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Customer Training Material
Appendix 7A
Hyperelasticity
ANSYS Mechanical
Structural Nonlinearities
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ANSYS Mechanical – Appendix to Hyperelasticity
Hyperelasticity Chapter Overview
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## • Prerequisite is Chapter 7

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Particular Forms of W
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## – The next slides discuss the different forms of strain energy potential W available in ANSYS with some comments on the selection and of their use.

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H
...
Polynomial Form
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• The polynomial form is based on the first and second strain
invariants. It is a phenomenological model of the form

# d

### 1

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Polynomial Form Guidelines
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## – PF is a very general form, so it can produce very good curve fits. As with all models, data of expected modes of deformation is required when curve-fitting. If limited (e.g., uniaxial) test data exists, consider use of Yeoh model (see Yeoh section later).

### PF with N=3

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Mooney-Rivlin Model
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10

1

01

2

10

1

01

2

11

1

2

# ) 2

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Mooney-Rivlin Model
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## • The five-term Mooney-Rivlin model is equivalent to the polynomial form when N=2:

W =
c
(
I
3
)
+
c
(
I
3
)
+
c
(
2
I
3
)
10
1
01
2
20
1
1
2
+
c
(
I
3
)(
I
3
)
+
c
(
I
3
)
+
(
J
− 1
) 2
11
1
2
0
2
2
d
• The nine-term Mooney-Rivlin model can also be thought of as the
polynomial form when N=3:
(
)
(
)
(
)
2
W = c I − 3 + c I − 3 + c
I − 3 + c I − 3 I − 3
(
)(
)
10
1
01
2
20
1
11
1
2
(
)
2
(
)
3
(
) (
2
+
c
I − 3 + c
I − 3 + c I − 3
I
− 3
)
02
2
30
1
21
1
2
1
(
)(
)
2
3
2
+
c
I
− 3
I
− 3
+
c
(
I
− 3
)
+
(
J − 1
)
12
1
2
03
2
d
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Mooney-Rivlin Model
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# d

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Mooney-Rivlin Guidelines
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## – The 2-term Mooney-Rivlin model is most commonly used. Some very broad rules-of-thumb are presented below.

### • Although moderate compression behavior can be characterized well (up to 30%), significant compression response may not be captured with only 2-term MR.

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Yeoh Model
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N

i 0

I
1

i

=

1

i

N

i = 1

i

2 i

o

o

10

# 2

• d 1

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Yeoh Model Guidelines
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## – As strain increases, the shear modulus (slope) decreases slightly then increases. To reflect this, use a cubic form (N=3):

### • c 10is positive, equal to half of initial shear modulus value • c 20is negative (softening at small strains), ~ 0.1 to 0.01 * c 10• c 30is positive (stiffening at larger strains), ~ 1e-2 to 1e-4 * c 10

* For a detailed discussion on this topic, please refer to the papers by O.H. Yeoh, “Characterization of Elastic Properties of Carbon-Black-Filled Rubber Vulcanizates,” Rubber Chem. Tech. 63, 1990 and “Some Forms of the Strain Energy Function for Rubber,” Rubber Chem. Tech. 66, 1993

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Neo-Hookean Form
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μ
1
W
=
(
I
3
)
+
(
J − 1
) 2
1
2
d

# d

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Neo-Hookean Guidelines
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## – Although moderate compression behavior can be characterized well (up to 30%), significant compression response may not be captured with neo- Hookean.

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Arruda-Boyce Model
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2
C
(
)
1
1
i
i
i
I
3
+
2
i −
2
1
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ J -
λ
d
2
L
− ln J ⎟ ⎟ ⎞

# =

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Arruda-Boyce Model
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## – The initial bulk modulus κ is defined as usual by 2/d.

* For a detailed discussion on this topic, please refer to the paper by M.C. Boyce and E.M. Arruda, “A Three-Dimensional Constitutive Model for the Large Stretch Behavior of Rubber Elastic Materials,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, Vol 41 No 2, 1993.

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Arruda-Boyce Guidelines
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## – It is apparent that the A-B model has some similarities to the Yeoh model, although the coefficients are fixed, predefined functions of the limiting network stretch λ L.

### • Generally speaking, suited for large strain ranges. • No stress softening but only stress stiffening with increasing strain.

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Arruda-Boyce Guidelines
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# λ

chain

1
2
2
2
=
λ
+ λ
+ λ
=
1
2
3
3
I
1
3
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Gent Model
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1

2

m

m

## – The initial bulk modulus κ is defined as usual by 2/d.

* For a detailed discussion on the model, please refer to A. N. Gent, “A New Constitutive Relation for

Rubber,”

Rubber Chem. Tech. 69, 1996.

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Gent Guidelines
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chain

## – Like the Yeoh and Arruda-Boyce models, the Gent model is applicable for large strain cases.

* For a detailed discussion on the comparison of the two models, see M.C. Boyce, “Direct Comparison of the Gent and the Arruda-Boyce Constitutive Models of Rubber Elasticity,” Rubber Chem. Tech. 69, 1996

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Ogden Model
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N
μ
i
(
α
α
α
W =
λ
i
+
λ
i
+
λ
i
1
2
3
α
i = 1
i

o

N

i = 1

i

i

1

o

# =

## N=1 μ 1=μ α 1=2

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Ogden Guidelines
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## – Ogden noted that a minimum of three terms should be used. *

### • The product μ iα ishould always be positive (shear modulus)

* For a detailed discussion, see R.W. Ogden, “Large Deformation Isotropic Elasticity - On the Correlation of Theory and Experiment for
Incompressible Rubberlike Solids,” Rubber Chem. and Tech. 46, 1973 and “Recent Advances in the Phenomenological Theory of Rubber
Elasticity,” Rubber Chem. and Tech. 59, 1986
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Ogden Guidelines
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## or large strain behavior.

* For a detailed discussion, see O.H. Yeoh, “On the Ogden Strain-Energy Function,” Rubber Chem. and Tech. 70, 1997

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Ogden Compressible Foam Model
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N
μ
α
i
i
3
⎜ ⎛
J
α
i = 1
i

α

1

i

α

2

i

α

3

i

N

i = 1

i

i

i

α β

i

i

o

N

i = 1

i

i

N

# ∑

i = 1

κ
o

i

i

i

## behavior.

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Ogden Foam Model Guidelines
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## (significant hardening)

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Blatz-Ko Model
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μ
2
+ 2
I
− 5 ⎟ ⎟
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ I
3
2
I
3

# )

## μ

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Blatz-Ko Model
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α

1

2

3

α

α

α

αβ

2

2

3

1

2

2

3

2 0.5

1

2

2

2

3

μ
2
− 3
I
3

3

# )

μ
2
+
2
I
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ I
3
2
I
5 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
3

## determined from β, which again leads to the assumption of ν=0.25 for

Bl
a z-
t
K
o.
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Incompressibility Considerations
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1

b

N

• i = 1

i

2

i

2

b

# )

2

3

b

2

## ignored (J=1, volume preserved).

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Incompressibility Considerations
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## be used. Set d=0 and KEYOPT(6) > 0 for fully incompressible problems.

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Poisson’s Ratio
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o

# )

## μ

o

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Poisson’s Ratio
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N

∑ μ α
i
i
μ
i = 1
=
o
2
N
⎛ 1
κ
=
μ α
+
β
o
i
i
i
3
i = 1
κ
⎛ 1
o
=
2
+
β
μ
3
o

# )

1
+
2
β
ν

## 1 − 2ν

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ANSYS Mechanical – Appendix to Hyperelasticity
References for Material Data Input
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## 3. ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference, Section 4.7 “Hyperelasticity”

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