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# UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PERLIS

NAME

PROGRAMME

signature
MATRIK #

## EXPERIMENT 6 ACTIVE FILTERS

GROUP DATE

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

1! O"#ECTIVE\$
1.1. To demonstrate the use of operational amplifiers in active filters 1.2. To specify the components required for a utter!orth lo! or high"pass filter 1.#. To build and test a utter!orth lo! or high"pass active filter for a specific frequency

2! INTRO%&CTION\$
A filter is a circuit that produces a prescribed frequency response as described in the e\$periment on %assive &ilters. %assive filters are combination circuits containing only resistors' inductors' and capacitors ()L*+. Active filters contain resistance and capacitance plus circuit elements that provide gain' such as transistors or operational amplifiers. The ma,or advantage of active filters is that they can achieve frequency response characteristics that are nearly ideal and for reasonable cost for frequency up to about 1-- ./0. Above this' active filters are limited by band!idth. Active filters can be designed to optimi0e any of several characteristics. These include flatness of the response in the passband' steepness of the transition region' or minimum phase shift. The utter!orth form of filter has the flattest passband characteristic' but is not as steep as other filters and has poor phase characteristics. 1ince a flat passband is generally the most important characteristic' it !ill be used in this e\$periment. The order of a filter' also called the number of poles' governs the steepness of the transition outside the frequencies of interest. In general' the higher the order' the steeper the response. The roll"off rate for active filters depends on the type of filter but is appro\$imately 2 2-d 3decade for each pole. (A decade is a factor of 1- in frequency+. A four pole filter' for e\$ample' has a roll"off of appro\$imately 2 4-d 3decade. A quic. !ay to determine the number of poles is to count the number of capacitors that are used in the frequency"determining part of the filter. &igure 2.1 illustrates a t!o"pole active lo!"pass and a t!o"pole active high"pass filter. Each of these circuits is a section. To ma.e a filter !ith more poles' simply cascade these sections' but change the gains of each section according to the values listed in TA LE 1.

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

## (b+ 1econd 5rder /igh"%ass &ilter

&igure 2.1 1econd 5rder &ilter TA LE 1 %oles 2 9 8 1ection 1 1.748 1.172 1.-84 6ain )equired 1ection 2 2.2#7 1.748 1ection # 2.94#

:seful )elationships;

fc = fc =

1 (1ingle"pole filter+ 2 RC

(2.1+

## (2.2+ (2.#+ (2.9+

3! EQ&IPMENT\$
3.1. 17 . (2+ 3.2. 1- . (1+ 3.3. 22 . (1+ #.9. -.9< =& (2+ #.7. -.-22 =& (1+ #.8. -.-1 =& (2+ #.<. LM <91 5%"AM% #.4. >* %o!er 1upply #.?. >ual"trace oscilloscope #.1-. &unction generator

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

4! PROCE%&RE\$
4!1! S'(o)* O+*'+ Lo,-Pa.. A(t/0' F/lt'+ 9.1.1. *alculate theoretical cutoff frequency for 1econd 5rder Lo! %ass &ilter sho!n in &igure 9.1 and record in TA LE 2. 9.1.2. *onstruct circuit sho!n in &igure 9.1. *onnect the function generator at input. Ad,ust the function generator to produce 1 Ap sine !ave at 7-- /0. 9.1.#. Increase the frequency from function generator until the output voltage Ais equal to -.<-< times the input voltage. The frequency !here this occurs is the cutoff frequency of the filter. Measure and record this frequency' input voltage' output voltage in TA LE 2 and TA LE #. 9.1.9. 1et the frequency to the value in TA LE 2' measure and record input and output voltage. *omplete TA LE #. 9.1.7. :se the values to calculate the voltage gain' A and AdB . *omplete TA LE 2 and plot the ideal and e\$periment voltage gain versus frequency on 6)A%/ 1.

* 2

- .- 2 2 u & @17A

) 1 I B % : T ' A in 17.

) 2

2 #

<

8 LM <91 9

5 : T % : T 'A o u t

17. * 1 - .- 1 u &

"1 7 A

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

&igure 9.1 1econd 5rder Lo!"pass filter 4!2! S'(o)* O+*'+ 1/23-Pa.. A(t/0' F/lt'+ 9.2.1. *alculate theoretical cutoff frequency for 1econd 5rder /igh %ass &ilter sho!n in &igure 9.2 and record in TA LE 9. 9.2.2. *onstruct circuit sho!n in &igure 9.2. *onnect the function generator at input. Ad,ust the function generator to produce 1 Ap sine !ave at 1./0. 9.2.#. Increase the frequency from function generator until the output voltage Ais equal to -.<-< times the input voltage. The frequency !here this occurs is the cutoff frequency of the filter. Measure and record this frequency' input voltage' output voltage in TA LE 9 and TA LE 7. 9.2.9. 1et the frequency to the value in TA LE 9' measure and record input and output voltage. *omplete TA LE 7. 9.2.7. :se the values to calculate the voltage gain' A and AdB . *omplete TA LE 9 and plot the ideal and e\$periment voltage gain versus frequency on 6)A%/ 2.

) 1

1-. @17A

* 1 I B % : T ' A in - .- 1 u &

* 2

2 #

<

8 LM <91

5 : T % : T 'A o u t

- .- 1 u &

) 2 22. "1 7 A

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

## 4! RES&LT\$ /! S'(o)* O+*'+ Lo,-Pa.. F/lt'+

TA LE 2 &requency (*alculated+
f C LPF = 1 2 R1R2C1C2

&requency (E\$periment+
Vout = 0.707Vin

52 6a+7.8

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

TA LE #

frequency, f (./0+

Vin

Vout

A( dB )

1 fC = 12 LPF 1 fC = 8 LPF
1 fC = 4 LPF

6 f CLPF =
521 6a+7.8

## //! S'(o)* O+*'+ 1/23-Pa.. F/lt'+

TA LE 9 &requency (*alculated+
f C LPF = 1 2 R1R2C1C2

&requency (E\$periment+
Vout = 0.707Vin

52 6a+7.8

TA LE 7

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

frequency, f (./0+

Vin

Vout

A( dB )

1 fC = 8 HPF 1 f C HPF = 4
1 fC = 2 HPF

f C HPF = 4 f C HPF =
10 f C HPF =
#O\$TA%E %AIN (!(")

50 f C HPF =
30 4 28 2 26
0 &2 &4 &6 &8

521 6a+7.8

24 22 20 18 16
53 6a+7.8

## ! " #O\$TA%E %AIN

&10 14 &12 12 &14 10 &168 &186 &204 &22 &24 &26 &28 &30

2 0

2 4 6 8 3 4 1 10 5 1 10

10 10 100

FREQUENCY

1 10

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

6)A%/ 1

30 4 28 2 26
0 &2 &4 &6 &8

24 22 20 18 16

## ! " #O\$TA%E %AIN

&10 14 &12 12 &14 10 &168 &186 &204 &22 &24 &26 &28 &30

2 0

2 4 6 8
53 6a+7.8

10 10 100

FREQUENCY

1 10

4 1 10

5 1 10

Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

6)A%/ 2

## 6! Q&ESTION\$ 6a+7 528

Q1 A1 Q2 A2 Q3 A3 Q4 A4

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Q4 A4

## >etermine the band!idth of Lo!"%ass &ilter by referring 6raph 1.

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Q6 A6 Q A

/o! many poles does a second"order lo!"pass filter haveD /o! many resistors and ho! many capacitors are used in the frequency"selective circuitD

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To increase the critical frequency of a high"pass filter' !ould you increase or decrease the resistor valueD

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Analog Electronics II

Laboratory Module

Q9 A9

## Chat is the application of active filter in daily useD

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Q: A:

Chat is the relationship bet!een frequency response and reactance pf capacitance for Lo!"%ass &ilter and /igh"%ass &ilterD

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## ! CONCL&SION\$ 510 MARKS8

Ma.e your overall conclusion by referring to the Lo!"%ass &ilter and /igh"%ass &ilter e\$periment result (your ans!er should be in simple notes+.

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