Chapter 3: Cell Processes Multiple Choice: Circle the letter that best completes the statement or answers the

question. 1. Atoms are made up of_______________. A. Protons and neutrons B. Electrons and neutrons C. Protons, neutrons, and electrons D. Neutrons

2. Something made up of only one kind of atom is called a(n)_______________. A. Substance B. Molecule C. Neutron D. Element

3. Two or more elements bond in exact proportions to form a(n)_______________. A. Compound B. Mixture C. Atom D. Solution

4. A combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties is a(n)_______________. A. Compound B. Element 5. What are organic compounds? A. Compounds made from elements other than carbon B. Compounds that have both water and oxygen C. Any compound D. Compounds which always contain carbon and oxygen. C. Mixture D. Atom

6. What term is used for the movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy? A. Active transport B. Passive transport C. Endocytosis D. Exocytosis

7. Active transport and facilitated diffusion both require the help of _______________. A. Transport proteins B. Molecules C. Oxygen D. Equilibrium

8. Where in a cell does fermentation take place? A. Mitochondria B. Nucleus C. Cytoplasm D. Lysosomes

Completion: Complete each sentence or statement. 9. The process of taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane is called______________. 10. Metabolism is the total of all _______________ in an organism. 11. During _______________, producers use light energy to make sugars, which can be used as food. 12. During _______________, chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy. 13. When cells do not have enough _______________ for respiration, they use a process called fermentation. 14. When a(n) _______________ is required to move materials through a cell membrane, active transport takes place. Short Answer: 3. What is matter, and what are the different states of matter? 4. Explain two of the four groups of organic compounds. 5. Pick two types of passive transport and pick two types of active transport, and explain them both.

Answer Key Multiple Choice: 1. Atoms are made up of_______________. A. Protons and neutrons B. Electrons and neutrons C. Protons, neutrons, and electrons D. Neutrons

2. Something made up of only one kind of atom is called a(n)_______________. A. Substance B. Molecule C. Neutron D. Element

3. Two or elements bond in exact proportions to form a(n)_______________. A. Compound B. Mixture C. Atom D. Solution

4. A combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties is a(n)_______________. A. Compound B. Element 5. What are organic compounds? A. Compounds made from elements other than carbon B. Compounds that have both water and oxygen C. Any compound D. Compounds which always contain carbon and oxygen. C. Mixture D. Atom

6. What term is used for the movement of substances through the cell membrane without the input of energy? A. Active transport B. Passive transport C. Endocytosis D. Exocytosis

7. Active transport and facilitated diffusion both require the help of _______________. A. Transport proteins B. Molecules C. Oxygen D. Equilibrium

8. Where in a cell does fermentation take place? A. Mitochondria B. Nucleus C. Cytoplasm D. Lysosomes

Completion: Complete each sentence or statement 9. The process of taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane is called ENDOCYTOSIS 10. Metabolism is the total of all CHEMICAL REACTIONS in an organism. 11. During PHOTOSYNTHESIS, producers use light energy to make sugars, which can be used as food. 12. During RESPIRATION, chemical reactions occur that break down food molecules into simpler substances and release their stored energy. 13. When cells do not have enough OXYGEN for respiration, they use a process called fermentation. 14. When a(n) INPUT OF ENERGY is required to move materials through a cell membrane, active transport takes place. Short Answer: 15. What is matter, and what are the different states of matter? Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. The states of matter are solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

16. Explain two of the four groups of organic compounds. The four groups are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are organic molecules that supply energy for cell processes. Lipids are waxy, fatty, or oily compounds used to store and release energy. Proteins are made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Enzymes are specific proteins that regulate chemical reactions. There are 20 amino acids, and they each contain a central carbon bonded to an amino group, a carboxyl group, a hydrogen atom, and another group called R group. 17. Pick two types of passive transport and pick two types of active transport, and explain them both.

The three types of passive transport are, diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion. Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. When the concentration is equal on both sides, equilibrium is reached and diffusion stops. At equilibrium, molecules still move, but there is no longer a lower concentration area to diffuse into. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a cell membrane. Facilitated diffusion is the process in which large substances, such as glucose, can only into the cell by the help of transport proteins. The two types of active transport are endocytosis and exocytosis. Endocytosis is the process of taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane. The cell membrane folds in on itself, enclosing the item in a sphere called a vesicle. Exocytosis occurs in the opposite way that endocytosis does. The membrane of the vesicle fuses with the cell’s membrane, and the vesicle’s contents are released.

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