abello). According to Joseph Straubhaar,4 telenovelas evolved from the US radio soap model, developed by Colgate-Palmolive, Procter and Gamble and Gessy-Lever, and targeting the female consumer. Since the mid-1950s, the telenovela has spread rapidly across Latin America.5 Generically it replicated the US formula with its roots in earlier melodramatic forms, but adapted them with localised themes such as class conﬂict, social mobility and the escape from poverty. One of the reasons for Yo soy Betty, la fea’s average 50 per cent market share is that the target group changed and broadened over the course of the show.6 In an interview Fernando Gaítan, writer of Yo soy Betty, la fea, explains: ‘In the case of Betty, it was like putting the whole country into an ofﬁce of a few square meters. No two characters are alike. There are the poor, the rich, the divorced, the ambitious, the successful and the ones who want to be successful.’7 Suggested here is that the show’s diverse characters offer a number of identiﬁcation points for viewers, which, in turn, allows the show to reach the broadest possible constituency. Set in the public world of fashion and commerce stories deal with a range of topics that appeal to both men and women. Thus this particular telenovela extends classic narrative tropes, dealing primarily with family, to include other challenges such as ﬁnancial problems, hostile takeovers and unemployment. But at the same time it remains suitable for a family audience, as it is a novela blanca: meaning, a serial without violence.
2005–6) returned as Verliebt in Berlin II (SAT. Globo TV and Venevision usually dominate the international export and sales of telenovelas). guiding and constraining media production and consumption: ‘[.toongu. which. Switzerland. through exportation. . for instance. For example. STS. There are. led to EcoModa (a reference to the name of the fashion company in the Colombian original. localised and hybridised. and it was granted a second season in 2007.1. both of the original telenovela and its adaptations. la fea. Hungary. they hybridize. Numerous local adaptations within diverse cultural contexts may testify to the universal attraction of the Yo soy Betty. Mi Gorda Bella (My Fat Beauty. 2006–7) with a new protagonist Bruno Lehmann (Tim Sander).] as these forces move into a new country or cultural space. and as the extraordinary success of the franchise illustrates. RCTV. ofﬁcial adaptations. Slovakia.10 and the popularity of the Russian serial Ne Rodis’ Krasivoy (Be Not Born Beautiful. Univision. which preceded the ofﬁcial adaptation. La fea más bella was a resounding success. TV Azteca. El amor no es como lo pintan (Love is Not How it is Painted. Furthermore the exportation of dubbed adaptations proved internationally lucrative. and becoming localized.13 . involves complex cultural and structural factors limiting. for which Fernando Gaítan wrote. 2002–3) as well as the Mexican. history and agendas’. In Germany Verliebt in Berlin (Falling in Love in Berlin. including the Mexican one. enacted.1. The US network. on the other hand. interacting with previous forces. Bulgaria. These include the Venezuelan telenovela. and it instantly became the most viewed Spanish-language programme in America. . the half brother of Elisabeth ‘Lisa’ Plenske (Alexandra Neldel). format selling and licensing. it was the high exportability of the franchise that proved most astonishing (which was even more extraordinary given the fact that the Latin American majors such as Televisa. certain television products are simultaneously globalised. RCTN. La fea más bella (The Most Beautiful Ugly. in turn. the German version has been sold to the Ukraine. the German Betty. produced unlicensed versions inspired by the Colombian original. 2001). la fea.11 and the US version reaches at least 130 territories worldwide. Belgium. Latvia. Local versions have often inspired spin-offs. ToonGuru (www. 2000–1).The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 21 Ugliness Without Frontiers While the above-mentioned factors may have contributed to the enormous success of Yo soy Betty. SAT. 2001) and Betty Toons (Conexión Creativa. 2005-present) was followed by the cartoon serial UmaNetto on the Internet platform. la fea franchise. 2006). acquired the broadcasting rights for this Mexican version. make visible the multilayered processes involved in the international television market. for example.9 Some countries have. but how the ﬁction has been traded is instructive. la fea story.12 As Straubhaar argues. and received by local people with their own identity. Canada and France. Televisa.8 The virulent circulation of the Yo soy Betty. becoming part of the ongoing history of that country.ru). The astonishing success of Yo soy Betty.
To counter the threat posed by this local Spanish production. but Telecinco blocked its . from Turkey to Israel. la fea franchise. as it was bought and adapted by diverse cultural markets. the Mexican telenovela failed to ﬁnd an audience in its 4pm slot. in 2006. humor. La fea más bella. from Russia to India. where local audiences prefer locally produced cultural products to imported ones.14 It is exactly this cultural-speciﬁc ‘look and feel’ that particular national broadcasting contexts seek to create when adapting the original format. with an average of 4 million viewers and a market share of up to 40 per cent. This ‘natural’ constituency. Straubhaar contends that ‘most audiences seem to prefer television programmes that are as close as possible in language. dress. is one of the reasons that telenovelas are avidly consumed by Spanish-speaking nations. had become the most viewed Spanish-language programme in the United States. repositioning it in the morning so as to avoid direct competition with the Spanish adaptation. Already successful in other countries. this version. which started on 10 July 2006. acquired the rights for the US version. style. Ugly Betty. Antena 3 bought the Mexican adaptation.22 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 As the circulation of the Colombian original. la fea franchise than in Spain. Regions are not only deﬁned by geographical borders. But what is more interesting is that as soon as another production with even closer ties to the cultural and linguistic characteristics of a particular region is transmitted.18 However. Meant here is that productions from the same geo-linguistic background have as good a chance as any to succeed. as previously mentioned. The Colombian original ﬁrst broadcast in 2001–2 on the private TV station Antena 3. and shared topical knowledge’. Cuatro. and despite intense promotion. Antena 3 rescheduled the show. but also by commonalities of language and culture. then that more localised product may be preferred.19 Yo soy Bea soon achieved huge ratings.20 At the same time another private TV channel. and this is certainly what happened with the Spanish adaptation of Betty. Betty’s Battle Nowhere can a better example be found concerning the complex handling of the Yo soy Betty. where four different versions were broadcast. and this is precisely what happened to the Yo soy Betty. as early as 2006. and the private channel Telecinco adapted it with the title Yo soy Bea (I am Bea) for the Spanish market. Changes in the way the franchise ‘looks and feels’ as it moves from one territory to another further conﬁrms the concept of ‘cultural proximity’. Three were derived from the same geo-linguistic region conﬁrming John Sinclair’s argument that geo-linguistic regions have been the initial basis for media globalisation. as well as other national adaptations shows. Sinclair argues. precisely in relation to television programmes and services.17 The channel scheduled La fea más bella to start a couple weeks before the Spanish version was due to air on Telecinco. historical references. to become Spain’s most viewed afternoon programme.16 Four years later. the concept of cultural proximity is crucial.15 But he goes on to add that there is diversity and regional difference within each geolinguistic region. ethnic appearance.
With different products on the market. More fascinating still is that the presence of the US version. This effectively meant that while Yo soy Bea was on air no other version. which have already proved successful in another broadcasting territory. but most members of a society are also interested in some amount of diversity and difference as well.22 Their involvement in producing the German. Thus an awareness of powerful local productions obviously leads to strategies that avoid direct competition.1 million people watched the debut of Ugly Betty on 28 September 2006. Foreign imports. Colombian or otherwise. FremantleMedia are not in direct competition but offering different kinds of products to suit a diverse marketplace. big-hearted. As owner of the rights to the Colombian original.21 As scheduling strategies and the strict licensing rights policy in Spain illustrate. it was ABC’s largest audience for a scripted series for its time slot since Matlock (Dean Hargrove Productions/Fred Silverman Company/The Matlock Company/Viacom Productions. As the example of FreemantleMedia shows.24 Like the Colombian original. for example. Dutch. Nonetheless it will be interesting to see how Cuatro decides to handle the transmission of Ugly Betty. in competition with other national adaptations. Telecinco also managed to obtain the monopoly rights for transmission. acquired the rights for the Mexican version before Telecinco signed the contract for the Colombian original. could be shown on Spanish screens. according to Nielsen Media Research. which allowed them to produce the Spanish version. ‘I think having Disney’s show in the mix will actually heighten the interest in telenovelas over here’ says Naomi Joseph. Belgian and Greek versions may explain Joseph’s magnanimous attitude. but klutzy and not-so attractive ‘Betty’ who works in the big city. Instead of producing. Ugly Betty tells of the intelligent.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 23 transmission until spring 2008.‘This tendency toward guiding cultural choices based on cultural proximity seems strong. The optimistic estimation of the US-version in the European market may also reﬂect that it is completely different from the local versions. they opted instead to produce different national versions. The American Way of Betty 16. especially if they belong to the same geo-linguistic context. Straubhaar contends. executive vicepresident of worldwide drama for FremantleMedia. in turn. is judged as stimulating rather than dominating the European telenovela market. internationally orientated production companies are keenly aware of the concept of proximity. and that Yo soy Bea will presumably continue until June. producers and programme specialists are keenly aware of the risks and problems involved in competing versions of the same TV product. a European-wide version of Betty. Antena 3.’23 To this end. 1986–95) in 1995. especially given that Telecinco only has the monopoly rights until the end of April 2008. daily versus weekly productions. are expected to ﬁnd domestic audiences. She is an assistant to a fashion . the US Betty seems to have found a kind of global niche aimed to attract a worldwide audience through its difference from classic telenovela.
or the cultural logic of globalisation. and dependent on the commercial vicissitudes of a US network. but also cultural products constituted in and through a range of media practices.27 Straubhaar speaks of a general pool of cultural knowledge. In contrast to the other country-speciﬁc adaptations. they structure not only their work but also preﬁgure the viewing experience of the audience. Ugly Betty is not a telenovela. With reference to Paul Ricoeur’s model of narrative and how individual narrative patterns may become part of a larger culture. Marwan Kraidy interprets hybridity. But this is where the similarities end. scheduled to appear on its sister channel TV1. It is a weekly produced serial.25 In the case of Ugly Betty. broadcast from season to season. it has been transformed from a telenovela into an episodic network serial with highproduction values. Silverman’s statement exempliﬁes what Joseph Straubhaar understands by feedback processes linking the expectations of audience and producers. the high-end look of Ugly Betty. As producer of the US version Ben Silverman explains. could never have been achieved on a traditional budget for telenovelas. making visible the glamorous.24 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 magazine editor. audience habits and critical discourses. which are. who she periodically bails out in his private and professional life. The result is a hybridisation of the genre. such as production techniques. in turn. which Jason Mittell deﬁnes as not only a set of textual parameters.26 There is another issue related to audience expectations. as about localised adaptations of global patterns. from which individuals draw a personal repertoire of symbols and interpretative understandings: “This preﬁgures or shapes the work of writers. For example. actors. It provides boundaries and rules. Ugly Betty . For example. as well as resources for the moment of creation. producers. including the geo-linguistic countries of the United Kingdom.29 The Colombian original has changed from Bogotá to Hollywood.30 Australia31 and New Zealand.32 But scheduling has been crucial to that success. from a telenovela to a Latin-American style primetime dramedy. Here we see the hybridisation of different cultural backgrounds starting to emerge. subject to ongoing change and redeﬁnition.”28 Bearing in mind the commercial patterns of US broadcasting and the expectations for weekly network series in primetime. and others in the production process. programme managers for the New Zealand network TV2. Silverman knows that American audiences are more used to watching weekly network serials with high-production values than a daily massproduced serial like a telenovela. Betty’s Beat So far the US version has proved a hit in nearly every foreign territory where it has been sold. feared competition from another international format Dancing with the Stars (with a local cast). As producers create. haute couture world of the New York magazine scene. which aired Ugly Betty. the ﬁnancial capital available to the US networks enables programme-makers to spend money in ways that others working in different national contexts cannot.
on the private channel Tien. as long as an international show has no direct local competition. for any schedule contains distillation of the past history of a channel. after Desperate Housewives (Cherry Alley Productions/ Touchstone Television/Cherry Productions. is obviously genre-independent (serial vs. the mechanism whereby demographic speculations are turned into a viewing experience. The domestic production Lotte was a daily serial. 2004-present). Unlike Australia and New Zealand. in the Netherlands the US version was successfully broadcast alongside the local version.000.34 Illustrated here is that programming context and adequate scheduling are vital to broadcasting success. Ugly Betty haemorrhaged its audience when the ﬁnale was scheduled up against the start of the international format Idol. as in the case of Australia and New Zealand. Local programming. where the local trumped the international. but also seem to follow the concept of proximity. And it is more than that as well. he argues. .41 The appearance of actress Rebecca Romijn (who plays Alexis Meade in Ugly Betty) who has Dutch roots (her father is Dutchborn and her American mother is of Dutch descent) gave the show a boost and audience ﬁgures climbed to approximately 473. Monday to Friday.35 Timothy Havens goes even further by identifying the importance of scheduling strategies as he underlines the hybrid character of international television ﬂows. During broadcasting from February 2006 until April 2007 the show attracted on average 200. it can potentially have enormous success. None the less he illustrates how scheduling practices across much of the world increasingly derive from both uniquely local conditions as well as imported ideas. casting show) but can also be based on an international format (as long as the cast is local). John Ellis views scheduling strategies as [. of national broadcasting as a whole and of the particular habits of national life.36 Referencing Ellis.000. Havens stresses that cultural forces are largely domestic and play a role in resisting globalising tendencies.42 In this case. promoted as a telenovela and scheduled at 6.30 pm) on the private channel Net 5. Important here is how .000 viewers. both local and imported forms of knowledge about viewers’ behaviours and preferences constitute scheduling practices.000 for the ﬁnale. the international product was even more successful than the local version.000 viewers during primetime (8. . in this case Australian Idol (with a local cast). The network was justiﬁably cautious given what had happened in Australia. Ugly Betty suffered its lowest ratings since it started broadcasting as a consequence of this scheduling clash.33 But it was still interrupted for eight weeks while Dancing With The Stars aired because the network judged the audience for both programmes as being too similar.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 25 may have been the second highest rating show in New Zealand among 18–49-yearolds.30 pm.40 but this number dwindled in the next episodes to around 340.] the locus of power in television. the weekly US version debuted with an staggering 578.39 In August 2007.37 The examples of Australia and New Zealand not only conﬁrm these scheduling strategies. that is.38 peaking at over 300.
43 Perhaps the international casting of Ugly Betty may offer us another clue as to its success abroad. Scottish actress Ashley Jensen. Identiﬁcation processes are a crucial part of a show’s success. a magazine editor.] and you see inside that content more and more foreign actors. the new trend might be described as ‘the diversiﬁcation of the cultural’. and as one of the original cast members of the hit Australian soap Neighbours (Grundy Television Australia. We have three English actors in the lead of four of our new dramas. As a child of Honduran parents born and raised in Los Angeles. at the international audiovisual content market MIPCOM in Cannes 2007. Hayek may bring a local Latino audience to the US version but she also brings international Hollywood glamour that extends beyond the US borders. Romijn with her Dutch roots strengthens viewer loyalty in the Netherlands. who had recently won national fame playing Maggie Jacobs opposite Ricky Gervais in Extras (BBC/HBO. of course. act in . Given that exporting abroad is a vital part of the US business plan when producing television. we have French actors. ‘We are giving more and more recognition that our content is built for the globe [. 2005–7). another localised international show Holland’s Next Top Model (RTL Nederland). especially given that the local one. would have been familiar enough with the same demographic that watch Ugly Betty in the UK. Several of the actors are clearly chosen for their appeal to local audiences when the serial is sold abroad. Then there is. alluding to the issues associated with an immigrant background and racial identity. and I think you can see more and more content that is built for a global market. as executives like Silverman do. 1985-present) he also had a reputation with international audiences including those from Australia and the UK. In marked contrast to the Australian and New Zealand experience.44 Taking into account the growing recognition to meet global demands. The same could be said of New Zealand-born Alan Dale and his appeal to New Zealand audiences. Both productions enjoyed equally high ratings when the reality TV show started in September 2006. did not hamper the success of Ugly Betty. America Ferrera who plays Betty Suarez. who is now co-chairman of NBC Entertainment and NBC Universal Studios. and certainly when Ugly Betty reached the UK she was marketed as part of the appeal. . For example. We have Japanese actors.’ said Silverman. And this is to say nothing of the involvement of Salma Hayek who acquired and adapted (along with Ben Silverman) the Colombian rights. Ferrera ethnically bridges Hispanic and White America.26 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 both versions were scheduled and did not impede on the success of the other. Lotte. and secondly as Soﬁa Reyes. . are speaking with distinct national/regional accents (sometimes with subtitles). but also had cameo roles: ﬁrstly as a star of the telenovela watched in the Suarez household (thus bringing that television tradition right into the very heart of Ugly Betty). had already ﬁnished its run by the time Ugly Betty began. although running in direct competition. Meant here is that more and more actors of a different cultural background are being contracted. producers are mindful to address different cultures with its multinational cast. we have Indian actors.
Sensing that Ugly Betty will ﬁnd an audience. a co-worker of Henry (Christopher Gorham).7 million viewers. Although moves to acquire rights are a sign that some believe the US version could ﬁnd a home in Latin America. SET is ﬁghting for the right to broadcast the US version in Mexico. and for him it makes no sense. as Roland Robertson described at the beginning of the 1990s. believing that the US version brings a different approach to the well-known story of Yo soy Betty la fea. For example.50 It seems Betty’s battle continues even at the executive level of TV companies with an equivalent standing. convince Hispanics living in Latin America? As Sibylla Brodzinsky and Glenn Garvin in their article for McClatchy newspaper say. the ﬁgurehead of the Hispanic girl living the American Dream. Sanabria refers to the fact that the Spanish book can never be translated into English without losing its distinct cultural and national characteristics. At ﬁrst glance this cultural crossover supports the humorous approach of the show. This ‘diversiﬁcation of the cultural’ is nothing new. Brodzinsky and Garvin also quote Carolina Padula. where its competitor TV Azteca is also bidding for transmission rights as it anticipates high ratings. Padula is more optimistic about the success of Ugly Betty in Latin America. in terms of dress codes and eating habits.48 Brodzinsky and Garvin quote Fabian Sanabria. Korean American actor John Cho playing Kenny. an anthropologist at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia.46 The casting of Ugly Betty goes one step further than just broadening the cultural background of the show. which operates a Latin American cable channel reaching 17. who compares watching Ugly Betty to reading Cien anos de soledad (100 Years of Solitude) by Gabriel García Márques in English. Colombians are not sure if they like the idea of Ugly Betty returning.’45 Robertson highlights the academic discourse on the relationship between the local and the global. as it increasingly is. the terms and conditions of mixing. uses slang expressions borrowed from rap and hip-hop.49 So too does Televisa. he maintains that globalisation involves the creation and the incorporation of locality. no one will watch it. a TV critic at Bogota’s El . not everybody seems convinced. Instead.47 Homeward Journey But can America Ferrera. to get a global audience.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 27 different cultural locations and exhibit culturally speciﬁc behaviours. and emphasises that globalisation is not equivalent with homogenisation. But in Colombia. ‘This series could be a moderate success around the rest of Latin America. which has obtained the rights for the country-speciﬁc adaptation La fea más bella. 1999–2007] or 24 [Imagine Entertainment/20th Century Fox Television/Real Time Productions. ‘For example. thus leading in many cases to a hybridisation on a global scale.’ says Omar Rincon.“multinational” casts of actors and a variety of “local” settings when it is particularly concerned. in the second season. Hollywood attempts to employ mixed. chief programmer at Sony Entertainment Television (SET). 2001-present]. but it also invites us to think about what Jan Nederveen Pieterse called ‘global mélange’ as it questions the politics of hybridity – namely. or it could even be as successful as The Sopranos [Chase Films/HBO.
It was intended to make fun and somehow expose the inﬂuence that social classes have in our country. such as jokes requiring cultural context to unlock precise meaning or visual environments which audiences may ﬁnd confusing. cultural imperialism’. I have also watched some episodes of Ugly Betty and I can see its value and its contribution to bringing attention to important issues such as immigration and cultural differences. and the export rates of the US serial seem to support the point. it is easier to face and deal with something if we talk or even laugh about it. It was very funny but very speciﬁc to our culture and traditions. reads the enormous success of Yo soy Betty la fea as ‘a reversal of U.53 In the case of Ugly Betty. quoted as he is in El Tiempo saying that ‘Half the Globe is mine’. as the response to the Mexican La fea más bella proves. la fea gave humor to elements that cause conﬂict in mine. He even takes delight over it winning a Golden Globe in January 2007. 1978–91).S. Interestingly. in their study of cross-cultural readings of Dallas. It would be interesting to chart how this debate continues.58 Such research exempliﬁes that viewers critically consume imported programmes as well as responding to the topics presented on screen in terms of cultural relevancy.51 But Colombians are not strongly opposed to every foreign adaptation. The French Minister for Culture.56 Such debate is reminiscent of the furore created by the global popularity of US soap opera Dallas (Lorimar Television/CBS. So I say let’s make more Ugly Betties and expose all the things that separate us and divide us. Maybe with a smile on our faces we will be more willing to open up and embrace each other. examined the decoding strategies of overseas audiences. bearing in mind that the worldwide success of Yo soy Betty. [. As it is meant to be!!52 This example and its remark on differences in culture and tradition hint at what Straubhaar calls the ‘cultural discount’ of a foreign audience against imported productions. At the end.57 Tamar Liebes and Elihu Katz.] Ugly Betty gives humor to elements that cause conﬂict in this country the same way that Yo soy Betty.28 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 Tiempo newspaper.54 For journalist María Antonia García. as much criticised as it was watched. . la fea. . the producers tried to minimise this discount through ‘the diversiﬁcation of the cultural’. even proclaimed Dallas as the ‘symbol of American cultural imperialism’.55 whereas Felix Guitierrez. la fea was initially claimed as the reversal of cultural imperialism but now strikes back in the form of the US remake in its home . professor of Journalism and Communication in the University of Southern California’s Annenberg School for Communication. Perhaps this version is more acceptable because of the involvement of Gaítan. At the beginning of the 1980s this TV show exported across the world. as this shortened entry suggests: I am from Colombia and watched Yo soy Betty. The ‘discount’ could be provoked through that with which audiences are unfamiliar. Allowing for generalisations a cursory look at bulletin boards seems to suggest that young people remain open-minded to the US adaptation. and found that this show resulted in reﬂexive talk about self and society. it seems a shame that the only way Colombia can stand out in the United States is through a telenovela. during a conference in Paris 1983. Fernando Gaítan views the success of Ugly Betty on US television as an achievement for his country.
but Bruno was not able to conquer the hearts of Lisa fans. Of course. We will have to wait and see for the full reaction of the TV audience. Yo soy Betty. not only allowed the German but also a wider European audience to identify with the modern metropolis that affords glimpses of local cultural habits and aesthetic values. attracted an overwhelming 7. now in the form of a beautiful swan. a. Most of the original cast remained. whether or not they suit personal tastes. and thus launched a sequel with a new. la fea. It is not clear if Ugly Betty suffered from Lisa’s brief return. and hopefully.35 million viewers. the reason was to lure back former fans – and it worked.k. this time male. also involved in the adaptation.95 million viewers (16. ZDF. which was to become one of the most successful telenovelas ever broadcast in Germany.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 29 country Colombia. Hungary and Bulgaria.63 Of course. comments that by setting the story in Berlin.a. the show will be successful despite the discussion. SAT. at least for a daily television show in Germany. as with Dallas. but ratings for the US series . Rainer Wemcken. During this period ratings rose. 2004–5). Lisa Plenske. Therefore. Verliebt in Berlin attracted an average of 3.64 At the same time. CEO of Grundy UFA.61 It could therefore be argued that this European setting is also a reason for the dubbed Verliebt in Berlin’s successful export to other European countries such as France. the ugly duckling. But it was Verliebt in Berlin. As Michael Esser. they only met with moderate success. The last episode. which translates to 22.62 With Alexandra Neldel playing the German Betty.1 per cent of the market share. It seems that the market for telenovelas in Germany is limited. The trend was recently reversed with the ﬁrst German production Bianca – Wege zum Glück (Bianca: The Ways to Happiness. the half brother of Lisa. a 90-minute special with a huge preand after-show celebration of the marriage of Lisa and David Seidel (Mathis Künzler). identiﬁes the secret of its success: if a telenovela wants to achieve high ratings in the country. in April 2007. the German production company responsible for Verliebt in Berlin. the German remake of the Colombian.1.60 Jens Richter. explains: the main adaptive changes involved softening the hilarious original and introducing a more realistic touch so that German audiences could closely relate to the characters. the US version started to air on the same channel SAT. protagonist Bruno. provides a rare opportunity to compare different cultural approaches to the same story. it has to be ‘made in Germany’. was called on to return to the show for a short comeback. although not as high as expected.1 wanted to run with the success for as long as possible. at least in the ﬁrst run. once a week in a Friday primetime slot. Made in Germany The chance to watch different country-speciﬁc versions bypassed Germany.59 This is more than the concept of proximity suggests.8 per cent of the relevant target group) during the period from 28 February 2006 to 1 September 2007. it is striking that although Latin American productions were broadcast in the 1980s. for cultural characteristics are not enough. Looking at the past fate of this format. scriptwriter for Verliebt in Berlin. But the opportunity to watch different country’s adaptations.
were prepared to discuss the US serial on the Verliebt in Berlin fan bulletin board. similar situations occurred in the German version.58 million viewers). If ratings for the ﬁrst Friday were bad (0. and. as this abbreviated entry demonstrates: What I miss about Betty are the feelings. But it does beg the question – why did SAT. So much so that SAT.1’s sister channel ProSieben. Only a few got a taste for it. as previously mentioned. It is questionable whether the Friday primetime slot was the most appropriate one for its target 18–49-year-old demographic. These are expressed in gestures.69 But the channel adjusted the time slot. Analysing ratings for the German and US versions it is noticeable that the Verliebt in Berlin community were never interested in Ugly Betty. scheduling. The Devil Wears Prada (David Frankel. but its press release did not do enough to distinguish the US version from the German.1 decided to immediately cancel Ugly Betty. US hit Grey’s Anatomy [The Mark Gordon Company/Touchstone Television/ShondaLand. They transform seconds into something special. This contradictory message did not help and audiences were not convinced that the US show offered anything new. ratings picked up and the serial has gone from strength to strength. that both were based on the Colombian telenovela. scheduling plays such an important role in the success of any programme.70) Despite SAT. moments that directly lead to my heart – magic moments. it seems that if comments on the various bulletin boards are to be believed.78 million viewers in the relevant target group). then those for the second were even worse (0. but not as overtly as in . despite having mixed opinions. emphasising its similarity to.68 then what happened in the case of Ugly Betty proves instructive. rather than difference from. SAT.66 SAT.65 No ‘Bettymania’ in Germany Given that the US serial performed well in other countries.71 But many longed for the romance of Verliebt in Berlin.1 failed to ﬁnd an appropriate timeslot for its newest US import. ratings might have improved if the channel waited a little longer for the audience to ﬁnd the show. Initially the US import was promoted as having the same origins as Verliebt in Berlin: namely. ratings and audience feedback a complex picture begins to emerge. and given that US serials/series normally do well in Germany. 2006).67 It gave a short synopsis of the pilot episode.30 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 remained poor.1 not even consider a different time slot? (For example.1 may have sold Ugly Betty as inspired by the US blockbuster. with the third season topping the ratings. words and special moments. even those with localised versions of the Colombian original (as in the Netherlands). the German adaptation. If.72 Others disliked the scene in the pilot when Betty is humiliated during a photoshoot.1 cancelling the serial. why did Ugly Betty fail? Taking a close look at promotion. 2005-present] failed to make an impression when it was initially broadcast on SAT.
Social criticism is totally absent in ViB – and romanticism in Ugly Betty. Furthermore.455 fans.1 failed to reach the potential target group: neither did it appeal to those who watched Verliebt in Berlin or other telenovelas. liked the comedic elements and the exaggerated characters of the US version. even if told differently. Verliebt in Berlin fans found Ugly Betty to be too ostentatious or were not interested in seeing the same story again. the adaptation can proﬁt from the recognition associated with the original show. and so never tuned into the US version. SAT. Act ‘Glocally’ Borrowing the slogan from Friends of the Earth founder David Brower.77 ‘Glocalization’ is an approach that combines the principles of mass production with the possibilities of offering customised local products. and Verliebt in Berlin in particular. the user made the point that there were those who disliked telenovelas in general.1 when it was initially promoting the US version. nor did it capitalise on ﬁnding existing audiences who enjoyed other US serials. it becomes clear why buying a format instead of developing in-house shows is productive. This at least is suggested by an online opinion poll conducted in 2005 with 6.76 Roland Robertson uses it to describe the strategies that television production companies and networks follow when blending the foreign with the local. At the same time. media commentator for Süddeutsche Zeitung. there were viewers who may have given the US version a chance. but this time clearly promoting the US version as different. suggesting that on one hand.’74 This main difference was never made clear by the private channel SAT. think locally. a satiric dramedy and highlighting the show’s high production values. in particular citing her cooperativeness and intelligence as part of her appeal. the content and the environment to suit local requirements. Right. act globally. known for broadcasting successful US serials. A production company adapting a programme can rely on the experience of the original creator. No doubt another reason why audiences favoured the German version over the US one was because of the immense popularity and appeal of the character Lisa Plenske. even if that means the spin-off suffers from high audience . To this end.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 31 Ugly Betty. Ugly Betty is not scheduled for the 2008 autumn line-up. At the same time. Betty’s goal is to climb the social ladder by means of her own efforts. confessing that they just needed more time to get used to the different approach. located the main difference in how the US and German productions approached the same plot: ‘If the country bumpkin Lisa Plenske was dreaming of her Mr. The audience also liked the actress Alexandra Neldel for her portrayal of the character and for not being afraid to perform ‘ugly’.75 That said. The sister channel Pro Sieben.73 85 per cent voted the ugly protagonist the most popular character on the show. On the other. it beneﬁts from the ﬂexibility of making adjustments to the cast. Some Verliebt in Berlin fans. is scheduled to give Ugly Betty a second chance in late summer 2008. and when I approached Pro Sieben they said that the release date could not be conﬁrmed. Senta Krasser. One user summarised the paradoxical attitude many German viewers had toward the US adaptation. in fact.
83 Fernando Gaítan. An important factor was that it appealed to markets looking for a comedic telenovela. As an alternative to buying dubbed productions or formats. at least in the Latin American world. the advantages outweigh the risks. Considering local needs for a broader region – in this case. was sold as a format to the US network. we had never sold in India. As described earlier. Adapting successful telenovelas within Hispanic communities is common practice.32 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 expectations. rather than the more traditional ones.84 To brieﬂy summarise the successful formula: take one universal human . as the European broadcasting market is considered a largely territory-based affair. for example. especially if it is adapted badly (in whatever sense). but also other European audiences.’80 Localised telenovelas taking a European approach like Verliebt in Berlin may be a good starting point to cross the inner European borders. there is always the possibility of producing local serials to sell as a dubbed product or even as a format. previous efforts to create a pan-European satellite television were singularly disappointing and American-owned thematic channels like MTV have been compelled to localise their programmes. has been surprised by the international response. In fact. a reverse ﬂow against the mainstream of US imports into Europe. the ﬁrst German telenovela. Holland or Germany.’ comments RCN international sales director Maria Lucia Hernandez. the sales of formats and the export of dubbed productions overlap in a ‘glocalized’ world. Bianca – Wege zum Glück. Verliebt in Berlin was also successfully exported to other countries as a dubbed production. Betty’s literary father. As Petros Iosiﬁdis. Colombian telenovela Yo soy Betty.‘Before. it nonetheless shows the complex processes involved in global trade. All in all. have meant that the vast majority of television is still produced for and targeted at distinct national audiences.81 Even while this example might be an exception to the rule.79 Iosﬁdis. a local German story. He concludes that Betty’s worldwide success is a sign that female vanity is universal. variety is the key. Adapting shows should not be the only strategy that production companies and networks follow. Steemers and Wheeler contend: ‘The historical origins of broadcasting as a national concern. The import and export of dubbed productions remains a basic pillar of the television business. a story often neglected when focusing only on the dominant global ﬂows. Jeanette Steemers and Mark Wheeler point out. la fea was adapted to attract not only German viewers. Ultimately. What’s Next? Format sales of telenovelas are nothing new. It was adapted for a US audience in cooperation with FremantleMedia as a weekly episodic primetime novela running for 20 weeks. Lifetime. la fea and its country-speciﬁc versions have travelled beyond their geo-linguistic borders.82 But the ‘Bettyﬁcation’ phenomenon challenges everything that has gone before. to enter territories never before hooked by telenovelas until ‘Betty’ and her culturally speciﬁc alter egos. Europe – the format of Yo soy Betty. This is especially interesting. and the enormous cultural and linguistic diversity within Europe.78 Interestingly.
beating channels like ABC. the Mexican heroine harvests the cactus that produces tequila. 1994) is one of the selected telenovelas hoping to replicate the success of Yo soy Betty. none of these productions could hook an audience. RCN Televisión.91 According to Variety. the US version may be set in a wine vineyard. 2007) changed its recipe for success from the ingredient coffee to tequila.85 Colombian distributor Caracol Television International.92 Let us wait and see if a German version hits the market. the original scriptwriters of another MNT adaptation called Desire (original title: Mesa para tres/Table for Three. which she thinks will help her climb the social ladder. One from TV Azteca entitled Cuando seas mia (When Will You Be Mine) aired in 2001–2 and is similar to the original except for the ending90. Based on the motto ‘never change a winning team’. bodes well. The same production companies involved with ‘Bettymania’ have acquired the rights for Café con aroma de mujer: Reveille for the US market and FremantleMedia for pan-American versions. and was produced for television by Canal Caracol since 2006.’87 Despite this failure. The successful. The ﬁnale of Destilando amor aired on 3 December 2007 on the HispanicAmerican network Univision. which is perhaps more used to‘haute cuisine’ (high-production episodic network serials) than ‘fast food’ (cheaply produced mass serials). implies: ‘Trying to get people to watch serialized dramas every night on MyNetworkTV was asking the impossible. Another aspiring ‘Betty’ successor is the telenovela Sin tetas no hay paraíso (Without Breasts There is No Paradise).88 Although ‘Betty’ fever. producers have started looking for the next power ingredient to brew another success formula and seem to have found it: Café. and see if it is really as easy to satisfy the audience as the recipe implies. Apparently Colombia.93 Although using different approaches. la fea. executives at ABC. MyNetwork TV. The story is based on the homonymous novel by Gustavo Bolívar. by coincidence or not. NBC and FOX. supervised the US version to ensure the original story was protected. 2006) and Wicked Wicked Game (Gone Fission/Twentieth Television. MyNetworkTV (MNT) tried different adaptations of telenovelas for the US market. seems far from over. from Colombia. president of MNT. mix it with a pinch of humour and season it with local ﬂavour. including Fashion House (20th Century Fox Television/Gone Fission/ Stu Segall Productions. 2006-present). both Yo soy Betty. Or perhaps US gourmets simply do not want to eat the same thing every day. CBS and NBC continue to believe in the potential of this format.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 33 trait. CBS. and with 27. story is about a poor young girl. Instead of working in a coffee plantation. Of course. et voilà. This change yielded good results. famous for its coffee exportation and as the birthplace of Yo soy Betty la fea. who works as a prostitute to earn money for breast augmentation. audience taste may vary and the recipe adjusted. Fernando Gaítan’s Café con aroma de mujer (Women-ﬂavoured coffee. which started in 1999. and at the same time controversial. as Greg Meidel.7 million viewers was the most watched show. changing the ingredient for success to beer with its plot revolving around the cultivation of hops – as cultural proximity rules. The other from Televisa called Destilando amor (Distilling Love.89 Two Mexican adaptations of Café already exist. la fea and Sin tetas . a global hit is served.86 Unfortunately. 2006). Let us sneak a peak at the menu of diverse chefs de cuisine in the television market.
2 The following countries have adapted the Colombian telenovela. 31 March 2008. hybridising local ﬂavours with transnational patterns. Russia. accessed 15 October 2008. according to Canal RCN and Tony Lagarto. which will air in the United States. As Hollywood branches out into the telenovela genre. Mexico. An International Bettybase http://sirlizard. as buyers and sellers strive to distinguish themselves from their competitors based upon genre. pp. Israel.org// internacional. ethnicity and the like’98 – and thus creating diversity. 3 Fernando Gaítan. 2007. Straubhaar. World Television: From Global to Local. 152–53.prohosts. Bogotá. Then again. The Philippines (since September 2008). As Timothy Havens illustrates. . Vietnam (in development). Belgium. This leads to strategies that diversify classical telenovelas.html mytop.96 The technological developments in recent decades have burst the constraints of geographical and national borders. Greece. common sense suggests that the largest hurdle faced by global television merchants is cultural difference. La fea más bella). and ﬁred the imagination of universally accessible media communities. and has acquired the rights for Sin tetas no hay paraíso. 3 April 2008. Kai Hafez rightly scrutinises the emergence of a global public sphere and emphasises the importance of regionalisation in televisual landscapes. as Havens notes. his research has shown ‘how cultural difference also forms the basis of global television sales. music videos and reality shows. Ugly is the New Beautiful. la nuestra. 24–29. Notes 1 ‘Betty. Based on its positive experience with its ‘Bettys’ Spain has also jumped on the bandwagon and reserved the rights for a local adaptation of Sin tetas no hay paraíso. Italy (Grundy Italy is in advanced negotiation with Rai ﬁction). Poland (October 2008). in co-operation with Televisa and its local adaptation. or. Brazil (Rede Record in partnership with Televisa). Germany. NBC’s Spanish language broadcasting unit. theoretical possibilities have not yet been implemented in practical everyday media consumption. and Lina María Waked.95 These examples indicate that the trend of geo-linguistic proximity is no longer the only factor in success.97 But. Netherlands. Televisa has already developed different telenovela sub-genres incorporating animation. which impedes the ﬂow of both programming and proﬁts. Ben Silverman also believes in the success of the Colombian serial. Croatia. 8 July 2000. Telemundo. 4 Joseph D. India. Yo soy Betty. No greater example than this is ‘Betty’s’ itinerary in all its countryspeciﬁc varieties. United States. la fea. Interviewed by Bianca Lippert. Interviewed by Bianca Lippert. are in process of developing it: China (in development. Global players like NBC have already diversiﬁed its company structures (in this case with Telemundo) to deliver as many localised products as possible. Spain. nationality. Turkey.94 Yet. Sage Publications. is also planning its own version. However.’ Semana. the Latin American majors like Televisa must adjust to strong competitors with huge budgets and high reputations. Bogotá. Czech Republic. this time in his position as co-chairman of NBC Entertainment and NBC Universal Television Studio.34 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 no hay paraíso offer social critique.
p. 10 Manuel Weis.html. 27.’ Semana. http://www. ‘Quotencheck: Verliebt in Berlin 2.’ FormulaTV. accessed 2 January 2006.formulatv. ‘Antena 3 descubre la gallina de los huevos de oro con Yo soy Betty.php?newsid=17938.5595. 22 Elizabeth Guider. http://www.’ Presseportal. http://www.’ Variety.The ‘Bettyer’ Way to Success 35 5 For an overview of the development of the telenovela in Latin America: José Ignacio Cabrujas.cgi?archive=418& num=9856. ‘The One Show Idol Can’t Stop: Bella. Oxford University Press. accessed 2 January 2008. 1999.00.com/cgi-bin/artman/exec/view. 7 July 2006. 13 Straubhaar. 167–82.com. 6 ‘Betty.com.’ 2 January 2008. http://www. 9 October 2006.com/print. 3.’ WorldScreen.es. http://quotenmeter.presseportal. 19 December 2006.de/print.216715. ‘Ugly Betty’Tops Ratings Among New Series So Far. 21 May 2007.com/noticias/detail. html. 19 ‘Antena 3 traslada La fea más bella a las mananas y amplía ‘Rebelde’ en las tardes.. No había una línea de personajes unicas. RCN Televisión. accessed 6 January 2008. 17 December 2007. Alfa Grupo Editorial.uab. la fea. http://www.htx?nr=1091207.20070928. http://antalya. http://www. 26. 24 Associated Press.’ Elmundo. 1–2.html. 16 Javier Cid. p. 29 September 2006.es/guionactualidad/ spip. el ambicioso. 23 Straubhaar. World Television. 28 September 2007.1. Skein Competition Could Get Ugly. ‘Bettys Do Battle.medialifemagazine. http://www.php?id=17371. Latin American Television: A Global View. 15 John Sinclair.asp?layout=print_story&articleid=VR1 117951583&categoryid=19. accessed 1 January 2008.’ Quotenmeter. entre Telenovela y Sitcom (I).php?article981.’ Media Life Magazine. 8 Another exception is the telenovela.de. Gaítan. 31 March 2008. Están los pobres. World Television. accessed 31 January 2008. las seperadas. 1994). accessed 8 January 2008.3566. el hombre de éxito o el aspirante a serlo. accessed 1 January 2008. 18 Ana Porto.com. 2002. la nuestra. accessed 11 December 2007.html. 21 ‘Telecinco bloquea el estreno de Ugly Betty en Cuatro. htm.. 9 Toni Fitzgerald. ‘Antena 3 estrena La fea más bella y Telecinco ultima Yo soy Bea. accessed 2 January 2008.formulatv. 11 ‘SevenOne International verkauft Verliebt in Berlin an ukrainischen TV-Sender ICTV.com/1. las casadas. http://www.2439. pp. 2000.’ FormulaTV. 26 November 2007. 17 Fitzgerald. 20 March 2007. http://www.de/print. era como meter a todo el país en una oﬁcina de unos pocos metros cuadrados. Bogotá.com. 2 January 2008.’ FOXnews. 26 June 2006.’ Translated by author. Lorenzo Vilches. 7 In the original Spanish: ‘En el caso de Betty.com. which proved an international hit. .1.html.elmundo. pp.com/index. Y latinoamérica inventó la telenovela. 12 ‘Ugly Betty Licensed to 130 Territories Worldwide. p.’ Elmundo.20060707.htm. written by Fernando Gaítan. 14 Ibid. los ricos. Interviewed by Bianca Lippert.foxnews.vertele.com/printer_friendly_story/0. accessed 11 December 2007. la fea.es/2002/04/16/comunicacion/ 1131512. Betty. 20 ‘Yo soy Bea cumple este lunes 300 capítulos en Telecinco.com/1.elmundo. http://www.php?ﬁlename=disney052107.es/2002/04/16/comunicacion/1131512. ‘The One Show Idol Can’t Stop: Bella.’ Vertele.es.worldscreen. accessed 2 January 2008. Café con aroma de mujer (Woman-ﬂavoured coffee. accessed 18 December 2007.’ Guionactualidad. 16 April 2002.variety.com.
2005.nl/?p=3793.5m.com/article/VR1117957 907. accessed 4 January 2008. pp.000 kijkers voor Nova/Den Haag Vandaag. 48 Sibylla Brodzinsky and Glenn Garvin. http://www.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10432781. Society. Time and Narrative. 53–68. 46 Ibid.mediacourant. 43 ‘422. 26 Bill Carter. Routledge: 2004. Scott Lash and Roland Robertson. 19 February 2007. 147. 2000.nl.’ New York Times. bﬁ Publishing. 32–44.’ in Featherstone. Hybridity. Interview with Ross Westgate. nl/?p=2978. 9 October 2007. accessed 4 January 2008. 42 ‘562. http://www. http://www. accessed 4 January 2008.’ Mediacourant. http://www.mediacourant. ‘American Telenovelas Have Lost Their Allure.. Global Modernities.nl/?p=4353 accessed 4 January 2008. p.nl. 39 ‘311.nl.000 kijkers voor Lotte. ‘Globalization as Hybridization. accessed 4 January 2008. Temple University Press. 6 August 2007.’ Mediacourant.’ The . accessed 4 January 2008. MIPCOM Meets Hollywood: Keynote Ben Silverman. 5 April 2007. ‘Ugly Betty Attracts 4. 38. 34 ‘TEN – Daily Ratings Report.’ Mediacourant.nz.uk/media/2007/jan/08/overnights/print.co. accessed 4 January 2008. 32 Vicki Rothrock.’ Variety.com. eds. World Television. 5 November 2007. 22 January 2007.au/enews/ten-tv-ratings-060807. eds. 30 Jason Deans.’ Mediacourant.nl. Global Modernities. http://www. ‘In Colombia. 47 Jan Nederveen Pieterse.’ Mediacourant. guardian.mediacourant. Premiere Tops Ratings in New Zealand. 31 ‘Seven – Daily Ratings Report. 22.html.’ Ebroadcast. http://www. Genre and Television: From Cop Shows to Cartoons in American Culture. Kraidy. http://www.nl/?p=4288. accessed 4 January 2008.’ MediaGuardian.’ Mediacourant. 8 January 2007. pp.au/enews/Daily_Ratings_Report_190207.com. 37 Ibid. Cannes. 1995.36 Critical Studies in Television 3/2 25 Marwin M.com. 45 Roland Robertson.’ Ebroadcast.com. Lash and Robertson. 33 ‘Save The Last Dance For Ugly Betty.html. 8 January 2007. p. 15 October 2007. 21 August 2007. University of Chicago Press.nl.mediacourant. accessed 25 March 2008. 35 John Ellis. 123. Sage Publications.com/App/ homepage. Volume 1. accessed 4 January 2008. accessed 7 January 2008. http://www. http://www. 40 ‘NET 5 blij met succesvolle start Ugly Betty. 1984.’ in Mike Featherstone.nl.mipcom. 9 April 2007. Global Television Marketplace.ebroadcast. 29 Jason Mittell. Or The Cultural Logic of Globalization. 38 ‘Lotte tot mei iedere werkdag bij Tien.co. ‘Glocalistion: Time-Space and Homogeneity-Heterogeneity. Video-Stream.ebroadcast. 44 Ben Silverman.nl/?p=4148. p. accessed 4 January 2008. ebroadcast.com. Ugly Betty Not a Pretty Sight.co.. http://www. 2006. ‘Scheduling: The Last Creative Act in Television?’ Media. 11 December 2006. http://www.000 kijkers voor Holland’s Next Top Model. 19 November 2007. 36 Timothy Havens. 41 ‘1 miljoen kijkers voor Pauw en Witteman. 28 Straubhaar. 26. 27 Paul Ricoeur.’ NZherald.mediacourant.html?categoryid=14&cs=1&nid=2562.cfm?appname=100495&moduleid=411&campaignid=11612&iUserCamp aignID=43822922. http:// www. Culture.nz/section/1/story.com.html.‘Ugly Betty Gets Big Kiwi Welcome.variety.au/enews/ten-tv-ratings-060807. nzherald.
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