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# Theory & Technology Basics The FEM-Design can perform the following calculations: • Linear static analysis for

all structure types, • tatic analysis accor!ing to secon! or!er theory for spatial structures" • #lo\$al sta\$ility analysis with \$uc%ling shapes an! critical loa!s for spatial structures" • Dynamic analysis - &i\$ration shapes an! eigen fre'uencies for all structure types, • eismic calculation - response spectra metho! for (D mo!els, • )on-linear static analysis - supports resisting only compression, • *rac%ing analysis - trac%ing of the crac%ing process" tatic analysis The linear static analysis is the solution of the: Ku=Q Linear, inhomogeneous e'uation system with constant coefficients, which is !eri&e! from the !isplacement metho!, where: K + the coefficient matri, of the system, the so calle! stiffness matri,, Q + the matri, of the loa! &ectors, !eri&e! from the loa!s of e&ery loa! cases, u + matri, of the !isplacement of no!es" FEM-Design contains two e'uation system-sol&ers" -ne of them is the so-calle! frontal type, the other is the ./L0)E type sol&er" Both metho!s are optimise! for the a&aila\$le memory, an! they contain &ery efficient no!e num\$ering optimisation for minimi1ing of on one han! the front wi!th, on the other han! the \$an!wi!th" The results of the linear static analysis are always the no!e !isplacements, reaction forces an! internal forces or stresses of elastic elements" )ote, that an a&erage &alue is ta%en for the internal forces of elements in no!es of region or plate where more elements of the same %in! are connecte!, in or!er to a&oi! !iscontinuities that !oes not e,ist in reality \$ut generate! \$y the finite element metho! !uring the calculation" 2nd order analysis *alculation of structures \$ase! on the linear theory mean that the e'uili\$rium con!itions are !etermine! accor!ing to the shape of the structure \$efore loa!ing" 0n case of larger !eformations the results woul! \$e more accurate if the change of structure geometry was ta%en into consi!eration" This metho! results in non-linear e'uations" 0n case of fle,i\$le, elastic structures the appro,imate solution for this pro\$lem is the secon! or!er theory which gi&es satisfying accurate results for practice" 0n this theory the

the normal forces of the elements ha&e to \$e calculate! \$y using the ." ) in the argument means the !istri\$ution of the normal 2or mem\$rane3 forces of the structure" ince the stiffness is a function of the normal force !istri\$ution.. at a straight \$ar the normal force influences the \$en!ing moments \$ecause of the !eflections perpen!icular to the \$ar. i"e" the resultant stiffness matri." 0n the secon! step KG is !etermine! accor!ing to the pre&iously calculate! )" The mo!ifie! !isplacements. which ma%es it lose sta\$ility" Stability analysis 5t !escription of secon! or!er theory it was pointe! out that the resultant stiffness of the system !epen!s on the normal force !istri\$ution" 0n case of linear elastic structures the geometrical stiffness matri. of the system is a linear function of the normal internal forces 2in case of plane plate. which means that the e'uation system cannot \$e sol&e!" This phenomenon occurs if the loa! is larger then the critical loa! of the system. \$ecomes singular: det [K + λ KG (N)] = 0 0t is an eigen &alue calculation pro\$lem. of the no!e !isplacement. is a linear function of normal forces an! conse'uently of loa!s: KG (λN) = λ KG (N) The structure loses its loa! \$earing capa\$ility if the normal forces !ecrease the stiffness to 1ero. calculate! from the loa!s. the calculation has to \$e performe! in two steps" First." 0n the secon! step KG an! the λ parameter can \$e !etermine!" The critical loa! is the pro!uct of the loa! an! the λ parameter" . u is the matri. an! it mo!ifies of course the !eflections" *onse'uently. that the N normal force !istri\$ution calculate! from the loa!s happens to result in a singular [K + KG] mo!ifie! coefficient matri.ample." 0t is possi\$le. Q is the matri. the normal forces of the elements has to \$e calculate! \$y using the K matri.!eformations !uring the loa!ing are only ta%en into consi!eration in the relationship of mem\$rane forces an! \$en!ing moments" For e. matri. an! the smallest λ eigen &alue is the critical loa! parameter" The calculation has to \$e performe! in two steps" First.. internal forces an! stresses can \$e calculate! \$y the [K + KG] matri. the stiffness matri. mem\$rane forces3: [K + KG (N)] u = Q 4here K is the original 2linear3 stiffness matri. an! KG is the geometrical stiffness matri.

ten!e! \$y the !istri\$ute! inertial forces. or amplitu!e !istri\$ution" The eigen &alue pro\$lem is sol&e! \$y the Lanc1os metho! in the (D an! \$y the u\$space iteration metho! in the 8D mo!ules of FEM-Design" Seismic analysis 0n case of linear elastic structures the analysis of the effect of seismic support motion is performe! \$y the response spectrum metho!" First the linear !ynamic calculation has to \$e e.ecute! in or!er to !etermine the necessary num\$er of &i\$ration shapes an! fre'uencies" The acceleration-fre'uency spectrum is an input !ata. accor!ing to the following e'uation: u = # sin (λt) 0f Q + 7. which are proportional to the acceleration of the points of the structures" This results the following \$asic e'uation. of the structure an! u"" is the matri. the e.The a\$o&e mentione! eigen &alue pro\$lem is sol&e! \$y the Lanc1os metho! in FEMDesign" The results of the calculations are as many \$uc%ling shapes as the user re'uire! an! the matching λ critical loa! parameters" Linear dynamic 0f the loa!s acting on a structure &ary 'uic%ly.imal support accelerations \$elonging to the &i\$ration shapes" *onsi!ering these &alues the ma. if the !umping of the structure is ignore!: K u = Q ! u"" 4here: ! is the !iagonal mass matri. i"e" the free oscillation is analyse!. all points of a structure with statically !etermine! supports mo&e perio!ically.imal no!e !isplacements an! internal forces \$elonging to the gi&en fre'uency can \$e calculate!" They are calle! mo!al components" ince the phases shifting in time of the mo!al component !isplacements are not %nown. which !efines the ma.citation is calculate! accor!ing to the following summari1ation 2 9 3 formula: .pecte! ma. the no!e !isplacements of the structure also &ary as a function of time" 0n this case the outer loa!s . of the no!e acceleration 2secon! !eri&ati&e of the no!e !isplacements an! rotations3" 0f the structure is unloa!e!. it results in the following eigen &alue pro\$lem: [K \$2 !] # = 0 4here \$ is the eigen angular fre'uency an! # is the matching &i\$ration shapes.accor!ing to the !65lam\$ert theorem .imum \$elonging to the resultant of the support e.shoul! \$e e.

an! the support is !efine! to resist only compression.late 0n FEM-Design a crac% analysis techni'ue is applie!. stresses3 are positi&e num\$ers.esi-n . where an iteration mechanism is calculating the effect of the crac%s" 5s the crac% analysis is a non-linear calculation the principle of superposition is not true" By this fact the crac% analysis is not applica\$le for loa! groups an! the calculation has to . consi!ering the e.citation an! the structure" 0n general cases it is enough to use the !ominant fre'uencies 2first (-:7 &alues3" The results of the calculation 2!isplacements. line an! surface supports resisting only compression" The uplift-calculation in&ol&es material nonlinearity an! has to \$e sol&e! with an iterati&e metho!" 0n this case the relationship \$etween reaction forces an! !isplacements can \$e interprete! \$y the following !iagram" The solution implemente! in FEM-Design is: 0n the first step. which are the e.late mo!ules of FEM-Design there is possi\$ility to !efine point. internal forces. furthermore to the fact that the structure can \$ecome cinematically un!etermine!" (rac) analysis in *+! .citation" Non linear calculation %&li't calculation 0n the 4all an! . it is chec%e! if tension appeare! in any support" 0f yes.0n this formula n is the num\$er of fre'uencies calculate! !uring the linear !ynamic calculation" This is !efine! \$y the user. when supports also resist tension. he has to \$e aware of the !irection 2local coor!inate system3 of them.imum &alues reache! !uring the e. then the linear static analysis is repeate! with setting the stiffness &alues in the tensione! elements to a &ery small &alue" 4e repeat this proce!ure until there is no tensione! support any more" 0f the user !efines this %in! of supports.pecte! ma.

periments" The crac%e! stiffness calculation is \$ase! on a con&entional cross section mo!ulus calculation of the secon! crac% state which is com\$ine! with a Euro co!e li%e crac% !istri\$ution calculation 2to consi!er the effect of un-crac%e! parts of the plate \$etween two crac%s3" . in the !irection of the crac% lines the stiffness remains the same as for the un-crac%e! state" The %ey of the calculation is the way the crac% !irection is calculate! in a certain point" Dr" Ferenc )emeth from the Technical <ni&ersity of Bu!apest has in&ente! a metho! for this.\$e e.ecute! for e&ery single com\$ination" #enerally the iteration is loa!ing the structure in loa! steps. an! mo!ifies the stiffness of it in e&ery step as more an! more crac%s occur !uring the loa!ing process" The stiffness of the plate will \$e !ecrease! only in the !irection that is perpen!icular to the crac% lines. which is \$ase! on e.