MiCOM IEDs For Process Bus Applications

April 2009
GRID

Experts Training 2012 Stafford, United Kingdom

Scope

Digital Substations & Process Bus Overview

Page 3

MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus

Page 21

Px4x -9-2LE Interface Features

Page 31

Process Bus Architectures

Page 47

Testing, Conclusion

Page 60

Reference Digital SS Architecture across Grid
Grid Control Rooms SG APPS Other substations CMS

Digital SS Components
Integrated Substation Automation System with 1. Substation Control System (SCS) 2. Condition Monitoring System (CMS) 3. Smart Grid Applications (SG APPS – Cyber, Intrusion, Wide Area Management) 4. Substation Phasor Data Concentrator

WAN

SCS HMI

SG APPS

PDC

Proxy Switches Multiple Ethernet IEC61850.8-1 Station Bus C37.118 Phasor Data

sPDC

WACU

BCU Multiple Ethernet IEC61850.9-2 & IEC61850.8-1 Process Bus

Prot. Px40

AMU

DMU

CMU

DRUs

Primary Eqpt with embedded sensors for Condition Monitoring

Several IEDs 1. Protection / Measurement with 9-2 interface 2. Bay Controller Unit (BCU) 3. Condition Monitoring Unit (CMU) 4. Switches & Telecom 5. Proxy Server 6. Merging Units (AMU, DMU, NMU – for NCIT) 7. Wide Area Control Unit (WACU) 8. Power Quality /Disturbance Record Unit (DRU) 9. Energy Meters

Presentation title - 01/01/2010 - P 3

health. 100 Mb/s IEC 61850-9-2 LE for Sampled Values “SV” Current measurement (CT) Voltage measurement (VT) IEC 61850-8-1 GOOSE Service Status position of Circuit Breaker / Switches (CB) Trip signals from protections to CBs (Trip) Commands from Control Systems (Open/Close) Others (monitoring status reports.IEC 61850 Process Bus Process Bus Elements Ethernet Network. settings…) Time synchronisation Microsec accuracy required .

IEC 61850 Process Bus Logical View Of SA Station Level 7 9 Technical Services 61850-8-1 1 Bay Level Protection Function A Function B 6 3 Control 1 8 Bay Level Protection 6 3 Control 4 HV Equipment 5 61850-9-2 61850-8-1 4 HV Equipment 5 .

IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview Sampled Value Transmission Unidirectional link (MU to IED) Physical layer : Optic fibre (copper optional) Data Link layer : Ethernet 100 Mbit/s Application Layer : IEC 61850-9-2 “Light Edition” guideline to aid implementation and interoperability Sampling rate : 80 or 256 samples per cycle Neutral current and/or voltage may be measured. or derived Sampled values are multicast on the LAN Defines Logical Device “MU” Synchronising of sampling .

I2b. I1n. 4I MU-L1 MU-L2 Protection Bay 1 Protection Bay 2 (I2a. I2n. V1a. V1b. V2c. I2c. Voltage : 10mV to 21.IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview IEC 61850-9-2LE Sampled Values Each SV message carries 4 voltages + 4 currents Primary values. 4I 4V. V2b.4 MV (I1a. V2a. V2n) . I1c. V1c. I1b.14 MA. V1n) 4V. quality info Current : 1mA to 2.

IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview -9-2LE Sampled Value Frame Ia x 1000 32 bit Int Ia Quality 32 bits Ib x 1000 Ib Quality 32 bit Int 32 bits Ic x 1000 32 bit Int Ic Quality 32 bits In x 1000 In Quality 32 bit Int 32 bits Va x 1000 Va Quality Vb x 1000 Vb Quality Vc x 1000 Vc Quality Vn x 1000 Vn Quality 32 bit Int 32 bits 32 bit Int 32 bits 32 bit Int 32 bits 32 bit Int 32 bits SV frames are multicast MAC Address range: 01-0C-CD-04-00-00 to 01-0C-CD-04-1F-FF input on Merging Units Note the frame overhead : 24 bytes of ‘raw data’ (per 3-phase voltage and current) in about 125 byte Ethernet frame HQ_IEC 61850 Process Bus_06/2011 .

IEC 61850 Process Bus Merging Unit – Typical Naming AMU : Analogue Merging Unit Interface with conventional instrument transformers DMU : Digital Merging Unit Interface with CB / isolators / earth switches CMU : Condition Monitoring Merging Unit DMU with condition monitoring features NMU : Numerical Merging Unit Interface with digital instrument transformers .

Main 2.P 10 .IEC 61850 Process Bus Conventional Bay Protection & Control – Example Main 1.01/01/2010 . BCU Individual CT cores per IED Independent tripping paths for Main 1 and Main 2 typically Status & Trips CB Presentation title .

IEC 61850 Process Bus Digital Bay Protection & Control – Example Main 1. DMU Ethernet links and switches Time synch eqpt AMU #1 AMU #2 AMU #3 DMU#1 DMU#2 Process Bus (conceptual) -8-1 PRP Presentation title . Main 2. BCU AMU.P 11 -8-1 PRP -9-2LE -9-2LE -9-2LE .01/01/2010 .

synchronisation requires common time reference input to MUs HQ_IEC 61850 Process Bus_06/2011 .IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU .Sampling Synchronisation Sampling across multiple analogue MUs may need to be synchronised Protection functions/algorithms require all input quantities to be supplied in ‘real time’ Relay inputs may be from multiple MUs o Substation layout o Customer specifications Similar to synchrophasor measurements Eg: Distance Protection (Voltage & Current) Both voltage & current could be supplied by one MU – synchronisation integral to the MU Voltage from MU1 and current from MU2 .

IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview 1 ms delay V˂0 2.01/01/2010 .P 13 .5 ms delay V˂-18 I˂-36 I˂-81 → SV frames from different MU may have uneven delays → Relay measurements will be incorrect unless the SV frames are time-aligned Presentation title .

Local or No Sync Sample Count 0 – 3999 at 50 Hz 0 – 4799 at 60 Hz Counter resets every sec when a time sync signal is received Indicates if the SV frame is synchronised .Sampling Synchronisation Techniques 1 PPS input on Merging Units Merging Units with capability for IEEE 1588 synchronisation Sampled Value frames carry synchronisation info Time tags (count) relative to the start of the ‘sec’ Identifier for sync source – Global.IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU .

due to their processing Network. Local or No Sync Presentation title . depending on its configuration and switches Delays have a direct impact on the operating time of the scheme Time tags (count) relative to the start of the ‘sec’ Identifier for sync source – Global.P 15 .Sampled Values Alignment Time alignment of SV frames is necessary.01/01/2010 .IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview Relay . and ensures correct operation of protection functions dependent on multiple MU’s The number of MU’s may change depending on site requirements and customer preferences Delays arise from Merging Units.

4µs MU should be capable of compensating network delays > 2µs MiCOM P594 .1µs Sampling across multiple MUs synchronised to within +/.IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU .Sampling Synchronisation Sampling Synchronisation Accuracy Time source accuracy +/.

9µs and 1. pulse width between 5µs and 500 ms Local 1PPS : 1PPS source running on internal clock.1µs 1PPS P594 Merging Unit .Sampling Synchronisation 1 Pulse Per Sec (1PPS) Signal Transmitted by fibre as medium Rise and fall time < 20ns Clock source : Typically based on GPS Global 1PPS: 1PPS source is synced to GPS. pulse width between 0.IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU .

no impact on protection functions Local 1PPS : Some protections may have to be blocked eg: Feeder differential No Sync : No 1PPS at AMU. running on AMU internal clock.Sampling Synchronisation Sync Flags in SV Frame Carried by the field smpSync Global 1PPS: Ideal. eg: distance protection with two CT inputs) o MU said to be in ‘Holdover Mode’ -9-2LE SAV Merging Unit . o Protections dependent on multiple MUs for data may be blocked.IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU .

IEC 61850 -9-2 Overview AMU . 1PPS) Fault tolerance using Redundant Clocks .Sampling Synchronisation IEEE 1588 Basics It is a high precision time synchronization (<1us) for synchronising real-time clocks on an Ethernet LAN Also called PTP – Precision Time Protocol Current standard : IEEE 1588 version 2 No need for separate cabling (IRIG-B.

Conclusion Page 60 .Scope Digital Substations & Process Bus Overview Page 3 MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus Page 21 Px4x -9-2LE Interface Features Page 31 Process Bus Architectures Page 47 Testing.

current differential. backup / circuit breaker IED and busbar protection Full IEC 61850 Process Bus integration in combination with existing IEC 61850-8-1 interface Tried and tested protection functionality IEC 61850-9-2LE Sampled Values 80 samples / cycle . transformer.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Now ready ! Range of IEDs with IEC 61850-9-2LE interface Covers major transmission applications – distance.

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications
Relay Types Available
MiCOM Alstom

P446
MiCOM Alstom

Distance protection, with integral teleprotection and one / two breaker reclosing Line differential for 2 or 3 terminal lines, with distance and one / two breaker reclosing Transformer differential for up to 5 ends, with advanced loss-of-life thermal monitoring Numerical busbar protection

P546
MiCOM Alstom

P645
MiCOM Alstom

P746
MiCOM Alstom

P841

Transmission line terminal IED, for backup, reclose and breaker fail management

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications
Process Bus Interface
Interface for -8-1 GOOSE and Station Bus Interface for -9-2LE Sampled Values

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications
Interfacing SV to Px4x
Point to point connections Feasible when all the SV required by a relay are available from a single MU Simple network, minimum delay, minimal engineering effort

HQ_IEC 61850 Process Bus_06/2011

-9-2LE

2 HV+LV+TV TV Current .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Interfacing SV to Px4x – Transformer Protection HV Current .1 Point to point connection not possible LV Current HV Current 2 P645 .1 TV Current .

-9-2LE . eg: transformer IED. similar to Station Bus applications. busbar IED Ethernet switch(es) involved. possibility of additional delays and sample jitter.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Interfacing SV to Px4x Networked connections Required if the SV required by a relay are from multiple MU. substation-hardened switches required.

open : RSTP. network redundancy for SV may be achieved by external devices such as a RedBox. The GOOSE / Station Bus interface does provide network redundancy (proprietary – SHP. DHP. PRP) LAN A LAN B .redundancy If required.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Interfacing SV to Px4x Networked connections .

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features: LN Assignment Upto 8 Logical Nodes available for flexible assignment of Sampled Values Number of MU’s may vary depending on substation layout and customer preferences Analogue input groups as in conventional relay P446 Configuration .

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Interfacing SV to IED – Eg: Transformer Protection Logical Node HV Current 1 Logical Node TV Current 2 HV+LV+TV Logical Node TV Current 1 Logical Node LV Current Logical Node HV Current 2 P645 .

Scope Digital Substations & Process Bus Overview Page 3 MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus Page 21 Px4x -9-2LE Interface Features Page 31 Process Bus Architectures Page 47 Testing. Conclusion Page 60 .

VB. P446 IA. IC VA.01/01/2010 . VC(n) 48 samples / cycle Relay CPU/ Co-processor Px4x with analog inputs IA.P 31 . IC(n) VA(n). IB (n). VC Analog Inputs CT / VT Input Module IA (n). IC(n) VA(n). IB. VC Analog Inputs IEC 61850 Merging Unit IA (k).MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Processing SV – Eg. IC VA. VB. VC(n) 48 samples / cycle Relay CPU/ Co-processor Px4x with -9-2LE board The Px4x -9-2LE interface conditions the SV to enable reuse of tried and tested protection algorithms Presentation title . IB (n). IC(k) VA(k). VC(k) 80 samples / cycle -9-2LE Interface Board IA (n). IB. VB(n). VB(n). VB(K). IB (k).

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features: SV Synchronisation Setting for global/local synch for SV received Adapt relay to functional requirements of the protection scheme Common setting for all functions enables in the relay Eg: P446 receiving SV from AMU1 (voltage) and AMU2 (current) Case 1: Both AMU1 and AMU2 have common source of time sync. Local Sync setting is sufficient Case 2: Time sync sources for AMU1 and AMU2 are different. Global Sync setting is required AMU 1 ESW AMU : Analogue Merging Unit ESW : Ethernet switch AMU 2 .

P 33 .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features: SV Alignment Time alignment of SV frames is necessary. and ensures correct operation of protection functions dependent on multiple MU’s The number of MU’s may change depending on site requirements and customer preferences Delays arise from Merging Units.01/01/2010 . depending on its configuration and switches SV alignment by MU Delay setting ESW AMU 3 AMU 1 AMU 2 AMU : Analogue Merging Unit ESW : Ethernet switch Presentation title . due to processing Network.

indicates worst case relative delay expected in receiving SV from all MU’s linked to the relay Case 2: Relay with 2 MU In this case. there is a 1ms delay between SV frames from MU#1 and MU#2 Presentation title .P 34 . no delay between SV frames from MU#1 and MU#2 Case 3: Relay with 2 MU In this case.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features: SV Alignment Case 1: Relay with 1 MU MU Delay: Relay setting.01/01/2010 .

8) .8) LNx Frame Loss Cuml (x: 1….8) LNx Error Sec (x: 1….MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features Security against loss of SV Setting for SV Loss Rate Loss rate evaluated per LN Related protection functions blocked if Loss Rate exceeds the set value SV communication network statistics to facilitate commissioning.. network monitoring and troubleshooting LNx Loss Rate Sec (x: 1….

.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications -9-2LE Interface Features : Test Mode IEC 61850-9-2LE test mode aware Facilitates testing and commissioning Common setting for all Logical Nodes Test Blocked: All SV with an IEC 61850 Test flag are treated as invalid. Test Ignored: All SV received with an IEC 61850 Test flag are treated as good. Test Only: All SV with an IEC 61850 Test flag are treated as good. protection functions remain active. Any channel data received without the Test flag are treated as invalid. The IED blocks relevant protection functions and issues a ‘9-2 Sample Alarm’. The IED blocks relevant protection functions and issues a ‘9-2 Sample Alarm’.

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Enhanced GOOSE Capability The -9-2LE relay models have more configurable GOOSE inputs / outputs comparable to standard relays Facilitates full Process Bus implementation Standard Px4x Px4x with -9-2LE .

facilitates full Process Bus implementation Channel-aided schemes with standard distance relays at remote end – no need to retrofit -9-2LE at both line ends . thus covering P443 and P445 applications Enhanced -8-1 GOOSE count compared to P446 with analogue inputs.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P446 v72 Distance protection with -9-2LE interface Configurable for single or double current (three-phase) inputs.

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P841 v72 Line terminal IED with -9-2LE interface Autoreclosing and circuit breaker failure for one or two breakers Configurable for single or double (threephase) current inputs. covering P841A and P841B applications For backup overcurrent / earth fault applications where -9-2LE interface is called for Enhanced -8-1 GOOSE count compared to P841 with analogue inputs. facilitates full Process Bus implementation BUS B BUS A A LD1 B LD2 C .

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P546 v72 Current differential protection with -9-2LE interface Functionally equivalent to P546 v57 (with CT/VT inputs) Configurable for single or double (three-phase) current inputs. facilitates full Process Bus implementation . covering majority of P543. P544 and P545 applications Application requires GPS synchronisation (1PPS) on all relays in the current differential scheme Enhanced -8-1 GOOSE count compared to P546 with analoge inputs.

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P546 v72 Current differential schemes in ‘mixed mode’ combining -9-2LE relays and those with analogue inputs .

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P645 v11 Transformer protection with -9-2LE interface Functionally equivalent to P645 v03 (with analogue inputs) Configurable for upto five sets of (three-phase) current inputs. covering P642 (two-winding) and P643 (three-winding) applications Enhanced -8-1 GOOSE count compared to P645 with analogue inputs -9-2LE -8-1 .

facilitates full Process Bus implementation .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications MiCOM P746 v11 Centralised busbar protection with -9-2LE interface Functionally equivalent to P746 v03 Note: Three-box mode is not available in the -9-2LE relay Enhanced -8-1 GOOSE count compared to P746 with analogue inputs.

Parallel Redundancy Protocol implementation .set) file Cybersecurity: Features as per current MiCOM implementation Redundancy: Option for -8-1 GOOSE .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Common (platform) features Interoperable : Implementation of SV interface as per IEC 61850-92LE Guideline for 80 samples/cycle All the -9-2LE relays are built on the latest M-hardware (XCPU3) Ease of Configuration: -9-2LE parameters are part of the relay setting (.

P746.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Cortec/Ordering All -9-2LE relays are on M hardware only Option for -9-2LE in CORTEC for P446. P645. P546. P841 IEC 61850-8-1 port / protocol options are the same for relays analogue inputs or -9-2LE inputs Important: P594 is mandatory for ALL P546 relays in a current diff scheme P594 version D .

Scope Digital Substations & Process Bus Overview Page 3 MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus Page 21 Px4x -9-2LE Interface Features Page 31 Process Bus Architectures Page 47 Testing. Conclusion Page 60 .

P 47 . Main 2.01/01/2010 .IEC 61850 Process Bus Conventional Bay Protection & Control – Example Main 1. BCU Individual CT cores per IED Independent tripping paths for Main 1 and Main 2 typically Status & Trips CB Presentation title .

Typical Main 1.MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Digital Bay .01/01/2010 . BCU AMU.P 48 -8-1 PRP -9-2LE -9-2LE -9-2LE . Main 2. DMU Ethernet links and switches Time synch eqpt AMU #1 AMU #2 AMU #3 DMU#1 DMU#2 Process Bus (conceptual) -8-1 PRP Presentation title .

MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Digital Bay – Detailed Architecture Merging Units . DMU Time synch by 1PPS Redundancy for binary I/O A P594 B C D H xxx H xxx A B C D E E CB .AMU.

MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus Applications Possible migration strategy A B Main 1 Main 2 BCU C I/O Card -9-2LE -9-2LE I/O Card I/O Card -9-2LE D A P594 B C Retain all existing DC wiring Change only CT / VT interface AMU #1 AMU #2 AMU #3 -9-2LE -9-2LE -9-2LE D Physical Wiring CB .

Process Bus Architectures Additional Info SGCC China Presentation title .01/01/2010 .P 51 .

Inter-bay Process Bus .Under Discussion Concerns .Reliability of Sampling Sync .Process Bus Architectures Additional Info National Grid UK .

ABB Corporate Research .Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* Five typical Process Bus architectures compared in relation to multiple criteria Criteria chosen Reliability and availability Cost : Initial investment + maintenance cost Performance: Average network load. worst case transmission delay * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner.

BCU AMU x 1. DMU x 1 Switch x 1 * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner. Main 2. ABB Corporate Research Main 1. Main 2.Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* Fibre links Copper links Main 1. BCU AMU x 2. DMU x 2 Switch x 2 PRP on all IEDs .

ABB Corporate Research Main 1 with BCU. Main 2. BCU AMU x 2. Ring with HSR on all IEDs . DMU x 2 Ring with RSTP on all IEDs Alt.Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* Fibre links Copper links Main 1. DMU x 2 Ring with RSTP on all IEDs Alt. Ring with HSR on all IEDs * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner. Main 2 with BCU AMU x 2.

ABB Corporate Research . DMU x 2 RB: HSR Red Box QB : HSR Quad Box * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner.Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* Main 1 with BCU per bay Main 2 with BCU in common IED AMU x 1.

Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner. ABB Corporate Research .

protection operating time) may become the deciding factor for architecture Primary plant technology may lead to alternative conclusions . testing and commissioning may have significant impact. Project specifications (eg: number of MUs per bay. ABB Corporate Research Notes: Only component costs considered.Process Bus Architectures Additional Info Extracts from recent ‘Big Red’ paper* * A Quantitative Evaluation of IEC61850 Process Bus Architectures Jean-Charles Tournier & Thomas Werner. engineering.

Conclusion Page 60 .Scope Digital Substations & Process Bus Overview Page 3 MiCOM IEDs for Process Bus Page 21 Px4x -9-2LE Interface Features Page 31 Process Bus Architectures Page 47 Testing.

Time sync source Set-up for comparing performance of IEDs .Standard vs -9-2LE .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications IED Testing Testing of -9-2LE relays require test kits with capability for Send / receive GOOSE Generate SV– one or more logical nodes Display Sampled values Time synchronisation GOOSE and SV IED Conventional PC Ethernet Switch Ethernet GOOSE and SV IED (SV Interface) Trip Trip V I IEC 61850 Test Kit Testing may also call for Ethernet switches.

voltages) from signal processing / algorithms Potential for reduced shut-downs for refurbishment Relays (algorithms) may be upgraded independent of acquisition Easier integration of sensors into smart grid solutions .MiCOM Px4x Process Bus Applications Customer Benefits Eliminate or reduce significantly the use of copper in secondary circuits Fibre optic replaces copper Enhances operator safety Eliminates EMI on secondary cabling Delinks data acquisition (currents.

http://www.alstom.com/grid/sas/ GRID .

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