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New Science and Technology 2003: Seeks to address various challenges caused by the globalization process and also

to meet the economic and social needs of the country !" #aise the investments in science to at least 2$ of %&' by 200( 2" &e bureaucratization of Scientific institutions and making Technologists as heads of science departments 3" )acilitating return of scientists of *ndian origin back to the country +" Strengthening mechanism to commercialization of indigenously developed technologies ," %reater autonomy to #-& institutes even while ensuring commitment to social responsibilities ." /odernization of Scientific infrastructure facilities at all levels (" Simplification of administrative and financial procedures 0" 'rogram to enhance *ndia1s share in global herbal market 2" )iscal Strategies to attract private and public involvement in Science and Technology Technology 3ision 2020: 4lso known as long term technology forecast report *t aims at developing technologies to make *ndia a developed country These reports cover !. areas !" 4gro food processing 2" 5ivil 4viation 3" 6lectric 'ower +" 7ater 7ays ," #oad Transportation ." )ood and 4griculture (" 8ealthcare 0" 9ife Sciences and :io Technology 2" 4dvanced Sensors !0" 6ngineering *ndustries !!" /aterials and 'rocessing

!2" Services !3" Strategic *ndustries !+" 6lectronics and 5ommunications !," 5hemical 'rocess *ndustries !." Tele 5ommunications The report prepared by Technology *nformation )orecasting and 4ssessment 5ouncil ;T*)45" was released in 4ugust !22.

Science and Technology Policy 2013


CONTENTS

Shaping the Future of an Aspiring ndia Science! Technology and nno"ation #ST $ ha"e e%erged as the %a&or dri"ers of national de"elop%ent glo'ally( As ndia aspires for faster! sustaina'le and inclusi"e gro)th! the ndian ST syste%! )ith the ad"antages of a large de%ographic di"idend and the huge talent pool! )ill need to play a defining role in achie"ing these national goals( The national ST enterprise %ust 'eco%e central to national de"elop%ent(

Changing Phases of National Policies in S*T ndia+s Scientific Policy ,esolution #SP,$ of 1-./ resol"ed to 0foster! pro%ote and sustain1 the 0culti"ation of science and scientific research in all its aspects1( Technology )as then e2pected to flo) fro% the country+s esta'lished science infrastructure( The Technology Policy State%ent #TPS$ of 1-/3 e%phasi3ed the need to attain technological co%petence and self4reliance( The Science and Technology Policy #STP$ of 2003 'rought science and technology #S*T$ together and e%phasi3ed the need for in"est%ent in ,*5( t called for integrating progra%%es of socio4econo%ic sectors )ith the national ,*5 syste% to address national pro'le%s as )ell as creating a national inno"ation syste%(

The Need for a Science! Technology and nno"ation Policy Scientific research utili3es %oney to generate 6no)ledge and! 'y pro"iding solutions! inno"ation con"erts 6no)ledge into )ealth and7or "alue( nno"ation thus i%plies S*T4 'ased solutions that are successfully deployed in the econo%y or the society( t has assu%ed centre stage in the de"elop%ental goals of nations( Paradig%s of inno"ation ha"e 'eco%e country and conte2t specific( ndia has! hitherto not accorded due

i%portance to inno"ation as an instru%ent of policy( The national S*T enterprise %ust no) e%'race S*T led inno"ation as a dri"er for de"elop%ent( ndia has declared 2010420 as the 05ecade of nno"ation1( The 8o"ern%ent has stressed the need to enunciate a policy to synergi3e science! technology and inno"ation and has also esta'lished the National nno"ation Council #N nC$( The ST Policy 2013 is in furtherance of these pronounce%ents( t ai%s to 'ring fresh perspecti"es to 'ear on inno"ation in the ndian conte2t(

ST Policy9 A Ne) Paradig% Science! technology and inno"ation can e2ist separately on their o)n in disconnected spaces( :ut! it is their integration that leads to ne) "alue creation( ndia+s glo'al co%petiti"eness )ill 'e deter%ined 'y the e2tent to )hich the ST enterprise contri'utes social good and7or econo%ic )ealth( There is! therefore! the need to create the necessary fra%e)or6 for ena'ling this integration in identified priority areas 'y e2ploiting endogenous resources! strengths and capacities( Ne) structural %echanis%s and %odels are needed to address the pressing challenges of energy and en"iron%ent! food and nutrition! )ater and sanitation! ha'itat! afforda'le health care and s6ill 'uilding and une%ploy%ent( 0Science technology and inno"ation for the people1 is the ne) paradig% of the ndian ST enterprise( The national ST syste% %ust! therefore! recogni3e the ndian society as its %a&or sta6e holder( 8lo'al inno"ation syste%s tend to 'ypass large sections of the co%%unity( nno"ation for inclusi"e gro)th i%plies ensuring access! a"aila'ility and afforda'ility of solutions to as large a population as possi'le( nno"ation! therefore! %ust 'e inclusi"e( The instru%ents of the ST policy )ill ena'le this to 'e reali3ed( The policy )ill dri"e 'oth in"est%ent in science and in"est%ent of science4led technology and inno"ation in select areas of socio4econo%ic i%portance( E%phasis )ill 'e to 'ridge the gaps 'et)een the ST syste% and the socio4econo%ic sectors 'y de"eloping a sy%'iotic relationship )ith econo%ic and other policies( Capturing Aspirations The 6ey ele%ents of the ST policy are9
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Pro%oting the spread of scientific te%per a%ongst all sections of society( Enhancing s6ill for applications of science a%ong the young fro% all social strata( ;a6ing careers in science! research and inno"ation attracti"e enough for talented and 'right %inds( Esta'lishing )orld class infrastructure for ,*5 for gaining glo'al leadership in so%e select frontier areas of science( Positioning ndia a%ong the top fi"e glo'al scientific po)ers 'y 2020( <in6ing contri'utions of science! research and inno"ation syste% )ith the inclusi"e econo%ic gro)th agenda and co%'ining priorities of e2cellence and rele"ance(

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Creating an en"iron%ent for enhanced Pri"ate Sector Participation in ,*5( Ena'ling con"ersion of ,*5 outputs into societal and co%%ercial applications 'y replicating hitherto successful %odels as )ell as esta'lishing of ne) PPP structures( Seeding S*T4'ased high4ris6 inno"ations through ne) %echanis%s( Fostering resource4opti%i3ed! cost4effecti"e inno"ations across si3e and technology do%ains( Triggering changes in the %indset and "alue syste%s to recogni3e! respect and re)ard perfor%ances )hich create )ealth fro% S*T deri"ed 6no)ledge( Creating a ro'ust national inno"ation syste%( top

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n"est%ent in ,esearch and 5e"elop%ent 8lo'al in"est%ents in science! technology and inno"ation are esti%ated at =1(2 trillion as of 200-( ndia+s ,*5 in"est%ent is less than 2(.> of this and is currently under 1> of the 85P( ncreasing 8ross E2penditure in ,esearch and 5e"elop%ent #8E,5$ to 2> of the 85P has 'een a national goal for so%e ti%e( Achie"ing this in the ne2t fi"e years is reali3a'le if the pri"ate sector raises its ,*5 in"est%ent to at least %atch the pu'lic sector ,*5 in"est%ent fro% the current ratio of around 193( This see%s attaina'le as the industrial ,*5 in"est%ent gre) 'y 2.0> and the sales 'y 200> 'et)een 200. and 2010( ncreased pri"ate in"est%ent is necessary for translating ,*5 outputs into co%%ercial outco%es( ?hile %aintaining current rates of gro)th in pu'lic ,*5 in"est%ents! a conduci"e en"iron%ent )ill 'e created for enhancing pri"ate sector in"est%ent in ,*5( The gross 'udgetary support for the science and technology sector has significantly increased during the last decade( The i%pact of such increase is 'eco%ing e"ident( ndia ran6s ninth glo'ally in the nu%'er of scientific pu'lications and 12th in the nu%'er of patents filed( The Co%posite Annual 8ro)th ,ate #CA8,$ of ndian pu'lications is around 12@1> and ndia+s glo'al share has increased fro% 1(/> in 2001 to 3(.> in 2011( :ut the percentage of ndian pu'lications in the top 1> i%pact %a6ing &ournals is only 2(.>( :y 2020! the glo'al share of pu'lications %ust dou'le and the nu%'er of papers in the top 1> &ournals %ust Auadruple fro% the current le"els( The citation i%pact of ndian pu'lications %ust i%pro"e and %atch at least the )orld a"erage( nitiati"es under the ne) policy should ena'le these %acro indicators of research to 'e achie"ed 'y 2020( According to the 8lo'al Science ,eport of the BNESCO! ndia+s current glo'al ran6ing is co%%ensurate )ith its nu%'er of Full4Ti%e EAui"alent #FTE$ of ,*5 personnel( t is i%perati"e that the total nu%'er of FTE of ,*5 personnel increases 'y at least CC> of the present strength )ithin the ne2t fi"e years(

Pro%oting E2cellence and ,ele"ance in ,*5 Nourishing the ,oots Ensuring sustaina'le pipeline of talented youth for science is a challenge( ndia has %ounted so%e significant initiati"es for attracting talent to science and careers )ith research( E%po)ering sta6eholders for local actions is a 6ey ele%ent of these initiati"es( The policy fra%e)or6 )ill further ena'le school science education refor%s 'y i%pro"ing teaching %ethods! science curricula! %oti"ating science teachers and sche%es for early attraction of talent to science( Also special incenti"e %echanis%s )ill 'e de"ised to sti%ulate research in the uni"ersities and de"elop young leaders in science and engineering( E2cellence and ,ele"ance n"est%ent in 'asic research )ill 'e enhanced for fostering e2cellence against glo'al 'ench%ar6s and focusing on rele"ance for addressing national challenges( 8ender Parity Participation of )o%en in ST acti"ities is i%portant( Ne) and fle2i'le sche%es to address the %o'ility challenges of e%ployed )o%en scientists and technologists )ill 'e put in place( A 'road scope for re4entry of )o%en into ,*5 and facilitation %echanis%s for special career paths in di"erse areas )ill 'e sought( nter4Bni"ersity Centres The fe) inter4uni"ersity centres that ha"e 'een set up ha"e pro"ed the concept to 'e a successful and "ia'le one( Such centres need to 'e %ultiplied in different fields to ena'le a )ider cross section of uni"ersity researchers access ad"anced research facilities and eAuip%ent )hich are other)ise not a"aila'le in uni"ersity en"iron%ents( These )ill 'e discipline4specific as )ell as %ulti4disciplinary! including hu%anities! to address the grand challenges in S*T and its applications( Participation in 8lo'al ,*5 nfrastructure and :ig Science ;odern science is increasingly 'eco%ing resource intensi"e( t has 'eco%e necessary to create high4cost glo'al infrastructures in so%e fields through international consortia %odels( ndian participation in such international pro&ects )ill 'e encouraged and facilitated to gain access to facilities for ad"anced research in cutting edge areas of science( This )ill also ena'le the ndian industry to gain glo'al e2perience and co%petiti"eness in so%e high4technology areas )ith spin4off 'enefits( Perfor%ance4<in6ed ,e)ards and n"est%ents Transparent centrally i%ple%enta'le Perfor%ance ,elated ncenti"e Sche%e #P, S$! 'ased on past and pro"en trac6 record in research! )ill 'e put in place to ena'le grant4 'ased in"est%ents in such perfor%ers( For ,*5 leading to technology de"elop%ent and 6no)ledge ser"ices! the criteria )ould! ho)e"er! 'e institution specific( Centrally instituted incenti"es to pu'lic4funded ,*5 centres for outco%es leading to pu'lic top

National Agenda and the ST Syste% ;acro indicators of ,*5 do not really reflect the inno"ation capa'ility of a nation( Appropriate indicators! )hich integrate %easures of e2cellence and in"enti"eness )ith rele"ance and afforda'le inno"ation! are necessary for e"idence 'ased policy actions( Supply side inter"entions ha"e hitherto 'een the %ain strategy for pu'lic in"est%ent in ,*5( This needs to change( There should 'e eAual e%phasis on 'oth supply side inter"entions and de%and 'ased in"est%ents( Around 10 sectors of high i%pact potential )ill 'e identified for directed ST inter"ention and deploy%ent of reAuisite resources( Ena'ling policy instru%ents that facilitate 'oth institutional research and ,*5 enterprises to focus their efforts in these areas )ill 'e put in place( The co%ple2 "alue chain of inno"ation D fro% idea to %ar6et D often calls for ST inter"ention at all le"els9 research! technology inputs! %anufacturing and ser"ices( n the priority areas of socio4econo%ic i%portance! the policy )ill ena'le a holistic approach to inter"ention! support and in"est%ent( ;easures ta6en in this direction )ill 'e in consonance )ith the progra%%es initiated 'y the N nC( ,*5 policy for agriculture is articulated 'y the ndian Council of Agriculture ,esearch # CA,$( ntegration of the agriculture ,*5 policy )ith the national ,*5 syste% and the ST policy )ill 'e 'rought a'out( ST inputs to the %anufacturing sector can lead to enhanced e%ploy%ent generation( The inno"ation ecosyste% for the sector! ho)e"er! depends on the nature and si3e of the enterprise and the conte2t( ndia+s share of glo'al trade in high technology products is at present only around /> and the present technology intensity of the sector is a lo) of C4 E>( The ai% is to dou'le these through greater technology inputs fro% ,*5( A strategic selection of so%e industry sectors! )here ndia can aspire for leadership! )ould 'e %ade for stepping up ,*5 intensity and increase ndia+s share in high4technology trade( S%all and ;ediu% Enterprises #S;E$ generally ha"e lo) ,*5 intensity( Special sche%es to support ,*5 as )ell as related ser"ices at the fir% or collecti"e le"el! )ill 'e de"ised and put in place( The ,*5 intensity of the ser"ice sector is generally lo)( This needs to 'e enhanced considera'ly and the s6ill 'ase also e2panded significantly( For rapidly acco%plishing the tas6s of %oderni3ation of technology4'ased ser"ices! %issions in so%e select ser"ice sector areas! )ill 'e identified( 5eploy%ent of technology4led ser"ices for transparent 8o"ern%ent %achinery )ill also 'e supported( Cli%ate "aria'ility and change is of glo'al concern and ndia has articulated a National Action Plan for Cli%ate Change #NAPCC$ and identified se"eral national %issions( The ST syste% )ill ha"e an acti"e role in these %issions( t )ill also ser"e as a source of strategic 6no)ledge to cope )ith the challenges of cli%ate "aria'ility and change as )ell as to %eet eAuity4'ased differentiated and shared responsi'ilities of ndia(

Attracting Pri"ate Sector n"est%ents in ,*5 Pu'lic funds for partnerships )ith the pri"ate sector for social and pu'lic good o'&ecti"es )ill 'e ear%ar6ed as a ne) policy initiati"e( A National Science! Technology and nno"ation Foundation )ill 'e esta'lished as a Pu'lic4Pri"ate Partnership #PPP$ initiati"e for in"esting critical le"els of resources in inno"ati"e and a%'itious pro&ects( The focus of the policy )ill 'e9
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Facilitating pri"ate sector in"est%ent in ,*5 centres in ndia and o"erseas( Pro%oting esta'lish%ent of large ,*5 facilities in PPP %ode )ith pro"isions for 'enefits sharing( Per%itting %ulti sta6eholders participation in the ndian ,*5 syste%( Treating ,*5 in the pri"ate sector at par )ith pu'lic institutions for a"ailing pu'lic funds( :ench %ar6ing of ,*5 funding %echanis%s and patterns glo'ally( ;odifying P, policy to pro"ide for %arching rights for social good )hen supported 'y pu'lic funds and for co4sharing P,s generated under PPP( <aunching ne)er %echanis%s for nurturing Technology :usiness ncu'ators #T: s$ and science4led entrepreneurship( Pro"iding incenti"es for co%%erciali3ation of inno"ations )ith focus on green %anufacturing(

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5eli"ery Syste%s for ST Outputs to Sta6e Folders and Society 5iffusion of scientific outputs and technology inter"entions into social syste%s is a %ulti4 layered process( E2cept for the %ission4oriented strategic sectors! the deli"ery %echanis% in"ol"es a large nu%'er of inter%ediaries 'oth fro% the pu'lic and pri"ate sectors( This reAuires strengthening of lin6ages 'et)een the scientific and socio4 econo%ic sectors( The ST policy )ill le"erage the ,*5 allocations of socio4econo%ic %inistries through a shared "ision! %ission4oriented approach and adoption of ne) deli"ery %odels )ith pro"isions for accounta'ility( The state go"ern%ents constitute i%portant sta6eholders( ;easures )ill 'e ta6en to ensure that state4specific S*T "ision and plans are infor%ed and guided 'y the ne) ST Policy to)ards )hich State S*T Councils7:oards )ill 'e strengthened( N8Os )ill 'e accorded a pi"otal role in the deli"ery of ST outputs! especially rural technologies! to the grassroots le"el(

Ecosyste% Changes for Science! Technology and nno"ation Special and inno"ati"e %echanis%s for fostering acade%ia4research4industry partnerships )ill 'e de"ised( ;o'ility of e2perts fro% acade%ia to industry and "ice4"ersa )ill 'e facilitated( Success stories in S*T4'ased inno"ations fro% ndian e2perience )ould 'e

replicated and scaled up( ,egulatory and legal fra%e)or6 for sharing of P,s 'et)een in"entors and in"estors )ill 'e put in place( ;easures to close gaps in the translation of ne) ,*5 findings and grassroot inno"ations into the co%%ercial space )ill 'e ta6en( ,igidity of centrally de"eloped plans for in"est%ents often does not suit frontline science! technology de"elop%ent and inno"ation( A fle2i'le approach that allo)s for fine tuning the Fi"e Gear Plan sche%es in response to rapid changes in S*T )ould 'e put in place )ith speed! scale and sustaina'ility as 6ey go"ernance para%eters( 0,is6s1 are an integral part of a "i'rant inno"ation syste%( ,is6 sharing 'y the go"ern%ent )ill significantly increase pri"ate sector in"est%ent in ,*5 and technology de"elop%ent( Ne) financing %echanis%s for in"esting in enterprises )ithout fear of failure and options for foreclosing unsuccessful "entures are essential part of an ena'ling inno"ation ecosyste%( A pu'lic procure%ent policy that fa"ours first of its 6ind products de"eloped through indigenous inno"ation and %easures to pro%ote such products glo'ally are necessary( 8eneral rules of e2penditure control of pu'licly funded institutions do not suit non4linear gro)th sectors li6e science and technology! and %ore so the inno"ation sector( Auditing principles should 'e %ore aligned to 0perfor%ance1 than 0co%pliance to procedure1( The syste% should 'e a'le to differentiate 'et)een genuine failures and process deficits( Specifically the policy )ill focus on9
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Prioriti3ing critical ,*5 areas li6e agriculture! teleco%%unications! energy! )ater %anage%ent! health and drug disco"ery! %aterials! en"iron%ent and cli%ate "aria'ility and change( Pro%oting inter4disciplinary research! including traditional 6no)ledge( Fostering the deli"ery and use in the society of inno"ations in the strategic sectors )ith ci"ilian application potential( Pro%oting %echanis%s such as 0s%all idea4s%all %oney1 and 0,is6y dea Fund1 to support inno"ation incu'ators( Esta'lishing of a Fund for nno"ations for Social nclusion( <e"eraging traditional 6no)ledge through %odern science for finding solutions to national challenges( Supporting ST dri"en entrepreneurship )ith "ia'le and highly scala'le 'usiness %odels( n"esting in young inno"ators and entrepreneurs through education! training and %entoring( top

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8aining 8lo'al Co%petiti"eness through Colla'oration

Open source approaches for pu'lic and social goods for% interesting inno"ation syste%s( Hno)ledge co%%ons is an e%erging the%e for %anaging P,s created through %ulti4 sta6e holder participation( The ST Policy )ill see6 to esta'lish a ne) regulatory fra%e)or6 for data access and sharing as also for creation and sharing of P,s( The ne) policy fra%e)or6 )ill ena'le strategic partnerships and alliances )ith other nations through 'oth 'ilateral and %ultilateral cooperation in science! technology and inno"ation( Science diplo%acy! technology synergy and technology acAuisition %odels )ill 'e &udiciously deployed 'ased on strategic relationships(

Pu'lic A)areness and Pu'lic Accounta'ility of ndian ST Sector Pu'lic understanding of science is an i%portant di%ension for introducing and reaching the 'enefits of %odern science and technology to the people( The ci"ili3ational aspect of science! or scientific te%per! needs to 'e pro%oted across all sections of the society syste%atically( Effecti"e science co%%unication %ethods! 'y using tools such as the National Hno)ledge Net)or6! )ill 'e initiated( Pu'lic and political understanding of science should 'e 'ased on e"idence and de'ates )ith open %ind( People and decision %a6ers %ust 'e %ade a)are of the i%plications of e%erging technologies! including their ethical! social and econo%ic di%ensions( ?hite papers on %ission4oriented progra%%es! )ith specific deli"era'les and ti%elines! )ill 'e pu'lished( ;echanis%s for assessing the perfor%ance of the national ST enterprise through an autono%ous and ro'ust e"aluation syste%! )hich includes social scientists! )ill 'e esta'lished( The national science acade%ies )ill 'e accorded a %a&or role in this endea"our of pu'lic accounta'ility(

Policy Iision The guiding "ision of aspiring ndian ST enterprise is to accelerate the pace of disco"ery and deli"ery of science4led solutions for faster! sustaina'le and inclusi"e gro)th( A strong and "ia'le Science! ,esearch and nno"ation Syste% for Figh Technology4led path for ndia #S, SFT $ is the goal of the ne) ST policy(

Science and Technology Policy 2003 FonJ'le then President of ndia! 5r( A(P(K( A'dul Hala% LToday ndia has 'eco%e one of the strongest in the )orld in ter%s of scientific %anpo)er in capa'ility and %aturity( Fence! )e are in a position not only to understand the technologies that )e %ay ha"e to 'orro)! 'ut also to create our o)n technologies )ith e2tensi"e scientific inputs of indigenous origin( :asically )e ha"e co%e a long )ay since our independence! fro% %ere 'uyers of technology to those of )ho ha"e %ade science and technology as an i%portant contri'utor for national de"elop%ent and societal transfor%ation( n a )orld )here the po)ers are deter%ined 'y their share of the )orldJs 6no)ledge! reflected 'y patents! papers and so on!

the ?TO starts to play a crucial role in the econo%ic de"elop%ent( t is i%portant for ndia to put all her acts together to 'eco%e a continuous inno"ator and creator of science and technology intensi"e productsL( FonJ'le Pri%e ;inister of ndia! 5r( ;an%ohan Singh L?e ta6e satisfaction fro% the fact that o"er 100 glo'al co%panies ha"e co%e to ndia to set up ,*5 Centres! affir%ing the intellectual capital of our scientific and engineering co%%unity( Science %ust grapple )ith the 6ey challenges facing the country today( These include the pressures of increasing population! greater health ris6s! changing de%ographics! degraded natural resources! and d)indling far%lands( ?e need ne) science and technologies! ne) priorities and ne) paradig%s to address these funda%ental challenges( ?e in ndia are practising ne) physics and ne) che%istry to %a6e ne) %aterials( These are of direct rele"ance to the ;illenniu% 5e"elop%ent 8oals of the Bnited NationsL( FonJ'le ;inister of State for Science and Technology * Earth Sciences! Shri Hapil Si'al LSince independence! the go"ern%ent of ndia has 'een strongly a)are of 'oth needs 4 the need to 'uild up a po)erful science 'ase! and the need to ensure that science is not restricted to the uni"ersity la'oratories( Bnder a succession of enlightened leaders! ndian go"ern%ents ha"e long recognised the need for any country that aspires to call itself a %odern nation to in"est hea"ily in science and technologyL( LThe fruits of this foresight are no) )idely "isi'le( Than6s largely to the go"ern%entJs deter%ination that the country should 'uild a strong independent 'ase in science and technology! ndia has 'een a'le to 'uild up a capacity in a )ide range of areas of %odern technology! fro% soft)are engineering to health 'iotechnology( And this has placed it in a strong position to engage in the glo'al 6no)ledge econo%y! rather than re%aining on the %arginsL( CONTENTS

A 4 Prea%'le : 4 Policy O'&ecti"es C 4 Strategy and %ple%entation Plan


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1( Science and Technology 8o"ernance and n"est%ents 2( Opti%al Btili3ation of E2isting nfrastructure and Co%petence 3( Strengthening of the nfrastructure for Science and Technology in Acade%ic nstitutions M( Ne) Funding ;echanis%s for :asic ,esearch

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.( Fu%an ,esource 5e"elop%ent C( Technology 5e"elop%ent! Transfer and 5iffusion E( Pro%otion of nno"ation /( ndustry and Scientific ,*5 -( ndigenous ,esources and Traditional Hno)ledge 10( Technologies for ;itigation and ;anage%ent of Natural Fa3ards 11( 8eneration and ;anage%ent of ntellectual Property 12( Pu'lic A)areness of Science and Technology 13( nternational Science and Technology Cooperation 1M( Fiscal ;easures 1.( ;onitoring 1C( The Ne) Iision

A 4 P,EA;:<E
Science and technology have profoundly influenced the course of human civilization Science has provided us remarkable insights into the world we live in The scientific revolutions of the 20th century have led to many technologies< which promise to herald wholly new eras in many fields 4s we stand today at the beginning of a new century< we have to ensure fullest use of these developments for the well being of our people Science and technology have been an integral part of *ndian civilization and culture over the past several millennia )ew are aware that *ndia was the fountainhead of important foundational scientific developments and approaches These cover many great scientific discoveries and technological achievements in mathematics< astronomy< architecture< chemistry< metallurgy< medicine< natural philosophy and other areas 4 great deal of this traveled outwards from *ndia 6=ually< *ndia also assimilated scientific ideas and techni=ues from elsewhere< with open> mindedness and a rational attitude characteristic of a scientific ethos *ndia?s traditions have been founded on the principles of universal harmony< respect for all creation and an integrated holistic approach This background is likely to provide valuable insights for future scientific advances &uring the century prior to *ndependence< there was an awakening of modern science in *ndia through the efforts of a number of outstanding scientists They were responsible for great scientific advances of the highest international caliber *n the half century since *ndependence< *ndia has been committed to the task of promoting the spread of science The key role of technology as an important element of national development is also well recognised The Scientific 'olicy #esolution of !2,0 and the Technology 'olicy Statement of !203 enunciated the principles on which the growth of science and technology in *ndia has been based

over the past several decades These policies have emphasized self>reliance< as also sustainable and e=uitable development They embody a vision and strategy that are applicable today< and would continue to inspire us in our endeavors 7ith the encouragement and support that has been provided< there is today a sound infrastructural base for science and technology These include research laboratories< higher educational institutions and highly skilled human resource *ndian capabilities in science and technology cover an impressive range of diverse disciplines< areas of competence and of applications *ndia?s strength in basic research is recognized internationally Successes in agriculture< health care< chemicals and pharmaceuticals< nuclear energy< astronomy and astrophysics< space technology and applications< defense research< biotechnology< electronics< information technology and oceanography are widely acknowledged /a@or national achievements include very significant increase in food production< eradication or control of several diseases and increased life eApectancy of our citizens 7hile these developments have been highly satisfying< one is also aware of the dramatic changes that have taken place< and continue to do so< in the practice of science< in technology development< and their relationships with< and impact on< society 'articularly striking is the rapidity with which science and technology is moving ahead Science is becoming increasingly inter> and multi>disciplinary< and calls for multi>institutional and< in several cases< multi>country participation /a@or eAperimental facilities< even in several areas of basic research< re=uire very large material< human and intellectual resources Science and technology have become so closely intertwined< and so reinforce each other that< to be effective< any policy needs to view them together The continuing revolutions in the field of information and communication technology have had profound impact on the manner and speed with which scientific information becomes available< and scientific interactions take place Science and technology have had unprecedented impact on economic growth and social development Bnowledge has become a source of economic might and power This has led to increased restrictions on sharing of knowledge< to new norms of intellectual property rights< and to global trade and technology control regimes Scientific and technological developments today also have deep ethical< legal and social implications There are deep concerns in society about these The ongoing globalisation and the intensely competitive environment have a significant impact on the production and services sectors :ecause of all this< our science and technology system has to be infused with new vitality if it is to play a decisive and beneficial role in advancing the well being of all sections of our society The nation continues to be firm in its resolve to support science and technology in all its facets *t recognizes its central role in raising the =uality of life of the people of the country< particularly of the disadvantaged sections of society< in creating wealth for all< in making *ndia globally competitive< in utilizing natural resources in a sustainable manner< in protecting the environment and ensuring national security

: 4 PO< CG O:KECT IES

,ecogni3ing the changing conte2t of the scientific enterprise! and to %eet present national needs in the ne) era of glo'alisation! 8o"ern%ent enunciates the follo)ing o'&ecti"es of its Science and Technology Policy9

To ensure that the %essage of science reaches e"ery citi3en of ndia! %an and )o%an! young and old! so that )e ad"ance scientific te%per! e%erge as a progressi"e and enlightened society! and %a6e it possi'le for all our people to participate fully in the de"elop%ent of science and technology and its application for hu%an )elfare( ndeed! science and technology )ill 'e fully integrated )ith all spheres of national acti"ity( To ensure food! agricultural! nutritional! en"iron%ental! )ater! health and energy security of the people on a sustaina'le 'asis( To %ount a direct and sustained effort on the alle"iation of po"erty! enhancing li"elihood security! re%o"al of hunger and %alnutrition! reduction of drudgery and regional i%'alances! 'oth rural and ur'an! and generation of e%ploy%ent! 'y using scientific and technological capa'ilities along )ith our traditional 6no)ledge pool( This )ill call for the generation and screening of all rele"ant technologies! their )idespread disse%ination through net)or6ing and support for the "ast unorgani3ed sector of our econo%y( To "igorously foster scientific research in uni"ersities and other acade%ic! scientific and engineering institutionsN and attract the 'rightest young persons to careers in science and technology! 'y con"eying a sense of e2cite%ent concerning the ad"ancing frontiers! and 'y creating suita'le e%ploy%ent opportunities for the%( Also to 'uild and %aintain centres of e2cellence! )hich )ill raise the le"el of )or6 in selected areas to the highest international standards( To pro%ote the e%po)er%ent of )o%en in all science and technology acti"ities and ensure their full and eAual participation( To pro"ide necessary autono%y and freedo% of functioning for all acade%ic and ,*5 institutions so that an a%'ience for truly creati"e )or6 is encouraged! )hile ensuring at the sa%e ti%e that the science and technology enterprise in the country is fully co%%itted to its social responsi'ilities and co%%it%ents( To use the full potential of %odern science and technology to protect! preser"e! e"aluate! update! add "alue to! and utili3e the e2tensi"e 6no)ledge acAuired o"er the long ci"ili3ational e2perience of ndia( To acco%plish national strategic and security4related o'&ecti"es! 'y using the latest ad"ances in science and technology( To encourage research and inno"ation in areas of rele"ance for the econo%y and society! particularly 'y pro%oting close and producti"e interaction 'et)een pri"ate and pu'lic institutions in science and technology( Sectors such as agriculture #particularly soil and )ater %anage%ent! hu%an and ani%al nutrition! fisheries$! )ater! health! education! industry! energy including rene)a'le energy! co%%unication and transportation )ould 'e accorded highest priority( Hey le"erage technologies such as infor%ation technology! 'iotechnology and %aterials science and technology )ould 'e gi"en special i%portance(

To su'stantially strengthen ena'ling %echanis%s that relate to technology de"elop%ent! e"aluation! a'sorption and upgradation fro% concept to utili3ation( To esta'lish an ntellectual Property ,ights # P,$ regi%e )hich %a2i%ises the incenti"es for the generation and protection of intellectual property 'y all types of in"entors( The regi%e )ould also pro"ide a strong! supporti"e and co%prehensi"e policy en"iron%ent for speedy and effecti"e do%estic co%%ercialisation of such in"entions so as to 'e %a2i%al in the pu'lic interest( To ensure! in an era in )hich infor%ation is 6ey to the de"elop%ent of science and technology! that all efforts are %ade to ha"e high4speed access to infor%ation! 'oth in Auality and Auantity! at afforda'le costsN and also create digiti3ed! "alid and usa'le content of ndian origin( To encourage research and application for forecasting! pre"ention and %itigation of natural ha3ards! particularly! floods! cyclones! earthAua6es! drought and landslides( To pro%ote international science and technology cooperation to)ards achie"ing the goals of national de"elop%ent and security! and %a6e it a 6ey ele%ent of our international relations( To integrate scientific 6no)ledge )ith insights fro% other disciplines! and ensure fullest in"ol"e%ent of scientists and technologists in national go"ernance so that the spirit and %ethods of scientific enAuiry per%eate deeply into all areas of pu'lic policy %a6ing(

*t is recognized that these ob@ectives will be best realized by a dynamic and fleAible Science and Technology 'olicy< which can readily adapt to the rapidly changing world order This 'olicy< reiterates *ndia?s commitment to participate as an e=ual and vigorous global player in generating and harnessing advances in science and technology for the benefit of all humankind

C 4 ST,ATE8G AN5 ;P<E;ENTAT ON P<AN Heeping in "ie) these 'road o'&ecti"es! it is essential to spell out an i%ple%entation strategy that )ill ena'le identification of specific plans! progra%%es and pro&ects! )ith clearly defined tas6s! esti%ates of necessary resources! and ti%e targets( So%e of the 6ey ele%ents of the i%ple%entation strategy )ill 'e as follo)s9 1( Science and Technology 8o"ernance and n"est%ents
Suitable mechanism will be evolved by which independent inputs on science and technology policy and planning are obtained on a continuous basis from a wide cross section of scientists and technologists *t will utilize the academies and specialized professional bodies for this purpose These inputs will form an integral part of the planning and implementation of all programmes relating to science and technology< as also in government decision making and formulation of policies in socio>economic sectors

4 greater integration of the programmes in socio>economic sectors with #-& activities will go a long way in ensuring a wider< more visible and tangible impact This will call for a certain percentage of the overall allocation of each of the socio>economic ministries to be devoted for relevant programmes and activities in science and technology The States will also be encouraged and assisted in the use of science and technology for developmental purposes through mechanisms set up for this< and in establishing linkages with national institutions for solving their regional and locale>specific problems 4 concerted strategy is necessary to infuse a new sense of dynamism in our science and technology institutions The science departments< agencies and other academic institutions< including universities i e the science and technology system as a whole< would be substantially strengthened< given full autonomy and fleAibility< and de>bureaucratized /echanisms will be established to review on a continuous basis the academic and administrative structures and procedures in the science and technology system at all levels< so that reforms could be effected to meet the challenges of the changing needs *t will be ensured that all highly science>based /inistriesC&epartments of %overnment are run by scientists and technologists 4ll the ma@or socio>economic /inistries will have high>level scientific advisory mechanisms %overnment will ensure continued eAistence of an 4peA S-T 4dvisory :ody which will assist in formulating and implementing various programmes and policies *t will have appropriate representation of industry leaders< leading scientists and technologists and various scientific departments %overnment will make necessary budgetary commitments for higher education and science and technology *t will< through its own resources and also through contribution by industry< raise the level of investment to at least 2$ of %&' on science and technology by the end of the Tenth 'lan )or this< it is essential for industry to steeply increase its investments in #-& This will enable it to be competitive< achieve greater self>reliance and self>confidence< and fulfill national goals

2( Opti%al Btili3ation of E2isting nfrastructure and Co%petence


Science and technology is advancing at a very fast pace< and obsolescence of physical infrastructure< as also of skills and competence< take place rapidly Steps will be taken to network the eAisting infrastructure< investments and intellectual strengths< wherever they eAist< to achieve effective and optimal utilization< and constantly upgrade them to meet changing needs

3( Strengthening of the nfrastructure for Science and Technology in Acade%ic nstitutions

4 ma@or initiative to modernize the infrastructure for science and engineering in academic institutions will be undertaken *t will be ensured that all middle and high schools< vocational and other colleges will have appropriately sized science laboratories Science< engineering and medical departments in academic institutions and universities and colleges will be selected for special support to raise the standard of teaching and research To begin with< a significant number of academic institutions< specially the universities< as also engineering and medical institutions< would be selected for this support to make an impact )leAible mechanisms for induction of new faculty in key areas of science would be developed 5onstancy of support and attention will be ensured over at least a ten>year period

M( Ne) Funding ;echanis%s for :asic ,esearch


The setting up of more efficient funding mechanisms will be eAamined< either by creating new structures or by strengthening or restructuring the eAisting ones< for promotion of basic research in science< medical and engineering institutions *n particular< administrative and financial procedures will be simplified to permit efficient operation of research programmes in diverse institutions across the country 5reation of world class facilities in carefully selected and nationally relevant fields will be undertaken< to enhance our international competitiveness in areas where we have strengths< opportunities or natural advantages *ndigenous eApertise will be used to the maAimum eAtent possible This would help in nurturing high =uality talent and eApertise in eAperimental science and engineering

.( Fu%an ,esource 5e"elop%ent


The number of scientists and technologists< while being large in absolute numbers< is not commensurate with the re=uirements in =uality and when measured on a per capita basis The demand is bound to increase in the coming years with more intensive activities involving science and technology There is need to progressively increase the rate of generation of high =uality skilled human resource at all levels This process would naturally entail reversing the present flow of talent away from science< by initiating new and innovative schemes to attract and nurture young talent with an aptitude for research< and by providing assured career opportunities in academia< industry< %overnment or other sectors *n order to encourage =uality and productivity in science and technology< mobility of scientists and technologists between industry< academic institutions and research laboratories will be ensured )or building up the human resource base in relevant areas< the agencies and departments concerned with science and technology will make available substantial funding from their allocation )leAible mechanisms will be put in place in academic and research institutions to enable researchers to change fields and bring new inputs into traditional disciplines< and also to develop inter>disciplinary areas There will be emphasis on a continuing process of retraining and reskilling to keep pace with the rapid advances taking place 7herever considered necessary< training abroad will be resorted to< so as to build up a skilled base rapidly

7omen constitute almost half the population of the country They must be provided significantly greater opportunities for higher education and skills that are needed to take up #-& as a career )or this< new procedures< and fleAibility in rules and regulations< will be introduced to meet their special needs New mechanisms would be instituted to facilitate the return of scientists and technologists of *ndian origin to *ndia< as also their networking< to contribute to *ndian science and technology Schemes for continuing education and training of university and college teachers in contemporary research techni=ues and in emerging areas of science will be strengthened and new innovative programmes started *t will also be ensured that higher education is available to the widest possible section of creative students< transcending social and economic barriers

C( Technology 5e"elop%ent! Transfer and 5iffusion


4 strong base of science and engineering research provides a crucial foundation for a vibrant programme of technology development 'riority will be placed on the development of technologies which address the basic needs of the populationD make *ndian industries > small< medium or large > globally competitiveD make the country economically strongD and address the security concerns of the nation Special emphasis will be placed on e=uity in development< so that the benefits of technological growth reach the ma@ority of the population< particularly the disadvantaged sections< leading to an improved =uality of life for every citizen of the country These aspects re=uire technology foresight< which involves not only forecasting and assessment of technologies but also their social< economic and environmental conse=uences The growth rate in productivity of the *ndian economy has been below its true potential< and the contribution to it of technological factors is inade=uate Similarly< *ndian eAports today derive their comparative advantage through resource and labour rather than through the power of technological innovation The transformation of new ideas into commercial successes is of vital importance to the nation?s ability to achieve high economic growth and global competitiveness 4ccordingly< special emphasis will be given not only to #-& and the technological factors of innovation< but also to the other e=ually important social< institutional and market factors needed for adoption< diffusion and transfer of innovation to the productive sectors *ntensive efforts will be launched to develop innovative technologies of a breakthrough natureD and to increase our share of high>tech products 4ggressive international bench>marking will be carried out Simultaneously< efforts will be made to strengthen traditional industry so as to meet the new re=uirements of competition through the use of appropriate science and technology This industry is particularly important as it provides employment at lower per capita investment< involves low energy inputs< and carries with it uni=ue civilizational traditions and culture 3alue addition< and creation of wealth through reassessment< redistribution and repositioning of our intellectual< capital and material resource will be achieved through effective use of science and technology &eriving value from technology>led eAports and eAport of technologies will be facilitated through new policy initiatives< incentives and legislation This will include intensive networking of capabilities and facilities within the country

#igid Euality Standards< and 4ccreditation of testing and calibration laboratories according to international re=uirements< will be given an enhanced push to enable *ndian industry to avoid non>tariff barriers in global trade 4 comprehensive and well>orchestrated programme relating to education< #-& and training in all aspects of technology management will be launched To begin with< *ndian *nstitutes of /anagement ;**/s"< *ndian *nstitutes of Technology ;**Ts" and other selected institutions will be encouraged to initiate these programmes

E( Pro%otion of nno"ation
*nnovation will be supported in all its aspects 4 comprehensive national system of innovation will be created covering science and technology as also legal< financial and other related aspects There is need to change the ways in which society and economy performs< if innovation has to fructify

/( ndustry and Scientific ,*5


6very effort will be made to achieve synergy between industry and scientific research 4utonomous Technology Transfer Frganizations will be created as associate organizations of universities and national laboratories to facilitate transfer of the know>how generated to industry *ncreased encouragement will be given< and fleAible mechanisms will be evolved to help< scientists and technologists to transfer the know>how generated by them to the industry and be a partner in receiving the financial returns *ndustry will be encouraged to financially adopt or support educational and research institutions< fund courses of interest to them< create professional chairs etc to help direct S-T endeavours towards tangible industrial goals There has to be increased investments by industry in #-& in its own interest to achieve global competitiveness to be efficient and relevant 6fforts by industry to carry out #-&< either in> house or through outsourcing< will be supported by fiscal and other measures To increase their investments in #-&< innovative mechanisms will be evolved

-( ndigenous ,esources and Traditional Hno)ledge


*ndigenous knowledge< based on our long and rich tradition< would be further developed and harnessed for the purpose of wealth and employment generation *nnovative systems to document< protect< evaluate and to learn from *ndia?s rich heritage of traditional knowledge of the natural resources of land< water and bio>diversity will be strengthened and enlarged &evelopment of technologies that add value to *ndia?s indigenous resources and which provide holistic and optimal solutions that are suited to *ndian social>cultural>economic ethos will be developed 4 concerted plan to intensify research on traditional systems of medicine< so as to contribute to fundamental advances in health care< and leading to commercialisation of effective

products will be undertakenD appropriate norms of validation and standardization will be enforced 4 purposeful programme to enhance the *ndian share of the global herbal product market will be initiated

10( Technologies for ;itigation and ;anage%ent of Natural Fa3ards


Science and technology has an important role in any general strategy to address the problems of mitigation and management of the impacts of natural hazards 4 concerted action plan to enhance predictive capabilities and preparedness for meeting emergencies arising from floods< cyclones< earth=uakes< drought< landslides and avalanches will be drawn up /easures will be undertaken to promote research on natural phenomena that lead to disasters and human activities that aggravate them This will be with a view to developing practical technological solutions for pre>disaster preparedness< and mitigation and management of post> disaster situations

11( 8eneration and ;anage%ent of ntellectual Property


*ntellectual 'roperty #ights ;*'#"< have to be viewed< not as a self>contained and distinct domain< but rather as an effective policy instrument that would be relevant to wide ranging socio>economic< technological and political concepts The generation and fullest protection of competitive intellectual property from *ndian #-& programmes will be encouraged and promoted The process of globalisation is leading to situations where the collective knowledge of societies normally used for common good is converted to proprietary knowledge for commercial profit of a few 4ction will be taken to protect our indigenous knowledge systems< primarily through national policies< supplemented by supportive international action )or this purpose< *'# systems which specially protect scientific discoveries and technological innovations arising out of such traditional knowledge will be designed and effectively implemented Fur legislation with regard to 'atents< 5opyrights and other forms of *ntellectual 'roperty will ensure that maAimum incentives are provided for individual inventors< and to our scientific and technological community< to undertake large scale and rapid commercialization< at home and abroad The development of skills and competence to manage *'# and leveraging its influence will be given a ma@or thrust This is an area calling for significant technological insights and legal eApertise and will be handled differently from the present< and with high priority

12( Pu'lic A)areness of Science and Technology


There is growing need to enhance public awareness of the importance of science and technology in everyday life< and the directions where science and technology is taking us

'eople must be able to consider the implications of emerging science and technology options in areas which impinge directly upon their lives< including the ethical and moral< legal< social and economic aspects *n recent years< advances in biotechnology and information technology have dramatically increased public interest in technology options in wide ranging areas Scientific work and policies arising from these have to be highly transparent and widely understood Support for wide dissemination of scientific knowledge< through the support of science museums< planetaria< botanical gardens and the like< will be enhanced 6very effort will be made to convey to the young the eAcitement in scientific and technological advances and to instill scientific temper in the population at large Special support will be provided for programmes that seek to popularize and promote science and technology in all parts of the country 'rogrammes will also be developed to promote learning and dissemination of science through the various national languages< to enable effective science communication at all levels 4 closer interaction of those involved in the natural sciences and technology< social sciences< humanities and other scholarly pursuits will be facilitated to bring about mutual reinforcement< added value and impact

13( nternational Science and Technology Cooperation


Scientific research and technology development can benefit greatly by international cooperation and collaboration 5ommon goals can be effectively addressed by pooling both material and intellectual resources *nternational collaborative programmes< especially those contributing directly to our scientific development and security ob@ectives< will be encouraged between academic institutions and national laboratories in *ndia and their counterparts in all parts of the world< including participation in mega science pro@ects as e=ual partners Special emphasis will be placed on collaborations with other developing countries< and particularly neighbouring countries< with whom *ndia shares many common problems *nternational collaboration in science and technology would be fully used to further national interests as an important component of foreign policy initiatives

1M( Fiscal ;easures


*nnovative fiscal measures are critical to ensure successful implementation of the policy ob@ectives New methods are re=uired for incentivising #-& activities< particularly in industry New strategies have to be formulated for attracting higher levels of public and private investments in scientific and technological development 4 series of both taA and non>taA fiscal instruments have to be evolved to ensure a leap>frogging process of development The formulation of a focused strategy and the designing of new methods and instruments re=uires inputs from economists< financial eAperts and management eAperts and scientists )or this purpose< the apeA S-T advisory body will constitute a dedicated task>force to suggest appropriate fiscal measures to subserve the policy ob@ectives

1.( ;onitoring
6ffective< eApeditious< transparent and science>based monitoring and reviewing mechanisms will be significantly strengthened< and wherever not available will be put in place *t will be ensured that the scientific community is involved in< and responsible for< smooth and speedy implementation

1C( The Ne) Iision


To build a new and resurgent *ndia that continues to maintain its strong democratic and spiritual traditions< that remains secure not only militarily but also socially and economically< it is important to draw on the many uni=ue civilizational =ualities that define the inner strength of *ndiaD this has been intrinsically based on an integrated and holistic view of nature and of life The Science and Technology 'olicy 2003 will be implemented so as to be in harmony with our world view of the larger human family all around *t will ensure that science and technology truly uplifts the *ndian people and indeed all of humanity