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Lexington, KY 40546

Number 1368
ANNOUNCEMENT -New Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab Plant Sample Submission Form and Diagnostic Reporting Procedures TOBACCO -Products for Preventive Control of Tobacco Aphids ANNOUNCEMENT New Plant Disease Diagnostic Lab Plant Sample Submission Form and Diagnostic Reporting Procedures Julie Beale and Brenda Kennedy, Plant Disease Diagnosticians; and Sara Long, Diagnostic Assistant Extension Agents and County Extension staff should be aware that the Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (PDDL) has a new plant sample submission form and new diagnostic reporting procedures. Plant Disease Identification Form We will no longer be printing the three-part PDDL forms as we have in the past. The information we request for each sample is the same, but the form has a new look and should be printed as a single page in the County Extension Offices. Please be sure that the form is filled out as completely as possible. Once a client has filled out the form, you may wish to make a copy for your records prior to sending it with each sample submitted. Find the revised Plant Disease Identification Form in the Appendix of the County Procedures Manual on the PDDL website ( xtension/pdd_lab.html ). In addition to this standard form, a supplementary Tree and Shrub Disease Identification Form must be completed for all tree and shrub problems. This form can also be found in the Appendix of the

February 25, 2014

GENERAL PESTS -Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Update HOUSEHOLD -Cluster Flies

County Procedures Manual. Please print the Tree and Shrub form on yellow paper (front and back, or as two pages). Note: Many of you may still have a supply of the old three-part forms. You may continue to use them; however, when your supply is depleted, you will need to print your own copies of the new form. E-mail Notification of Diagnosis Beginning March 1, 2014, our diagnostic reports for samples will be sent by E-MAIL ONLY. We will no-longer mail hardcopies, i.e., the original [white] copy to growers or second [yellow] copy to the Extension Agent or County Extension Office. Once a diagnosis is made, if the grower has provided an e-mail address, the diagnostic report will be e-mailed directly to him/her as a Speedy-reply PDF file and the Extension Agent/County Extension Office will be copied on the e-mail. If an e-mail address is not provided for the grower, the Laboratory will not notify the grower of the laboratory results; the diagnostic report will be e-mailed directly to the Extension agent and county Extension office. It then becomes the responsibility of the Extension agent to communicate the results to the grower in a timely manner. Extension publications may be referenced within the report, noting that they are available on-line or that copies may be picked up at the local county Extension office.

Please do not hesitate to contact the PDDL if you have questions about forms, reporting procedures or sample submission.

TOBACCO Products for Preventive Control of Tobacco Aphids Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist The severe winter and apparent lack of an overwintering egg stage of the tobacco aphid may have limited survival of this insect to much farther south than normal. Our infestations begin with winged migrants that move north in the spring. The polar weather could mean a later than normal arrival in Kentucky this spring but this will depend on how rapidly populations can build in the South. The explosive growth potential of the insect will allow it to increase rapidly when it does arrive. Brandname AdmirePro4F Couraze4FInsecticide Macho4.0 ManaAlias4F MidashForte Montana4F Nuprid4.6FPro Nuprid4FMax Brandname Advise2FL Alias2F Alias2FFLOWABLE AmtideImidacloprid2F Couraze2FInsecticide Macho2.0FL Montana2F Nuprid2F Nuprid2SC WidowInsecticide %ai+ 42.8 42.3 40.2 40.6 40.7 40.6 45.2 40.4 %ai+ 21.4 21.8 21.8 22.6 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 21.4 Company BayerCropScience Cheminova,Inc. Albaugh,Inc./AgriStar MANA* ShardaUSALLC RotamNA,Inc NufarmAgProducts NufarmAgProducts

Systemic neonicotinoid (Group 4) insecticides (clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) can be applied as tray drenches or in the transplant water for essentially season-long aphid control. The greatest risk of significant aphid infestations, and the potential need for preventive control, occurs on late set tobacco. However, consolidated acreages, and the need for thorough spray coverage and multiple applications, often makes a preventive approach more desirable than watching for economic infestations and treating if needed. Clothianidin (Belay) and thiamethoxam (Platinum) are proprietary products but imidacloprid is available under many brand names and manufacturers. Dealers may switch brands from one season to the next based on price advantages. The products listed below (Tables 1 & 2) contain 2 or 4 pounds of imidacloprid per gallon and are labeled and registered in Kentucky for preventive aphid control (CDMS database).

EPAReg.Number 264827 6776097 42750140 6222156 835296 831002183979 228527 228528 EPAReg.Number 1381205 26475866222 66222203 8385112 6776091 42750110 83100783979 228484 228572 34704893

Table1. 4poundpergallon concentrates

+activeingredients *MakhteshimAganof NorthAmerica,Inc

Company WinfieldSolutionsLLC MANA* MANA* AmTide,LLC Cheminova,Inc. Albaugh,Inc./AgriStar RotamNA,Inc. NufarmAgProducts NufarmAgProducts LovelandProducts,Inc.

Table2. 2poundpergallon concentrates

+activeingredients *MakhteshimAganof NorthAmerica,Inc

There are slight differences in percent active ingredient among products. In addition, there are several products containing 1.6 lb of imidacloprid per gal that are labeled only for foliar application to control aphids on the crop. Pollinators can be exposed to imidacloprid residues when they visit flowers for nectar and pollen. Timely topping will remove flowers and minimize exposure to these important insects. Research has shown that topping burley tobacco at 10% to 25% bloom generally provides the best yield and quality. This means that 10% to 25% of the plants in a field will have at least one open flower. Dark tobacco can generally be topped anytime between the elongate bud state and 50% bloom without causing a significant impact on yield. (201314 KY & TN Tobacco Production Guide). Good stewardship of pesticides is essential to keep them available for use.

scattered throughout the ear will appear shriveled and may darken when the ear is cooked. Garden beans may have sunken lesions on the pods at the feeding sites due to the insects digestive enzymes. On okra, the damage appears as a curling of the pods and raised areas at the feeding sites. In field crops, BMSB also damages individual corn kernels throughout the ear, while feeding on soybean pods results in discolored and shrunken seeds.

GENERAL PESTS Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Update Ric Bessin, Extension Entomologist Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB) has been detected in 22 new counties in Kentucky since September and it is likely in a few additional counties while not yet officially detected. This brings the total to 48 counties with detections, although not necessarily with problems. In counties where it has been established longer it is just beginning to cause some problems in households and businesses as a nuisance pest, with a few problems in agricultural fields in the counties around Louisville, Lexington, and Ashland. Unfortunately, these problems will be increasing, albeit relatively slowly. From an agricultural perspective, BMSB causes damage to fruiting structures and other succulent parts of plants similar to green and brown stink bugs. As stink bugs feed on plants with their piercingsucking mouthparts, they also inject enzymes which can also cause damage. With crops like apples, pears, peaches, tomatoes, and peppers, the feeding causes damage underneath the skin of the fruits, often weeks before maturity. Damage appears as discolored areas (browning or paling of the flesh) in an area more or less a centimeter in size (Figure 1). With sweet corn, BMSB feeds through the husk on the developing ear as the kernels begin to blister. Individual kernels

Figure1.ExternalevidenceoffeedingandinternalBMSB damagetoapple.


BMSB is very active in the landscape, moving between wild and cultivated hosts throughout the season as host plants change in relative attractiveness. There is often a strong edge-effect in fields and orchards with high numbers of BMSB causing damage along the outer rows. Infestations may be more likely along wooded field edges or other situations near preferred hosts. Because of this, levels will need to be evaluated along field margins as well as the interior of large fields or orchards in areas where BMSB is beginning to be a pest of crops. In some instances, where treatment is warranted, spraying the outer portion of the field

along the margin may be sufficient, but reinvasion is likely after treatment and should be expected. There are no specific economic thresholds for BMSB; however, with crops like soybeans, thresholds used for other stink bugs can be used with this new stink bug. The common sampling method with BMSB in vegetable and fruit crops are 30 or 60 second timed counts. The plants or plants are searched for any stages of BMSB (eggs, nymphs, and adults) during the interval and results recorded. BMSB has a tendency to drop from plants when approached.

Cluster flies usually accumulate in wall voids, attics, and sunny rooms with southern or western exposures. They are an annoyance but they do not breed indoors, and do not cause any damage. The flies will become active on warm days, crawling and flying to windows in an attempt to go outside.
Figure4.Facefliesarecommonclusterfliesinhomesand buildingsnearcattle.

Figure3.BMSBeggs,anymph,andadult.Eggsarefoundon theundersidesofleavesinclustersof21to35.

BMSB can be more difficult to control with insecticides, so when treatment is needed insecticides listed specifically for BMSB are preferred. Refer to Vegetable Production Guide for Commercial Growers (ID-36) for vegetable insecticides; Commercial Tree Fruit Spray Guide (ID-92) and Commercial Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (ID-94) for fruit insecticides. In home garden situations, row covers or fine mesh netting (1/6 inch opening or less) can be used to exclude BMSB from plantings, but gardeners also need to balance this with pollination needs for some vegetable crops.

The face fly is the most common cluster fly species in homes and structures near pastured cattle and can occur in large numbers. Their larvae develop only in fresh cattle manure. During the summer, the adult flies feed on the mucous secretions from the eyes and faces of cattle and horses. The flies leave animals in the fall, moving to sheltered wintering sites, often in white or light-colored buildings. Face flies return to cattle in late spring and remain near them during the summer. Blue or green bottle flies have shiny dark blue to green metallic bodies and make a loud buzzing sound as they fly. Usually, there are only a few. They seek shelter in the fall but can be seen indoors most any time of year. Typical breeding sites for these flies are garbage, pet waste, and animal carcasses. They can be found in urban and rural areas. Cluster fly is the recognized common name for a sluggish gray fly with short golden hairs on its body. The larvae of this insect develop as parasites in earthworms. They also can occur in urban and rural areas. Managing cluster flies Unfortunately, there is no way to eliminate breeding sites of cluster flies. Therefore, exclusion is an important part of keeping cluster flies from entering structures. However, it is impossible to eliminate or

HOUSEHOLD Cluster Flies Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist Cluster fly is a collective name given to several fly species that spend the winter as adults in sheltered places, including homes and other structures. The flies arrive in early fall, resting for a time on external walls before entering through vents, cracks, or gaps in siding.

seal every possible opening that they may use. Some flies may find their way in after even the most conscientious pest-proofing efforts. Indoors Cluster flies tend to be sluggish so many can be swatted or sucked up using a hand-held vac. This is the most effective way to deal with them. Insecticide sprays and foggers generally have little effect. Cluster flies do not move about much so fly paper, fly strips, and bug electrocuters generally have limited effect on fly numbers. Dead flies are a food source for carpet beetles and other scavengers so it is a good idea to clean up and discard those that are found. Outdoors Often cluster flies, especially face flies, will congregate in large numbers on outside walls in the fall before they enter structures. A number of products are available to homeowners for application to outside walls for control of accidental invaders such as cluster flies, boxelder bugs, etc. Common active ingredients in these products include: cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, or permethrin. Results are best if flies are contacted directly by the spray. There will be some lasting effect against flies landing on treated surfaces but the residue will be degraded by sunlight and weathering. Several applications may be needed because the flies move to shelter over a period of time rather than all at once. These applications may leave visible residues on treated areas. Spring movement is directed outside so easing their departure is a good strategy.

Note: Trade names are used to simplify the information presented in this newsletter. No endorsement by the Cooperative Extension Service is intended, nor is criticism implied of similar products that are not named.