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Part I

Principles of Bioreactor Modelling

Biological Reaction Engineering, Second Edition, I. J. Dunn, E. Heinzle, J. Ingham, J. E. Pfenosil Copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-30759-1

Nomenclature for Part I

A A a a b b B c C

Units Area Magnitude of controller input signal Specific area Constant in Logistic Equation Constant in Luedeking-Piret relation Constant in Logistic Equation Magnitude of controller output signal Fraction carbon converted to biomass Concentration Heat capacity Carbon dioxide production rate Diffusivity Dilution rate Differential operator and diameter Fraction carbon converted to product Dissolved oxygen Enzyme concentration Ethanol Enzyme-substrate concentration Fraction carbon converted to CO2 Frequency in the ultimate gain method Flow rate Gas flow rate Intracellular storage product Partial molar enthalpy Henry's Law constant Enthalpy change Inhibiting component concentration Cell compartment masses Mass flux Mass transfer coefficient Constant in Cohen-Coon method Acid-base dissociation constant
m2 various m2/m3 1/h 1/h m3/kg h various

CPR D D d d DO E E ES f f F G G hi H AH I I j K K KD

kg/m3, kmol/m3 kJ/kg K, kJ/mol K mol/h m2/h 1/h -, m

g/m3, 9 air sat. g/m3 kg/m3 g/m3

1/h m3/h and m3/s m3 kg/m3 kJ/mol bar m3/kg kJ/mol or kJ/kg kg/m3 kg/m3 kg/m2h, mol/m2h 1/h various

Biological Reaction Engineering, Second Edition. I. J. Dunn, E. Heinzle, J. Ingham, J. E. Pfenosil Copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim ISBN: 3-527-30759-1


k Kca kGa KI KLa kLa



L M m N N n n OTR OUR P P P



r fi

rx S S s T T T L t Tr U



Constant Gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient Gas film mass transfer coefficient Inhibition constant Gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient Liquid film mass transfer coefficient Michaelis-Menten constant Proportional controller gain constant Dissociation constant of water Monod saturation coefficient Length Mass Maintenance coefficient Mass flux Molar flow rate Number of mols Reaction order Oxygen transfer rate Oxygen uptake rate Pressure Product concentration Output control signal Total transfer rate Specific rate Ideal gas constant Recycle flow rate Residual active biomass Reaction rate Reaction rate of component i Reaction rate of component i to j Respiration quotient Growth rate Concentration of substrate Slope of process reaction curve Stoichiometric coefficient Temperature Enzyme activity Time lag Time Transfer rate Heat transfer coefficient Volume Flow velocity Maximum reaction rate Wastage stream flow rate

various 1/h 1/h kg/m3, kmol/m3 1/h 1/h kg/m3, kmol/m3 various kg/m3 m kg or mol 1/h kg/m2 h mol/h _ mol/h and kg/h mol/h and kg/h bar kg/m3 and g/m3 various kg/h and mol/h kg/kg biomass h bar m3/ K mol m3/h kg/m3 kg/m3h, kmol/m3h kg i/m3h kg /m3h, kmol/m3h mol CO2/mol 2 kg biomass/m3 h kg/m3, kmol/m3 various CorK kg/m3 h, min. or s h, min and s mol/m3 h kJ/m2 C h m3 m/h kmol/m3 h m3/h


w X Y Yi y Z

Mass fraction Biomass concentration Yield coefficient Yield of i from j Mol fraction in gas Length variable

kg/m3 kg/kg kg i/kg j,mol i/mol j



8 A O


Controller error Partial differential operator Concentration difference quantity Difference operator Thiele Modulus Effectiveness factor Specific growth rate Maximum growth rate Stoichiometric coefficient Density Summation operator Residence time Controller time constant Electrode time constant

various kg/m3

1/h 1/h

h and s s s


Refers to equilibrium concentration Refers to initial, inlet, external, and zero order 1 Refers to time ti, outlet, component 1, tank 1, and first order 2 Refers to tank 2, time t2 and component 2 1,2,..., n Refers to stream, volume elements and stages A Refers to component A, anions and bulk ARefers to anions Refers to ambient a Ac Refers to acetoin and acetoin formation aer Refers to aerobic agit Refers to agitation anaer Refers to anaerobic Refers to apparent app ATP/S,Ac Refers to ATP yield from reaction glucose --> Ac ATP/S,CO2 Refers to ATP yield from glucose oxidation ATP/NADH Refers to ATP produced from NADH ATP/X Refers to consumption rate ATP > biomass


avg B Bu CO2 d D D E E f G H+ i I I inert K K+ L m m max n NH4 NC>2 NOs O and O2 P PA PB Q Q/O2 Q/S R r r,S s S SL Sn tot X X/i X/S

Refers to average Refers to component B, base, backmixing, and surface position Refers to butanediol Refers to carbon dioxide Refers to deactivation and death Refers to derivative control Refers to D-value in sterilization Refers to electrode Refers to energy by complete oxidation Refers to final Refers to gas and to cellular compartment Refers to hydrogen ions Refers to component i and to interface Refers to inhibitor Refers to integral control Refers to inert component Refers to cellular compartment Refers to cations Refers to liquid Refers to maximum Refers to metabolite Refers to maximum Refers to tank number Refers to ammonium Refers to nitrite Refers to nitrate Refer to oxygen Refers to product Refers to product A Refers to product B Refers to heat Refers to heat-oxygen ratio Refers to heat-substrate ratio Refers to recycle stream Refers to reactor Refers to reaction of substrate Refers to settler Refers to substrate and surface Refers to liquid film at solid interface Refers to substrate n Refers to total Refers to biomass Refers to biomass-component i ratio Refers to biomass-substrate ratio


Refers to difference between cations and ions Bar above symbol refers to dimensionless variable