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PYSCHOLOGY MONTHLY EXAMS REVIEWER!

PSYCHOLOGY Pysche which means mind; Logos which means knowledge or study Study of the mind Scientific study of behavior and mental processes (thoughts, feelings, sensations and various internal processes) o Behavior: all overt observable responses and reactions of an individual It is a science: systemized knowledge that is gathered by carefully observing and measuring events As a behavioral science: aims to explain, predict, and control human behavior Psychology started to assume the aspect of science in the 19th century HISTORY OF PYSCHOLOGY Ancient Greeks Theory: epicurean psychology is tho Democritus o Mind is composed of atoms Hippocrates o Father of Medicine o Mental disorders: imbalance of the four humours (blood, black bile, yellow phlegm and yellow bile) Plato o 3 elements of the soul: reason, feeling and appetite Aristotle: o Psychology is the study of the soul o Form and matter always exist together o Defined soul as a kind of functioning of a body organized so it can support vital functions o Soul is a spiritual entity imprisoned in the body o Book: Para Psyches Claudius Galenus o Depressed people have too much black bile St. Augutine o Combined the classical and Christian psychology o Role of the soul is to go to heaven Renee Descarates o Psychophysical dualism: separated the mind and body o Animals are machines that should be studied o Reflex action John Locke o Mind of a child was blank (tabula rasa) o Contents of the mind were secured by an individuals sense of of the external world through perspection German rationalists

Sense of perception as the principle source of knowledge

MODERN PSYCHOLOGY Gustav Fechner o Founded psychophysics (relationship of mind and the world) Franz Anton Mesmer o Animal magnetism early kind of hypnosis o There are magnetic parts of the body Franz Joseph Gall o Phrenology SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY Wilhelm Wundt o Father of Experimental and Modern Psychology o First psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany o Introspection: observing and recording the nature of ones own perception, thoughts and feelings SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY Structuralism o Edward Titchener: Father of Structuralism o Focused on sensations, feelings, and images as elements of consciousness o Goal: uncover the physiological mechanisms o Structure of the mind by breaking down its parts o Quality&intensity and clearness Functionalism o William James: Father of Functionalism o John Dewey and Harvey Carr o Adjustment of man to his environment o Function of behavior and mental processes, not structure Behaviorism o John B. Watson: Father of Behaviorism o B.F. Skinner o Behavior of a person can be measured o Behavior is a response to stimuli o Edward Lee Thorndike Law of effect Law of recency Law of exercise; similar to habit Puzzle box o Ivan Pavlov Pavlovian conditioning Gestalt o Max Wertheimer: Father of Gestalt perspective o German word meaning form or configuration

Often called field theory Mind can only be understood in terms of organized wholes not elementary parts o Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler: perception o Learning as a problem-solving or reasoning process Pyschoanalysis o Sigmund Freud: founder o Discovering how our behavior is affected by unconscious experience and emotional conflicts o Concept of unconsciousness are expressed in dreams, slips of tongue and physical mannerisms Associationism o John Locke and Aristotle o Ideas are products of experience o Mental processes operate by the way of association o o

HISTORICAL ORIGINS OF PHIL. PSYCHOLOGY Philippine psychology: refers to all psychological trends and developments in the Philippines Filipino psychology: refers to the indigenous developments in the field of psychology from the Philippine perspective HIGHLIGHTS OF PHILIPPINE PSYCHOLOGY Taught as early as the 17th century at UST and University of San Carlos Department of Psychology was established at UP in 1926 UST was the first institution to offer Bachelor of Science, Masters and Doctorate Degrees in Psychology Agustin Alonzo: head of UP Department of Psych. Sinforoso Padilla: first to major in psych Jesus Perpinan: set up the FEU psychological clinic Jaime Zaguirre: first neuro-psychiatry department at V. Luna General Hospital Angel de Blas: Experimental Psych Lab at UST Estefania Aldaba Lim: Ph.D. in Clinical Psych from University of Michigan Alfredo Lagmay: chairman of UP Dept. of Pysch Jaime Bulatao, S.J.: established Dept. of Pysch at ADMU PERSPECTIVE WITHIN PSYCHOLOGY Biological Perspective o Specify neurological processes that underlie behavior and mental processes o Behavior inside the brain Behavioral Perspective o Observable stimuli and regards nearly all behavior as a result of conditioning and responses

Cognitive Perspective o Work of Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsky o Understanding how people think to understand human behavior; how knowledge is learned, structured, stored and used o Only by studying mental processes we can fully understand what organisms do Psychoanalytic Perspective o Behavior stems from unconscious processes, meaning, beliefs, fears and desires that a person is unaware of Subjectivist Perspective o Each individual has his own definition of the situation Ethological Perspective o Influenced by Darwin o Focused on the study of animal behavior in natural habitats Phenomenological/Humanistic Perspective o Emphasis on ones own self o Self-actualize

FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION IN PSYCHOLOGY Clinical and Counseling Psychology o Specializes in helping individuals who are experiencing difficulties School and Educational Psychology o Conducts psychological testing Biological Psychology o Focuses on the relationship between biological processes and behavior Experimental Psychology o Conducts research from a behaviorist or cognitive perspective Industrial Psychology o Focuses attention on the world of work Developmental Psychology o Studies human development factors that shape behavior from birth to old attempts to determine the manner in which the behavior of one individual is influenced by others Social Psychology o Focuses attention upon the nature of social interaction Cross-cultural o Extends the study of psychological topics to all cultures Personality Psychology o Studies the thoughts, emotions and behaviors that define an individualistic personal style Engineering Psychology o Deals with human machine systems APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF MAN Four goals of Psychological Research

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Descriptions: tries to characterize how people think, feel, or act in situations Explanation: tries to understand why people think, feel, or act as they do Prediction: predict behavior Control: seeks to influence behavior

HOW PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IS DONE Natural Observation o Ideal situation for watching the spontaneity of people and building hypothesis about human behavior Documentary Research o Involves learning new facts and principles through the collection and analysis of documents and records Survey Method o Asks people directly Case Study o Often used in counseling Correlation Approach o Determines or not events are related, provides a quantitative index of the degree of relationship if they are related Experimental Method o Most efficient and most nearly foodproof procedure in determining cause and effect relationships One group method: a single variable is added to or subtracted from a group Parallel group: control group + experimental group Rotation: two or more groups NEURONS Basic elements of behavior Cells that are specialized for communicating information Basic element of the nervous system Have a basic structure of o One cell body o One axon o One or more dendrites FEATURES OF NEURONS Cell body or soma o Bulbous end of a neuron, containing the nucleus o Makes use of nutrients to supply energy for neuronal activity Axons o Organelles that carry information from the body o Main job is to send signal to the dendrites of another neuron o May have branches with what are called terminal buttons Dendrites o Clusters of fibers

Organelles that sense the neurotransmitter secreted by the axon of another neuron Synapse o Gap between dendrites and axons Myelin sheath o Protective coating of fat and protein o Serves to increase the velocity with which electrical impulses travel through axons o

TRANSMISSION OF THE SIGNAL Basically the same in all cells Signal is sent across the synapse by the axon and the dendrite of the next cell picks up the signal Neurotransmitters o Chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a neuron and another cell o Important for maintaining vital brain and body functions Graded Potential o Sum of excitation and inhibition of the neuron ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous System o Has a fundamental role in the control of behavior o Control centre o Contains the brain and spinal cord o Afferent neurons: carry nerve impulses from receptors toward the nervous system o Efferent neurons: carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system Peripheral Nervous System o Nerves in PNS are split up into Somatic division: connect the CNS to sensory organs Automatic division: connect organs of the body, blood, vessels and glands Sympathetic division: acts to prepare the body in stressful emergency situations; fight or flight: Parasympathetic division: acts to calm the body after an emergency situation BRAINS STRUCTURE AND ITS FUNCTION Forebrain o Lower diencephalon Thalamus: large mass of gray matter; relay center Hypothalamus: involved in functions including

homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, etc.; controls the pituitary o Telencephalon Cerebrum/Cortex Largest part of the human brain Associated with though and action Limbic system: emotional brain o Hippocampus: learning and memory o Amygdala: emotion and fear Midbrain o All sensory and motor info. going to and from the forebrain and spinal cord must pass through the midbrain o Tectum o Tegmentum Hindbrain o Cerebellum o Reticular formation o Brainstem (Pons and Medulla) Pons: relays sensory info. Between cerebellum and cerebrum Medulla Oblongata: lower portion of the brainstem; controls automatic functions (breathing&vomiting); relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AND ITS FUNCTION Endocrine System o Foundations are hormones and glands o In charge of body processes that happen slowly such as cell growth o Gland: group of cells that produces and secretes chemicals o Endocrine glands: release more than 20 major hormones directly into the bloodstream Hormones: chemicals released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body; chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to the other o Major glands: Hypothalamus Pituitary Master gland Secretes endorphins Controls ovulation and menstrual cycle

Thyroid Shaped like a bowtie or butterfly Bone growth and development of the brain Parathyroids Release parathyroid hormones which regulate the level of calcium Adrenal Triangular Adrenal cortex: produces corticosteroids (regulates salt and water balance, bodys response to stress, metabolism, immune system, and sexual development) Adrenal medulla: produces catecholamines such as epinephrine; also called adrenaline Pineal body Also called the pineal gland Secretes melatonin (wake-sleep cycle) Gonads Main source of sex hormones Regulate body changes associated with sexual development Males: located in the scrotum; secrete androgens Females: ovaries; estrogen and progesterone Pancreas Insulin Glucagon

NATURE OF HORMONAL CONTROL Adrenal insufficiency: decreased function of the adrenal cortex Crushing syndrome: excessive amounts of glucocorticoid hormones Growth hormone problems:gigantism Hyperthyroidism: high levels of thyroid hormones Hypothyroidism: low levels of thyroid hormones Precociuos puberty