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A Lecture on Model Predictive Control

Jay H. Lee
School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Center for Process Systems Engineering
Georgia Inst. of Technology

Prepared for
Pan American Advanced Studies Institute Program on
Process Systems Engineering
Schedule

•Lecture 1: Introduction to MPC


•Lecture 2: Details of MPC Algorithm
and Theory
•Lecture 3: Linear Model Identification
Lecture 1

Introduction to MPC

- Motivation
- History and status of industrial use of MPC
- Overview of commercial packages
Key Elements of MPC

• Formulation of the control p


problem as an
(deterministic)
min ∑ φi ( xi , ui )
ui
i =0
optimization problem ? u0 = µ ( x0 )
g i ( xi , ui ) ≥ 0
HJB Eqn.
xi +1 = F ( xi , ui )
• On-line optimization

• Receding horizon At t = k , Set x0 = xˆk (Estimated Current State)


implementation (with Solve the optimization problem numerically
feedback update)
Implement solution u0 as the current move.
Repeat!
Popularity of Quadratic Objective in Control

• Quadratic objective Linear State Space System Model


p m−1
xk +1 = Axk + Buk
∑x Qx + ∑u Ru
T
i i
T
i i
i =0 i =0 yk = Cxk
• Fairly general
– State regulation
– Output regulation
– Setpoint tracking
• Unconstrained linear least squares problem has an analytical
solution. (Kalman’s LQR)
• Solution is smooth with respect to the parameters
• Presence of inequality constraints → no analytical solution
Classical Process Control

⎛ 1
t
de ⎞
p = kc ⎜1 + ∫ e(t ' )dt '+τ D ⎟⎟

⎝ τI 0 dt ⎠ Ad Hoc Strategies,
Heuristics • Regulation
PID Controllers • Constraint handling
• Local optimization

Lead / Lag Filters • Model is not explicitly used


Switches inside the control algorithm
Min, Max Selectors • No clearly stated objective
If / Then Logics and constraints
Sequence Logics
• Inconsistent performance
• Complex control structure
Other Elements • Not robust to changes and failures
• Focus on the performance of a local unit
Example 1: Blending System
• Control rA and rB
• Control q if possible
• Flowrates of
additives are limited
Classical
Solution
Model-Based Optimal Control
x& = f ( x , u ), y = g ( x , u )

Controller Plant
Set-point Input Output
r(t) u(t) y(t)

Open-Loop Optimal Control Problem


⎧ p −1 ⎫
min ⎨ ∑ i i φ ( x , u ) + φ p (x )
p ⎬
u 0 ,K , u p −1 ⎩ i = 0 ⎭
stage-wise terminal
cost cost
g i ( xi , ui ) ≥ 0 Path constraints
g p (xp ) ≥ 0 Terminal constraints
x& = f ( x, u ) Model constraints
Model-Based Optimal Control
x& = f ( x , u ), y = g ( x , u )

Plant
Controller
Input Output
Set-point
u(t) y(t)
r(t)
Measurements

• Open-loop optimal solution is not robust


Open-Loop Optimal Control Problem
• Must be coupled with on-line state / model parameter update
⎧ p −1 ⎫
• Requiresumin
on-line
⎨∑
solution
φ ( x
fori , u
eachi ) + φ p
updated
(x )
p ⎬
problem
0 ,K , u p − 1 ⎩ i = 0 ⎭
stage-wise terminal
cost
• Analytical solution possible cost (LQ control)
only in a few cases

• Computational ) ≥ 0
g i ( x i , u i limitation for
Pathnumerical
constraints solution, esp. back in
the ’50sgand p ) ≥ 0
p ( x ’60s Terminal constraints
x& = f (x,u ) Model constraints
Model Predictive Control (Receding Horizon Control)

– At time k, solve the


open-loop optimal
control problem on-line
with x0 = x(k)
– Apply the optimal input
moves u(k) = u0
– Obtain new
measurements, update
the state and solve the
OLOCP at time k+1 with
x0 = x(k+1)
– Continue this at each
sample time
Implicitly defines the feedback law u(k) = h(x(k))
Analogy to Chess Playing

my move

his move

my
move

Opponent
(The Plant)
The Opponent’s
My Move
Move I
(The Controller) New State
Operational Hierarchy Before and After MPC
Unit 1 - Conventional
Structure Unit 2 - MPC Structure
Global Steady-State
Plant-Wide Optimization Optimization
(every day)
Local Steady-State
Unit 1 Local Optimization Unit 2 Local Optimization Optimization
(every hour)
Dynamic
High/Low Select Logic Constraint
Model Control
Predictive (every minute)
PID Lead/Lag PID
Control Supervisory
(MPC) Dynamic
SUM SUM
Control
(every minute)

Unit 1 Distributed Control Unit 2 Distributed Control Basic Dynamic


System (PID) System (PID) Control
(every second)
FC TC FC TC
PC LC PC LC
Example: Blending System
• Control rA and rB
• Control q if possible
• Flowrates of
additives are limited

Classical MPC:
Solution Solve at
each time k
p = Size of prediction window
p

1
min
2 3
(
u ( j ),u ( j ),u ( j ) ∑ A
r ( k + i | k ) − rA *)2

i =1
j = k ,L, k + p −1

+ (rB (k + i | k ) − rB *)
2

+ γ (q(k + i | k ) − q *)
2

(ui ) min ≤ ui ( j ) ≤ (ui ) max , i = 1, L,3,


γ << 1
Optimization and Control
An Exemplary Application (1)
An Exemplary Application (2)
Industrial Use of MPC
• Initiated at Shell Oil and other refineries during late 70s.
• The most applied advanced control technique in the process
industries.
• >4600 worldwide installations + unknown # of “in-house”
installations (Result of a survey in yr 1999).
• Majority of applications (67%) are in refining and petrochemicals.
Chemical and pulp and paper are the next areas.
• Many vendors specializing in the technology
– Early Players: DMCC, Setpoint, Profimatics
– Today’s Players: Aspen Technology, Honeywell, Invensys, ABB
• Models used are predominantly empirical models developed
through plant testing.
• Technology is used not only for multivariable control but for most
economic operation within constraint boundaries.
MPC Industry Consolidation
CPC-V Update
(late 1995) (Late 2000)
Aspentech
Adersa Setpoint Adersa
Neuralware
CCI DMCC
DMCC Treiber ABB
DOT Products DOT
Honeywell Honeywell
Litwin (Profimatics) CCI GE
Neuralware
Pavilion
Predictive Controls Pavilion
Profimatics
Litwin Foxboro
Setpoint SimSci
Treiber Control Invensys
PCL
MDC Technology
FRSI Emerson
MDC Elec.
Linear MPC Vendors and Packages
• Aspentech
– DMCplus
– DMCplus-Model
• Honeywell
– Robust MPC Technology (RMPCT)
• Adersa
– Predictive Functional Control (PFC)
– Hierarchical Constraint Control (HIECON)
– GLIDE (Identification package)
• MDC Technology (Emerson)
– SMOC (licensed from Shell)
– Delta V Predict
• Predictive Control Limited (Invensys)
– Connoisseur
• ABB
– 3d MPC
Result of a Survey in 1999 (Qin and Badgwell)
Nonlinear MPC Vendors and Packages

• Adersa
– Predictive Functional Control (PFC)
• Aspen Technology xk+1 = Axk + Buuk + Bv v k
– Aspen Target
yk = g(xk ) = Cxk + NN(xk )
• Continental Controls
– Multivariable Control (MVC): Linear Dynamics + Static Nonlinearity
• DOT Products
– NOVA Nonlinear Controller (NLC): First Principles Model
• Pavilion Technologies
– Process Perfecter: Linear Dynamics + Static Nonlinearity
Results of a Survey in 1999 for Nonlinear MPC
Controller Design and Tuning Procedure

1. Determine the relevant CV’s, MV’s, and DV’s


2. Conduct plant test: Vary MV’s and DV’s & record
the response of CV’s
3. Derive a dynamic model from the plant test data
4. Configure the MPC controller and enter initial
tuning parameters
5. Test the controller off-line using closed loop
simulation
6. Download the configured controller to the
destination machine and test the model
predictions in open-loop mode
7. Commission the controller and refine the tuning as
needed
Role of MPC in the Operational Hierarchy

Plant-Wide Optimization
Determine plant-wide the
optimal operating condition for
the day
Local Optimization
Make fine adjustments for
local units
Take each local unit to the Multivariable
optimal condition fast but Control
smoothly without violating
constraints
MPC
Distributed Control
System (PID)

FC TC
PC LC
Local Optimization
• A separate steady-state optimization to determine steady-state
targets for the inputs and outputs; RMPCT introduced a dynamic
optimizer recently

• Linear Program (LP) for SS optimization; the LP is used to enforce


input and output constraints and determine optimal input and
output targets for the thin and fat plant cases

• The RMPCT and PFC controllers allow for both linear and
quadratic terms in the SS optimization

• The DMCplus controller solves a sequence of separate QPs to


determine optimal input and output targets; CV’s are ranked in
priority so that SS control performance of a given CV will never be
sacrificed to improve performance of lower priority CV’s; MV’s are
also ranked in priority order to determine how extra degrees of
freedom is used
Dynamic Optimization

At the dynamic optimization stage, all of the controllers can be


described (approximately) as minimizing a performance index
with up to three terms; an output penalty, an input penalty, and an
input rate penalty:

J = ∑ j =1 e + ∑ j =0 ∆uk + j + ∑ j =0 e
P 2 M −1 2 M −1 2
y u
k+ j k+ j
Qj Sj Rj

A vector of inputs uM is found which minimizes J subject to


constraints on the inputs and outputs:

( )
T
u = u , u ,...u
M T
0
T
1
T
M−1 u ≤ uk ≤ u

x k +1 = f (x k , u k ) ∆u ≤ ∆u k ≤ ∆ u
y k +1 = g ( x k +1 ) + b k +1 y ≤ yk ≤ y
Dynamic Optimization

• Most control algorithms use a single quadratic objective

• The HIECON algorithm uses a sequence of separate dynamic


optimizations to resolve conflicting control objectives; CV errors
are minimized first, followed by MV errors

• Connoisseur allows for a multi-model approach and an adaptive


approach

• The RMPCT algorithm defines a funnel and finds the optimal


trajectory yr and input uM which minimize the following objective:


P 2
J = − yk+ j + u M −1 − u ss
r 2
min
r M j =1
y k+ j S
y k + j ,u Q

subject to a funnel constraint


Output Trajectories
Aspen Tech’s DMC ID-COM, Adersa’s

quadratic penalty quadratic penalty

Setpoint Reference trajectory

past future
past future
Soft Constraint, “Zone Control” Honeywell’s RMPCT

quadratic penalty

Zone Funnel quadratic penalty


past future past future

• Move suppression is necessary when reference trajectory is not used


Output Horizon

Finite horizon

past future prediction horizon P

Coincidence points
Input Parameterization

u Multiple moves (with blocking)

control horizon

u Single move (extreme blocking)

Basis function (parametrized)


Process Model Types

Model Type Origin Linear/Nonlinear Stable/Unstable

Differential physics L,NL S,U


Equations

State-Space physics L,NL S,U


data

Laplace Transfer physics L S,U


Function data

ARMAX/NARMAX data L,NL S,U

Convolution data L S
(Finite Impulse
or Step Response)

Other data L,NL S,U


(Polynomial,
Neural Net)
Identification Technology
• Most products use PRBS-like or multiple steps test signals. Glide us
es non-PRBS signals
• Most products use FIR, ARX or step response models
– Glide uses transfer function G(s)
– RMPCT uses Box-Jenkins
– SMOC uses state space models
• Most products use least squares type parameter estimation:
– prediction error or output error methods
– RMPCT uses prediction error method
– Glide uses a global method to estimate uncertainty
• Connoisseur has adaptive capability using RLS
• A few products (DMCplus, SMOC) have subspace identification metho
ds available for MIMO identification
• Most products have uncertainty estimate, but most products do not m
ake use of the uncertainty bound in control design
Summary
• MPC is a mature technology!
– Many commercial vendors with packages differing in model form, objective
function form, etc.
– Sound theory and experience
• Challenges are
– Simplifying the model development process
• plant testing & system identification
• nonlinear model development
– State Estimation
• Lack of sensors for key variables
– Reducing computational complexity
• approximate solutions, preferably with some guaranteed properties
– Better management of “uncertainty”
• creating models with uncertainty information (e.g., stochastic model)
• on-line estimation of parameters / states
• “robust” solution of optimization
FCCU Debutanizer

~20% under
capacity
Debutanizer Diagram

PC
190 lb
Pressure 160 F
Fan
PCT
To Deethanizer
Reflux
Pre-Heater
From Stripper TC
Feed
TC
Flooding Tray 20 Temp.

TC
400 F

RVP Slurry Pump Around

Gasoline to blending
Process Limitation

Operation Problems:
• Overloading
-- over design capacity.

• Flooding
-- usually jet flooding, causing very poor separation.

• Lack of Overhead Fan Cooling


-- especially in summer.
Consequences:
• High RVP, giving away Octane Number
• High OVHD C5, causing problems at Alky.
Control Objectives

Constrained Control:

• Preventing safety valve from relieving


• Keep the tower from flooding
• Keep RVP lower than its target.

Regulatory Control:
• Regulate OVHD PCT or C5 at spec.
• Rejecting disturbance not through slurry, if possible.
Real-Time Optimization

Optimization Objectives:

While maintaining PCT, RVP on their specifications


• Minimizing energy consumed

• Minimizing overhead reflux


• Minimizing overhead cooling required

• Minimizing overhead pressure


• Maximizing separation efficiency.
MPC Configuration

Controlled Manipulated
PCT OVHD Pressure
Fan R-PID Fan Output
RVP Internal Reflux
Diff. Pressure MPC R-PID Reflux
Feed Temp. Pre-heater By-Pass
Pre-heater By-Pass
Tray 20 Temp.
OVHD C5 % Reboiler By-Pass
Reboiler By-Pass
Disturbances
Feed
Stripper Bottom Temp.
MPC’s MV Moves

Optimal Point Reached


200

180

160
Pressure (lb)
140

120
Feed-heater by-pass
100

80

60
Reboiler by-pass
40

20 Reflux
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
minute
Reflux vs. Feed

32

30

28 Feed
26

24 An indication
22 that separation
efficiency
20
increased.
18

16 Reflux
14

12
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
minute
Reflux-to-Feed Ratio

0.54

0.52

0.5

0.48

Handling Flood
0.46

0.44

0.42
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
minute
Handling Flood

3.2

3
Potential Flooding
2.8

2.6

2.4
Differential
Pressure 2.2
Across Tower 2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
minute
Product Spec's

180

160

140 Top pressure compensated temperature (PCT)


120

100

80

60

40

20 Bottom Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP)


0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
minute
MPC Operation Overview

190 lb
Pressure 160 F
Fan
Top Tray
PCT

Reflux
Pre-Heater
Feed Tray
Feed
Tray 20 Temp.
Flooding Tray 20
After MPC is on

400 F
RVP
Temperature
Tray #
Gasoline to blending
MPC Control Results (1)

C4- Total 5
% 4.5
4
MPC was turned on
When RMPCT
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
April, 1991 Date

Debutanizer Bottom C4- Total (I-C4, N-C4 & C4=-)


MPC Control Results (2)

RVP 7.5

When RMPCT
MPC was turned on
7

6.5

5.5

5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
April, 1991 Date
Debutanizer Bottom RVP Daily Average
MPC Control Results (3)

C5+ Total 20
% 18
MPC was turned on
When RMPCT
16

14

12

10

2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
April, 1991 Date
Debutanizer Top C5+ Total (I-C5, N-C5 & C5=+)
Other Benefits

• Reflux is 15% lower than before

• Separation efficiency is increased

• Now have room for lower RVP or PCT, if needed

• Variance on PCT and RVP is reduced;


Note: Variance on the tray-20 temperature is
increased, and it should be!!

• Energy saving (~10%)

• OVHD fan maximum bound may be avoided

• Flooding is eliminated.
Acknowledgment

• Professor S. Joe Qin, UT, Austin


• Dr. Joseph Lu, Honeywell, Phoenix, AZ
• Center for Process Systems Engineering
Industrial Members
Lecture 2

Details of MPC Algorithms and Theory

- Impulse and step response models and


the prediction equation
- Use of state estimation
- Optimization
- Infinite-horizon MPC and stability
- Use of nonlinear models
Important Ingredients of an MPC Algorithm

• Dynamic Model → Prediction Model


– Predicted future outputs = Function of current “state”
(stored in memory) + feedforward measurement +
feedback measurement correction + future input
adjustments
• Objective and Constraints
• Optimization Algorithm
• Receding Horizon Implementation
General Setup
Dynamic Model State:
Compact representation
Of the past input record
Previous State
(in Memory)
State Update

New Input Move Current State


(Just Implemented)
? Measurement
Prediction Correction
Feedback / Feedforward
Future Input Moves
Prediction Model Measurements
(To Be Determined)
for Future Outputs

To Optimization
Options

• Model Types
– Finite Impulse Response Model or Step Response Model
– State-Space Model
– Linear or Nonlinear
• Measurement Correction
– To the prediction (based on open-loop state calculation)
– To the state (through state estimation)
• Objective Function
– Linear or Quadratic
– Constrained or Unconstrained
Prediction Model for Different
Model Types

• Finite Impulse Response Model


• Step Response Model
• State-Space Model
Sample-Data (Computer) Control

Model relates
input samples to
output samples

{v0 , v1 , v2 ,L}

{y0 , y1 , y2 ,L}
v can be a MV
(u) or a
Measured DV
(d)
Finite Impulse Response Model (1)

Assumptions:
• H0 = 0: no immediate effect
• The response settles back in n steps s.t. Hn+1 = Hn+2
= … = 0: “Finite Impulse Response” (reasonable for
stable processes)
Finite Impulse Response Model (2)

Linear Model→ “Superposition Principle”

y (k ) = H1v(k − 1) + L + H n v(k − n)
Finite Impulse Response Model (3)

T
• State x( k ) = ⎡⎣ v ( k − 1),L , v ( k − n) ⎤⎦
T T
n past input samples
(includes both MVs and
measured DVs)
• State Update: Easy!
x(k + 1) = M 0 x(k ) + Τ { v(k )
{ insertion
shift

⎡ v(k ) ⎤ insert ⎡ v(k − 1) ⎤


⎢ v(k − 1) ⎥ ⎢ v(k − 2) ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
M ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ ⎥
⎢v(k − n + 2)⎥ ⎢v(k − n + 1)⎥
⎢ v(k − n + 1) ⎥ ⎢ v ( k − n) ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
drop
Finite Impulse Response Model (4)
• Prediction
Model prediction of y y (k ) = H1v(k − 1) + L + H n v(k − n) = Cx (k )
Model prediction error
Model error+Unmeasured disturbance
e( k ) = y m ( k ) − y ( k ) Measured output
Future input
Predicted future Past input samples
samples
output samples stored in memory
(to be decided)
⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎡ u (k − 1) ⎤ ⎡ u (k ) ⎤
⎢ M ⎥ = Ψu ⎢ M ⎥ + Ψu ⎢ M ⎥
Dynamic ⎢ ⎥ 1
⎢ ⎥ 2
⎢ ⎥
Matrices ⎢ ⎣ yk + p|k ⎥⎦ ⎣u (k − n)⎦ ⎣u (k + p − 1)⎦
(made of Feedback
impulse ⎡ d (k − 1) ⎤ ⎡ d ( k ) ⎤ ⎡e( k ) ⎤ Error
response Ψ1d ⎢ M ⎥ + Ψ2d ⎢ M ⎥+⎢ M ⎥ Correction
coefficients) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎣ d ( k − n) ⎦ ⎣d (k + p − 1)⎦ ⎣e(k )⎦
Feedforward term: Past disturbance Feedforward term: new measurement
samples stored in memory (Assume d(k)=d(k=1)=….=d(k+p-1))
Step Response Model (1)

Assumptions:
• S0 = 0: no immediate effect
• The response settles in n steps s.t. Sn= Sn+1 = …= S∞: the same
as the finite impulse response assumption
• Relationship with the impulse response coefficients:
Step Response Model (2)

•State
T n future outputs assuming
x(k ) = ⎡⎣ y0T (k ),L , yn −1T (k ) ⎤⎦ the input remains constant at
the most recent value
yi (k ) = y (k + i ) w/ ∆u (k ) = ∆u (k + 1) = L = 0

x(k)

Note yn −1 (k ) = yn (k ) = L = y∞ (k )
Also y (k ) = y0 (k )
Pictorial Representation of the State Update

x(k+1)

M1 x(k)
Step Response Model (3)

• State Update
x(k + 1) = M
{ 1 x ( k ) + S{ ∆v(k )
shift step response
drop

⎡ y0 (k + 1) ⎤ S1
S2 ⎡ y0 ( k ) ⎤
⎢ y (k + 1) ⎥ ⎢ y (k ) ⎥
⎢ 1
⎥ ⎢ 1

⎢ M ⎥ Sn-1 ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ yn − 2 (k + 1)⎥ Sn ⎢ yn − 2 (k )⎥
⎢ y (k + 1) ⎥ ⎢ y (k ) ⎥
⎣ n −1 ⎦ ⎣ n −1 ⎦
Step Response Model (4)
•Prediction

x(k)

Effect of future input moves


(to be determined)
Step Response Model (4)
• Prediction
Model prediction of y(k) y (k ) = y0 (k ) = [1,0, L,0]x(k )
Model prediction error e( k ) = y m ( k ) − y ( k )
Future input
Predicted future The “state” stored in moves
output samples memory (to be decided)
⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎡ y1 (k ) ⎤ ⎡ ∆u (k ) ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ u⎢ ⎥
⎢ M =
⎥ ⎢ M ⎥ + Ω ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ y k + p| k ⎥ ⎢ y p ( k ) ⎥ ⎢⎣∆u (k + p − 1)⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Dynamic Matrices
(made of step ⎡ ∆d (k ) ⎤ ⎡e(k )⎤
response coefficients)
Ω d ⎢⎢ M ⎥+⎢ M ⎥
⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Feedback Error
⎢⎣∆d (k + p − 1)⎥⎦ ⎢⎣e(k )⎥⎦ Correction
Feedforward term: new measurement
(Assume ∆d(k+1)=…= ∆ d(k+p-1)=0)
State-Space Model (1)

z (k + 1) = Az (k ) + B u u (k ) + B d d (k )
y (k ) = Cz (k )
Discretization State-Space
Realization

~ ~ ~ y ( z ) = G u ( z )u ( z ) + G d ( z )d ( z ) State-Space
z& = A z + B u u + B d d Identification
~ or
y = Cz
y ( s ) = G ( s )u ( s ) + G d ( s )d ( s )
Linearization
I/O model
z& = f ( z , u , d ) Identification
y = g ( z) {y(i), u (i), i = 1,L N }
Fundamental Model Test Data
State-Space Model (2)
⎛ z (k + 1) = Az (k ) + B u u (k ) + B d d (k ) ⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ y (k + 1) = Cz (k + 1) ⎟
⎝ ⎠
⎛ z (k ) = Az (k − 1) + B u u (k − 1) + B d d (k − 1) ⎞
- ⎜ ⎟
⎜ y (k ) = Cz (k ) ⎟
⎝ ⎠
∆z (k + 1) = A∆z (k ) + B u ∆u (k ) + B d ∆d (k )
∆y (k + 1) = C∆z (k + 1) →
(
y (k + 1) = y (k ) + C A∆z (k ) + B u ∆u (k ) + B d ∆d (k ) )
⎡∆z (k + 1)⎤ ⎡ A 0⎤ ⎡∆z (k )⎤ ⎡ B u ⎤ ⎡ Bd ⎤
⎢ y (k + 1) ⎥ = ⎢CA I ⎥ ⎢ y (k ) ⎥ + ⎢ u ⎥ ∆u (k ) + ⎢ d ⎥ ∆d (k )
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣CB ⎦ ⎣CB ⎦
⎡∆z (k )⎤
y (k ) = [0 I ]⎢
State Update
⎥ x k + = Φ x k + Γ u
∆u k + Γ d
∆d (k )
⎣ y (k ) ⎦ ( 1) ( ) ( )
y ( k ) = Ξx ( k )
State-Space Model (3)
• Prediction
Model prediction of y(k) y (k ) = Ξ x(k )
Model prediction error e( k ) = y m ( k ) − y ( k )
Future input
Predicted future The “state” stored in moves
output samples “memory” (to be decided)
⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎡ΞΦ ⎤ ⎡ ∆u (k ) ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ u⎢ ⎥
⎢ M =
⎥ ⎢M ⎥ x ( k ) + Ω ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ yk + p|k ⎥ ⎢ΞΦ p ⎥ ⎢⎣∆u (k + p − 1)⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Dynamic Matrix
(made of step ⎡ ∆d (k ) ⎤ ⎡e(k )⎤
response coefficients)
Ω d ⎢⎢ M ⎥+⎢ M ⎥
⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Feedback Error
⎢⎣∆d (k + p − 1)⎥⎦ ⎢⎣e(k )⎥⎦ Correction
Feedforward term: new measurement
(Assume ∆d(k+1)=…= ∆ d(k+p-1)=0)
Summary

• Regardless of model form, one gets the prediction


equation in the form of
⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎡ ∆u (k ) ⎤
⎢ ⎥ u⎢ ⎥
⎢ M = Lx
x ( k
⎥ 14444244443) + L d
∆d ( k ) + Le
e ( k ) + L ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ y k + p| k ⎥ known ≡ b ( k ) ⎢⎣∆u (k + p − 1)⎥⎦
⎣1
424 3 ⎦ 1442443
Y (k ) ∆U ( k )

• Assumptions
– Measured DV (d) remains constant at the current value of d(k)
– Model prediction error (e) remains constant at the current value
of e(k)
Ramp Type Extrapolation
• For Integrating Processes, Slow Dynamics
e(k + i ) = e(k ) + i (e(k ) − e(k − 1))
∆d (k ) = ∆d (k + 1) = L = ∆d (k + p − 1)

e(k)-e(k-1)
Use of State Estimation
Measurement Correction of State
State Estimate:
Compact representation
Previous State Estimate Of the past input and
(in “Memory”) measurement record
State Update

New Input Move Current State Estimate


(Just Implemented)
Measurement
Prediction Correction
Feedback / Feedforward
Future Input Moves
Prediction Model Measurements
(To Be Determined)
for Future Outputs

To Optimization
State Update Equation

x(k + 1) = Φx(k ) + Γ ∆u (k ) + Γ ∆d (k )
u d

+ K ( ym (k ) − Ξx(k ))
• K is the update gain matrix that can be found in
various ways
– Pole placement: Not so effective with systems with
many states (most chemical processes)
– Kalman filtering: Requires a stochastic model of form

x(k + 1) = Φx(k ) + Γ u ∆u (k ) + Γ d ∆d (k ) + w(k )


y ( k ) = Ξx ( k ) + ν ( k )
Can be obtained using, e.g., White noises of known covariances
subspace ID Effect of unmeasured disturbances and noise
Prediction Equation

Contains past feedback measurement corrections

⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎡ΞΦ ⎤ ⎡ ∆u (k ) ⎤
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ u⎢ ⎥
⎢ M ⎥ = ⎢M ⎥ x(k ) + Ω ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ yk + p|k ⎥ ⎢ΞΦ p ⎥ ⎢⎣∆u (k + p − 1)⎥⎦
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
⎡ ∆d (k ) ⎤ ⎡e(k )⎤
d⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
Ω ⎢ M +
⎥ ⎢ M ⎥
⎢⎣∆d (k + p − 1)⎥⎦ ⎢⎣e(k )⎥⎦
Additional measurement correction NOT needed here!
What Are the Potential Advantages?

• Can handle unstable processes


– Integrating processes, run-away processes
• Cross-channel measurement update
– More effective update of output channels with delays or
measurement problems based on other channels.
Early, robust
Unmeasured y1 update through
inputs modeled correlation
Process Delays,
Measured inputs Measurement Difficulties, y2
Slow Sampling

• Systematic handling of multi-rate measurements


• Optimal extrapolation of output error and filtering of noise
(based on the given stochastic system model)
Optimization
Objective Function
• Minimization Function: Quadratic cost (as in DMC)
p m −1
V (k ) = ∑ ( yk +i|k − y*) Λ ( yk +i|k − y*) + ∑ ∆u T (k + i )Λu ∆u (k + i )
T y

i =1 i =0

– Consider only m input moves by assuming ∆u(k+j)=0 for j≥m


– Penalize the tracking error as well as the magnitudes of adjustments
• Use the prediction equation.
First m columns of Lu

V (k ) = (Y (k ) − Y *) diag(Λy )(Y (k ) − Y *) + ∆U mT (k )diag(Λu )∆U m (k )


T

Substitute Y (k ) = b(k ) + Lum ∆U m (k )


constant
V (k ) = ∆U (k ) H∆U m (k ) + g (k )∆U m (k ) + c(k )
T
m
T
Constraints

Substitute the prediction


equation and rearrange to

C∆U m (k ) ≥ h(k )
Optimization Problem

• Quadratic Program

min ∆U (k ) H∆U m (k ) + g (k )∆U m (k )


T
m
T
∆U m ( k )

such that C∆U m (k ) ≥ h(k )


• Unconstrained Solution
1 −1
∆U m (k ) = − H g (k )
2
• Constrained Solution
– Must be solved numerically
Quadratic Program

• Minimization of a quadratic function subject to linear


constraints
• Convex and therefore fundamentally tractable
• Solution methods
– Active set method: Determination of the active set of constraints
on the basis of the KKT condition
– Interior point method: Use of barrier function to “trap” the solution
inside the feasible region, Newton iteration
• Solvers
– Off-the-shelf software, e.g., QPSOL
– Customization is desirable for large-scale problems
Two-Level Optimization

Steady-State Optimization (Linear Program)


min L( y∞|k , u s (k ))
us ( k )

⎡ y ∞| k ⎤
Cs ⎢ ⎥ ≥ cs ( k )
⎣u s (k )⎦
u s (k ) = u (k − 1) + ∆u (k ) + L + ∆u (k + m − 1)
y∞|k = bs (k ) + Ls ∆u s (k )

Steady-State
Optimal Setting Values (setpoints) Prediction Eqn.
y , u (k )
*
∞| k
*
s
State
(sometimes input deviations are included Feedforward Measurement
in the quadratic objective function) Feedback Error
Dynamic
To Dynamic Optimization (Quadratic Program) Prediction Eqn.
Use of Infinite Prediction Horizon
and Stability
Use of ∞ Prediction Horizon – Why?

• Stability guarantee
– The optimal cost function can be shown to be the
control Lyapunov function
• Less parameters to tune
• More consistent, intuitive effect of weight
parameters
• Close connection with the classical
optimal control methods, e.g., LQG control
Step Response Model Case

∞ m −1
V (k ) = ∑ ( yk +i|k − y*) Λ ( yk +i|k − y*) + ∑ ∆u T (k + i )Λu ∆u (k + i )
T y

i =1 i =0

m + n −1 m −1
V (k ) = ∑ k + i|k
( y
i =1
− y*) ΛT
( y y
k + i|k − y*) + ∑ ∆u
i =0
T
( k + i ) Λu
∆u (k + i )

with extra constraint yk + m + n −1|k = y *

Must be at y* for the


cost to be bounded
Additional Comments

• Previously, we assumed finite settling time.


• Can be generalized to state-space models
– More complicated procedure to turn the ∞-horizon problem into a
finite horizon problem
– Requires solving Lyapunov equation to get the terminal cost matrix
– Also, must make sure that output constraints will be satisfied
beyond the finite horizon → construction of output admissible set
• Use of a sufficiently large horizon (p≈ m+ the settling
time) should have a similar effect
• Can we always satisfy the settling constraint?
– y=y* may not be feasible due to input constraints or insufficient m
→ use two-level approach
Two-Level Optimization

Steady-State Optimization
(Linear Program or Quadratic Program)

Optimal Setting Values (setpoints)


y , u (k )
*
∞| k
*
s

Dynamic Optimization (∞-horizon MPC)

Constraint yk + m + n −1|k = y∞* |k is guaranteed to be feasible.


Constraint ∆u(k) + L + ∆u(k + m - 1 ) = ∆us* → yk + m + n-1|k = y∞* |k
Use of Nonlinear Model
Difficulty (1)

x& = f ( x, u , d ) Discretization?
x(k + 1) = F ( x(k ), u (k ), d (k ))
y = g ( x) y (k ) = g ( x(k ))
Orthogonal
Collocation
yk +1|k = g o F ( x(k ), u (k ), d (k )) + e(k )
yk + 2|k = g o F (F ( x(k ), u (k ), d (k )), u (k + 1), d (k ) ) + e(k )
M
yk + p|k = g o F p ( x(k ), u (k ),Lu (k + p − 1), d (k ) ) + e(k )
The prediction equation is nonlinear w.r.t. u(k), ……, u(k+p-1)

Nonlinear Program (Not so nice!)


Difficulty (2)
State Estimation
x& = f ( x, u , d ) + w
y = g ( x) + ν
Extended Kalman Filtering
k +1
x(k + 1) = ∫ f ( x , u , d ) + K ( k )( y
k
m (k ) − g ( x(k ) )

• Computationally more demanding steps, e.g., calculation of K at each time step


• Based on linearization at each time step – not optimal, may not be stable
• Best practical solution at the current time
• Promising alternative: Moving Horizon Estimation (requires solving NLP)
• Difficult to come up with an appropriate stochastic system model (no ID technique)
Practical Algorithm
EKF Dynamic Matrix based on the
linearized model at the
x(k) current state and input values

⎡ k +1 ⎤
⎢ ∫ f ( x, u , d ) ⎥
⎡ yk +1|k ⎤ ⎢k ⎥ ⎡ ∆u (k ) ⎤
⎢y ⎥ ⎢k +2 ⎥ ⎢ ∆u (k + 1) ⎥
⎢ k + 2|k ⎥ = ⎢ ∫ f ( x, u , d ) ⎥ + Ω u (k ) ⎢ ⎥
⎢ M ⎥ ⎢k ⎥ ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢k + p M ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ yk + p|k ⎥⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ∆u (k + p − 1)⎦
144424443
⎢∫ f ( x , u , d ) ⎥ Linearized Effect of Future Input Adjustments
⎣ k ⎦
Model integration with
Linear prediction equation
constant input u=u(k-1)
and d=d(k)
Linear or Quadratic Program
Additional Comments / Summary

• Some refinements to the “Practical Algorithm” are


possible
– Use the previously calculated input trajectory (instead of the
constant input) in the integration and linearization step
– Iterate between integration/linearization and control input
calculation

• Full-blown nonlinear MPC is still computationally


prohibitive in most applications
Lecture 3

Linear Model Identification


- Model structure
- Parameter/model estimation
- Error analysis
- Plant testing
- Data pretreatment
- Model validation
System Identification

Building a dynamic system model using data obtained from the plant
Why Important?

• Almost all industrial MPC applications use an empirical mo


del obtained through system identification
• Poor model → Poor Prediction → Poor Performance
• Up to 80% of time is spent on this step
• Direct interaction with the plant
– Cost factor, safety issues, credibility issue
• Issues and decisions are sufficiently complicated that syst
ematic procedures must be used
Steps and Decisions Involved
• Test signal (shape, size of perturbation)
• Closed-loop or open-loop?
Plant Test • One-input-at-a-time or simultaneous?
• How long?
• Etc.
Raw Data

• Outlier removal
Pretreatment • Pre-filtering
Conditioned
Data
• Model structure
ID Algorithm • (Parameter) estimation algorithm

Model
• Source of validation data
Validation • Criterion
No
End Objective: Control
Yes
Model Structure
Model Structure (1)

Model
Output
Disturbance Noise
Process Noise Model
Measured
Outputs
Inputs Plant
Dynamics
Σ Σ

• I/O Model
White noise sequence
y ( k ) = G ( q )u ( k ) + H ( q ) e( k )
1424 3 14243
effect of inputs effect of disturbances, noise
Models auto- and cross-correlations of the residual (not physical cause-effect)

Assume wolog that H(0)=1


SISO I/O Model Structure (1)
• FIR (Past inputs only)
y (k ) = b1u (k − 1) + L + bmu (k − m) + e(k )
G (q ) = b1q −1 + L + bm q − m , H (q ) = 1
• ARX (Past inputs and outputs: “Equation Error”)

y (k ) = a1 y (k − 1) + L + an y (k − n) + b1u (k − 1) + L + bmu (k − m) + e(k )

b1q −1 + L + bm q − m 1
G (q) = −1 −the
, H ( q ) = −1 −n
1 − a1q average
• ARMAX (Moving − L − aof
n q n noise term)1 − a1 q − L − a n q

y (k ) = a1 y (k − 1) + L + an y (k − n) + b1u (k − 1) + L + bmu (k − m)
+ e(k ) + c1e(k − 1) + L + cn e(k − n)
b1q −1 + L + bm q − m 1 + c1q −1 + L + cn q − n
G (q) = −1 −n
, H (q) =
1 − a1q − L − an q 1 − a1q −1 − L − an q − n
SISO I/O Model Structure (2)

• Output Error (No noise model or white noise error)

~
y (k ) = a1 ~
y (k − 1) + L + an ~
y (k − n) + b1u (k − 1) + L + bmu (k − m);
y (k ) = ~
y ( k ) + e( k )

b1q −1 + L + bm q − m
G (q) = −1 −n
, H (q) = 1
1 − a1q − L − an q
• Box Jenkins (More general than ARMAX)

b1q −1 + L + bm q − m 1 + c1q −1 + L + cn q − n
G (q) = −1 −n
, H (q) =
1 − a1q − L − an q 1 − d1q −1 − L − d n q − n
MIMO I/O Model Structure
• Inputs and outputs are vectors. Coefficients are matrices.
• For example, ARX model becomes

y (k ) = A1 y (k − 1) + L + An y (k − n)
+ B1u (k − 1) + L + Bmu (k − m) + e(k )
( −1
G (q) = I − A1q − L − An q − n −1
) (B q 1
−1
+ L + Bm q − m )
H (q) = (I − A q1
−1
− L − An q )
− n −1

• Identifiability becomes an issue


–AiDifferent y × of
is an nsets n ycoefficient and Bi giving
matrix matrices n y × nsame
is anexactly u matrix
G(q) and H(
q) through pole/zero cancellations → Problems in parameter estimati
on → Requires special parameterization to avoid problem
State Space Model
• Deterministic
x(k + 1) = Ax(k ) + Bu (k ) Output Error
y (k ) = Cx(k ) + e(k ) Structure

• Combined Deterministic / Stochastic


x(k + 1) = Ax(k ) + Bu (k ) + Ke(k ) ARMAX
y (k ) = Cx(k ) + e(k ) Structure

xd (k + 1) = Axd (k ) + Bu (k ) xs (k + 1) = Axs (k ) + Ke(k )


yd (k ) = Cx(k )
+ y s (k ) = Cxs (k ) + e(k )
Effect of deterministic input Auto- and cross-correlation of the residual
• Identifiability can be an issue here too
– State coordinate transformation does not change the I/O relationship
Parameter (Model)
Estimation
Overview

Model
Model Model Parameter For
Structure Structure (Model) Validation
Data Selection Estimation

Statistical
Prediction Error IV Method
Method Method • MLE
• Bayesian

Subspace ID
Method

ETFE
• Frequency Domain
Prediction Error Method

• Predominant method at current time


• Developed by Ljung and coworkers
• Flexible
– Can be applied to any model structure
– Can be used in recursive form
• Well developed theories and software tools
– Book by Ljung, System ID Toolbox for MATLAB
• Computational complexity depends on the model st
ructure
– ARX, FIR → Linear least squares
– ARMAX, OE, BJ → Nonlinear optimization
• Not easy to use for identifying multivariable models
Prediction Error Method
• Put the model in the predictor form

y (k ) = G (q,θ )u (k ) + H (q,θ )e(k ) →


( )
yk |k −1 = G (q,θ )u (k ) + I − H −1 (q,θ ) ( y (k ) − G (q,θ )u (k ) )
144244 3
Contains at least 1 delay

e(k ) = y (k ) − yk |k −1 = H −1 (q,θ )( y (k ) − G (q,θ )u (k ) )


• Choose the parameter values to minimize the sum of the pr
ediction error for the given data

⎧1 N


2
min ⎨ e( k ) 2 ⎬ e(k ) = H −1 (q,θ )( y (k ) − G (q,θ )u (k ) )
θ
⎩N k =1 ⎭
– ARX, FIR → Linear least squares,
– ARMAX, OE, BJ → Nonlinear least squares
Subspace Method
• More recent development
• Dates back to the classical realization theories but rediscov
ered and extended by several people
• Identifies a state-space model
• Some theories and software tools
• Computationally simple
– Non-iterative, linear algebra
• Good for identifying multivariable models
– No special parameterization is needed
• Not optimal in any sense
• May need a lot of data for good results
• May be combined with PEM
– Use SS method to obtain an initial guess for PEM
Main Idea of the SS-ID Method (1)

Assumed Form of the Underlying Plant

x(k + 1) = Ax(k ) + Bu (k ) + w(k )


y (k ) = Cx(k ) + ν (k )
Innovation Form
(Steady-State Kalman Filter)
Equivalent to the above in I/O sense

x(k + 1) = Ax(k ) + Bu (k ) + Ke(k )


y (k ) = Cx(k ) + e(k )

Identify {A, B, C, K, Cov(e)}


within some similarity transformation
We are free to choose the state coordinates
Main Idea of the SS-ID Method (2)
An upper bound
⎡ C ⎤
⎡ y (k − 1) ⎤ of the state dimension n
⎢ CA ⎥
⎢ M ⎥ Extended
⎢ ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎡ x1 (k ) ⎤ Observability
⎢ M ⎥
⎢⎣ y (k − n )⎥⎦ L1 ⎢ M ⎥ Matrix ⎢ n −1 ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎣CA ⎦
Γo
Past outputs
⎢⎣ xn (k )⎥⎦
⎡ yk |k −1 ⎤ ⎡ ek |k −1 ⎤
⎡ u (k − 1) ⎤ L2 State
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥
⎢ M ⎥ (Minimum Storage)
⎢ M +
⎥ ⎢ M ⎥
⎢ ⎥ ⎢ yk + n −1|k −1 ⎥ ⎢ek + n −1|k −1 ⎥
⎢⎣u (k − n )⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦
Past inputs ⎡ u (k ) ⎤ Future Prediction
⎢ M ⎥ Output Error
⎢ ⎥ Prediction
⎢⎣u (k + n − 2)⎥⎦
Future inputs
Main Idea of the SS-ID Method (3)

⎡Y − ⎤
Y 0+ = Γo [L1 L2 ]⎢ − ⎥ + L3U 0+ + E 0+
14243 U
M ⎣ ⎦

• Find M through linear least squares


– Consistent estimation since E0+ is independent of the regres
sors
– Oblique projection of data matrices
• Perform SVD on M and find n as well as Γo

⎡Σ n 0 ⎤ ⎡ P1T ⎤ Γo = Q1Σ1n/ 2
M = [Q1 Q2 ]⎢ ⎥ ⎢ T⎥
⎣0 ≈ 0⎦ ⎣ P2 ⎦
Some variations exist among
different algorithms in terms
The column space of Q1 is the state space of picking the state basis
Main Idea of the SS-ID Method(4)
• Obtain the data for x(k)

− ⎡ Y (k ) ⎤

x(k ) = Γo
{ ⎢U − (k )⎥
pseudo inverse ⎣ ⎦
• Obtain the data for x(k+1) in a similar manner
• Obtain A,B and C through linear regression
– Consistent estimation since the residual is independent of the regre
ssor
⎡ x(k + 1)⎤ ⎡ A B ⎤ ⎡ x(k ) ⎤ ⎡ Ke(k )⎤
⎢ y (k ) ⎥ = ⎢C 0 ⎥ ⎢ y (k )⎥ + ⎢ e(k ) ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎣ ⎦ ⎣1 424 3⎦
Residual
• Obtain K and Cov(e) by using the residual data
Properties

• N4SID (Van Overschee and DeMoor)


– Kalman filter interpretation
– Proof of asymptotically unbiasedness of A, B, and C
– Efficient algorithm using QR factorization
– -
• CVD (Larimore)
– Founded on statistical argument
– Same idea but the criterion for choosing the state basis (Q1) diff
ers a bit from N4SID – based on “correlation” between past I/O
data and future output data, rather than minimization of the pre
diction error for the given data
Alternative

Γo → C , A → B
• MOESP (Verhaegen)
Error Analysis
Error Types
• Bias: Error due to structural mismatch
– Bias = the error as # of data points → ∞
– Independent of # of data points collected
– Bias distribution (e.g., in the frequency domain) depends on the
input spectrum, pre-filtering of the data, etc.
– Frequency-domain bias distribution under PEM - by Ljung
• Variance: Error due to limited availability of data
– Vanishes as # of data points → ∞
– Depends on the number of parameters, the number of data poin
ts, S/N ratio, etc. but not on pre-filtering
– Asymptotic distribution (as n, N → ∞):
• Main tradeoff
– Richer structure (more parameters) → Bias↓, Variance↑
n
cov(vec(Gˆ N )) ≈ (Φ u ) −T ⊗ Φ d
N 442443
1
Noise − to −signal ratio
Plant Test for
Data Generation
Test Signals
• Very Important
– Signal-to-noise ratio → Distribution and size of the variance
– Bias distribution
• Popular Types
– Multiple steps: Power mostly in the low-frequency region→ Good e
stimation of steady-state gains (even with step disturbances) but g
enerally poor estimation of high frequency dynamics
– PRBS: Flat spectrum → Good estimation of the entire frequency re
sponse, given the error also has a flat spectrum (often not true)
– Combine steps w/ PRBS?
Multi-Input Testing (MIT) vs.
Single Input Testing (SIT)

• MIT gives better signal-to-noise ratio for a given t


esting time
• Control-relevant data generation requires MIT
• MIT can be necessary for identification of highly i
nteractive systems (e.g., systems with large RGA)
• SIT is often preferred in practice because of the m
ore predictable effect on the on-going operation
Open-Loop vs. Closed-Loop

Open-Loop Testing

Perturbation Signal r d
y
G0
u

Closed-Loop Testing
Dither Signal d
r
Location 1 Location 2
y
C G0
_ u
Pros and Cons of Closed-Loop Testing

• Pros
– Safer, less damaging effect on the on-going operation
– Generates data that are more relevant to closed-loop c
ontrol
• Cons
– Correlation between input perturbations and disturbanc
es / noise through the feedback.
– Many algorithms can fail or give problems – They give “
bias” unless the assumed noise structure is perfect
Important Points from Analysis
• External perturbations (“dither”) are necessary.
– Perturbations due to error feedback hardly contributes to variance
reduction (since they are correlated to the errors)

Portion of the input spectrum


n
cov(vec(GN )) ≈ (Φ ur ) −T ⊗ Φ d
ˆ due to the dithering
N
Output error spectrum
– The level of external perturbation signals also contribute to the siz
e of bias due to the feedback-induced correlation

Φ eu Φ u−1 = ( Pe Φ u−1 ) × (Φ ue Φ u−1 )


123 1424 3
E{G0 − Gˆ N } = ( H 0 − H µ )Φ eu Φ u−1 Noise − to − signal Relative contribution
ratio of noise feedback
to input spectrum

• Specialized algorithm may be necessary to avoid bias


Different Approaches to Model Identification
with Closed-Loop Data

• Direct Approach
D N = { y (i ), u (i ), i = 1,..., N } → Gˆ N ( and Hˆ N )
• Indirect Approach
Gˆ N =T̂Nyr ( I −T̂NyrC )−1
D = { y (i ), r (i ), i = 1,..., N } → T̂
N yr
N ⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯⎯→ Gˆ N

• Joint I/O Approach


Ĝ N = T̂Nyr ( T̂Nur ) −1
D = { y (i ), u (i ), r (i ), i = 1,..., N } → (T̂ , T̂ ) ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ ĜN
N yr
N
ur
N

• Two-Stage or Projection Approach


~N
D = {u(i), r(i),i = 1,...,N} → D1 = {u(i)} → Gˆ N
1
N

~N
D2 = { y(i)}
Data Pretreatment
Main Issues (1)

• Time-consuming but very important


• Remove outliers
• Remove portions of data corresponding to u
nusual disturbances or operating conditions
• Filter the data
– Affects bias distribution (emphasize or de-emphasize
different frequency regions)
– Does NOT improve the S/N ratio – often a misconcept
ion
Main Issues (2)

• Difference the data?


(∆y = y(k) − y(k-1), ∆u(k) = u(k) − u(k-1))
– Removes trends (e.g., effect of step disturbances, set
point changes) that can destroy the effectiveness of m
any ID methods (e.g., subspace ID)
– Often used in practice
– Also removes the input power in the low-frequency re
gion. (PRBS → zero input power at ω = 0)
– Amplifies high-frequency parts of the data (e.g., noise
), so low-pass filtering may be necessary
Model Validation
Overview

• Use fresh data different from the data used for m


odel building
• Various methods
– Size of the prediction error
– “Whiteness” of the prediction error
– Cross correlation test (e.g., prediction error and inputs)
• Good prediction with test data but poor predictio
n with validation data
– Sign of “overfit”
– Reduce the order or use more compact structures like ARM
AX (instead of ARX)
Concluding Remarks on Linear ID

• System ID is often the most expensive and difficult par


t of model-based controller design
• Involves many decisions that affect
– Plant operation during testing
– Eventual performance of the controller
• Good theories and systematic tools are available
• System ID can also be used for constructing monitorin
g models
– Subspace identification
– Trend model, not a causal model
→ Active testing is not needed
Deterministic Multi-Stage Optimization

⎧ p −1 ⎫
min ⎨∑ φ ( x j , u j ) + φ p (x p )⎬
u0 ,K,u p −1 ⎩ j = 0 ⎭
stage-wise terminal
cost cost
g j (x j ,u j ) ≥ 0 Path constraints
g p (xp ) ≥ 0 Terminal constraints
x j +1 = f ( x j , u j ) Model constraints

• General formulation for deterministic control and


scheduling problems.
• Continuous and integer state / decision variables
possible
• In control, p=∞ case is solved typically.
• Uncertainty is not explicitly addressed.
Solution Approaches

• Analytical approach: 50s-70s u j = µ* (x j )


– Derivation of closed form optimal policy ( )
requires solution to HJB equation (hard!)
• Numerical approach: 80s-now
– Math programming (LP, QP, NLP, MILP, etc.):
• Fixed parameter case solution
• Computational limitation for large-size problem (e.g., when p= ∞).
– Parametric programming:
• General parameter dependent solution (e.g., a lookup table)
• Significantly higher computational burden
– Practical solution:
• Resolve the problem on-line whenever parameters are updated or
constraints are violated (e.g., in Model Predictive Control or
Reactive Scheduling).
Stochastic Multi-Stage Decision Problem
with Recourse

⎧∞ j ⎫
min E ⎨∑ α φ ( x j , u j ) ⎬
u j = µ ( x j ) ⎩ j =0 ⎭
0 <α <1
Discount factor
x j +1 = f h ( x j , u j , ω j ) Markov sys. model

[
Pr g ( x j , u j ) ≥ 0 ≥ ζ] Chance constraint

• Next “holy-grail” of control: A general form for


control, scheduling, and other real-time decision
problems in an uncertain dynamic environment.
• No satisfactory solution approach currently available.
Limitation of Stochastic Programming
Approach
Simple case of 2 scenarios (↑ or↓) per stage
↑↑
x k+2


xk+1 u ↑↑
k+2

xk ↑
u k +1 x↑↓ …
k+2 Total number of
uk u↑↓ decision variables
k+2 … = (1+2+4+…+2p-1) nu
x↓↑
k +2 …
x↓k+1 u ↓↑ Number of branches
k +2 … to evaluate for each

u k +1 x ↓↓ … candidate decisions =
k +2 2p
u ↓↓
k +2

Stochastic Programming Approach
General case (S number of scenarios per stage)

• Total number of decision variables


= (1 + S + S2 +…+ Sp-1) nu
• Number of branches to evaluate for each
decision candidate = Sp
• Not feasible for large S (large number of
scenarios) and/or large p (large number of
stages)
– practically limited to two stage problems with a
small number of scenarios.
• Current practical approach: Evaluate
most likely branch(es) only. BUT highly
limited!
Dynamic Programming (DP)

( ( x j ))

• The concept of cost-to- *
go
J ( xk ) ⇒ ∑ α j − k −1

j = k +1
φ x j , µ *

– Represents future costs


under (optimal) control

– Parameterizes the solution


as a function of state x
µ ( x ) = arg min {φ ( x, u ) + J * ( fh ( x, u) )}
u

„ J*(x) is a solution to Bellman Equation


{
J * ( x ) = min E φ ( x, u ) + αJ * ( f h ( x, u ) )
u∈U
}
Value Iteration Approach to Solving DP

[
J * ( xk ) = min E φ ( xk , u k ) + αJ * ( f h ( xk , u k )
u(k )
]

Discretization of entire state space Valuetyiteration


a li
i o n es)

ime ns ip+1ac
n
J
S ( ξ ) = min E φ [
(ξ , u ) + α J ]
(ξ )
i ˆ

f D ctio
u
o
r se & A
Cu tate sampling &
(S discretization

i = i+1
Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP)

• Bellman equation needs to be solved∀x ∈ X


– Curse of dimensionality! Not suitable for high dimens. sys.
• Key idea of ADP
– To find approximate cost-to-go function

– Use simulations under known suboptimal policy to sample a very


small “relevant” fraction of the states and initialize cost-to-go
value table.

– Iteratively improve the policy and cost-to-go function


• Iterate over only the sampled points in the state space
• Use interpolation to evaluate the cost-to-go values for non-
sampled points.
Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP)
Approximate Value Iteration

On-line Decision

[ ]
u = µ ( x) = arg min E φ ( x,u ) + αJ ∗ ( f ( x,u ) )
u
~

Monte-Carlo Simulations Iteration on the Bellman Equation


• Closed-loop w/ suboptimal policies
• MPC, PI, etc. u∈U
[ ~
]
J i +1 ( x) = min E φ ( x,u ) + αJ i ( f ( x,u ) )

Sample Avg.

sampled state points


Sampled State Points
converged
i ← i +1 ~
solution
J*

Approximation of Cost-to-Go
~
• State and input trajectories: xk , u k J ( x) := xk → J ( xk )
• Initial cost-to-go: J ( x) = ∑ α iφ i