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# Characteristics of Gravity Newton's Law of Gravity says a lot about this force in a very compact, elegant way.

It says that any piece of matter will feel it whether it is charged or not (this sets it apart from electrical and magnetic forces that affect only charged objects . Gravity depends only on the masses of the two attracting objects and their distance from each other. It does not depend on their chemical composition or density. ! glob of peanut butter the mass of the "un will have the same gravitational effect on the #arth as the "un does. Gravity is always attractive, never repulsive (this is another way it is different from electrical and magnetic forces . \$ecause the masses are in the top of the fraction, more mass creates more gravity force. %his also means that more massive objects produce greater accelerations than less massive objects. "ince distance is in the bottom of the fraction, gravity has an inverse relation with distance& as distance increases, gravity decreases. 'owever, gravity never goes to (ero)))it has an infinite range (in this respect it is li*e the electrical and magnetic forces . "tars feel the gravity from other stars, gala+ies feel gravity from other gala+ies, gala+y clusters feel gravity from other gala+ies, etc. %he always attractive gravity can act over the largest distances in the universe. %here is no way to get rid of the force of gravity. If you want to prevent a body from producing a gravitational acceleration on an object, you need to use a second body, with the same amount of gravity pull as the first body, in a way that its gravity pulling on the object is in the opposite direction. %he resulting accelerations due to the forces from the two bodies will cancel each other out.
Newton's equation first appeared in the Philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica, July 1687 !t descri"es why that apple fell from that tree in that orchard in #incolnshire \$hether or not that apple actually landed on !saac Newton's head, as some stories would ha%e it, this equation descri"es why you stay rooted to the &round, what loc's the (arth in or"it around the sun and was used "y Nasa en&ineers to send men to the moon

!t encapsulates the idea that all the particles of matter in the uni%erse attract each other throu&h the force of &ra%ity ) Newton's law tells us how stron& that attraction is *he equation says that the force +,- "etween two o".ects is proportional to the product of their masses +m1 and m/-, di%ided "y the square of the distance "etween them *he remainin& term in the equation, 0, is the &ra%itational constant, which has to "e measured "y e1periment and, as of /227, 34 scientists ha%e measured it at 6 656 7 12811 cu"ic metres per 'ilo&ram second squared Newton came to the formula after studyin& the centuries of measurements from astronomers "efore him 4tar&a9ers had spent millennia catalo&uin& the positions of the stars and planets in the ni&ht s'y and, "y the 17th century, the 0erman astronomer and mathematician

Johannes :epler had wor'ed out the &eometry of these mo%ements ;y loo'in& at the mo%ement of Mars, :epler had calculated that planets or"ited the sun in elliptical paths and, in a 'ind of celestial cloc'wor', his three laws of planetary motion allowed astronomers to wor' out the position of the planets in the future "ased on data from past records

:epler's laws e1plain how the planets mo%ed around the sun "ut not why Newton filled in that &ap "y supposin& there was a force actin& "etween the "odies that were mo%in& around each other

*he story &oes that Newton saw an apple fall to the &round and it made him wonder why the fruit always fell strai&ht to the &round< why did it not %eer off to the left or ri&ht= >ccordin& to his own laws of motion, anythin& that "e&ins mo%in& from a standin& start is under&oin& acceleration and, where there is acceleration, there must "e a force *he apple started in the tree and landed on the (arth, which means there must "e a force of attraction "etween the apple and the (arth

>nd e%en if the apple were hi&her up in the tree, it would still feel this force of attraction with the (arth, reasoned Newton !n fact, the attraction shouldn't e%en stop at the top of a tree "ut carry on way up into the hea%ens \$hich raised the question? if e%erythin& around the (arth should feel this force of attraction, includin& the moon, why doesn't our nearest nei&h"our fall and crash onto the surface of our planet in the same way as the apple did=

Newton concluded that the moon did feel the effect of the (arth's attracti%e force and that it was indeed fallin& towards (arth, "ut there was a %ery &ood reason why it didn't crash down @e used a thou&ht e1periment to e1plain his thin'in&? ima&ine you fired a cannon"all hori9ontally from the top of a mountain on (arth *he "all would follow a cur%ed tra.ectory as it mo%ed forward and was attracted, "y &ra%ity, towards the &round at the same time ,ire the cannon"all with more ener&y and it would land further away from the mountain, "ut it still would follow a cur%ed tra.ectory in doin& so

Newton proposed that, if you fired the cannon"all with enou&h ener&y, it could fly all the way around the (arth and ne%er land, "ecause the (arth would "e cur%in& away underneath the "all at the same rate as the "all fell !n other words, the "all would now "e in or"it around the (arth

>nd this is what happens with the moon ) it is in freefall around the (arth "ut it mo%es fast enou&h so that the (arth's surface ne%er quite AcatchesA it

Newton's law tells us that the stren&th of the &ra%itational force "etween two o".ects drops off in the same way that a li&ht &ets dimmer as you mo%e away from it, a relationship 'nown mathematically as an in%erse square law

>nother way to %isualise the dropBoff in the field is to ima&ine the &ra%itational field around an o".ect as a series of concentric spheres (ach sphere represents the same AamountA of &ra%itational field "ut the spheres further from the o".ect are "i&&er, so that same amount of field is spread thinner, o%er a lar&er area *he field thus &ets wea'er as you mo%e away from the o".ect, in proportion to the surface areas of these spheres

*he m1 and m/ could "e planets and stars or they could "e you and the (arth Compute the equation usin& num"ers for your mass and that of the (arth, and you will &et your wei&ht, measured in Newtons \$ei&ht, in true scientific terms, is the &ra%itational force actin& on your mass +which is measured in 'ilo&rams- at any point in time Dour mass will stay the same where%er you &o in the uni%erse "ut your wei&ht will fluctuate dependin& on the mass and position of the o".ects around you

Newton's law of &ra%itation is simple equation, "ut de%astatin&ly effecti%e? plu& in the num"ers and you can predict the positions of all the planets, moons and comets you mi&ht e%er want to watch, anywhere in the solar system and "eyond

>nd it allowed us to add to those celestial "odies too, heraldin& the space a&e Newton's formula helped en&ineers wor' out how much ener&y we needed to "rea' the &ra%itational "onds of (arth *he path of e%ery astronaut and the or"it of e%ery satellite from which we "enefit ) whether for communications, (arth o"ser%ation, scientific research around (arth or other planets, &lo"al positionin& information ) was calculated usin& this simple formula :ara'teristi' 0ra%ity @u'um Newton tentan& 0ra%itasi men&ata'an "anya' tentan& &aya ini den&an cara yan& ele&an san&at 'ompa' !a men&ata'an "ahwa setiap "a&ian dari materi a'an merasa'annya apa'ah itu di"e"an'an atau tida' + ini yan& mem"eda'annya dari 'e'uatan listri' dan ma&neti' yan& mempen&aruhi hanya di'ena'an "enda - 0ra%itasi hanya "er&antun& pada massa dari dua menari' o".e' dan .ara' mere'a dari satu sama lain !ni tida' ter&antun& pada 'omposisi 'imianya atau 'epadatan 4e"uah se&umpal selai 'acan& massa Matahari a'an memili'i efe' &ra%itasi yan& sama di ;umi den&an Matahari tida' 0ra%itasi selalu menari' , tida' pernah men.i.i''an + ini adalah cara lain itu "er"eda dari 'e'uatan listri' dan ma&neti' :arena massa "erada di atas fra'si , le"ih "anya' massa mencipta'an &aya &ra%itasi le"ih !ni .u&a "erarti "ahwa le"ih o".e' "esar men&hasil'an percepatan le"ih "esar dari "endaB "enda 'uran& masif :arena .ara' di dasar fra'si , &ra%itasi memili'i hu"un&an ter"ali' den&an .ara' ? den&an menin&'atnya .ara' , &ra%itasi "er'uran& Namun, &ra%itasi tida' pernah per&i 'e nol BBB itu memili'i .an&'auan ta' ter"atas + dalam hal ini adalah seperti

'e'uatan listri' dan ma&neti' - ;intan& merasa'an &ra%itasi dari "intan& lain , &ala'si merasa &ra%itasi dari &ala'si lain , 'luster &ala'si merasa &ra%itasi dari &ala'si lain , dll &ra%itasi selalu menari' dapat "ertinda' atas .ara' ter"esar di alam semesta *ida' ada cara untu' menyin&'ir'an &aya &ra%itasi Ji'a >nda in&in mence&ah tu"uh dari memprodu'si percepatan &ra%itasi pada o".e' , >nda perlu men&&una'an tu"uh 'edua , den&an .umlah yan& sama &ra%itasi tari' se"a&ai "adan pertama , den&an cara yan& menari' &ra%itasi pada o".e' di se"ali'nya arah Percepatan yan& dihasil'an 'arena 'e'uatan dari dua "adan a'an mem"atal'an satu sama lain Persamaan Newton pertama 'ali muncul dalam Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica , Juli 1687 !ni men&&am"ar'an men&apa apel yan& .atuh dari pohon itu dalam 'e"un di #incolnshire >pa'ah atau tida' apple yan& "enarB"enar mendarat di 'epala !saac Newton , seperti "e"erapa cerita a'an memili'inya , persamaan ini men.elas'an men&apa >nda tetap "era'ar 'e tanah , apa yan& men&unci ;umi dalam or"it men&elilin&i matahari dan di&una'an oleh para insinyur N>4> untu' men&irim oran& 'e "ulan

!ni meran&'um &a&asan "ahwa semua parti'el dari materi di alam semesta menari' satu sama lain melalui &aya &ra%itasi B hu'um Newton mem"eritahu 'ita se"erapa 'uat daya tari' itu Persamaan men&ata'an "ahwa &aya + , - antara dua "enda se"andin& den&an produ' dari massa mere'a + m1 dan m/ - , di"a&i den&an 'uadrat dari .ara' antara mere'a 4isanya istilah dalam persamaan , 0 , adalah 'onstanta &ra%itasi , yan& harus diu'ur den&an e'sperimen dan , pada /227 , para ilmuwan >4 telah diu'ur pada 6,656 7 12B11 meter 'u"i' per 'ilo&ram deti' 'uadrat Newton datan& 'e formula setelah mempela.ari a"ad pen&u'uran dari astronom di hadapannya 4tar&a9ers telah men&ha"is'an ri"uan tahun 'atalo&isasi posisi "intan&B "intan& dan planetBplanet di lan&it malam dan , pada a"ad 'eB17 , Jerman astronom dan matemati'awan Johannes :epler telah "e'er.a 'eluar &eometri &era'anB&era'an ini Een&an melihat per&era'an Mars , :epler telah men&hitun& "ahwa planet men&or"it matahari dalam .alur elips dan , dalam semacam .arum .am lan&it , ti&a hu'um &era' planet memun&'in'an para astronom untu' "e'er.a di luar posisi planetBplanet di masa depan "erdasar'an data dari catatan masa lalu

@u'um :epler men.elas'an "a&aimana planetBplanet "er&era' men&elilin&i matahari tapi tida' men&apa Newton diisi 'esen.an&an terse"ut den&an men&andai'an ada &aya yan& "e'er.a antara "adan yan& "er&era' di se'itar satu sama lain

Cerita "erlan.ut "ahwa Newton melihat se"uah apel .atuh 'e tanah dan itu mem"uatnya "ertanyaBtanya men&apa "uah selalu .atuh lan&sun& 'e tanah , men&apa tida' mem"elo' off 'e 'iri atau 'anan = Menurut undan&Bundan& sendiri &era' , sesuatu yan& mulai "er&era' dari awal "erdiri sedan& men&alami percepatan dan , di mana ada percepatan , harus ada 'e'uatan >pel dimulai di pohon dan mendarat di "umi , yan& "erarti harus ada &aya tari'B menari' antara apel dan "umi

Ean "ah'an .i'a apel le"ih tin&&i di atas pohon , masih a'an merasa'an 'e'uatan ini tari'B menari' den&an ;umi , "eralasan Newton ;ah'an , daya tari' "ah'an tida' harus "erhenti di "a&ian atas pohon tapi melan.ut'an per.alanan 'e lan&it Dan& menim"ul'an pertanyaan ? .i'a se&ala sesuatu di se'itar "umi harus merasa'an 'e'uatan ini tari'Bmenari' , termasu' "ulan , men&apa tida' tetan&&a terde'at 'ita .atuh dan 'ecela'aan 'e permu'aan planet 'ita dalam cara yan& sama seperti apel la'u'an =

Newton menyimpul'an "ahwa "ulan tida' merasa'an efe' dari &aya tari' "umi dan "ahwa itu meman& .atuh 'e ;umi , tapi ada alasan yan& san&at "ai' men&apa tida' crash down Eia men&&una'an e'sperimen pi'iran untu' men.elas'an pemi'irannya ? "ayan&'an >nda dipecat meriam hori9ontal dari punca' &unun& di ;umi ;ola a'an men&i'uti lintasan melen&'un& saat "er&era' ma.u dan tertari' , oleh &ra%itasi , menu.u tanah pada saat yan& sama >pi meriam den&an le"ih "anya' ener&i dan itu a'an mendarat le"ih .auh dari &unun& , tetapi masih a'an men&i'uti lintasan melen&'un& dalam mela'u'annya

Newton men&usul'an "ahwa , .i'a >nda dipecat meriam den&an ener&i yan& cu'up , "isa ter"an& sepan.an& .alan di se'itar "umi dan tida' pernah mendarat , 'arena ;umi a'an melen&'un& .auh di "awah "ola pada tin&'at yan& sama seperti "ola .atuh Een&an 'ata lain, "ola se'aran& a'an "erada di or"it se'itar ;umi

Ean inilah yan& ter.adi den&an "ulan B itu adalah dalam ter.un "e"as se'itar ;umi tapi "er&era' cu'up cepat sehin&&a permu'aan "umi tida' pernah cu'up A menan&'ap A itu

@u'um Newton men&ata'an 'epada 'ita "ahwa 'e'uatan &aya &ra%itasi antara dua "enda menurun den&an cara yan& sama "ahwa cahaya mendapat redup saat >nda "er&era' .auh dari itu , hu"un&an matematis yan& di'enal se"a&ai hu'um 'uadrat ter"ali'

Cara lain untu' mem%isualisasi'an dropB off di lapan&an adalah den&an mem"ayan&'an medan &ra%itasi se'itar o"ye' se"a&ai ran&'aian "ola 'onsentris 4etiap sphere merupa'an sama A .umlah A dari medan &ra%itasi namun "ola le"ih .auh dari o".e' yan& le"ih "esar , sehin&&a .umlah yan& sama "idan& terse"ar tipis , daerah yan& le"ih luas ;idan& ini sehin&&a sema'in lemah saat >nda "er&era' men.auhi o"ye' , secara proporsional den&an daerah permu'aan "idan& ini

*he m1 dan m/ "isa men.adi planet dan "intan& atau mere'a "isa >nda dan "umi @itun& persamaan men&&una'an an&'a untu' massa dan "ahwa dari ;umi , dan >nda a'an mendapat'an "erat "adan >nda , diu'ur dalam Newton ;erat , dalam hal ilmiah yan& "enar , adalah &aya &ra%itasi yan& "e'er.a pada massa >nda + yan& diu'ur dalam 'ilo&ram -

pada setiap titi' wa'tu Massa >nda a'an tetap sama di mana pun >nda per&i di alam semesta , tetapi "erat "adan >nda a'an "erflu'tuasi ter&antun& pada massa dan posisi "endaB"enda di se'itar >nda

@u'um &ra%itasi Newton adalah persamaan sederhana , tetapi amat efe'tif ? pasan& di an&'a dan >nda dapat mempredi'si posisi semua planet , "ulan dan 'omet yan& mun&'in pernah in&in menonton , di mana sa.a di tata surya dan seterusnya

Ean itu memun&'in'an 'ita untu' menam"ah'an 'epada mere'a "enda lan&it .u&a, &em"or'an ruan& usia !nsinyur rumus mem"antu Newton "e'er.a 'eluar "erapa "anya' ener&i yan& 'ita "utuh'an untu' memecah i'atan &ra%itasi "umi Jalur setiap astronot dan or"it satelit setiap dari mana 'ita mendapat'an 'euntun&an B "ai' untu' 'omuni'asi , o"ser%asi ;umi , penelitian ilmiah se'itar ;umi atau planet lain , informasi &lo"al positionin& B dihitun& men&&una'an rumus sederhana ini

1 Men&hitun& Massa ;umi Massa "umi dapat dihitun& den&an men&&una'an nilai 0 yan& telah diperoleh dari perco"aan Ca%endish >n&&ap massa "umi M dan .ariB.ari "umi F G 6,67 7 126 m +"umi dian&&ap "ulat sempurna- ;erdasar'an rumus percepatan &ra%itasi "umi, >nda "isa men&hitun& "esarnya massa "umi

1 Calculate the mass of the (arth *he mass of the (arth can "e calculated usin& the 0 %alues ha%e "een o"tained from the Ca%endish e1periment *hin' of the (arth's mass M and radius F G 6 67 7 earth 126 m +earth considered perfectly round- ;ased on the formula of the earth's &ra%itational acceleration, you can calculate the mass of the earth / Men&hitun& Massa Matahari *elah >nda 'etahui "ahwa .ariB.ari rataBrata or"it "umi r; G 1,H 7 1211 m dan periode "umi dalam men&elilin&i matahari *; G 1 tahun G 6 7 127 s ;erdasar'an 'edua hal terse"ut serta den&an menyama'an &aya matahari dan &aya sentripetal "umi, ma'a dapat diper'ira'an massa matahari / Calculate the mass of the 4un

Dou already 'now that the radius of (arth's or"it mean r; G 1 H 7 1211 m and the period of the earth around the sun *; G 1 year G 6 7 127 s ;ased on these two, and "y equatin& the force of the sun and the centripetal force of the earth, it can "e estimated mass of the sun

6 Men&hitun& :ecepatan 4atelit 4uatu "enda yan& "er&era' men&elilin&i "enda lain yan& "ermassa le"ih "esar dinama'an satelit, misalnya "ulan adalah satelit "umi 4e'aran& "anya' satelit "uatan diluncur'an untu' 'eperluan 'omuni'asi, militer, dan riset te'nolo&i 3ntu' men&hitun& 'ecepatan satelit dapat di&una'an dua cara, yaitu hu'um &ra%itasi dan &aya sentrifu&al a Men&hitun& :ecepatan 4atelit Men&&una'an @u'um 0ra%itasi >n&&ap suatu satelit "ermassa m "er&era' melin&'ar men&elilin&i "umi pada 'etin&&ian h dari permu'aan "umi Massa "umi M dan .ariB.ari "umi F >nda tin.au &era'an satelit dari pen&amat di "umi Ei sini &aya yan& "e'er.a pada satelit adalah &aya &ra%itasi ;erdasar'an rumus hu'um !! Newton, >nda dapat men&etahui 'ecepatan satelit 6 Countin& 4peed 4atellite >n o".ect that tra%els around another o".ect is called a mass lar&er satellites, such as the moon is a satellite of the earth Now many artificial satellites launched for the purpose of communications, military, and technolo&ical research *o calculate the speed of the satellite can "e used in two ways, namely the law of &ra%ity and centrifu&al force a Calculatin& 4peed 4atellite 3sin& the #aw of 0ra%ity Consider a satellite of mass m mo%in& in a circle around the earth at a hei&ht h from the surface of the earth (arth's mass M and the radius of the earth F Dou re%iew the mo%ement of the o"ser%er on the earth satellite @ere style

wor' on the satellite is the force of &ra%ity ;ased on Newton's second law formula, you can determine the speed of the satellite

" Men&hitun& :ecepatan 4atelit Men&&una'an 0aya 4entrifu&al 4e"uah satelit memili'i or"it melin&'ar, sehin&&a dalam acuan ini, satelit a'an merasa'an &aya sentrifu&al +m%/Ir/- 0aya sentrifu&al muncul 'arena pen&amatan dila'u'an dalam sistem non inersial +sistem yan& dipercepat, yaitu satelit- 0aya sentrifu&al "esarnya sama den&an &aya &ra%itasi " Calculatin& 4peed 4atellite 3sin& Centrifu&al 4tyle > satellite has a circular or"it, so in this reference, satellite will feel the centrifu&al force +m%/Ir/- Centrifu&al force arises "ecause o"ser%ations were made in a nonBinertial system +the system accelerated, ie satellites- Centrifu&al force equal to the force of &ra%ity

J Men&hitun& Jara' Kr"it 4atelit ;umi >pa"ila satelit "erada pada .ara' r dari pusat "umi, ma'a 'ela.uan satelit saat men&or"it "umi dapat dihitun& den&an menyama'an &aya &ra%itasi satelit dan &aya sentripetalnya J Calculatin& Eistance (arth Kr"it 4atellites \$hen the satellite is at a distance r from the center of the earth, the speed of the satellite as it or"its the (arth can "e calculated "y equatin& the &ra%itational force and the force sentripetalnya satellite