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Scott; Reproducing the State by Jacqueline Stevens; The Moral Purpose of the State: Culture, Social Identity, and Institutional Rationality in International Relations by Christian Reus-Smit Review by: Shannon Stimson Political Theory, Vol. 28, No. 6 (Dec., 2000), pp. 822-834 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/192222 . Accessed: 29/01/2014 08:55
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307 + xivpp.1999. C. (p. THE MORALPURPOSE OF THE STATE:CULTURE. peoples-slash-and-burn mobile ornomadic efforts tosettle atgovernments' homeless vagrants. legibility metier as a central "legibility" anditspeople. Scott James thevery outset of SeeingLikea Statethat We learnfrom comparafocused a more narrowly with book-one to write another intended that is. much likea voyofitspeople. tonUniversity SOCIALIDENTITY.28 No. 2) from those andparticularly twentieth-century andtwentieth nineteenth centuries. RELATIONS INTERNATIONAL IN RATIONALITY AND INSTITUTIONAL Press. SEEING LIKE A STATEbyJames Press. these efforts He has hasopted for anevenlarger project. Princeton University Princeton. (p.Vol. NJ:PrincePrinceton. 1).hunter-gathers. 2000 822-834 POLITICAL THEORY. Jacqueline REPRODUCINGTHESTATEby Press. Inc. Scott. C.1998. 55) wouldsuggest.210.99 on Wed.a look sedentarization. bothlandscapes rendering as Scott's references ofpolitical rulers. tive Itwould havebeena bookabout question. 822 issue.itinerants.RETHINKING THE STATE and on theLegibility Perspectives ofPoliticalSocieties Reproduction CT: Yale University NewHaven. 6. of why slavesand serfs-and a consideration runaway people.445 + xivpp. imperial age ofdiscovery functions oftaxation.1999. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .226. 382) ortheRomancastra outlines to Plato'scity planning theneedsof todistinguish heseeksinitially However. by Christian 208 pp. December ? 2000 Sage Publications. endsis a time-honored preoccupation in TheLaws (p. Gypsies. itsclassicstate conscription inwaysthat tion simplified ofthe modern" schemes those ofrebellion" "high andprevention (p. inpart. hillpeoplesofSoutheast Asia. This content downloaded from 150.Onecanimmeto"map"itsterrain stoodas theneedofa state much is buta subset ofthis legibility see that sedentarization larger diately andpeoples"legible"to political Of course. NJ: Reus-Smit. theidentity state to"discover" thepremodern thepopulaandto"arrange ofa colonizing power.ButScott domsucceeded" of andpractical problem thebookontheconceptual tofocus choseninstead where maybe underofstatecraft. Stevens. becauseitso selwere"a perennial project-perennial.
andtheorganization oftransportation seemed comprehensible as attempts atlegibility andsimplification. the greatest destructionhas beenperpetrated bythose"high modernist" socialengineers ofthe twentieth century suchas Lenin. Ofcourse. In eachcase. "most states are. as Scott since. 88). pulsory villagization Mozambique.Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 823 totalistic stateplanners. scientific self-confidence (p.Thus. 3).Mao. 184)." that sliceofitthat inter"only estedtheofficial observer. whenwe recognize that suchefforts at legibility are necessarily partial. processes as thecreation ofpermanent lastnames. 2) The creative ofsuchmetrics aspects becomeall themore Scott apparent. thestandardization ofweights andmeasures. complexity. standardization oflanguage andlegaldiscourse.226.officials tookexceptionally complex. 'younger' than thesocieties they purport toadminister" (p.thegreater the destruction.China'sGreat Leap Forward. and Le Courbusier. andlocalsocialpractices. 88). this process ofcreation is also oneofdestruction. and Ethiopia. "Thusa state cadastral mapcreatedtodesignate taxable property-holders doesnotmerely a system describe oflandtenure. Scott characterizes all state metricsoflegibility as efforts notto"read"a peopleso muchas "write" them: as disparate Suddenly. and theutopian planning schemesthey respectively imposed(or directly influenced): collectivization in Russia. "abridged intended torepresent maps. whose is to"ratioeffort nally all aspects engineer ofsociallifeinorder toimprove thehuman condition" (p.andthemore comprehensive the plan. whoseaim was nothing a utopian less than reconofsociety. illegible. itcreates sucha system through itsability togiveitscategories theforce oflaw" (p. suggests. Byfar.and urban planning theory as realizedin such new modelcitiesof Chandigarh and Brasilia. and unrepeatability of social forms thatare relatively opaque to thestate. struction Just as often. suchas landtenure customs ornaming customs. however. high modernism provides the desire. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . comin Tanzania. 183).every purposely suchcommunity rewritten legibly involves thedestruction ofa preceding one. Whatis high modernism? Scott itas a totalistic characterizes "aspiration totheadministrative ofnature ordering andsociety" inspired bya hubristic. (P. Scott continues.andas suchthese societieswilltypically have"independently" evolved"a diversity. 3). thedesign ofcities. ForScott. often so" (p. theestablishment ofcadastral surveys andpopulation registers. Julius Nyerere. the modern state This content downloaded from 150. or rather an uncritical in technological faith andscientific "progress" shared bya spectrum ofpolitical ideologies ofthe Left andthe Right.99 on Wed. Scottlabels it an ideology.broadly speaking." and that theintended purpose of suchgridsis more toremake than toreflect reality (p. the invention offree-hold the tenure.210. notes. andcreated a standard itcouldbe centrally grid whereby recorded andmonitored.
Quantitatively. practices high-modern analogies-RobertOwen's New culture" (p. technoofthe"avant engineers. than (p. planners. inthe as wellas Leninandothers. many (Prussia that were government under theCzarist ingandmodelvillageconstruction theperiodof WarCommutheOctober revolution during after "repeated vast schemes(1853-69) nism"(p. 97). cover a vast historical range. nature ofhuman This content downloaded from 150. Saint Simon. want. Baron Haussmann's of "forebears" Paris. and.theShahofIran. 88). logicis extraordinarily cautionary ports conceived modernism is best that high states Forexample. Plato. Indeed. 96) toengineering calamity itself.Alternatively. areplacedcomfortably David Lilienthal. finally. of Scott'sfirst examples (p. among as an eclectic garde group who andvisionaries.210. engineering Scott's central arguments: high-modern of entiresocial orders"perpetrated by twentieth-century order different and a qualitatively is of botha quantitatively authoritarians the techScott schemes earlier argues. 341). ofseemingly "authorless" there area number samepantheon (p. Robert Moses. in ofthebeliefs version evensaymuscle-bound) ofas "a strong (one might with industrialization wereassociated progress that scientific andtechnical World WarI" 1830until andNorth from roughly America inWestern Europe twochapters. administrators. Robert Descartes. they Qualitatively.99 on Wed." scientists.thefascinating Gerandnineteenth-century in late-eighteenthscientific forestry detailing scientific farmschemes ofcompulsory Russian andSaxony). 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . force) provides (p. 44). utopian took a intervention and for societal giant and organization capacities niques from Wallearned intheaftermath ofWorld WarI. 89). andlessons leapforward werenotlost mobilization economic German ter Rathenau's unprecedented theconquest sitesfrom their turned on Leninandothers.weresimply underLouis Napoleonforredesigning moderns describes thehigh Scott however. Jean Monnet. to build(dis)utopias" on which theleveled terrain provides Scottsupwith which andcase studies The sweepofhistorical examples a little conifoccasionally this rich."although andinapt level"(p. high-level McNamara. what was tocome. architects. ofAmerican inthis credo agrisuchas "the pantheon." straw creating fied rational "theideaofroot-and-branch. Suchvaguereferences comparisons a national than toosimpliofhigh modernism as beingitself serve theconcept tochallenge dilute oneof that menandarguments orvaguean "optic. 89). In thisway. 271) and some problematic on a civicrather Lanarkis said to "share"Mao's visionofman.824 2000 POLITICAL THEORY /December use of ofthelegitimate terms as themonopolizer in Webenran (understood civilsociety and thelegibleand "incapacitated themeans. heinitially fusing. crats. Trotsky. andtransformation the transformation ofnatural thearbitrariness (p. and Julius Nyerere. and ofeliminating intheservice ofnature scarcity.226.
change. Scottclaims"twoimportant facts" about thenineteenth-century modern forebears": vir"high that "first. villagization. However. and moreconvenient" (p.99 on Wed. clinics andcleanwater" andwas "not. Thefirst is certainly fact notsupported inthebookbyany historical ortextual evidence. butthat does notmeanitis orfixed." or "irrational" bycentral planners in order to legitimatetheimposition ofa newandmore legiblegrid(p.Indeed. 328). tually every high-modernist intervention was undertaken inthenameofand with thesupport ofcitizens seeking helpandprotection. high standard ofliving. or "stepbystep'muddling through"' (p. paraphrasing MichaelOakeshot's critique ofrationalism.second.anddivergent" (p.Scott's accountis also sensitiveto the shortcomings of an acontextual or a rigidly oftheir unsympathetic intended aimsor rendering partial successes. no traditional skill everremains fixed" (p. tocreate planners sought urbanhousingthatwas "cheaper." "superstitious. 385 n. must which be presented contemptuously as "backward. the second is so vagueas tobe as unexceptional as itis unobjectionable. morehealthful.65). rigid Rather.210. centrally planned anddirected collectivization.Metis is theGreekterm that usestorefer Scott tothat knowledge embedded inlocalexperience orthe accumulated skillthat a worker possesses ofhisowncraft andis composed of contextual that knowledge is described as "plastic. continual. as has often beenthecase. 96). andurban design systematically eradicated thesources oflocalexpertise andinitiative in theorganization ofcommunal andpolitical life. Metisis a form oftraditional knowledge. he implicitly itis no moretrue that recognizes of highmodernism than ofanyattempted prognostication that nothing ages so oratleastourideaofit. Paradoxically. local.Scottsuggests that "no traditional wayofbehavior. that we and.a part ofa planofpunitive ethnic appropriation. are all beneficiaries in certainways. reasonScottwishesto stress thedistinctiveness ofthe twentieth-century high-modernist schemes. 96). Unlike their forebears. Metisis thus seenas the"dark twin" ofhigh modernism. ofcourse. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . This content downloaded from 150. Anddespite themanifest orcommunal aesthetic ofa shortcomings planned suchas Brasilia. itundergoes ifgradual. TheaimofNyerere's in ujamaa villages Tanzania wasa development andwelfare for project the"efficient of delivery schools. of these varioushigh-modernist schemes" (p.Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 825 While the oflater emphasizing destructiveness (orgenuinely high-modernist) schemes. 332). andthe fact itis a safeenvithat ronment for children" (p. in a seeming effort once again to sharpen a contrast between earlier and later versions ofthefaith. 331). city Scott inan endnote recognizes "there that are.Urban quickly as the future. somethings that residents do likeabout inBrasilia: living thegovernment the facilities. 332).226. ormilitary cleansing security" (p. is an important there However. 223).
this prognosticating andinwhich hasbeendeclared solutions theendof"biggovernment" which and liberalization. nowmeets political organized intheeconomy mechanism at least)havemeta market lators (hereandinmuchofEurope.nonstate-controlled) tion. privatization. private politics.210.99 on Wed. misHayek principles: is Hayekian recycled but analysis that such suggest Scott whereas order.it is traditional thatScott planning of centralized uniformity ity-ratherthanrational "progress" and political for economic possibility holdsthegreatest believes by institutions. like. 335). ofmetis-based theplurality tomakewayfor tosee a criItis interesting converted. democratic liberal means which hebasically economy. globalization andfew with legisresistance. Liberal responsible to state-inspired andprivate spaces)maybe thebarrier democratic politics nowcome metis to threats the whether greatest butone wonders planning. the languageof themarket intervention Eventhemost meager government is triumphant. 8). mechanism. Nevertheless. every appearing liberal with economy (along political somepart (p. future.e. tothelargely Scott maybe preaching at evenoneso admittedly appearing elegant. planning. solutions. then. He endsthebookwith and libspaces. 101). eralpolitical ofmetis leadsScott Theconcept proposal? ofScott's What arewetomake anddeveleconomic concerning authority decision-making tofavor pushing of the periphery at local actors and out to the center awayfrom policy opment would today Few economists analogies. critoScott's sympathetic metis. tohigh-modernist ofScott's resistances third anchor proposed on a visionofthe"science"of rests (p. certainly recognizes arein markets as wellthat andherecognizes commodity day. tiqueofstate-inspired seemtobe anerain ourswould the Without time. 335). This content downloaded from 150.226. as welltobe an thought Hayekis surely andplastic. andtofavor whowould tothose response hasa preprepared Scott However." a call for"metis-friendly (p.. ilyautonomous. coordination" market unfettered resist "politically "libplanning.826 2000 POLITICAL THEORY /December and fluiddynamism. diverse. andevena reader inspirer ofsucheconomic unfettered to thepolitically hisresistance tiqueis boundto ask whatform of state clearlyimpliesa weakening wouldtake. opposethis.Scott'sanalysis market inorder localeconomies innational andparticularly andinvolvement power Ifthis is hismessage. metis-with its diversity. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . market-driven thestate. didn't they aredisofmetis that someforms Scott Inall fairness." with a "spontaneous as synonymous tookthemarket stateand would ofthenineteenth-century itas an "imposition" recognizes the (p.itself economy" eralpolitical be comadvisers. from thestate. solufor the and all is said After high-modernist push done. Scott mayinfact ofeconomic andtheexpertise economics incarnathat intheir present ofbelieving fallacy a secondHayekean mitting arenecessarnetworks ofknowledge market (i.
5). suchas those ofrace. 410 n. be theextent towhich states sider arenowmore orlessimpotent inthe might face of theIMF.and theregulatory demandsof competitive capitalism. "here the'state'refers to one form ofa political society. Stevens is primarily concerned with theopposite-that precisely ofthepast(oratleastinvois. "Rather. 56). that andphilosophers contemporary theorists havesubpolitical Herconcern is with jectedto scrutiny. Indeed. about the influence that utopian ideas of thefuture exercise on thepresent. thethought that thenightmares of thefuture flowfrom a near-utopian might that thenatural or the pretense is powerful smallandfluid toresist the ofthe market. whilesignifiinsubstance andapproach. focused but Stateoffers alternatively equally cautionary perspecwith tiveon thestatecompared that of Scott. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A secondcontrast with Scott is readily inthefact observable that Stevens choosesnot to"define" thestate inWeberian expressly a terms." sheclaims." future) In several Stevens's bookReproducing the important respects.210. However. This content downloaded from 150. monopoly oreven"as a close synonym for as the government" ofcoercion institution (p. possiblecertain She beginswiththeobservation that whilecontemporary philosophers suchas John Rawlsunderstand political "as thelocation society that settles differences" (p. onequestion that Scott's andprovocative powerful bookmight leadus to consider is whether efforts at politically metis aresufficient to supported orwhether resist.99 on Wed. or gender. Jacqueline a powerful. theconditions that shebelieves make forms of inequality. A state as a membership has rulesforindividuals' organization inclusions and exclusions" (p. 86." while Scott However. ethnicity. enough juggernaut Certainly. as possessing overthelegitimate use offorce. WhileMax Weber wouldseethestate as the ultimate decision maker over the population within itsborders. nationality. (as in someBorgian "resistance is futile. 4). theWorld and "homogenizing" Bank.Theirprojects. Stevens focuses on "theconditions that yieldtheparticular andmajorities" minorities (p. 56).p. for aninterestcantly different nevertheless make Stevens focuses shetakes tobe theimmemorial equallyon what practice of statesto makethepeopleand geographical under their rule landscapes is concerned "legible. twentieth most notorious werenightmares century's high-modern utopias of thisdoes notpreclude history. theoutcomes of the Unquestionably.226. 411 n.thepresence cations ofit)andthose constraints that conventional frameworks conceptual of ideas ofthepastcontinue to exercise on ourpresent andfuture political life. Stevens claimshe is "moreinterested in the ing comparison. itis also useful toconsider political society as a form ofmembership organization that necessarily givesriseto suchdifferences inthefirst place.Specifically.Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 827 from tions inTanzania andEthiopia cameas clearly theWorld Bankas from a question toconthestates themselves (p. 99).
law. for example. society. Reproducing ofdensely packed of affiliation based on nationality. regulate society itis a group's Stevens societies. 93). passports. ests"(p.226. for from those society and in Economy "ethnicity"-which differing basedon their within a state religion.99 on Wed. renders ita political at birth" (p.210. thestate suchas Scott Indeed. ethnicity. thevarious inanother" (p. Suchan approach or toadminister they purport the societies that states are"younger" than most priorcommunities superceded plannedcommunities thathigh-modern objecsources.Ofcourse. Whileon a grounds" they mayhavebeenon normative tionable in suchstatements. exist recognition bya political associations a "form ofbeing" that (p. tradition. language. andlegitimacy" thestate's sovereignty thisWeberian tendto incorporate Stevensargues. which requires tion ofmembership "paradigmatically kinship. thereproduction population-through the andso forth" account. 191). turns out." sheclaimsthat itis only as such. however from nonstate derived mostly "whosecohesion (p. race.828 2000 POLITICAL THEORY /December andmarkets populations bodiestocontrol andpunitive ofregulatory abilities in one political individuals that setoff the provisions than inthemembership subgroups Weber.' allthe us "legible" determining state makes waydown. givessuchassociations ofits forms ofbeing anddisorderly taxonomizes the"orderly The state thus ruleson birth ofkinship certificates. particular interfor their arenas) tofight from these (orareblocked licspheres inScott's suggestion is present.andethofgender. tomembership when "treat identities they approach of or "viewaffiliations as already coherent variables.Stevens's the Stateis a complex In a series chapters. 57). 56). So. that entry This content downloaded from 150. appear might ofsociety against or"natural" noprepolitical insofar as itmeans "not political. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofconformity anddevinorms enforcer ofmembership atorandlegitimate Weberian. considered of insucha group from theimperative wouldbe "separate thus membership (p. in this case thestate. heredity.. marriage 'outwhois 'deviant. race.and look at theconcepts ofpolitical basicform ofa more howeachis a corollary andsuggests family as it Not all societies that membership.." independent nicity the pubthat comeinto andraceas pre-constituted groups nationality. 57). 57)-are intheaffinity ordisaffinity "andespecially thebelief and phenomena. (p. in somecases "natural" to be preconstituted. 95). arepolitical Rather. xv).On Stevens's licenses. xv). xiii). also sounds state strangely taxonomizing ance.'or 'alien' (p. based on kinship. family. creas theultimate inthis understood way. Politicalscientists. true there is something obviously temporal grid strictly the"naturalizing" character ofsuchimplicit aimstoatleastdisrupt Stevens's for celebrations andtoraise unalloyed toself-determination problems claims tobe making.Rather. bycontrolling one (p. to include least is rendered Society at ofblood"(p. regulaclaims.
but commits somebasichowlers. ifcaustic. nationality.226. andgratuitous sniping. 7).and theterm itself "the comestoconvey naturalized over thestructure ofgroup rules only patina formembership" a set of wide-ranging into (p. employing excessive analogizing. dying incattlecarsenroute totheUnited States from Mexico.99 on Wed. andthemetonymic nation. 57). "someprimordial andracewith darksideofthehuman condition" (p. race." sinceall ofthese "necessarily follow" from thesameprerogatives (p. Stevens's critical however. families are constructed different ways.andlosing their homes for want oftheright ethnicity inBosnia. Alongtheway. caricature.210. are deciding anthropologists thatpoliticalcommunities havesomething to do with what we call 'race"' (p. orthat hiswillingness inSpheres ofJustice toaccept the"prerogatives ofpolitical societies toregulate membership according tofamily ties" finds implicitly acceptable "peoplestarving todeath inEthiopia. arefixed attributes "ofa pre-political. Theauthor ofOntological Relativity and Other This content downloaded from 150. 204). Through explorations theories of languageand linguistic idiom. there willbe far-reaching ofviolence that follow from thecorollary practices ofnationality. Stevens manages a very broad range ofresearch materials. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ofthelackofdisciplinary observations insomerecent coordination research on theconcept ofrace:"Whilepolitical scientists arebusystudying 'races' based on illogicaltypologies that havebeenrepudiated bythepeoplewho developedthem. ties"(p. assume)that lineage. Inaddition.andgender biological individual" (p. race.20). Durkheimian and a welter sociologyof religion.anthropological studies.andfamily shewants toavoidessentialist ofidentification these that arguments involving conceptsand insteadwishesto explorea "phenomenological argument" of thedichotomy and culture aboutthejuridical between nature rendering associations ofcertain affiliations suchas family. 8). 176). of individual historical documents andcontemporary case studies. Within differing political in notably ies. analysis falters. At other points. 16). Stevens forms insists ethnicity. typically marriage-based establishing "Aslongas there arepolitical societies basedonkinship communities: forms.Stevens punches impressive holesin arguments that suggest (or worse. sheperforms a deft demolition on the of some current foundations for the essential sociologist'sarguments ofnationalism. 57 n. as whenshe sugMichaelWalzer's geststhat ofthefamily concept "is liketheNationalGeographic specialthat cheerfully anthropomorphizes theloving lioness andher cubs"(p. She also produces "modernity" somehumorous. from inearly ranging ligeance bybirth modern toAmerican England antimiscegenation some law. xv).Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 829 aim is ofthebookis then focused on thisconvenThe critical squarely method ofpolitically ancestral tional. is an archetypal The use oftheterm instance of"thephenomenolfamily societogyoftheartificial-as-natural" (p.
wouldhavebeen nolessbecauseitwasthe should be ofinterest toStevens andfamily-which inheritable" settled on her "issue bya prenuptial family.The accession VanOrman peothe Scottish make didnot "byextension" English throne James VI. 128). anddistribution cooperation Willard is thephilosopher andbibliography. 5) that of what he takes tobe thefailure inexploring interested Smitis particularly their differandconstructivists-despite realists andneorealists.99 on Wed.Although than maybe raised equal toorgreater of theconstruction somearguments concerning hersuccessin buttressing thefactthat from shouldnotdetract with historical cases. inboth thetext Essays. "most language-"a vocabula artis"-very difficult written What hedidnot needtotell andread. nameofhismother's Westcote-was husband Thomas withhercourtier longestabagreement of as judge common as was hisdistinguished reputation lishedin England.The treatise is a technical to his commentary the introduction clearly notes in which Coke comand topronounce.they nationality a book to attract a and has written likely original very provocative Stevens wideaudience.830 2000 POLITICAL THEORY /December King. as cited This content downloaded from 150. and InstituIn The Moral Purpose of theState: Culture. balance lies inthe relations thecoreofinternational on whether ingpostures orthepractical under ofpower. Likewise. Christian maketheir landsandpopulations states thewaysin which less with cerned rulesthan decision ormembership making making legibleto governmental institutions and the"fundamental ofinternational totheorists politics legible Reussocieties ofstates.TheScotofa "conquest" not byreason andcertainly ple"English." onthe sameperson were settled (James I) crowns tish VI) andEnglish (James and lawsofsuccession.notThomasQuine.Social Identity. 163). which Littleton drew BooksandReports upon name was the fact that Littleton's as common knowledge. andvery rarely spoken. confluence oftwoindividual onlybyan accidental enjoyed postnatiScotsmen justiceclaimsthat Calvin'scase andthenatural exagtosupport the do nothing andlegalcapacities separate political through thesuggestion misnomer.226.210. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . was written commentary on it. famous templar themost pleasandas certainly ofa commenthe relevance domestic havehadnoneedtojustify Cokewould in England was ofa manwhoselegalandpersonal on thework legacy tary to suchexceptions hisown. neoliberals. tothe (p. Of Tenureswas written several counts (p."' monly Year oftheEnglish was that thiswas also thelanguage lawyers ofhistime his That as the sources of work. inner ofthefifteenth century.sincetheoriginal inLaw-French. imperanarchy. is conReus-Smit tional Rationalityin InternationalRelations. structure institutional differing practices" (p. imposition ofsucha linguistic gerated forto theapparent someEnglishness that Coke neededto "impute Edward a tojustify andhisTenuresinorder (de) Littleton ofThomas eigncharacter" on is misleading inFrench. oftheScottish Quine.
andunconstituted valuesandhistorical cannot unfettered actors. explainwhytheancient cooperation theRenaissance Italians choseoratorical oftheabsolutwhy diplomacy. Greeks chosearbitration to solvetheir problems. Reus-Smit takes tointernational relations as "holistic theory characterized constructivism" (p. bycultural experience. Reus-Smit's method beliefthat the"justifying forthe single.99 on Wed. suchsocieties homogeneous of"intersubjective values"reflected ina unique belief about the "hegemonic moral ofthestate" is then to "find" the purpose (p. AndReus-Smit highlights ofinstitutional rationality implicit tionsofthe"deontological" conceptions in neoliberal regime theory: that context-free rational modelsofinstitutional Abstract rationality imagine timeless.hegemonic provides foundations of sovereignty and informing thenorm of procedural organizing principle This content downloaded from 150. a bookofscarcely 170pages. 165). international notcontempoand comparative "international theory history. statesoverofstates also share a certain set eignty) (p.210.. 89). 160). 4) throughout history. oreven important inthis theshift from themedieval tothe ininternational millennium: politics thelimitamodern international system" (p.Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 831 account for either thegeneric nature of atives ofsovereignty-to "adequately ofsovfundamental institutions orinstitutional variations between societies his project as one of He describes ereign states" (p. rary institutional politics" (p. of timeon a thoroughgoing The core of thebook spendslittle critique reiterates John ofinternational relations.e. or whymodern havechosencontractual international andmultilateralism. 89)-that it "provides todescribe." historian anapproach ofthe AddaBozeman. the most contextual change which toaccount for. 6). why Europeans states istperiod chosenaturalist international law and old diplomacy. on Ruggie'sdevelopment of a historically informed "conElaborating structivist on modern as wellas thework international perspective society. 11).His aimis "to informed constructivist offundamental institudevelopa historically theory construction" tional on identifying thediffer(p.226. enjoysimilar structural conditions (i. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (P. 160) It is especially useful to quoteReus-Smit at length herebecausehiscriofdeontological to explain whydifferent tiqueof thefailure neoliberalism societiesof sovereign statescreatedifferent fundamental institutions providesa succinct outline for the heconducts inthe project book. for ambitious this turns outto be a very project. 5) that placestheemphasis one ing ontological commitments that distinguish societies of statesfrom another. This somefairly hisapproach beginswith significant assumptions: throughout societies of states tory. However. Reus-Smit other Ruggie's paradigms no meansby neorealism" of "Waltzian critique (p.
and"ThePractice of Interstate followedby an all too briefrereadingof Arbitration. 55-61). 6). Reus-Smit'sfinal. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .99 on Wed. 49) ofinterstate dispute However.Renaissance Italy (pursuit ofglory). 62). institution" corefundamental (p.226. 62)." Suchrevisions should presumablycomplicate hiscontribution anyargument about tothe hegemonic moral viewofliberalism as stated here. Reus-Smit promises "enhanced heuristic power" toexplain thedivergent institutional practices that characterize different societies ofstates. He doesso for four societies ofstates: ancient Greece(cultivation ofbios politikos). Exactly This content downloaded from 150. Theanalysis ofthe"substantive moral views"ofa thinker suchas AdamSmith is a cartoon ofthe"homo economicus" ofthis reading thinker." "incontext" Thucydides's Peloponnesian War (pp. One might that this argue view hedgedmoretoward an Athenian rather thana Spartan perspective. The analysis ofwhy "theancient Greeks" chosetheinstitutional practice of"interstate arbitration" is similarly basedon virtually thumbnail sketches in Ancient of "The Extraterritorial Institutions Greece"(twopages).and notembraced conception justice. bytherational pursuit is a ofjusticethrough action andspeech"(p. mental institution" (p. Reus-Smit choosesto setasidejusthow toward speechmaking.especially (p. suggesting a complete innocence ofthe factthat Smith has beenmorerecently embraced bytheorists ofbothcivic virtue republicanism and"cosmopolitanism.On this reading. Such an admissionwould thenseem to undermine hadnotimagined thestate as claimthat "iftheancient Greeks counterfactual a discursive of procedural they did. buthere thesevere brevity ofhisproject andparticularly oftheschematic histories of thecrucial socialandcultural "contexts" putatively giving risetohegemonic intersubjective moral principles fails todeliver. ofthePeloponnesian theAthenians andSpartans ofculWar-irrespective aresimply tural differences that elidedhere-are thought toshare a homogein themoral thecity-state neousbelief ofthestate: "that existed to purpose form facilitate a particular ofcommunal marked life. absolutist Europe (maintenance ofdivinely ordained social order). andmodern society (augmentation ofindividuals' purposes andpotentialities). life weretheforms ofcommunal different andpolitical structures strikingly their ofthewarinfavor ofemphasizing ofthese atthetime opposedpowers as the"corefundacommitments tothird-party arbitration shared putatively brief the resolution. 51). as the haveemerged there that arbitration would then is little reason tobelieve so.832 POLITICAL THEORY /December 2000 justice"(p. evidence offered hereis hedged forlackofempirical ofarbitration account from theavailableeviwith therecognition that "itis difficult togeneralize cases is unknown" whentheuniverse of arbitral dence.210."The Constitutional Structure ofAncient Greece" (three pages). wereinclined own comments on how little givenThucydides's Spartans In general.
tive.of course.In thelatter twocases at suchsocieties ofstates least. to saythat ScottandStevens share a desire to submit state-centered ofreforming processes andreproducing political association to renewed critical Theirefforts scrutiny. are.Stimson /REVIEW ESSAY 833 herewithReus-Smit's Thereis no disagreement expressed historical claimthat forms ofarbitration wereusedtodecidecases within interGreek relations. Aristotle's of theindependent constitustudy lifeofAthens tional ended. Andhistorians suchas Victor state havelongconsidered Ehrenburg thevarious unions individual Greek either characterized transcending states.210. orbypubliclaw (leagues). itseemsfair however. 170). Phillip of Macedon andhisson-Alexander the Great-rather inthe than context ofthe wars ofa previous century. bytheexigencies power (hegemonic alliances). to demonstrate inability that thepractice ofagreement conclusively toarbitration a substanimplies commitment to one moralprinciple.shared that of Arisparticularly totle's biospoliticos philosophically expressed (p. Itis difficult tocompare therelative merits ofthree suchdifferent considerations ofthestate. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . provokea reconsideration ofthestate's pervasive andformative power overthe identities and thesocial and political livesof citizens. forms ofsecularized employed arbitradiffering tionthat the"appealstodivine probably replaced intervention" ofan earlier moreproblematic is Reus-Smit's age. 46). icleAthens' political anddemocratic lifethrough this tothe period endofthe fifth at whichpoint century. in particular. itis nottoomuch tosuggest that state institutions largely create rather than reflect suchvalues. However. Aristotle had actually little to sayaboutrelations between states he might also (p.99 on Wed. However. the paralleled endofAthenian andcity-state dominance. This contrast mayalso reflect thepresent methodologicalfixations of international relations literature on thestatesuchthat evena constructivist treats itas a unitary actor basedoncommon values. center by a religious ofpolitical (amphictyonies).2However.In historically contextual Aristotle's life terms. mention. In a concluding Reus-Smith notes that afterthought.For ScottandStevens.Thesetwoauthors. strikingly at odds with Reus-Smit's proposal torethink international relations theory basedon theshared ontological commitments that he believes notonlyunify individual states butalso inform theinstitutions oflarger societies ofstates within theinternational order. Despite differences offield andoftheoretical perspective. His Constitutions which Reus-Smit doesnot doesusefully chronofAthens. He might therefore be better inreaction toan evolving interpreted international of"Helsociety lenistic" states dominated bythemonarchic hegemon. their concernsdivideoverScott'scelebration of societyagainstthe stateand his This content downloaded from 150. havenoted that lifeandthought Aristotle's failtooverlap with that ofeither ownlifetime ortheperiod Thucydides's ofthePeloponnesian War.226.
2 vols. 1832). This content downloaded from 150. T. 19th ed.226.TheFirst oftheLaws ofEngland. is a professor Stimson Shannon of California.orA Commentary 1.834 POLITICAL THEORY /December 2000 adaptation. Berkeley University NOTES PartoftheInstitutes Coke. ofpoliticalscienceat the University andpolitiwhere sheteaches andthe history ofeconomic Berkeley. a range inthe theoretical and three booksreflect ofwelcome renewed interest practical implications ofhowwe conceptualize thestate.103-42. Clarke.210. 1960).. Edward revised andcorrected andCharles Butler. as if the counterposition of stateplanning to social pragmatic Considered as a group. political philosophy cal thought. 1:xxxix. -Shannon Stimson ofCalifornia. the engineering state was theonly onethat mattered.99 on Wed. byFrancis Hargrave (London:J. 29 Jan 2014 08:55:28 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . TheGreek State(London:Basil Blackwell. Victor Ehrenberg. uponLittleton.& W. 2.