DEMOCRATIC STATE VS DEEP STATE: APPROACHING THE DUAL STATE OF THE WEST

OLA TUNANDER

In a 1955 study of the United States State Department, ans !or"enthau dis#ussed the e$isten#e of a US %dua& state'( A##ordin" to !or"enthau, the US state in#&udes )oth a %re"u&ar state hierar#hy' that a#ts a##ordin" to the ru&e of &a* and a more or &ess hidden %se#urity hierar#hy'+*hi#h I *i&& refer to here as the %se#urity state' ,a&so -no*n in some #ountries as the %deep state'. +that not on&y a#ts in para&&e& to the former )ut a&so monitors and e$erts #ontro& o/er it( In !or"enthau's /ie*, this se#urity aspe#t of the state +the %se#urity state'+is a)&e to %e$ert an effe#ti/e /eto o/er the de#isions' of the re"u&ar state "o/erned )y the ru&e of &a*( 0hi&e the %demo#rati# state' offers &e"itima#y to se#urity po&iti#s, the %se#urity state' inter/enes *here ne#essary, )y &imitin" the ran"e of demo#rati# po&iti#s( 0hi&e the %demo#rati# state' dea&s *ith po&iti#a& a&ternati/es, the %se#urity state' enters the s#ene *hen %no a&ternati/e e$ists', *hen parti#u&ar a#ti/ities are %se#uritised' +in the e/ent of an %emer"en#y'( In fa#t, the se#urity state is the /ery apparatus that defines *hen and *hether a %state of emer"en#y' *i&& emer"e( This aspe#t of the state is *hat 1ar& S#hmitt, in his 1922 *or- 3o&iti#a& Theo&o"y, referred to as the %so/erei"n'( Lo"i#a&&y spea-in", one mi"ht ar"ue that !or"enthau's %dua& state' is deri/ed from the same dua&ity as that des#ri)ed in Ernst 4raen-e&'s #on#eption of the %dua& state', *hi#h 4raen-e& des#ri)ed as typifyin" the Na5i re"ime of it&er's 6ermany( In the Na5i #ase, thou"h, this dua&ity *as o/ert, #om)inin" the %re"u&ar' &e"a& state *ith a para&&e& %prero"ati/e state', an auto#rati# parami&itary emer"en#y state or !a#htstaat that operated outside or %a)o/e' the &e"a& system, *ith its phi&osophi#a& foundation in the S#hmittian %so/erei"n'( 4raen-e& refers to Emi& Lederer, *ho ar"ues that this !a#htstaat ,%po*er state', as distin#t from the Re#htstaat. has its histori#a& ori"ins in the European aristo#rati# e&ite, *hi#h sti&& p&ayed an important ro&e *ithin European so#iety after the triumph of demo#ra#y( This e&ite a#ted )ehind the s#ene in the 1927s, )ut #onsidered it ne#essary to inter/ene in support of the Na5i 3arty in the 1987s to pre/ent a possi)&e so#ia&ist ta-eo/er( o*e/er, this auto#rati# !a#htstaat+the Na5i SS9state+*as ar)itrary, )e#ause of its indi/idua&ised #ommand( In his ana&ysis, !or"enthau dra*s a para&&e& )et*een Na5i 6ermany and the US dua& state( Indeed, in his /ie*, the auto#rati# %se#urity state' may )e &ess /isi)&e and &ess ar)itrary in demo#rati# so#ieties su#h as the US, )ut it is no &ess important( !or"enthau ar"ues that the po*er of ma-in" de#isions remains *ith the authorities #har"ed )y &a* *ith ma-in" them, *hi&e, as a matter of fa#t, )y /irtue of their po*er o/er &ife and death, the a"ents of the se#ret po&i#e: ;and *hat I *ou&d #a&& the se#urity state< author= at the /ery &east e$ert an effe#ti/e /eto o/er ;these= de#isions( >e&o*, I *i&& demonstrate that the a#ti/ity of the %se#urity state'+or the %deep state'+ #on#erns not ?ust the /etoin" of demo#rati# de#isions, )ut a&so the %fine tunin" of demo#ra#y,' for e$amp&e throu"h the %fosterin"' of *ar or terrorism to #reate fear and in#rease pu)&i# demands for prote#tion( The %se#urity state' is a)&e to #a&i)rate or manipu&ate the po&i#ies of the %demo#rati# state' throu"h the use of a tota&&y different

&o"i# of po&iti#s+a -ind of po&iti#s that in this )oo- is referred to as %parapo&iti#s' and *hi#h operates outside the &a* to define the &imits of the &e"a& dis#ourse( The ar"ument presented here is not meant as a normati/e statement, )ut rather as an attempt to des#ri)e and ana&yse the 0estern state as it a#tua&&y operates, )oth inside and outside the &a*( This ar"umentation has a&ready appeared in Ita&y )oth in the par&iamentary report on terrorism and amon" s#ho&ars( 4ran#o de 4e&i#e re9introdu#ed the #on#ept of dua& state in Ita&y in his %Doppia &ea&ta e doppio stato' ,19@9.( e ar"ues that that the dua& state is )orn from an in#apa#ity of the re"u&ar state to re#on#i&e domesti# po&i#ies *ith forei"n po&i#ies( >ut if the Ita&ian dua& state, &o"i#a&&y spea-in", ori"inates from the attempt to )rid"e )et*een domesti# and forei"n po&i#y, it ori"inates, histori#a&&y spea-in", from Ita&y's post9*ar %histori#a& #ompromise' )et*een the emer"in" demo#rati# for#es of the a&&ies and the remainin" for#es of fas#ist Ita&y( At the /ery end of the Se#ond 0or&d 0ar, US inte&&i"en#e ,*ith &ater 1IA 1hief for 1ounter9Inte&&i"en#e Aames Aesus An"&eton and his Ita&ian #onta#t, 4ederi#o Um)erto D'Amato, head of Ita&ian se#ret ser/i#e up to the 19@7s. re#ruited &ar"e num)ers of offi#ia&s and so&diers from the fas#ist Repu)&i# of Sa&B and from its Spe#ia& 4or#es, De#ima !AS, for the ne* Ita&ian state( This re#ruitment pro"ram in#&uded fi"ures &i-e 3rin#e Aunio Ca&erio >orhese, 3ino Rauti and Li#io 6e&&i, *ho are )e&ie/ed to ha/e p&ayed a ma?or ro&e in the terrorism and %#oup attempts' in 1o&d 0ar Ita&y ,see )e&o*.( In the 19D7s to the 19@7s, these more or &ess aristo#rati# fas#ists #ame to operate *ithin an e$tra9&e"a& shado* "o/ernment or in/isi)&e "o/ernment in &iaison *ith US inte&&i"en#e and in para&&e& to the re"u&ar demo#rati# state( 3ao&o 1u##hiare&&i and A&do 6iannu&&i ha/e *ritten in their Lo Stato 3ara&&e&o ,199E. a)out the dua& state or %para&&e& state' as a state that operates )oth inside and outside the &a*F and Rose&&a Dossi has *ritten a)out the dua& state in Ita&y's In/isi)&e 6o/ernment ,2771.( Simi&ar to de 4e&i#e these Ita&ian s#ho&ars refer )a#- to Ernst 4raen-e&, not to ans !or"enthau( !or"enthau's ana&ysis is /ery usefu&, ho*e/er, )e#ause it is a)&e to #om)ine the #on#ept of demo#ra#y *ith an auto#rati# !a#htstaat or %shado* "o/ernment', thus puttin" a fin"er on an aspe#t of the state that is often ne"&e#ted in po&iti#a& s#ien#e( !or"enthau *as a traditiona& %rea&ist' *ho inherited important ideas from 1ar& S#hmitt, and *as a)&e to f&esh out S#hmitt's rather a)stra#t ana&ysis of the so/erei"n( !y am)ition in this #hapter is to #ontinue a&on" that path, to "i/e yet more su)stan#e to this &ine of thin-in" and, at the same time, ma-e it a##essi)&e to a *ider audien#e(

THE SOVEREIGN AS THE ‘DEEP STATE’
Let us approa#h the idea of the %so/erei"n' as the se#urity side of the state+*hat some *ou&d #a&& the %deep state'+)y &oo-in" at a fe* e$amp&es( Re#ent tria&s and par&iamentary inGuires in Ita&y ha/e esta)&ished that )om)in" #ampai"ns in the &ate 19D7s and 19E7s in that #ountry+and pro)a)&y e&se*here in Europe+*ere run not )y /arious anar#hist or other &eft9*in" "roups, as had )een "enera&&y )e&ie/ed at the time, )ut *ere instead #arried out )y a#tion sGuads -no*n as Nu#&ei di Difesa de&&a Stato ,Nu#&ei for Defen#e of the State, or NDS. in a##ordan#e *ith a po&iti#a& strate"y -no*n as the %Strate"y of Tension'( A&ready in 19DH, An"&eton's #&ose #o&&ea"ue, 0i&&iam ar/ey, then 1IA station #hief in Rome, had re#ommended 1o&one& Ren5o Ro##a, 1hief of Ita&ian !i&itary Inte&&i"en#e Di/ision R ,6&adio< the Ita&ian Stay9

>ehinds., to use his %a#tion sGuads' to %#arry out )om)in"s a"ainst 1hristian Demo#rati# 3arty offi#es' in order to imp&i#ate the Ita&ian 1ommunist 3arty ,31I.( These %"&adiators' had )een %re#ruited from Repu)&i# of Sa&B and from the Ita&ian former na/a& Spe#ia& 4or#es De#ima !AS and other mi&itant 4as#ist or"ani5ations(' 4rom 19DD, US and Ita&ian inte&&i"en#e started to re#ruit a#tion sGuads for a %para&&e& 6&adio', or NDS, from 3ino Rauti's fas#ist or"anisation Ordine Nuo/o( Su)seGuent&y, *hi&e masGueradin" as &eft9 *in"ers, anar#hists and !aoists, Ita&ian NDS sGuads from Ordine Nuo/o, in #o&&a)oration *ith the fas#ist A/an"uardia Na5iona&e and their su##essor or"anisations, #arried out a )om)in" #ampai"n that resu&ted in the deaths of more than hundred peop&e, in dire#t #o&&a)oration *ith the 1IA and %US fa#tions' of the Ita&ian inte&&i"en#e and se#urity ser/i#es( Later, 1ar&o Di"i&io, *ho had *or-ed *ith the 1IA in Ita&y, *ou&d re#ount in #ourt hearin"s ho* he had #o&&a)orated *ith a#ti/ists from Ordine Nuo/o and ho* the )om)in" #ampai"n had )een &in-ed to a US p&an to introdu#e a state of emer"en#y in Ita&y in order to e$#&ude the po&iti#a& &eft from "o/ernment( The same /ie* *as presented )y Ita&ian 1hief of 1ounter9Inte&&i"en#e, 6enera& 6ianade&io !a&etti, *ho #onfirmed in #ourt that US inte&&i"en#e had pro/ided Ordine Nuo/o *ith e$p&osi/es for the first ma?or Ita&ian )om) atta#- ,!i&an in 19D9.( Di"i&io a&so des#ri)ed ho* he passed on detai&s of p&anned )om) atta#-s to his 1IA #onta#t, 1aptain Da/id 1arrett, *ho had a&so to&d him that the )om)in" #ampai"n *as part of a US p&an to esta)&ish a state of emer"en#y in order to #ontro& Ita&ian domesti# po&iti#s( In 19EH, ho*e/er, after se/era& years of )om)in"s in Ita&y, a num)er of a#ti/ists from Ordine Nuo/o and A/an"uardia Na5iona&e *ere for#ed to f&ee the #ountry( This &ed to a pause in their )om)in" #ampai"n, *ith no ma?or operations )ein" #arried out unti& 19@7, *hen a )om) at >o&o"na's rai&*ay station &eft @5 dead and more than 277 *ounded( o*e/er, a&so in ear&y 19E7s, as 6enera& !a&etti and others ha/e #onfirmed, Ita&ian and US inte&&i"en#e and se#ret ser/i#e a"ents *ere a)&e to assume /ita& positions at the hi"hest &e/e&s of Ita&y's Red >ri"ades( In 19EH, the &eft9*in" &eadership of the Red >ri"ades had )een arrested, fa#i&itatin" the %ta-eo/er' of the or"anisation )y the US and Ita&ian ser/i#es( This resu&ted in the &aun#h of a ran"e of professiona& mi&itary operations, a period of %)&ind terror' and a radi#a& in#rease in the num)er of atta#-s )ein" #arried out *ithin Ita&y( It thus seems that the Ita&ian %deep state' s*it#hed to usin" the Red >ri"ades as its ma?or e$tra9&e"a& instrument fo&&o*in" the f&i"ht of ri"ht9*in" a#ti/ists in 19EH( After the murder of A&do !oro in 19E@, his *ife re#ounted ho* a senior US offi#ia& had threatened to use %"roups on the frin"es' of the offi#ia& ser/i#es to -i&& her hus)and %if he did not a)andon his po&i#y' of a %histori#a& #ompromise' *ith the &eft( Nota)&y, the %Red >ri"ade' -idnappin" of !oro in !ar#h 19E@ too- p&a#e on the /ery day on *hi#h his %#ompromise' *as to "o to the /ote in the Ita&ian par&iament( Later, it *as dis#o/ered that an apartment and printin" press used )y the %Red >ri"ades' at this time )e&on"ed to SIS!I, Ita&y's mi&itary inte&&i"en#e( It is no* indisputa)&e that the use of terrorism *as an e&ement of US po&i#y *ith respe#t to Ita&y( US po&i#y *as not ?ust to infi&trate and monitor e$tremist "roups, )ut a&so %to insti"ate a#ts of /io&en#e', to Guote Ita&ian 1hief of 1ounter9Inte&&i"en#e 6enera& 6ianade&io !a&etti( A simi&ar strate"y, !a&etti )e&ie/ed, *as a&so #arried out in other European #ountries( Thus, a&thou"h a )om) atta#- in 19E2 *as first )&amed on the Red

>ri"ades, it &ater transpired that the atta#- had )een #arried out )y Ordine Nuo/o's Cinun5o Cin#i"uerra( 0hi&e Cin#i"uerra des#ri)ed himse&f in #ourt as "enuine&y fas#ist, he ar"ued that Ordine Nuo/o no &on"er *as< it had )een turned into a #o/ert mi&itary arm of the %state'( ere, in usin" the term %state', Cin#i"uerra is spea-in" of the %se#urity state'+the %deep state' or para&&e& state that is prepared to use e$tra9&e"a& /io&en#e to for#e the "enera& popu&ation to trade demo#rati# freedoms for se#urity and prote#tion, esta)&ishin" a po&iti#a& order that &imits the ran"e of demo#rati# dis#ourse and the ru&e of &a*( Simi&ar&y, in Tur-ey, terrorists detonatin" )om)s *ere e$posed as a"ents of "endarmerie inte&&i"en#e( 4ormer Tur-ish 3rime !inister and 3resident Su&eyman Demire& ar"ued in 2775, %In our #ountry there are t*o ;states=< There is one deep state and one other state ;the &e"a& state=(' This %deep state' a&&e"ed&y detonates )om)s under #o/er of )ein" terrorists ,Iurdish, &eft9*in" or Is&ami#. to ?ustify emer"en#y measures( %The state that shou&d )e the rea& is the spare one, the one that shou&d )e spare is the rea& one', Demire& added( In Aanuary 277E, 3rime !inister Tayyip Erdo"an #onfirmed that there is a %deep state', and %it shou&d )e minimi5ed'( e added that this stru#ture e$ists in a&& #ountries( %0e #an des#ri)e it as "an"s inside a state or"ani5ation, and this -ind of stru#ture does e$ist,' he said( Da/id 3hi&ips *rote for the 1oun#i& of 4orei"n Re&ations< %The deep state J a shado*y net*or- in/o&/in" the mi&itary and inte&&i"en#e apparatus as *e&& as the state )ureau#ra#y 99 is the u&timate ar)iter of po*er(' As stated )y 1u##hiare&&i and 6iannu&&i, in Ita&y this %deep state' or #&andestine %para&&e& state' ma-es an i&&e"itimate use of po*er not to su)/ert, )ut rather to preser/e, the #urrent system of po*er( The terrorist a#ts *ere e$p&i#it&y #arried out in defen#e of the state )y the so9#a&&ed Nu#&ei di Difesa de&&a Stato( In the fina& ana&ysis, it is the deep state that is the state stru#ture that de#ides *hen and *hen not to use i&&e"a& measures to -eep order( In S#hmitt's *ords, it is this %state' that is the a#tua& %so/erei"n', the entity that is a)&e to esta)&ish order and the ru&e of &a* throu"h operations outside the &a*< %The so/erei"n is he *ho de#ides on the e$#eption: 4or a &e"a& order to ma-e sense, a norma& situation must e$ist, and he is so/erei"n *ho definite&y de#ides *hether this norma& situation a#tua&&y e$ists('

THE HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF EUROPEAN TERRORISM
In his Theory of the 3artisan ,19D8., S#hmitt des#ri)es the irre"u&ar fi"hter or anti9state insur"ent as a %partisan', and in the )att&e )et*een the state and insur"ents, he ar"ues, the state *i&& %fi"ht &i-e a partisan *here/er there are partisans(' S#hmitt #ontinues, %In the /i#ious #ir#&e of terror and #ounter9terror, the #om)at of the partisan is often simp&y a mirror9ima"e of the partisan )att&e itse&f : you ha/e to fi"ht &i-e a partisan *here/er there are partisans(' S#hmitt refers to the e$amp&e of 4ren#h 6enera& Raou& Sa&an, head of the Or"anisation d'ArmKe Se#rLte ,OAS. that from 19D1 #arried out a #ampai"n of mass terror a"ainst the insur"en#y in A&"eria( Sa&an introdu#ed the ideas of %re/o&utionary *ar' to fi"ht the insur"en#y usin" its o*n methods( A&ready from &ate 1957s, 4ren#h sett&ers and the 4ren#h Se#ret Ser/i#e set up an or"anisation, the Red and, for the assassination of nationa&ist A&"erians tryin" to )uy sma&& arms a)road( The Red and poisoned their tar"ets or &et A&"erians #arry out the -i&&in"s to indi#ate an interna& A&"erian feud, )ut from ear&y 19D7s the OAS a&so atta#-ed 4ren#h #iti5ens, in order to &ay the )&ame for su#h atta#-s on the Ara) insur"en#y( In Ita&y from the mid919D7s, the %so/erei"n'

emp&oyed simi&ar terror ta#ti#s a"ainst the Ita&ian popu&ation, &ayin" the )&ame on the &eft and the in#reasin"&y demo#rati# 31I( The "enera& ideas for the )om)in" #ampai"n in Ita&y, the Strate"y of Tension and the #on#ept of %re/o&utionary *ar' *ere presented at a seminar in !ay 19D5+finan#ed )y 1o&one& Ro##a's 6&adio di/ision of Ita&ian mi&itary inte&&i"en#e+at the A&)erto 3o&io Institute for !i&itary Studies in Rome( Amon" the parti#ipants at that seminar *ere top9 ran-in" Ita&ian mi&itary offi#ers and po&iti#ians &in-ed to NATO and the USA( A #entra& fi"ure *as 6enera& Adriano 6ui&io 1esare !a"i >ras#hi, 1hief of Di/ision for Un#on/entiona& 0arfare of the Ita&ian !i&ititary Inte&&i"en#e( e had )een #&ose to the OAS and had, a##ordin" to the #ourt #ase in !i&ano 2771, p&ayed an important ro&e for the initiation of the Nu#&ei di Difesa de&&a Stato( Amon" the spea-ers presentin" the #on#epts of the Strate"y of Tension and %re/o&utionary *ar' *ere t*o %?ourna&ists'< 3ino Rauti, &eader of Ordine Nuo/o, and 6uidi 6iannettini, a fas#ist inte&&i"en#e operati/e and &iaison to the OAS( >oth Rauti and 6iannettini *ere *ritin" a strate"y )oo-&et for the 1hief of Staff 6enera& 6iuseppe A&o?a and )oth *ere #entra& fi"ures in Ordine Nuo/o that su)seGuent&y #arried out the )om)in" #ampai"n of the &ate 19D7s and ear&y 19E7s( In 19D5+DD, the internationa& fas#ist inte&&i"en#e net*or- A"inter 3ress *as esta)&ished to imp&ement the Strate"y of Tension, *ith support from the 3ortu"uese se#urity ser/i#e 3IDE and the 1IA( This net*or- in#&uded a unit spe#ia&isin" in the infi&tration of anar#hist and pro91hinese "roups, and its %#orrespondents' *ou&d use su#h or"anisations as a #o/er for #arryin" out )om)in"s and other /io&ent atta#-s( A"inter 3ress a&so in#&uded a strate"i# #entre for su)/ersion and into$i#ation operations, a&on" *ith an e$e#uti/e a#tion or"anisation OA1I that #arried out assassinations ,most &i-e&y the same %poo& of assassins' that 0i&&iam ar/ey, 1IA Station 1hief in Ita&y, had re#ruited in Europe for the 1IA's %E$e#uti/e A#tion 1apa)i&ity'.( A&& of these di/isions of A"inter 3ress *ere under the &eadership of 4ren#h OAS offi#er and former US &iaison offi#er 1aptain M/es 6ui&&ou ,a&ias M/es 6uerin Sera#., in #o&&a)oration *ith the Ameri#an inte&&i"en#e operati/e Aay Sa)&ons-y ,a&ias Aay Sa&)y. and the 4ren#h former SS offi#er Ro)ert Leroy, *ho had ser/ed as an instru#tor durin" the *ar for the Na5i Spe#ia& 4or#es #ommanded )y Otto S-or5eny( Their net*or- )rou"ht to"ether Na5i and fas#ist a#ti/ists from inte&&i"en#e ser/i#es and se#urity ser/i#es a&& o/er Europe ,0est 6ermany, 4ran#e, Ita&y, Spain, 3ortu"a& and 6ree#e. and Latin Ameri#a, South Afri#a and the US( Ita&ian %#orrespondents' for A"inter 3ress in#&uded the #o9founder Stefano de&&e 1hiaie ,&eader of A/an"uardia Na5iona&e., 3ino Rauti and 6uidi 6iannettini, *ho #o&&a)orated *ith 4ren#h OAS &eader 3ierre La"ai&&arde ,a&so in/o&/ed in the assassination attempt on the 4ren#h 3resident, 1har&es de 6au&&e.( Some of these, su#h as de&&e 1hiaie and Rauti, *ere a&so &in-ed to the US9 dominated 0or&d Anti91ommunist Lea"ue ,0A1L.( !a"i >ras#hi *as &ater Ita&ian representati/e of 0A1L( An A"inter 3ress do#ument from 19D9 ,found in Lis)on in 19EH. paints a pi#ture identi#a& to that presented )y 6iannettini ear&ier in 19D5, *ith proposa&s for %se&e#ti/e terrorism: e&iminatin" #ertain #arefu&&y se&e#ted persons' ,in#&udin" assassination of po&iti#a& &eaders. and %indis#riminate terrorism', in#&udin" %random&y shootin" do*n peop&e *ith firearms' and the use of )om)s in pu)&i# sGuares or )ui&din"s, in a##ordan#e *ith the Strate"y of Tension )om)in" #ampai"n( Aud"e 6uido Sa&/ini to&d the senators in/esti"atin" the )om)in" #ampai"n that instru#tors from A"inter 3ress %#ame to Rome )et*een 19DE and 19D@ and instru#ted the mi&itant

mem)ers of A/an"uardia Na5iona&e in the use of e$p&osi/es'( The intention *ith the )om)in"s *as to #reate a #&imate of #haos to dramatise po&iti#a& &ife in order to %se#uriti5e' issues pre/ious&y open to pu)&i# de)ate, thus &imitin" the ran"e of the demo#rati# dis#ourse( Another A"inter 3ress do#ument ,from 19D@. states< NIn our opinion the first a#tion that *e shou&d underta-e is the destru#tion of institutions of the state under the #o/er of 1ommunist and !aoist a#tions : This *i&& #reate a fee&in" of hosti&ity to*ards those that threaten the pea#e : !aoist #ir#&es #hara#teri5ed )y their o*n impatien#e and 5ea&, are ;espe#ia&&y= suita)&e for infi&tration( N The do#ument a&so states that %*e a&ready ha/e e&ements infi&trated into a&& these ;1ommunist and !aoist= "roups'( 4rom &ate 19D7s, fas#ist a#ti/ists in Ita&y started to dress as &eft9*in"ers( They masGueraded as !aoists and anar#hists *hi&e #ondu#tin" %fa&se f&a"' terrorist operations, parti#u&ar&y a )om)in" #ampai"n, in #o&&a)oration *ith US inte&&i"en#e in order to manipu&ate pu)&i# opinion and &imit the ran"e of the demo#rati# dis#ourse( In the ear&y and mid919@7s, atta#-s simi&ar to those that had ta-en p&a#e in Ita&y *ere a&so #ondu#ted in >e&"ium, in#&udin" the random shootin" of 2@ peop&e in supermar-ets outside >russe&s in 19@8J@5( A %&eft9*in"' terrorist "roup -no*n as the 1e&&u&es 1ommunistes 1om)attantes ,111. *as a##used of ha/in" #arried out these operations( Later, ho*e/er, it transpired that the atta#-s had )een #ondu#ted )y fas#ist and Na5i "roups, *ith US support( Li-e A"inter 3ress )efore it, the neo9Na5i or"anisation 0est&and Ne* 3ost operatin" in >e&"ium #ontained )oth an inte&&i"en#e di/ision and a spe#ia& operations di/ision( It *as run )y >e&"ian a"ent 3au& Latinus in #o&&a)oration *ith US inte&&i"en#e and the 0A1L( Around the same time, US Army spe#ia& for#es )e"an a pro"ramme of tar"etin" 0esternONATO insta&&ations in >e&"ium, *hi&e dis"uisin" themse&/es as terrorists( Indeed, the 111 may ha/e simp&y )een a #o/er for this form of %deep state' e$tra9&e"a& a#ti/ity( Nota)&y, the 111 *as supported )y prominent >e&"ian neo9fas#ist Aean94ran#ois Thiriart, *ho had founded a %>e&"ium OAS', had #&ose ties to the 4ren#h OAS and had initiated the European9*ide fas#ist or"anisation Aeune Europe, a forerunner of A"inter 3ress(

THE SOVEREIGN DEFINING THE LIMITS OF THE DEMOCRATIC DISCOURSE
Dra*in" on these t*o e$amp&es of Ita&y and >e&"ium, *e see that 0estern European states ha/e seemin"&y )een #hara#terised )y the e$isten#e of a re"u&ar %demo#rati# state', on the one hand, and a %se#urity state'+*hat Cin#i"uerra simp&y #a&&s the %state', a US9 &in-ed se#urity stru#ture+on the other( This is *hat the Ita&ian 3ar&iamentary 1ommission on terrorism and massa#res from 1995 meant )y %i& Doppio Stato' or %the dua& state'( As mentioned, de 4e&i#e ar"ues that this dua& state is )orn from the in#apa#ity of the re"u&ar demo#rati# state to re#on#i&e domesti# po&iti#s *ith forei"n po&i#ies, primari&y its responsi)i&ity to the USA and NATO( As Cin#i"uerra ar"ues, the e$tra9&e"a& /io&en#e did not ori"inate from the %terrorist "roups', %)ut from *ithin the state itse&f, and spe#ifi#a&&y from *ithin the am)it of the statePs re&ations *ithin the At&anti# A&&ian#e((( The De#em)er 19D9 e$p&osion *as supposed to )e the detonator *hi#h *ou&d ha/e #on/in#ed the

po&iti#a& and mi&itary authorities to de#&are a state of emer"en#y(' 0ithin su#h a #onte$t, NATO is not ?ust somethin" in )et*een an a&&ian#e of so/erei"n nation9states and a super9state in its o*n ri"ht, )ut a&so somethin" of )oth+*ith the US %supranationa& po&iti#a&9mi&itary authority' unifyin" the po&i#ies of the indi/idua& states( 4or e$amp&e, in Ita&y in the 19D7s and the 19E7s, t*o #hiefs of mi&itary inte&&i"en#e ,SI4AR and &ater SID.+6enera& 6io/anni de Loren5o and 6enera& Cito !i#e&i+&ed mi&itary %#oup attempts' *hi&e they *ere &iaison offi#ers to the USA( >oth of these men had )een appointed on the re#ommendation of the US am)assador and )oth &ater )e#ame mem)ers of par&iament for the Ita&ian fas#ist party, !SI( 0hen Li#io 6e&&i+a former fas#ist inte&&i"en#e offi#er, US &iaison offi#er and head of the Ita&ian Guasi9masoni# &od"e 3ropa"anda Due ,32. +*as inter/ie*ed a)out the Strate"y of Tension, he su""ested that %di#tatorship and demo#ra#y a&*ays mar#h side )y side, )e#ause demo#ra#y is )ein" undermined )y di#tatorship and di#tatorship is )ein" undermined )y demo#ra#y,' addin" that *e ha/e not yet %rea#hed an eGui&i)rium(' 4or 6e&&i, the a#ti/ity of the Ita&ian %se#urity state' durin" the 1o&d 0ar *as #&ose to *hat the Tur-ish mi&itary e&ite *ou&d des#ri)e as the %deep state' #orre#tin" the #ourse of demo#ra#y+or the po&iti#a& %fine tunin"' of demo#ra#y( In Ita&y, a num)er of %#oup attempts' too- p&a#e ,in 19DH, 19E7, 19E8 and 19EH., thou"h a&& *ere #a&&ed off at #riti#a& moments on#e the "o/ernment had )een reminded of the e$isten#e of the %state'+or rather the %se#urity state'< the rea& %so/erei"n'( In these #ases, /arious &iaison offi#ers, "enera&s and fas#ist &eaders e$erted an effe#ti/e /eto on "o/ernment po&i#y )y informin" the prime minister that a #oup had )een set in pro"ress, *arnin" that he *ou&d ha/e to suffer the #onseGuen#es if he did not )a#- do*n on his po&i#y( In 19DH, for e$amp&e, a "o/ernmenta& shift to the &eft *as interrupted )y 6enera& de Loren5o's %#oup' in #o&&a)oration *ith 3rin#e Aunio Ca&erio >or"hese, the %>&a#3rin#e' *ho had headed the Ita&ian na/a& spe#ia& for#es De#ima !AS durin" the Se#ond 0or&d 0ar( To a#hie/e his aims, De Loren5o set in motion the p&an %3iano So&o', *hi#h had ori"ina&&y )een de/ised for #ounter9insur"en#y purposes ,?ust as 1o&one& 6eor"e 3apadopu&ous, the 6ree- &iaison offi#er to the USA, *ou&d simi&ar&y a#ti/ate 6ree#e's %3rometheus' p&an three years &ater, &aun#hin" a mi&itary #oup in 6ree#e to pre/ent NATO #riti# 6eor"ios 3apandreou from returnin" as 3rime !inister(. In De#em)er 19E7, another %#oup' *as &aun#hed in Ita&y( 3rin#e >or"hese set in motion the #ounter9 insur"en#y p&an %Trian"o&o'( This time, >or"hese's peop&e+&ed )y Stefano de&&e 1hiaie +had a&ready ta-en o/er the !inistry of Interior *hen the #oup *as a)orted( >or"hese's #o&&a)orator, 6aetano Lunetta, &ater insisted that %the truth is that it *as a #oup and that it su##eeded(' e said that the po&iti#a& resu&t that those *ho or"ani5ed the atta#- sou"ht to attain *as a#hie/ed< the deep9free5in" of the ;#entre9&eft= po&i#ies of A&do !oro, the remo/a& of the 31I from the "o/ernment arena, ;and= the assuran#e of ;Ita&y's= tota& pro9 At&anti# and pro9Ameri#an &oya&ty( After this fo&&o*ed the Rosa dei Centi %#oup' &ed )y 6enera& !a"i >ras#hi in 19E8 and the so9#a&&ed %0hite #oup' &ed )y 1ount Ed"ardo So"no in 19EH( 6enera& !a&etti des#ri)ed in #ourt his #on/ersation *ith So"no( After So"no had presented his #ase to the 1IA Station 1hief in Rome in Au&y 19EH, !a&etti had as-ed So"no if the Ameri#ans *ou&d support the #oup( So"no responded, %the United States *ou&d ha/e supported any initiati/e tendin" to -eep the #ommunists out of "o/ernment'( In the #ourt #ase fo&&o*in" the Rosa dei Centi %#oup', the #oup p&otters *ere a##used of %ha/in" promoted, set up

and or"ani5ed a se#ret asso#iation made up of #i/i&ians and mi&itary personne&, *ith the purpose of pro/o-in" an armed insurre#tion and, as a #onseGuen#e, an i&&e"a& a&teration of the 1onstitution and of the form of "o/ernment throu"h the inter/ention of the armed for#es(' In O#to)er 19EH, 1hief of Ita&ian !i&itary Inte&&i"en#e, 6enera& Cito !i#e&i *as arrested a##used of po&iti#a& #onspira#y( o*e/er, in #ourt, he ar"ued that the se#ret or"anisation a##used of o/erthro*in" the "o/ernment had )een formed under a se#ret a"reement *ith the US and *ithin the frame*or- of NATO( In the &ater #ourt #ase in 2771, 6enera& !a&etti said that 1ount So"no had #&ose ties *ith the 1IA( A&& the %#oups' *ere #arried out in #&ose #o&&a)oration *ith the Ameri#ans, and nota)&y, t*o of the ma?or a#tors in this "ame+4ederi#o Um)erto D'Amato, #hief of the se#ret ser/i#e UAR ,the Interior !inistry Offi#e of Spe#ia& Affairs., and 3rin#e Aunio Ca&erio >or"hese, &eader of the Nationa& 4ront and former president of the fas#ist party !SI+ had )een #&ose #o&&a)orators *ith the US post*ar &iaison to Ita&y, 1IA #ounter9 inte&&i"en#e #hief Aames Aesus An"&eton, sin#e the end of the Se#ond 0or&d 0ar( Indeed, An"&eton maintained his #onta#ts *ith >or"hese and D'Amato up to the 19E7sF and, as 1IA Station 1hief in Rome in the mid919D7s, 0i&&iam ar/ey *as An"&eton's #&ose #o&&a)orator(

THE SOVEREIGN AND THE GROSSRAUM
The or"anisation that 6enera& !i#e&i had spo-en a)out in 19EH *as 6&adio+the Ita&ian %Stay9>ehind' army+that *ou&d not on&y %stay )ehind' in #ase of a So/iet o##upation, )ut that *ou&d a&so #ondu#t #&andestine domesti# operations to #ounter domesti# #ommunist for#es( The Stay9>ehinds *ere #oordinated in >russe&s )y the /ery se#ret A&&ied 1&andestine 1ommittee ,a&so -no*n as the A&&ied 1oordination 1ommittee, A11. and )y the eGua&&y se#ret 1&andestine 3&annin" 1ommittee ,131.( In addition, there *as a para&&e& stru#ture( 4ormer #hief of the Ita&ian Stay9>ehinds, 6enera& 6erardo Serra/a&&e ,19E1J19EH., said that *hen he heard ho* Cin#i"uerra, in #ourt, had presented the Stay9 >ehinds %*ith su#h a pre#ision and in su#h detai&ed terms' he #on#&uded that Cin#i"uerra *as an insider and that it must ha/e )een a para&&e& stru#ture ,&ater #onfirmed as the NDS. that he himse&f *as not informed a)out( Serra/a&&e stated that there *as a part of the Stay9>ehinds that he did not #ontro& and that he *as for#ed )y the Ameri#ans to #arry out this domesti# #ampai"n to )&ame the Left in order to re#ei/e materia& support from the 1IA( !r Stone ;the 1IA= stated, Guite #&ear&y, that the finan#ia& support of the 1IA *as *ho&&y dependent on our *i&&in"ness to put into a#tion, to pro"ram and p&an, these other+sha&& *e #a&& them interna& measures ;terrorist operations )&amin" the 1ommunists< author=( I said this *as not in the orders for the Stay9>ehinds( Nor had it )een foreseen )y 6&adio *hen the ori"ina& dis#ussion too- p&a#e( >ut this *as 1IA po&i#y Serra/a&&e said( In addition to these US9&ed forma& stru#tures, there e$isted an informa& %US net*or-'( The US #reated and maintained spe#ia& inte&&i"en#e ties and #&andestine ties *ith indi/idua&s not on&y in Ita&y and >e&"ium )ut a&& o/er Europe( These &o#a& %US e&ites' *ere more tuned to US interests and *ere often a)&e to inf&uen#e &o#a& state po&i#ies, and

e/en to /eto or manipu&ate po&i#ies and indi/idua&s in #onf&i#t *ith US interests( Su#h e&ites formed part of *hat *e ha/e #a&&ed the %se#urity state'+the %so/erei"n'+*hi#h in#&uded informa& "roups and their net*or- of e$tra9&e"a& e$e#uti/es( One su#h %entire&y informa& "roup' *as the 1er#&e 3inay, *hi#h )rou"ht to"ether At&anti#ist u&tra9ri"ht9*in" po&iti#a& &eaders, industria&ists and inte&&i"en#e #hiefs( It *as named after former 4ren#h 3rime !inister Antonio 3inay )ut *as, in pra#ti#a& terms, run )y its se#retary, the 4ren#h fas#ist inte&&i"en#e operati/e Aean Cio&et( Ita&ian 3rime !inister 6iu&io Andreotti has named other parti#ipants< US State Se#retary enry Iissin"er, US Ci#e93resident Ne&son Ro#-efe&&er ,host., Da/id Ro#-efe&&er from 1hase !anhattan >an-, 6erman 1SU &eader 4ran5 Aosef Strauss, Andreotti himse&f and 3inay's %"ood friend', the Ita&ian industria&ist 1ar&o 3esenti( A##ordin" to Da/id Ro#-efe&&er, it *as 1ar&o 3esenti *ho too- him aside and in/ited him to ?oin the %1er#&e'( Ro#-efe&&er referred to the 1er#&e as the %3esenti 6roup'( 3esenti *as, a##ordin" to 1hristi, the main finan#ia& )a#-er of the A"inter 3ress %#orrespondent' Stefano de&&e 1hiaie and his A/an"uardia Na5iona&e( Aean Cio&et had a&so dire#t &in-s to A"inter 3ress( This su""ests that the 1er#&e 3inay a#ted as some -ind of parapo&iti#a& %)oard' to the e$tra9&e"a& e$e#uti/es of A"inter 3ress( Thus, the S#hmittian %so/erei"n' #annot )e identified *ith NATO as a forma& or"anisation, )ut is rather the para&&e& hierar#hy of informa& 0estern stru#tures *ith their mi&itaryOinte&&i"en#e #entre in the US and in some European #apita&s( And it *as this informa& se#urity stru#ture, or %se#urity state', that inter/ened if ne#essary to "uarantee US or %0estern' interests( Indeed, the #entra& a#tors of this 0estern se#urity net*orappear as the rea& %so/erei"n', in the S#hmittian sense, that de#ides on the e$#eption in the Euro9At&anti# area, or *hat S#hmitt *ou&d #a&& 6rossraum( This idea of a 6rossraum &ed )y a #entra& po*er, or Rei#h, *as first introdu#ed )y S#hmitt in the &ate 1987s, and further de/e&oped in his 1957 *or- Nomos of the Earth( Distin#t from Iar& aushofer's Le)ensraum, S#hmitt's /ision of a 6erman 6rossraum #o/ered a )&o# of independent states under 6erman &eadership and prote#tion( Its rea&isation *ou&d ha/e #reated an e#onomi# sphere of interest for 6ermany, ?ust as the >ritish #o&onies had #ome to represent a simi&ar sphere for En"&and( S#hmitt )ased his idea on the US !onroe Do#trine, *hi#h denied European and other po*ers the ri"ht to interfere in North and South Ameri#an affairs( S#hmitt sou"ht to app&y this approa#h to 1entra& Europe, a )&o# of independent states under 6erman &eadership and prote#tion, or#hestrated around 6erman po&iti#a& ideas( o*e/er, after 6ermany's defeat in the Se#ond 0or&d 0ar and the Red Army's ad/an#es in the East, it *as the US that emer"ed as Europe's prote#tin" po*er( 0estern &eaders esta)&ished a Euro9At&anti# %)&o# of states', a 6rossraum that *e #a&& %NATO', or#hestrated around 0estern po&iti#a& ideas and prote#ted )y its Rei#h, the USA( 1o&d 0ar NATO *as a %)&o# of states' intended to e$#&ude So/iet inter/ention( It *as &ed )y its #entra& po*er and unified )y its he"emoni# po&iti#a& ideas< demo#ra#y, mar-et &i)era&ism, nationa& p&ura&ism, the ru&e of &a* and #o&&e#ti/e defen#e( o*e/er, the "&ue that he&d 1o&d 0ar NATO to"ether *as not ?ust ideas( EGua&&y important *ere the informa& super9nationa& stru#tures+or rather a hierar#hy of su#h stru#tures under the so/erei"n's he"emony( Under this /ie*, NATO+or the 0estern se#urity #ommunity+ may ha/e )een a more unified entity than e/en S#hmitt's #on#ept of 6rossraum(

THE DUAL STATE AND THE DUAL SECURITY STRUCTURE
To "uarantee the sta)i&ity and defen#e of the NATO area, or 6rossraum, the US de/e&oped a %dua& se#urity stru#ture' that in#&uded )oth defensi/e for#es and offensi/e units that *ou&d re"u&ar&y #ha&&en"e the defensi/e for#e stru#tures( In 2777, US Se#retary of Defense 1aspar 0ein)er"er ,19@1J@E. #onfirmed that durin" the 1o&d 0ar the US had spe#ifi#a&&y tas-ed units to p&ay the ro&e of enemy for#es( These *ou&d se#ret&y atta#0estern defen#es *or&d*ide in order to %re"u&ar&y' and %freGuent&y' test their #apa)i&ities and in#rease their state of readiness, so that #ounter9for#es to potentia& So/iet #apa)i&ities #ou&d )e de/e&oped prior to their emer"en#e( Referrin" to #o/ert USOUI su)marine operations in S*edish *aters in the 19@7s, 0ein)er"er stated that it *as ne#essary to test freGuent&y the #apa)i&ities of a&& #ountries, not on&y in the >a&ti# ;Sea=+*hi#h is /ery strate"i# of #ourse+)ut in the !editerranean and Asiati# *aters and a&& the rest:( And it *as not ?ust done in the sea( It *as done on air defen#es and &and defen#es as *e&& ;see >e&"ium a)o/e< author=((( and a&& this *as done on a re"u&ar )asis and on an a"reed upon )asis( In #o&&a)oration *ith &o#a& se#urity e&ites, the US %se#urity state' used spe#ia& for#es that tested and reinfor#ed the defensi/e #apa)i&ities of US a&&ies and friends *or&d*ide( In the #ase of the su)marine intrusions into S*edish *aters in the 19@7s, a #oup&e of admira&s trusted )y the US *ere informed a)out the operations in ad/an#e, )ut the mass media, &o#a& mi&itary for#es and e/en the host #ountry "o/ernment *ere &ed to )e&ie/e that the operations *ere #arried out )y the %enemy', the So/iet Union( In the 19E7s ,up to 19@7., on&y 5 to 17 per #ent of the S*edish popu&ation )e&ie/ed in a dire#t So/iet threat( In 19@8, ho*e/er, after a series of su)marines turned up *ithin dense&y popu&ated S*edish ar#hipe&a"os, H2 per #ent of the popu&ation /ie*ed the So/iet Union as a dire#t threatF and the per#enta"e of peop&e /ie*in" the So/iet Union as unfriend&y *ent from 2E per #ent to @8 per #ent o/er the same period( Thus, in #o&&a)oration *ith trusted indi/idua&s *ithin S*eden, US for#es seem to ha/e )een a)&e to #han"e the mindset of the popu&ation and the "o/ernment a&most o/erni"ht( !em)ers of the S*edish %se#urity state', or %deep state', a#ted in #o&&a)oration *ith their US #ounterparts to de#ei/e the S*edish "o/ernment and pu)&i#( These 3SMO3s+psy#ho&o"i#a& or %per#eption mana"ement' operations+*ere run outside the &a*( In that sense, there is a #orresponden#e )et*een the dua& state and the %dua& se#urity stru#ture' ,offensi/eOdefensi/e for#es. of the 0estern po*ers( In Ita&y, for e$amp&e, the same US offi#ers ,Da/id 1arrett and others. *ho ran US operations to %test the readiness' of Ita&ian #oasta& defen#es ,De&fino Atti/o and De&fino S/e"&io. simu&taneous&y or"anised the terrorist #ampai"n aimed at raisin" the a*areness of and %#han"in" the mindset' of the Ita&ian popu&ation as a *ho&e( In a simi&ar de/e&opment, US Rear9Admira& Aames Lyons, Deputy 1hief of Na/a& Operations for 3&ans, 3o&i#y and Operations, in 19@H set up a %terrorist unit'+-no*n as the Red 1e&&+re#ruited from his o*n na/a& spe#ia& for#es ,SEAL Team Si$., to atta#na/a& )ases *or&d*ide( This unit set off )om)s, *ounded US personne& and toohundreds of hosta"es as part of its operations( A##ordin" to Lyons, it *as ne#essary for US for#es to "et %physi#a&' e$perien#e of the terrorist threat in order to %#han"e the mindset' and %raise the a*areness' of the troops to pre/ent a possi)&y e/en more de/astatin" atta#-(

On#e a"ain, the US *as de/e&opin" a se#urity system that in#&uded )oth sides of the #oin( 0ith the end of the 1o&d 0ar and the de#&ine of the So/iet threat, ho*e/er, many Europeans )e&ie/e this %dua& stru#ture'+*ith its spe#ifi#a&&y tas-ed terrorist units+may ha/e e/o&/ed into an instrument for esta)&ishin" not on&y interna& 0estern sta)i&ity )ut a&so US "&o)a& he"emony( In su#h a *or&d, *ar is no &on"er *a"ed )et*een the &ar"e armies of ma?or po*ers, )ut )y %spe#ia& units' to #reate %a spe#ia& menta& atmosphere: to -eep the stru#ture of the so#iety inta#t,' to Guote 6eor"e Or*e&&'s 19@H(

CONCLUSIONS
The a)o/e e$amp&es sho* that the %so/erei"n'+the %se#urity state' or *hat some *ou&d #a&& the %deep state'+is a)&e not to ?ust &imit the ran"e of the demo#rati# dis#ourse )ut a&so to manipu&ate or %fine tune' su#h dis#ourse( Q 4irst, the se#ret armies of the %so/erei"n' ,the Stay9>ehinds and the %para&&e& Stay9 >ehinds' or NDS. *ere re#ruited from the defeated fas#ist for#es of Southern Europe in 4ran#e, Ita&y, Spain, 3ortu"a& and 6ree#e( In Northern Europe, hundreds of Na5i SS offi#ers *ere re#ruited for a simi&ar purpose( 4as#ist &eader 3rin#e Aunio Ca&erio >or"hese *as res#ued and re#ruited )y the &ater 1IA &iaison to Ita&y, Aames Aesus An"&eton, at the /ery end of the *ar, and An"&eton's man, 4ederi#o Um)erto D'Amato, *as "i/en the tas- of re#ruitin" for#es from the fas#ist Repu)&i# of Sa&R to the !inistry of Interior, the army and the se#ret armies in order to #om)at the Ita&ian #ommunists( The )ruta& %)&a#-' terrorist, Stefano de&&e 1hiaie, #o&&a)orated *ith )oth >or"hese and D'Amato( These se#ret fas#ist and Na5i armies *ere re#ruited and de/e&oped as part of a %histori#a& #ompromise' )et*een the *innin" An"&o9Sa$on demo#rats and the &osin" auto#rats of the A$is po*ers( >ut, more important&y, the %so/erei"n', as it de/e&oped after the Se#ond 0or&d 0ar, turned these se#ret armies into a sophisti#ated mi&itary arm for 3SMO3s to &imit the ran"e of demo#rati# dis#ourse and to %fine tune', #a&i)rate and manipu&ate that dis#ourse( Q Se#ond, )y &ettin" fas#ist for#es #arry out the pre&iminary sta"es of mi&itary #oups, the %so/erei"n' *as a)&e to for#e "o/ernments to resi"n or a##ept a #han"e of po&i#y on a num)er of o##asions( On#e a #han"e of po&i#y had )een a##epted, as durin" a&& the Ita&ian %#oup attempts' in the 19D7s and 19E7s, the %so/erei"n' then a)orted the mi&itary #oup and the use of e$tra9&e"a& measures *as no &on"er #onsidered ne#essary( The >or"heseJ de&&e 1hiaie %#oup' of De#em)er 19E7, for e$amp&e, *as a&&e"ed&y a)orted after inter/entions )y 6enera& Cito !i#e&i+or, a##ordin" to Remo Or&andini, a #&ose #o&&a)orator *ith >or"hese, )y US 3resident Ri#hard Ni$on himse&f( In ea#h #ase, the Ita&ian "o/ernment *as presented *ith a fait a##omp&i, "i/in" the %so/erei"n' a de fa#to /eto o/er po&i#y( The e&e#ted "o/ernment, the %demo#rati# state', *as for#ed either to yie&d to the %so/erei"n', the %se#urity state', or to #onfront it )y mo)i&isin" popu&ar support and &e"itima#y+somethin" the %se#urity state' is on&y a)&e to do throu"h the introdu#tion of its %"ame' of fear and prote#tion( In the fina& ana&ysis, *ith the e$#eption of A&do !oro, Ita&ian prime ministers a&*ays #hose to )a#- do*n( Q Third, the %so/erei"n' may de#ide to #arry throu"h a mi&itary #oup in order to ta-e o/er "o/ernment responsi)i&ity, as in 6ree#e in 19DE( To a #ertain e$tent, the same 1IA net*or- ,in#&udin" the 1IA station #hief and the &eader of the Ita&ian Ordine Nuo/o. *as

in/o&/ed )oth in Ita&y and in the 19DE #oup in 6ree#e( In the 6ree- #ase, the %so/erei"n' *as a)&e to /eto the anti9NATO po&i#y of 6ree- 3rime !inister 6eor"ios 3apandreou( o*e/er, it &ater pro/ed to )e more diffi#u&t to return to demo#rati# po&iti#s, and o/er time US offi#ia&s "re* &ess happy *ith the 6ree- "enera&s( 4or the %so/erei"n', fas#ist or mi&itary ru&e *as ne/er a "oa& in itse&f( The %#oup' *as rather an instrument to re9 esta)&ish order in a##ordan#e *ith the !a#hia/e&&ian formu&a of fear and prote#tion< first, &et a %#rue& and effi#ient "o/ernor' e&iminate a&& oppositionF then, pu)&i#&y e&iminate the same "o/ernor to re"ain &e"itima#y( In #omparison *ith 6ree#e, the return to re"u&ar po&iti#s *as a&*ays more smooth in the Tur-ey, *here the army had *idespread &e"itima#y and mi&itary #oups ha/e )een more or &ess institutiona&ised( o*e/er, in most of Europe, the o/ert #oup d'Ktat appears to ha/e )een too #&umsy an instrument for #ontro&&in" domesti# po&iti#s( Q 4ourth, the %so/erei"n' may raise the %se#urity temperature' throu"h the use of %indis#riminate terrorism'+dramatisin" po&iti#s, as happened durin" the )om)in" #ampai"n in Ita&y( 4ear of )om) atta#-s has enormous psy#ho&o"i#a& impa#t, #ompe&&in" peop&e to turn to the state for prote#tion and to )&ame the per#ei/ed enemy( In the e/ent of su#h atta#-s, mass media *i&& often respond hysteri#a&&y, )&amin" *home/er the authorities say is responsi)&e( Su#h an instrument is thus idea& for #a&i)ratin" "o/ernment po&i#y, in other *ords as a means to %fine tune' demo#rati# po&iti#s and to %se#uritise' *hat used to )e open to pu)&i# de)ate, )rin"in" the demo#rati# po&iti#a& sphere more into &ine *ith the po&iti#a& /ision of the %se#urity state'( Throu"h the use of a )ruta& )om)in" #ampai"n, it is possi)&e to #reate e/ents that the mass media *i&& interpret as an %enemy atta#-', that *i&& ena)&e the %so/erei"n' to e$terna&ise #onf&i#ts to pro/ide interna& sta)i&ity( The Strate"y of Tension, as it *as de/e&oped in Ita&y, *as used to dis#redit #riti#s and to %#orre#t' the po&iti#a& &ine of the demo#rati# state( !ost important *as the e$er#ise of #ontro& o/er domesti# Ita&ian po&iti#s in a *ay that #ou&d not )e a#hie/ed throu"h the use of &e"a& means( Q 4ifth, if ne#essary, the %so/erei"n' may turn to %se&e#ti/e terrorism' to ta-e out a po&iti#a& &eader, either as a *ay of /etoin" the po&i#ies of that &eader or to )&ame anti9US for#es for su#h %terrorist' a#tions( In the #ase of A&do !oro's murder in 19E@, )oth of these "oa&s *ere a#hie/ed( !oro's *ife a##used the Ameri#ans of responsi)i&ity for her hus)and's death, #&aimin" that they had pre/ious&y threatened to -i&& him, and !oro himse&f *as "i/en a pri/ate funera&( !oro's murder ena)&ed the %so/erei"n' to /eto his %histori#a& #ompromise', and at the same time to )&ame &eft9*in"ers+the so9#a&&ed Red >ri"ades+for the operation( >oth 6enera& !a&etti and se#ret ser/i#e #hief D'Amato ha/e #onfirmed that the Red >ri"ades had )een penetrated at the top( Indeed, !a&etti has e/en #onfirmed that the top e#he&on of the Red >ri"ades *as run )y 0estern inte&&i"en#e( Unti& 19EH, the %so/erei"n' #ou&d re&y on the assassination sGuads of A"inter 3ress, )ut *hen it )e"an usin" the Red >ri"ades it needed spe#ia& for#es support( The -i&&in" of A&do !oro *as a spe#ia& for#es operation, in/o&/in" the use of ammunition from spe#ia& for#es supp&ies( Q Si$th, the %so/erei"n' may use spe#ifi#a&&y tas-ed units ,army or na/y spe#ia& for#es. to atta#- its o*n for#es or a&&ied or friend&y for#es throu"hout the 0estern *or&d in order to in#rease readiness and raise pu)&i# a*areness of a #ommon threat( Su#h dramati# operations are #ondu#ted as rea&isti# e$er#ises ,%train as you fi"ht'., )ut in the mass media they are presented as enemy atta#-s or intrusions, *hi#h thus shape and inf&uen#e

the mindset of the "enera& pu)&i# and &o#a& mi&itary for#es and e/en the po&i#ies of the host #ountry "o/ernment( Su#h atta#-s #reate fear and demands for prote#tionF they e$terna&ise #onf&i#ts to pro/ide interna& sta)i&ityF and they may for#e "o/ernments to )a#a*ay from parti#u&ar po&i#ies( The %enemy atta#-s', as they are reported in the mass media, are turned into 3SMO3s that a&ter *or&d opinion and inf&uen#e de#isions in internationa& forums su#h as the UN( Su#h a strate"y "i/es the %so/erei"n' an idea& instrument for #a&i)ratin" the ru&in" mass media dis#ourse as *e&& as "o/ernment po&i#y in /arious #ountries( Q Se/enth, the %so/erei"n' spans the entire 0estern *or&d( >y this is meant that the dua& state di/ide )et*een the %demo#rati# state' and the %se#urity state' seemin"&y #orresponds to a di/ide )et*een demo#rati# nation9states and a prote#ti/e #entra& po*er+or, to use 1ar& S#hmitt's termino&o"y, )et*een the states of the 0estern 6rossraum and the US Rei#h( In e/ery state, US inte&&i"en#e has re#ruited &oya& offi#ers and #i/i& ser/ants that ha/e a#ted as dire#t &iaisons to US authorities+su#h as 6enera& de Loren5o and 6enera& !i#e&i in Ita&y( Li#io 6e&&i set up 32 as a para&&e& %se#urity state' or shado* "o/ernment, and in pra#ti#e it *as a hi"h9&e/e& USJIta&ian net*or- %authorised' )y enry Iissin"er and A&e$ander ai"( A simi&ar pi#ture is emer"in" in other European states( These &o#a& %US e&ites' p&ayed the "ame of fear and prote#tion to set the a"enda, to inf&uen#e &o#a& "o/ernments and e/en to /eto po&i#ies or indi/idua&s in #onf&i#t *ith US interests( This presen#e of the Rei#h in /arious host #ountries "i/es the he"emoni# po*er, in this #ase the US, an e/en more dominatin" ro&e than S#hmitt had anti#ipated( The #entra& a#tors of the 0estern informa& se#urity net*or- appear as the rea& %so/erei"n', in a S#hmittian sense, that de#ides on the e$#eption in the NATO area or 6rossraum( Q Ei"hth, in the *or&d of demo#ra#ies, the %so/erei"n'+the %deep state'+has a&*ays to imp&ement its "ame of fear and prote#tion #o/ert&y and its /ery e$isten#e is a&*ays denied in pu)&i#( Thus, the pro)&em *ith &i)era&ism in po&iti#a& s#ien#e and &e"a& theory is not its am)ition to defend the pu)&i# sphere, po&iti#a& freedoms and human ri"hts, )ut rather its #&aim that these freedoms and ri"hts define the 0estern po&iti#a& system( Li)era& po&iti#a& s#ien#e has )een turned into an ideo&o"y of the %so/erei"n', )e#ause undisputa)&e e/iden#e for the %so/erei"n'+*hat Cin#i"uerra simp&y #a&&s the %state'+is )rushed a*ay as pure fantasy or %#onspira#y'( S#hmitt has )een des#ri)ed as an apo&o"ist for the auto#rati# emer"en#y state in 6ermany, )ut *hen *e &oo- #&oser he rather emer"es as a s#ho&ar un/ei&in" the dua& state+the hidden auto#rati# se#urity for#e para&&e& to the demo#rati# state( Some mi"ht ar"ue that this dua& state is defensi)&e, others not, )ut *e shou&d )e a*are that the &i)era& denia& of its /ery e$isten#e is )ased on an i&&usion(

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