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doi: 10.1111/j.1478-4408.2011.00290.

A study on the effect of bulk water content and drying temperature on the colour of dyed cotton fabrics
Muthusamy Senthilkumara,* and Natarajan Selvakumarb
a

Coloration Technology

Department of Textile Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore 641004, India Email: msksenthilkumar@yahoo.com Department of Textile Technology, Anna University Chennai, Chennai 600025, India
Society of Dyers and Colourists

Received: 12 May 2010; Accepted: 6 October 2010


In the present study, the effect of various levels of bulk and free water content and its distribution on the colour of cotton fabrics dyed with direct dyes and their combinations were analysed. Twill and plain structures with two different parameters of fabric construction were chosen. The dyed samples were adjusted to different levels of wet pick-up, with water ranging from 50% to 125% on the bone dry weight of the fabric (odwf) to achieve various levels of bulk water content. Further, the residual moisture content of the samples was adjusted to 4010% odwf by means of hot air drying at different temperatures to obtain different levels of free water content and its distribution. For the assessment of colour and its values were used. In order to bring out the true effect of comparison, the parameters RK S and DEab moisture distribution and fabric structure, normalisation of dye uptake in the fabric based on weight and area were considered, respectively. The plain structures show a higher increase in colour than the twill structures when the bulk water content increases. At the same time, the fabric structures do not play a signicant role, with increase in colour attributable to change in drying temperature. The ndings reveal that the bulk water content, drying temperature and fabric geometry affects the colour of the fabric signicantly.

Introduction
The measurement of colour plays an important role in the textile, paint and food industries. Colour is one of the most fundamental aspects of textile design and contributes greatly to the overall visual effect of a nished fabric. Colour measurement and matching is a vital process in ensuring that a standard colour is achieved in all the production batches. The creation, production and communication of colours are usually dependent on subjective interpretations. The colour perceived by an observer results from the interaction of a light source with a sample and with the observer. Colour perception starts with the interaction of light with an object, which is then modied by the reectance. Such interactions not only depend on the amount of colorant present, but are also inuenced by other foreign matters, such as moisture and its distribution and the chemical additives that are present within the medium [1]. In the case of textile materials, the moisture content and its distribution varies with respect to the conditions adopted in the water application systems, such as exposure to humidity or spraying dipping, and in the water removal systems, such as mangling and oven drying. This in turn leads to variations in the interaction of light with the substrate, which affects its colour. It is well known that when light falls on textile materials, scattering takes place at the surface. The extent of such scattering depends on the surface characteristics of these materials. In addition to this, light also undergoes diffusion through the material, resulting in absorption and scattering within the material. Finally, light comes out of the material as diffuse reection, which depends on the extent of surface and internal

scattering that takes place [2]. The internal scattering of textile materials depends on the number of dye molecules and the number of other molecules, which may be air, water or chemical compounds, which are present in it. While measuring colour, the medium of the material is assumed to be the same as the medium of the light and the incident light undergoes absorption, reection and transmission [3,4]. When a dyed textile material undergoes transformation from the dry to wet state, it results in reduction in reectance because of change in medium [5]. This drop in reectance is attributable to reduced light scattering. In the study by Lee et al. [6], it was mentioned that the fabric with higher moisture content appeared to be darker in colour than the fabric with low moisture content. In continuous dyeing, colour assessment can be carried out after drying by reectance measurement of the fabric at the exit of the dyeing range. The performance of the online colour measurement system depends on various parameters, such as fabric speed, residual moisture content and fabric temperature [7]. Textile fabrics can carry moisture in the form of bound, free and bulk water. The bound and free water content in the cotton bre can be as high as 19% on dry weight of fabric (odwf) [8] and 21% odwf [9], respectively. The water content above 40% odwf will be present in the fabric as bulk water. A fabric can hold up to approximately 80% odwf of water as bulk water [10]. According to the percolation theory [11], when water passes through randomly distributed paths in a medium, there exists a percolation threshold, which usually corresponds to critical water content (40% odwf for cotton). Regardless of the rate of internal moisture transfer, as long as the water content is less than the
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2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

critical level, the surface will form discontinuous wet patches during drying. Thus, the mass transfer decreases and the drying rate falls with the surface water content [12]. It is always useful to take into account the quantity of moisture added and other processing parameters, such as drying temperature, while assessing the colour of a textile material from its wet colour [13,14]. In the textile industry, the most common approach is an adaptation of the theory expressed by Kubelka and Munk in 1931 [15]. This is a two-ux radiation transfer theory that has been developed for optically homogeneous substrates. However the textile material has a denite structure, therefore it cannot be assumed to be a homogeneous layer. As the theory also does not deal with surface phenomena and the medium in which the substrate is embedded, surface correction becomes essential to minimise the inaccuracy. During the actual processing, the dyed textile materials are in a wet state, with different levels of moisture content, which has an effect on their colour. The distribution of moisture during drying under different conditions could also affect the colour. In such a situation, correct colour communication through the whole supply chain and colour reproduction during dyeing becomes difcult. Studies have not been carried out in the assessment of the colour of the textile materials, taking bulk and free water content into account. In this article, the above factors are considered using different fabric structures dyed with direct dyes.

Table 1 Parts by weight of dyes used for dyeing Code name assigned to dyed fabrics R Y B RY YB RB RYB

Direct Red 243 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

Direct Yellow 106 0 1 0 1 1 0 1

Direct Blue 85 0 0 1 0 1 1 1

kmax for dye solution (nm) 516 415 568 506 570 545 556

to 95 C and the dyeing was continued for 30 min. Over this period, calculated quantities of salt were added at 5, 10 and 15 min. Immediately after completion of dyeing, i.e. before washing, a small portion of fabric was removed from the dyed samples for measuring their reectance after drying. Washing of dyed samples was carried out with an alternate cold wash using running tap water for 5 min and soaping for 5 min. Finally, the samples were thoroughly washed with running tap water. To ensure the repeatability of the results, three samples were produced for every set of conditions. Determination of RK S value The values of the summative Kubelka-Munk function (RK S) of the fabric were calculated using the formula given below from the reectance value (R) at wavelengths from 400 to 700 nm at an interval of 10 nm, measured using a Datacolor 600 spectrophotometer (Datacolor, USA): X K =S
700 X k400

Experimental
Materials In order to bring in the effect of fabric surface characteristics, two different structures, namely plain and twill, were considered. In both the structures, pick density was varied to obtain different levels of effective area of fabric surface. Specications of the fabrics used were: plain: (i) 24s 20s, 74 ends per inch (EPI), 52 picks per inch (PPI) and 140 g m2 (P1) and: (ii) 24s 20s, 74 EPI, 40 PPI and 113 g m2 (P2); twill: (i) 24s 20s, 74 EPI, 72 PPI and 181 g m2 (T1) and: (ii) 24s 20s, 74 EPI, 60 PPI and 153 g m2 (T2). Three direct dyes, namely CI Direct Red 243, CI Direct Yellow 106 and CI Direct Blue 85 supplied by DyStar (USA), were used. Laboratory grade sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) were used in dyeing of the fabrics. Methods Preparation of dyed samples Dyes chosen were used individually and as a mixture with different proportions for dyeing of the fabric samples (Table 1). Dyed samples were produced with 0.5%, 2.0%, 3.5% and 5.0% shades and, for the production of the above shades, sodium chloride concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 g l were used, respectively. A liquor to material ratio of 40:1 was used. The material was introduced into a bath containing the required quantity of dye and 0.1 g l sodium carbonate at 50 C. The temperature of the bath was gradually raised

1 R2 =2R

where K and S are absorption and scattering coefcients. Determination of % dye uptake (D) Dye uptake by the fabric was calculated using the formula given below [16,17] and the values obtained are given in Table 2: D E K2 =K1 2

where E is the % of dyebath exhaustion, K1 is the RK S value of the dyed sample before washing and soaping in the dry state and K2 is the RK S value of the dyed sample after soaping in the dry state. E was calculated using the formula given below from the absorbance value at kmax (Table 1) measured using an ultravioletvisible (UVvis) spectrophotometer (Cary 3E; Varian, USA): E 100 1 A2 =A1 3

where A1 and A2 are the initial and nal absorbance values of the dye solution, respectively.
) value Determination of colour difference (DEab The colour difference (DEab ) value of the fabric was calculated using the formula given below [18]:

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2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

Table 2 Calculated percentage dye uptake of fabrics Twill Dyed samples R % Shade 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 T1 82.79 72.78 70.34 67.32 75.58 70.33 69.35 67.33 71.24 64.84 61.29 51.44 78.87 71.75 70.98 66.35 72.70 68.41 62.86 61.53 74.08 66.52 64.57 58.08 77.84 68.68 64.24 59.50 T2 83.31 74.97 70.38 66.91 77.51 70.60 68.60 65.24 74.01 63.28 60.01 55.59 80.57 72.90 69.16 65.65 76.41 66.14 64.56 62.11 77.55 68.21 64.80 57.16 76.82 70.38 65.97 60.52 Plain P1 81.67 79.19 72.30 70.88 80.13 70.45 67.54 64.81 79.36 63.14 62.33 56.95 81.32 74.87 68.81 67.19 80.09 68.36 63.74 63.69 81.30 67.55 66.12 59.32 80.85 73.44 66.28 61.23 P2 82.17 78.00 71.49 69.14 79.52 72.37 67.77 64.92 78.35 63.73 61.08 56.42 81.01 76.56 69.88 66.31 79.18 64.86 63.13 63.93 79.20 66.90 65.93 59.20 81.04 70.51 65.83 62.72

Results and Discussion


Effect of bulk water content on the colour of the fabric In the earlier studies conducted [1921], the focus was on the analysis of the effect of a specic wet pick-up of the sample on its colour. However, in the actual situation of the present study, especially during the chemical processing of the textile materials, and because the water content in them varies, different levels of wet pick-up were considered. Amongst the bound, free and bulk water types present in the textile material, the bound and free water contents remain the same at higher levels of wet pick-up (in the present discussion, the term bulk water is used instead of wet pick-up). Taking into account the bound water content of 19% odwf [8] and free water content of 21% odwf [9] cited in the literature, the bulk water content was calculated by subtracting the above values from the wet pick-up levels. The values obtained were 10%, 35%, 60% and 85% odwf for the wet pick-up levels of 50%, 75%, 100% and 125% odwf, respectively. The colour strength (RK S) of the twill fabric, T1, dyed to different depths of shade and having various quantities of bulk water content, is shown in Figure 1. This shows that, for all dye combinations and depths of shade, the colour strength of the fabrics increases with the increase in bulk water content. At lower bulk water levels, the increase in depth of colour of fabric should be attributed to the occupation of water molecules in the free spaces present in the material leading to different levels of water to air combination. Further, when the bulk water content increases, the surface water content of the fabric would also increase. The colour strength of the fabric shows an improvement as both the factors stated above further reduce the scattering of light because of the change in refractive index of the fabric medium. Fabrics T2, P1 and P2 are also found to follow a similar trend. Effect of drying temperature on the colour of fabric with residual moisture content The excess water present in the textile material is removed after completion of the dyeing process either by means of mangling or centrifuging. After centrifuging, the textile materials still hold ca. 45% odwf moisture [22]. This residual moisture content in the fabric is removed by means of drying. If the moisture content of the material is high, the surface is covered with a continuous layer of bulk water and evaporation initially takes place mainly at the surface. As the moisture from the surface is removed, moisture transfer from the interior would take place by means of the capillary ow of free water through voids. The rate of removal of such moisture is determined by the external conditions, such as the temperature of hot air and the humidity [2325]. The effect of the drying temperature on the colour of the dyed fabrics, dried to various residual moisture contents, is presented. Figure 2 shows this effect in terms of RK S values for the twill fabric, T1, dyed with Direct Red 243 to different percentages of shades. The colour of the fabric decreases appreciably when the drying temperature is raised from 50 to 100 C for all percentages of shades when the fabric is dried to obtain

RY

YB

RB

RYB

DEab DL 2 Da 2 Db 2 1=2

where DL* = L*sample L*standard, Da* = a*sample a*standard, Db* = b*sample b*standard, L* = 116(Y Yn)1 3 16, a* = 500 [(X Xn)1 3 (Y Yn)1 3] and b* equals 200[(Y Yn)1 3 (Z Zn)1 3] where, Xn, Yn, Zn are tristimulus values of reference white and X, Y, Z are tristimulus values of the dyed sample. The X, Y and Z values of the fabric were calculated from the reectance value at an interval of 400700 nm. Determination of colour of the samples with different levels of water content One set of dyed samples was immersed in distilled water for 5 min and their wet pick-up level was adjusted to 125%50% odwf by a mangling (HVF; Mathis, USA) technique to achieve different levels of bulk water content. The sample conditioned at 65% relative humidity (rh) was considered as the control sample in analysing the effect of bulk water content on colour. Another set of dyed samples was taken and their wet pick-up was adjusted to 100% odwf. They were taken for drying at 100 and 50 C using a hot-air oven (Blue M Electric Co., USA). The drying was carried out until the fabrics reach a specic residual moisture content level. The different levels considered were 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% odwf. The colour of these samples, expressed in RK S values, was determined following the method explained above.

2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

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Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

800 700 600

K /S value

500 400 300 200 100

10% 35% 60% 85%

10% 35% 60% 85%

10% 35% 60% 85%

10% 35% 60% 85%

10% 35% 60% 85%

10% 35% 60% 85%

Bulk water content


Figure 1 Effect of bulk water content on the depth of colour of twill fabric, T1

500 M1 400 M2 M3 M4

K /S value

300

200

100

0 50 C 100 C 50 C 100 C 50 C 100 C Drying temperature 50 C 100 C

Figure 2 Effect of drying temperature in achieving specic residual moisture content on the depth of colour of twill fabric, T1, dyed with CI Direct Red 243. M1, M2, M3 and M4- Residual moisture content of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% odwf respectively

40% and 30% residual moisture content. It shows that, when a higher temperature is involved in drying to a residual moisture content of 30% and above, free water is also removed along with bulk water. This leads to an uneven distribution of water in the material and results in lower colour yield. Whereas, during drying at a lower temperature, as it takes much longer to reach the above residual moisture content levels, either removal of bulk water alone (in the case of the 40% level) or bulk water followed by free water (in the case of the 30% level) takes place in a uniform manner and, hence, the results appear darker. Furthermore, it is clear from Figure 2 that drying of the fabric to 20 and 10% residual moisture content does not have appreciable effect on its colour. The magnitude of this effect can be seen from the higher colour difference values (DEab ) obtained for the samples dried at these temperature for 40% and 30% residual moisture content compared with 20% and 10% residual moisture content (Table 3). The DEab values for 20% and 10% residual moisture content are much lower and well
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within the accepted level for practical applications [18]. Hence, such lower residual moisture content attained using any drying temperature is of no concern. This is attributable to the water present in the material, which is mostly in the bound state. In order to conrm the explanation given above, a set of dyed samples (T1) were prepared with 10% odwf moisture content by using appropriate conditions (80% rh and 20 C). Table 4 shows the colour of the above conditioned samples and the DEab values calculated using the colour of the samples dried at both 50 and 100 C to 10% residual moisture content. It can be inferred from the very low DEab values obtained that the material dried to a residual moisture content of 10% contains mostly bound water. It is expected that, even for 20% residual moisture content, most of the water in the material would be in the bound state. The RK S values of the other fabrics, T2, P1 and P2, dyed with all other dyes, and their combinations, also follow the same trend with respect to drying temperature.

2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

10% 35% 60% 85%

RY

YB

RYB

RB

Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

Table 3 DEab values obtained for dyed T1 samples in the wet state dried at 100 and 50 C to different residual moisture contents

Table 4 DEab values obtained for dyed T1 samples in the dry state conditioned to 10% moisture content and the same dyed samples in the wet state dried at 50 C (A) 100 C (B) to 10% residual moisture content

value DEab

value DEab

Residual moisture content Dyed samples R % Shade 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 10% 0.62 0.69 0.77 0.89 0.82 0.79 0.91 0.97 0.54 0.61 0.67 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.79 0.91 0.78 0.93 0.83 0.96 0.62 0.71 0.74 0.69 0.88 0.95 0.69 0.55 20% 0.93 0.91 1.01 1.12 1.13 1.11 1.32 1.35 0.91 0.96 0.89 1.02 0.97 1.03 1.01 0.98 1.02 1.12 0.99 1.08 0.94 0.86 1.10 1.03 0.96 0.88 1.01 1.06 30% 2.43 2.51 2.67 2.88 3.11 3.24 3.83 4.19 1.37 1.31 1.41 1.33 2.51 2.73 2.90 2.71 2.42 2.73 2.53 2.90 1.95 1.92 2.26 2.43 2.32 2.31 2.73 2.59 40%

Dyed samples R 3.29 3.82 3.81 4.23 4.34 4.54 4.66 5.01 2.51 2.69 2.81 3.03 3.33 3.46 3.98 4.19 3.45 3.31 3.73 4.43 2.83 2.90 3.26 3.19 3.40 3.55 3.98 4.13

% Shade 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0 0.5 2.0 3.5 5.0

A 0.10 0.06 0.09 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.06 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.10 0.09 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.12 0.13 0.11 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.14

B 0.22 0.31 0.26 0.30 0.33 0.35 0.36 0.34 0.16 0.19 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.29 0.24 0.28 0.22 0.21 0.19 0.25 0.19 0.23 0.26 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.31 0.36

RY

RY

YB

YB

RB

RB

RYB

RYB

Effect of water content on the colour of fabrics with identical dye uptake In order to bring out the true effect of various levels of water content on the colour of the fabrics dyed with various combinations of dyes, the RK S value was calculated for all fabrics at a particular dye uptake (2 g 100 g of fabric) using the experimentally measured dye uptake (Table 2) and the corresponding RK S values. Figure 3 shows the percentage increase in RK S value for all combinations of dyes for fabric T1 with respect to the sample conditioned at 65% rh and 20 C when the bulk water content increases from 10% to different levels. The percentage increase in depth of colour as a result of change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C at the different residual moisture contents of 40% 10% for all combinations of dyes for fabric T1 is given in Figure 4. In both the cases, the fabrics dyed with CI Direct Yellow 106 shows a higher percentage increase in depth of colour compared with the fabrics dyed with other dyes. This is attributable to the high luminosity factor of this dye [18], which causes a large change in colour with a change in water content. Samples dyed with CI Direct Blue 85, or combinations of red and blue dye at various bulk water content and residual moisture content levels, exhibit a slightly lower percentage increase in RK S values. This is because of the relatively lower reectance

behaviour of blue dye [21]. Other fabrics examined were also found to follow the same trend. Effect of water content on the colour of fabric with different structures The effect of fabric structure on the change in colour of the dyed samples with different levels of water content was analysed by determining the RK S value for a dye uptake of 3 g m2 of fabric. The projected dye uptake of the fabrics for 1 m2 and the RK S value of those fabrics were used for that purpose. Figure 5 shows the percentage increase in RK S value with respect to the samples conditioned at 65% rh, when the bulk water content increased from 10% to different levels, for all types of fabrics and for the dye Direct Red 243. The percentage increase in RK S value varies between 44.98% and 120.40% for different fabrics. It is higher for plain fabrics when compared with twill fabrics. The water-retaining capacity of the textile fabrics depends on the pick density [10]. In the present study, the twill fabrics have a higher pick density than the plain fabrics. Because of the lower pick density, at any given bulk water content, the plain fabrics will hold more water on the surface compared with the twill fabrics. When this fabric is taken for colour assessment, because of the presence of a greater amount of surface water, scattering of the reected light is reduced, resulting in a higher colour value. The increases in the RK S value and the
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2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

235 215 Increase in K /S value, % 195 175 155 135 115 95 75 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% 10% 35% 60% 85% Bulk water content
Figure 3 Effect of bulk water content on percentage increase in RK S value of fabric T1 with a dye uptake of 2 g 100 g

RY

YB

RB

RYB

8 M1 7 Increase in K /S value, % 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 R Y B RY Dyes YB RB RYB M2 M3 M4

Figure 4 Effect of change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C on percentage increase in RK S value of fabric T1 with a dye uptake of 2 g 100 g. M1, M2, M3 and M4- Residual moisture content of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% odwf respectively

depth of colour of the fabrics dyed with all other dyes and their combinations were also found to follow a similar trend. The increase in RK S value as a result of the change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C for all types of fabrics dyed with CI Direct Red 243 and containing 3 g m2 of dye is given in Table 5. The table shows that, for all the fabrics, the increase in depth of colour is higher when the residual moisture content is above 20%. Table 5 also shows that the difference in the increase in RK S value between twill and plain fabrics at any level of residual moisture content falls between 0.01 and 5.25. As this difference is very small, it can be said that that the effect of the drying temperature on the colour value at various moisture content levels on plain and twill structures is almost same. The fabrics dyed with all other dyes and their combinations were also found to follow the same trend.
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Conclusions
The study clearly reveals that not only wetting, but also the moisture distribution in the dyed fabrics and the change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C have an appreciable effect on the increase in depth of colour. The depth of colour of the samples shows an increasing trend when the bulk water content increases with respect to the samples conditioned at 65% rh. The P difference, expressed by both K S and DEab , between samples dried at 100 and 50 C is higher when the residual moisture content is raised to above 20%. Hence, it is necessary to give due importance to the bulk water content and its distribution and the temperature adopted for drying, while measuring the colour of the dyed cotton fabrics. Further, this study reveals that the increase in depth of colour as a result of the change in drying temperature is

2011 The Authors. Coloration Technology 2011 Society of Dyers and Colourists, Color. Technol., 127, 145152

Senthilkumar and Selvakumar Bulk water content and drying temperature on colour of cotton

130 120 Increase in K /S value, % 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 10% 35% 60% Bulk water content T1 P1 T2 P2 85% M1 M2 M3 M4

Figure 5 Effect of bulk water content on the depth of colour with various fabrics dyed with CI Direct Dye 243 with a dye uptake of 3 g m2. M1, M2, M3 and M4- Residual moisture content of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% odwf respectively

Table 5 Effect of change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C on the depth of colour of various fabrics dyed with CI Direct Red 243 with a dye uptake of 3 g m2 Increase in RK S value as a result of change in drying temperature from 100 to 50 C Residual moisture content 10% Twill Plain (P1) (P2) (P1) (P2) 20% Difference Twill 0.25 0.12 0.14 0.01 Plain (P1) (P2) (P1) (P2) 30% Difference Twill 1.24 0.58 1.20 0.54 Plain (P1) (P2) (P1) (P2) 40% Difference Twill 1.32 1.98 1.50 2.16 Plain (P1) (P2) (P1) (P2) Difference 2.69 5.23 2.71 5.25

1.06 (T1) 0.81 0.94 0.95 (T2) 0.81 0.94

2.81 (T1) 1.57 2.23 2.77 (T2) 1.57 2.23

12.54 (T1) 13.86 14.52 12.36 (T2) 13.86 14.52

19.51 (T1) 22.20 24.74 19.49 (T2) 22.20 24.74

not appreciable up to 20% residual moisture content and is substantial above this level. The fabric structures are found to play an important role despite the same amount of dye unit area being present in them. The plain structures show a higher increase in depth of colour than the twill structures when the bulk water content increases. At the same time, the fabric structures do not play a signicant role in the increase in colour attributable to the change in drying temperature.

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