You are on page 1of 10

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

2!" 2!"2

Organizational stress management

Managementul stresului organizaional

Professor Maria CARACOTA DIMITRIU, Ph.D. The Bucharest Aca em! of "conomic #tu ies,
Romania e$mail% maria. imitriu& in e.ro

An rea MITO'#(I, Ph.D. #tu ent


The Bucharest Aca em! of "conomic #tu ies, Romania e$mail% eina )!u&!ahoo.com

A*stract There are plenty of general problems that people at work worry about increasing job competition, globalization, terrorism, annual appraisals, financial crisis, even new technology. Beside these, employees are put under pressure to meet sales targets, attend meetings on time, fit in with changes in organization by learning and following up new procedures. All these can result different levels of stress. owadays, working stress is the fastest growing cause of absence from work. !nefficient management, lack of decision" making by management, e#cessive working hours, uncertainty as to future employment prospects and the pressure of the job are some of the causes of stress described by employees. Therefore, employers should consider organizational stress as a serious problem and they must take measures to prevent employees suffering stress arising from their work. !t can negatively influence the productivity and competitiveness of the organization, and can also increase health insurance costs. #ey$ords% stress management, organizational stress, total working system Rezumat $#ist+ o mulime de probleme generale care %i preocup+ pe oameni la locul de munc+ permanenta cre,tere a competitivit+ii %n munc+, globalizarea, terorismul, cre,terile de preuri anuale, criza financiar+, chiar ,i tehnologia. &e l'ng+ acestea, angajaii sunt pu,i sub presiunea de a respecta intele v'nz+rilor, de a participa la %nt'lniri la timp, de a se conforma schimb+rilor %n cadrul organizaiei prin %nv+are ,i urm+rind proceduri noi. Toate acestea pot aduce la diferite stadii de stres. (n zilele de azi, stresul organizaional este cauza %n cea mai mare cre,tere, care provoac+ absena de la locul de munc+. )anagementul ineficient, lipsa de luarea deciziilor de c+tre management, ore de munc+ peste program, nesigurana pentru perspectiva de angajare %n viitor, preum ,i presiunea din partea serviciului, sunt unele dintre cauzele ale stresului e#plicate de angajai. *e aceea, angajatorii trebuie s+ considere stresul organizaional ca pe o problem+ serioas+ ,i trebuie s+ ia m+suri pentru prevenirea stresului ap+rut la locul de

"conomia seria Management

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

2!2 2!22

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

munc+, care afecteaz+ angajaii. +tresul poate avea influen+ negativ+ asupra productivit+ii ,i a competitivit+ii organizaiei, ,i de asemenea poate cre,te costurile de asigurarea s+n+t+ii. C&vinte'cheie% managementul stresului, stresul organizaional, sistemul total de lucru (E) Classification% 4.5, 45-, M-., M67 Intro uction

relationshi0s in i9i ual ifferences. This means that =o* esign an control or ecision interact to influence health. Personal arrangement focuses on the cogniti9e 0rocesses an emotional reactions *ase on in i9i uals: interactions 8ith their en9ironment, so that items cannot *e conce0tualize as stressors in e0en entl! of a 0erson:s reaction to them, *ecause 8hat is stressful for one 0erson ma! not *e stressful for another. Once a 0ro*lem has *een i entifie , s0ecialists start i entification an e9elo0ment of solutions, *! training for em0lo!ers an em0lo!ees, managers, 0ro9ision of information, timeframe for re9ie8, in or er to e9elo0 a8areness of stress an its management, an to e ucate em0lo!ers a*out ho8 the! can limit organizational stress. Costs cause *! 8or<$relate stress amount a*out .2*illion "UR !earl! >?ui ance on @or<$Relate #tress, .22.A. Organizational arrangement B organizational stress management at organizational le9el Organizational arrangement strateg! for 0re9ention, re uce, an relie9e of stress at 8or<0lace re0resents 0ro0erl! rearrangement of 8or<ing con itions 8ithin an organization through =o* esign, an creation of health! 8or<0lace. Positi9e effects of this sort of inter9ention shoul *e in long$run. It is create for em0lo!ers, for organization, in or er to create *etter an satisf!ing con itions. It contains e ucational trainings an sets of arrangements. "m0lo!ers an organization 8ill reach 8ithin the organization regar ing to =o* esign, an health! 8or<0lace en9ironment stan ar s *! ac<no8le ging an un erstan ing time management, goal an 8or<$roles, res0onsi*ilit! an authorit!, arrangements an a*ilit!, am*iguit! an errors, meaning, stimulation an re8ar , *eneficial su00ort, an team *uil ing. The! 8ill also get <no8 a*out en9ironmental, socio$ cultural, an lifest!le factors 8hich influence an create organizational stress. "n9ironmental factors refer to e9aluation regar ing ergonomic norms an stan ar s, an a00lication of these norms an stan ar s. #ocio$cultural factors refer to 8or<$famil! *alance, satisfaction 8ith 8or<, communication, emotional an social su00ort, an moral at 8or<0lace. Cife$st!le factors refer to *rea<s 8ithin 8or<ing time, an health e ucation. All of these shoul *e one in or er to 0re9ent, relie9e, an re uce stress.

tress 8ithin an organization is manage at t8o le9els% al organizational le9el *! organizational arrangement, an at 0ersonal:s le9el *! in i9i ual:s arrangement. Organizational arrangement e;amines the structure of the *et8een stressors an strains, 8ithout ta<ing consi eration on

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

"conomia seria Management

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

2!3 2!32

After setting organizational an 0erson:s arrangement, stress management control 0rocess 8ill ta<e 0lace. This stress management control process inclu es i entification of inci ence, 0re9alence, se9erit! an atten ance of 8or<$relate stressor e;0osures an their causes an health conseDuencesE anal!ze of organization an con itions of 8or< in relation to the outcomes foun , an fin ing out 8eather the! are li<el! to *e necessar!, sufficient or contri*utor! in causing 8or<$stress an ill health relate to it, 8hether the! are accessi*le to change, an 8eather such changes are acce0ta*leE esign of an integrate 0ac<age of inter9entions, an im0lementation of this integrate 0ac<age of inter9entions in or er to 0re9ent 8or<$relate stress an to 0romote 8ell$*eing an 0ro ucti9it!E e9aluation of outcomes of the inter9entions in terms of stressor e;0osures, stress reactions, inci ence an 0re9alence of ill health, in icators of 8ell$*eing, 0ro ucti9it! 8ith regar to the Dualit! an Duantit! of goo s or ser9ices, an costs an *enefits in economic termsE all these mentione a*o9e using 0ersonal stress Duestionnaire. Person:s arrangement B organizational stress management at in i9i ualsF le9el At this le9el, in or er to 0re9ent, re uce an relie9e stress, 8e ha9e to ta<e se0aratel! e9er! 0erson, accor ing to its 0ersonalit!, historical e9ents e;0erience , an to foun stressors an solutions for stress for an! 0erson a0art. PersonFs arrangement contains 8i e arranging t!0es of inter9entions ma! thus *e consi ere in GA' #tress Management ProgramG, lea9ing the choice of the most effecti9e com*ination to form 0ersonFs arrangement accor ing to s0ecific features 0articular em0lo!eeFs situation. These arrangements consist of t8o 0ossi*le t!0es of inter9entions range from inter9entions aime in +tress &revention &rogram as 0rimar! inter9ention, an inter9entions aime in +tress ,educing &rogram *eing secon ar! inter9ention. In or er to 0re9ent stress *et8een em0lo!ees, these shoul *e traine an informe a*out 0rofessional contentment inclu ing time an achie9ement management, communication an 0ersonalit!, an 8or< an 8or<0lace organization. "m0lo!ees shoul also *e informe a*out health, a*out their free time, self$care s<ills, to 8hich 8ill *e a e trainings on ho**!, nutrition, fitness, 8ellness, an massage. Besi e these, anti$stress 0rogram shoul *e 0romote through e ucation on i entification of 0ossi*le causes >sources, le9els, an effectsA, as 8ell as e ucation on stress management an su00ort. A 0re9enti9e me ical e;amination an me ical e;amination is necessar!. This 8ill efine le9el of stress affection on health. "ach 0erson that has esta*lishe se9ere me ical illness shoul *e irecte to further me ical care. A 0erson is anal!ze as a 8hole, anal!zing all of his 0otentials 8ith 0ro*lems. This 8oul hel0 to choose the most effecti9e com*ination as the *est 0ossi*le form, containing follo8ing% autogenic training, min fulness me itation, !oga or 8al<ing me itation, 0rogressi9e muscular rela;ation, transcen ental me itation, *iofee *ac<, music thera0!, self$control me itation, 0ace res0iration, ee0 *reathing, 4acuzzi, s8imming 0ool, h! ro$massage, an occu0ational thera0!.

"conomia seria Management

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

2!* 2!*2 4o*

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200
esign an elegation of 8or< acti9ities

-ob design contains norms an elements for creating secure 8or<ing con itions, a00l!ing e;0erience an <no8le ge of stressor im0act at 8or<0lace, in or er to 0re9ent an re uce stress that influence em0lo!ees. These norms an elements are re0resente *! the follo8ing% *esi e a t!0ical fi9e$ a!$eight$hours 8or<, it is recommen to use alternati9e 8or< sche ule that consists of fle;time or com0resse 8or<8ee<E esign 8or< sche ules to a9oi conflict 8ith eman s an res0onsi*ilities unrelate to =o*E allo8 a eDuate time to 0erform acti9ities satisfactoril!E clarif! organizationFs goals an 9alues an a a0t them to the 8or<er:s o8n goals an 9aluesE efine 8or< roles an res0onsi*ilities clearl!E harmonize 8or<er:s res0onsi*ilit! an authorit!E ensure that assignments are com0ati*le 8ith the ca0a*ilities an resources of the 8or<er, in or er to a9oi *oth o9er$ an un er$ loa E a =ust occu0ational 0h!sical settings to the 8or<ers: a*ilities, nee s an reasona*le e;0ectationsE a9oi am*iguit! in matters of =o* securit! an career e9elo0mentE a00raise li<el! errorsE esign tas<s to 0ro9i e meaning, stimulation, a sense of com0leteness an an o00ortunit! to use s<illsE 0romote reasona*le re8ar for the effort an goo =o* 0erformanceE *eneficial su00ort 8ill hel0 em0lo!ees to *alance the eman s of 8or< an famil!, offering fle;i*le s0en ing accounts, chil care an el er care assistance, 0art$time 8or< o0tions an other facilitiesE an team$*uil ing. A00roaches to =o* esign are% =o* enlargement >a ing more tas<s of the same <in to an e;isting =o*, using the same s<ills B a Duantitati9e change in utiesA, =o* enrichment >a ing a tas< that reDuires more <no8le ge, technical e;0ertise, or res0onsi*ilit!, increasing in i9i ual e9elo0ment, *! s<ill 9ariet!, tas< i entit!, tas< significant, autonom!, fee *ac< B a Dualitati9e change in utiesA, 8or< flo8 rearrangement >=o* rotation >mo9ing 0eo0le horizontall! into =o*s 8ith ne8 tas<sA an 8or< mo eling >mo9ing 0eo0le to a 9ariet! of tas<s to re0etiti9e =o*sAA, autonomous 8or< grou0s >grou0 mem*er esta*lishing 8or<ing hours, sche ules, rest *rea<s, selecting ne8 mem*ers, e9aluating 0resent mem*ers, an initiating ischarge of unsatisfactor! 0erformersA, =o* sharing >t8o em0lo!ees share a single =o*, usuall! on a 0art$ time *aseA, changes in 8or< sche uling >increase the in i9i ual:s fle;i*ilit! in sche uling 8or<ing hoursA, an su0er9isor! training > elegating res0onsi*ilities to em0lo!eesA. *elegation is a s<ill in management, es0eciall! in 8or< o9erloa . It is a s<ill of *ringing other 0eo0leFs e;0ertise to *ear in !our 8or<, 0articularl! in areas 8here !ou o not ha9e the s<ills or tem0erament to o the *est. One must learn to elegate 0arts of his 8or< I or er to *e a*le to manage his increase 8or<loa , *ecause there is a limit to the amount of 8or< one can o on his o8n, es0eciall! un er 0ressure, e;0eriencing stress. The rest shoul *e eli9ere to the organization. If someone o not elegate, he cannot 0rogress in his career, *ecause he 8ill not *e a*le to ta<e more 8or<. Transfer of res0onsi*ilit! e9elo0s staff, increasing their ca0a*ilit!, an *enefits the organization, an can also increase their role en=o!ment. But it is im0ortant to retain a suita*le le9el of control o9er the 0rocess an finishe 0ro uct.

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

"conomia seria Management

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200
Creating a health! 8or<0lace, an

2!! 2!!2

total 8or<ing s!stem

Health! 8or<0lace can *e create *! a =ustment of en9ironmental, socio$cultural, an lifest!le factors, le *! ergonomic researches of anthro0ometrical, 0h!siological, sensor, an 0s!chological characteristics of human organism an his *eha9ior. "ach factor has certain 0arameters an con itions that shoul *e fulfille . If these con itions are not satisfie , the! 8ill *e im0ose uring changes through the organizational arrangement. $nvironmental factors that affect health at 8or<0lace are re0resente *!% 0h!sical stressors >tem0erature, lighting, 9entilation, humi it!, noise >9i*rationA, ra iation, 8or<0lace esign in an! <in A, an if necessar!, to change the en9ironment relating to chemical an *iological 8or<ing con itions. +ocio"cultural factors relate to health! 8or<0lace re0resent% achie9ing a satisfactor! *alance *et8een 8or< an famil! commitments, training an e9elo0ment, satisfaction 8ith 8or<, 0ositi9e communication an fee *ac<, 0ro9i e emotional an social su00ort an hel0 *et8een fello8 8or<ers, ethical norms >0romote tolerance, securit! an =ustice at the 8or<0laceA. .ifestyle factors 8ith im0act on 8or<0lace health shoul *e regulate through% smo<ing cessation 0rograms, lunch *ra<e, refreshment *ra<es in or er to regenerate attention, health! eating an 8eight control, 0ersonal h!giene measures, 0h!sical acti9it! on a regular *asis, health! 0regnanc!, alcohol, rug an coffee a*use. Total working system is im0ortant in esign of 8or<ing la!outs, setting of 8or< rates, arrangement of safe s!stems of 8or<, an in 0re9ention of stress. It ta<es into consi eration human characteristics, en9ironmental factors, man$machine interface, an total 8or<ing s!stem. Tal<ing a*out human characteristic, 0eo0le ifferences in 0h!sical an mental ca0acit! are mostl! remar<e in case of the 0h!sical elements of *o ! imensions, strength an stamina, an 0s!chological elements of learning, 0erce0tion, 0ersonalit!, attitu e, moti9ation an reactions to stimuli. Ce9el of <no8le ge, training recei9e , 0ersonal s<ills an 8or< e;0erience also irectl! influence the 0erformance. $nvironmental factors irectl! affecting 0eo0le health an their su*seDuent 0erformance such as noise, 9i*ration, e;tremes of tem0erature an humi it!, an 0oor le9els of lighting an 9entilation, are calle en9ironmental stressors. There is a nee to eliminate an control en9ironmental stressors, 8or<ing area la!out, an amount of a9aila*le in i9i ual 8or<s0ace. )achines 0ro9i e information to user through 9arious forms of is0la!. On the other han , the user must ensure the correct an safe o0eration of the machine through a s!stem of control. The control is e;ecute *! 0ush$*utton, foot 0e als or manual e9ices. Correct an safe o0eration of 8or< eDui0ment can *e ensure *! factors as location, relia*ilit!, ease of o0eration, istinction of controls, i entification, ease of rea ing, sufficienc!, meaning an com0ati*ilit! of is0la!s. High =o* 0erformance can *e achie9e onl! 8ith correct com*ination of all of these factors. Ho8 8ill human characteristics, tas<s, man$machiner! interface, an en9ironmental factors affect total 8or<ing s!stem, escri*es ergonomics. It is a multi isci0linar! stu ! of the relationshi0s *et8een the 0erson an the en9ironment, escri*ing ho8 human *eing is affecte *! his en9ironment, es0eciall! in the 8or<0lace, enhancing safet!, 0ro ucti9it! an Dualit! of life. 4o* can *e fitte to the 0erson *! e9aluation an esign of 8or<0lace, en9ironments, =o*, tas<s, eDui0ment, an 0rocesses 8ith human ca0a*ilities an interactions in the 8or<0lace. Designing a 8or< en9ironment ergonomicall! means to ecrease acci ental costs an occurrence, in=uries an isa*ilities, to im0ro9e 8ell$*eing of the organization, to o0timize organizational 0erformance, to

"conomia seria Management

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

2!+ 2!+2

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

increase =o* satisfaction an 0ro ucti9it!, all these in or er to ecrease 0h!sical an cogniti9e stress on 0ersonnel. Time management an change management Ba time management is lea s to organizational stress *oth to em0lo!ers an to em0lo!ees, *eing isorganize . @ritten to$ o lists hel0 to accom0lish, 0rioritize an sche ule tas<s 0ro0erl!, an to mar< them as finishe 8hen accom0lishe . O*=ecti9es, uties an acti9ities 8ritten o8n a00ear to *e more tangi*le an o$a*le. It shoul ne9er ha9e more than fi9e items, in or er to ha9e more chance to get all the things one, an to feel a greater sense of accom0lishment an control. @hen all the items are com0lete , one shoul ma<e another list. It is also im0ortant to <no8 ho8 to elegate things, an to ma<e a list of elegate things for co$8or<ers an famil! mem*ers. One shoul not hesitate to sa! no 8hen a00ro0riate. #tresse 0eo0le o not use to as< for hel0, or to refuse something. @hen asserting ea lines, al8a!s gi9e .2I more time than !ou thin< !ou nee to accom0lish the tas<. It is necessar! to set 0riorities an 0ost0one less im0ortant tas<s. Ma=or ecisions shoul not me ma e un er 0ressure. "m0lo!ees shoul 0lan their a! to inclu e 8or< *rea<s 8hich 0h!sicall! or mentall! ta<e them a8a! from the office, an not to *ring office 8or< home. Changes are 9er! freDuent, es0eciall! in contem0orar! en9ironment. Managers must in9ol9e 0eo0le affecte *! change in 0rocess of changes, not =ust to inform a*out the changes. /hange management is the 0rocess of im0lementation of changes of a s!stem, in a controlle manner, follo8ing a 0re$ efine frame8or< >mo elA for reasona*le mo ifications. Princi0les of change management are% to in9ol9e an agree su00ort from 0eo0le 8ithin organizational s!stemE to un erstan 8here the organization is at the momentE to un erstan e;actl! 8here, 8hen, an 8h! 8e 8ant the organization to *e, an 8hat are the necessar! measures to achie9e itE to 0lan e9elo0ment to8ar 0re9ious 0rinci0lesE an to communicate, in9ol9e, ena*le, an facilitate em0lo!ees: in9ol9ement. Change ma! re0resent iscontinuit! in 8or<0lace. Human 0refrontal corte; is fast com0utational e9ice a*le to hol multi0le threa s of logic at once so that 8e can 0erform fast calculations. Jualit! of 8or< li9ing Jualit! of 8or< li9ing is a set of metho s, 8hich are% =o* enrichment, high$ in9ol9ement aime at *oosting the satisfaction an 0ro ucti9it!, an autonomous 8or<ing grou0s. As 0rofessional an 0ersonal li9es are in a strong correlation to each other, human:s in e0en enc! has to co9er *oth 8or< an home. There are eight categories regar ing Dualit! of 8or< li9ing% a eDuate an fair com0ensations, safe an health 8or<ing con itions, imme iate o00ortunit! to use an e9elo0 human ca0acities, o00ortunit! for continue gro8th an securit!, social integration 8ithin an organization, constitutionalism 8ithin an organization, 8or< an life s0ace, an social rele9ance of 8or< life. Jualit! of 8or< li9ing refers to ecision 0artici0ation, restructuring =o* nature, enhancing 8or<0lace en9ironment, an efining re8ar structure. In or er to e;0lain a mo el of Dualit! of 8or< li9ing, 8e 8ill 0resent an em0irical stu ! ta<en from 4ournal of #ocial #cience . >.A% K-$KL, .22K, MJualit! of 8or< life% Im0lications of career imensionsN. The! 8ere com0ute *! zero$or er correlation >a

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

"conomia seria Management

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

2!6 2!62

relationshi0 *et8een t8o 9aria*les, ignoring the influence of other 9aria*les in 0re ictionE accounting as a re un anc!A, an *! Cron*ach:s al0ha >a measure of relia*ilit! of a 0s!chometric instrumentA. 7escri8tive /tatistics, 9ero'order correlation, and Cron-ach:s al8ha of 1&ality of $or; livin<, and the 8redictor varia-les ,aria-les . K.O55. K.O326 K.KLKK / 0 -.76L57 0.1233 -.--7L3 2.K2 -.7-..5 2.L. . Ta-le " .

0 12) 3"045 0.14 . Career satisfaction 3"05 2.L. 0.15 . Career achievement 3"35 6.KL73 -.-733- 2.-7 2.O7 2..6 . Career -alance 3"!5 +ource% htt0%11888.u8s0.e u10s!ch1c81statmanual1mrcontinuous.html P/um*er of items measuring each construct PPCron*ach:s al0ha Qero$or er coefficients 0R2.2Estimates of coefficients for the model

0.67

Ta-le 2 12) dimension = 3>nstandardi9ed coefficients5 /td? Error =eta 3/tandardi9ed coefficients5 t 8' val&e 2.2222.22-

-.-KK 2.O.. O.K.6 Constant Career 2.-L5 2.26K 2.-OK O..2. satisfaction 3. 5 Career 2.OK6 2.27L 2.O67 L.LOachievement 3. 5 $2.-.7 2.272 $2.235 $O.-7Career -alance 3. 5 +ource% htt0%11888.u8s0.e u10s!ch1c81statmanual1mrcontinuous.html RS2.L3-E RTS2.K.KE A =. RTS2.K.. Pre icator 9aria*les are% career satisfaction, career achie9ement, an career *alance. "stimate mo el% U>J@CA S -.-KK V 2.-L5 >W A V 2.OK6 >W A V 2.-.7 >W A V $

2.2222.22.

After anal!zing a 0ro*lem, 8e ma! sa! that *! this em0irical stu ! sho8n, career achie9ement is the most im0ortant eterminant of Dualit! of 8or< li9ing, follo8e *! career satisfaction an career *alance. Career *alance is negati9e, as this re0resents the correlation *et8een 0rofessional an 0ersonal life. Marital status, age, income, e ucation, !ears of em0lo!ment, an 0erio of em0lo!ment at current em0lo!er irectl! affect Dualit! of 8or< li9ing. ote8 This em0irical stu ! 8as one at the Uni9ersit! of Mala!a, Mala!sia, an it is onl! use to 0resent mathematical com0utations of Dualit! of 8or< li9ing.

"conomia seria Management

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

Ris< assessment for organizational stress Ris< assessment can *e one 8hen relationshi0 *et8een cause an effect is <no8n, as 8ell as ris< 0s!chological nature of the stress 0rocess, an uncertaint! a*out the relationshi0 *et8een hazar an harm. Moreo9er, stressors can ha9e ifferent meaning for ifferent in i9i uals. #ome 8ill rate a =o* as stressful on the *asis of ho8 the! 0ercei9e the o*=ecti9e nature of the 8or< >the stimulusA, others 8ill onl! concern themsel9es 8ith ho8 it ma<es them feel >the res0onseA. Coo<ing at oneFs res0onses to s0ecific stressors can contri*ute to *etter un erstan ing of oneFs 0articular 0h!sical, emotional, an mental resources an limits. There are four ste0s in ris< assessment 0rocess% 8or<$relate stressors >psychological and physiological overloading B grou0e stressors, damages a00earing uring 8or<ing 0rocess B ha9ing a irect effect o9er the human *o !, an also acting as stressors, an dangers as fear from 0ossi*le conseDuences relate to tas<s accom0lishmentA, stress >as a reaction on e;0osure to stressorsA, 8or<$relate health$ illnesses cause *! stress >cardiovascular disorders B arter! h!0ertension, ischemic heart isor ers, an cere*ral$9ascular isor ers, chronic unusual respiratory disorders B chronic *ronchitis, em0h!sema, an asthma, locomotoric disorders B lum*ar an cer9ical$ *rachial s!n rome, an behavioral and psychosomatic disordersA, 8or<0lace ris< assessment >8or<0lace 8ith increase ris< on health, an 8or<0lace 8ith not increase ris< on healthA. All these shoul *e 0resente in a ris< assessment ta*le. Relia*le self$ re0orts shoul *e 9ali ate through correlation 8ith other factors in *eha9ior, 0h!siolog! an health. #uch <in of measures shall inclu e o*=ecti9e in icators. O*=ecti9e in icators inclu e% 0h!sical thesis such as *iochemical, hematological tests, or car io9ascular 0arameters or measurement of mental 0erformance, an also information from clinical assessments. Besi e this 8e shall use ata as le9els of a*senteeism, acci ent statistics, or health$relate *eha9iors such as smo<ing or alcohol consum0tion. Cegislation At the "uro0ean le9el, there 8as reache a 9oluntar! agreement on organizational stress, *! organizations. It aims to increase the un erstan ing an a8areness of em0lo!ers an em0lo!ees a*out organizational stress. It 0oints the nee to *e a8are of signs that might in icate stress$relate 0ro*lems. In #er*ia there is a la8 in construction, regar ing mo**ing or harassment at 8or<0lace. There is an actual la8 on em0lo!ees 0rotection >Qastita za0oslenih 0rema Qa<onu o ra u Re0u*li<e #r*i=e, M#luz*eni glasni< R#N, *r..7126, K2126A. Article -. in this la8 su00ose that em0lo!ee has rights on safe, an life an health 0rotection at 8or<0lace, an rights on 0rotection of one:s o8n integrit!. Article .- for*i s istur*ance an se;ual harassment. B! this la8, istur*ance means an! un8ante *eha9ior le *! some of *asis from Article -5, 8hich su00ose for*i ance of iscrimination, 8hich has as a target or re0resents in=ur! ignit! of a 0erson 8ho is loo<ing for a =o*, as 8ell as of the em0lo!ee, an 8hich 0ro9o<es fear or creates inimical, hum*le or insulting en9ironment. #e;ual harassment, *! this la8, is an! 9er*al, non9er*al or 0h!sical *eha9ior 8hich has as a target or re0resents in=ur! ignit! of a 0erson 8ho is loo<ing for a =o*, as 8ell as of the em0lo!ee

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

"conomia seria Management

in area of se;ual life, an 8hich 0ro9o<es fear or creates inimical, hum*le or insulting en9ironment. It states that em0lo!er has an o*ligation to 0a! certain amount of mone! for 0unishment to his em0lo!ee suffering in=uries at 8or<0lace or relate to 8or<. If em0lo!er oes not res0ect la8 regar ing iscrimination, 0unishment amounts to *e 0ai are also mentione in this la8. The la8 on 8or< oes not offer all inclusi9e 0rotection in case of harassment at 8or<0lace. Ca8 on for*i ance of harassment at 8or<0lace su00oses all inclusi9e 0rotection regar ing em0lo!ees at all em0lo!ers, no matter if national or foreign 0erson or entre0reneur, 0u*lic e;ecuti9es, 0rofita*le or non$ 0rofita*le organizational sector. Xor$coming legislation in this fiel shoul *e *ase on assurance of the entire s!stem of 0rotection from harassment at 8or<0lace, as a 8hole, this offering em0lo!ees fast an effecti9e 0rotection through short$term e;ecution terms an huge num*er of tem0oraril! an 0rotection measures. Metho ological an measurement 0ro*lems

#ome scientist ha9e ou*ts a*out e;isting a00roaches use to measure stress an also a*out the 0olitical an cultural im0lications that follo8 from claims that stress le9els are in an e;treme rise. Others ha9e the o0inion that so calle 0o0ularit! of stress is ri9en *! cultural change. The! sa! that it is *ecause its *roa $*ase e;0lanator! 9alue, as it can *e in9o<e to account for a 9ariet! of negati9e en9ironmental factors, 0h!sical or emotional feelings >Blaug, (en!on, an Ce<hi, .22LA. The! s0ouse that legitimization of stress has *een a e *! its 0re9alence 8ithin the me ia an the 0rofessionalization of stress treatments. #ome researchers states that stress is a figment of our collecti9e an o9er$enthusiastic imagination, an that societ! has *uilt u0 a com0le; fol<lore a*out stress, 8hich is reinforce *! 0o0ular culture an me ia. I o not agree 8ith this theor!, *ecause, for e;am0le in #er*ia stress 8as not M0u*lishe N in me ia until no8, or it 8as, *ut in a 9er! lo8 Duantit!, 8hile em0lo!ees are certainl! stresse . The realit! is that the! o not <no8 much a*out the 0henomenon of stress, the! o not <no8 a*out ho8 to 0re9ent an to relie9e it, *ut the! are e;0eriencing stress. This sho8s that a 0ro*lem e;ists, *ut a 0eo0le o not <no8 ho8 to co0e 8ith it. Conclusion #tress, so calle Gmanagerial illnessG, can *e a9oi e . But 8e nee to change our ha*its in or er to 0re9ent, relie9e, an re uce it. #tress at 8or<0lace oes not onl! influence em0lo!ees as a 0erson, *ut also the organization as a 8hole, thus it shoul *e treate at *oth organizational an in i9i ual le9el, in form of organizational arrangement an 0erson:s arrangement. Tolerance of stress le9el iffers from 0erson to another. #ome 0eo0le sustain a highl! stressful lifest!le or a a0t to a series of stressful e9ents easil!. But, there are much more of those affecte *! stress$relate illnesses an e9en acci ental in=uries. In our region 0eo0le affecte *! stress still hesitate to as< for hel0. Organizational stress is seen as an imaginar! fact an 0eo0le o not Duite *elie9e that it can *e sol9e . The 0ro*lem comes 8ith ac<no8le gment an e ucation on this 0oint. "m0lo!ees also o not <no8 their rights. Most of them <no8 onl! their o*ligations. Of course, there is also a 0ro*lem 8ith 0oor

"conomia seria Management

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

***

The Ninth International Conference Investments and Economic Recovery, May 22 23, 200

management 8hich oes not su00ort the em0lo!ees. @hile on the other han , em0lo!ers seem not to <no8 their o*ligations. Both em0lo!ers an em0lo!ees shoul in9est in organizational stress management. Xor the em0lo!ers a health! organizational en9ironment 8ith no stress increases organization:s 0ro ucti9it! an com0etiti9eness. "m0lo!ees 0re9enting an re ucing their stress can achie9e *etter 0erformance in *oth of their 0rofessional an 0ersonal fiel . Organizations an go9ernment shall in9est in me ia cam0aigns 0romoting a8areness of stress an metho s of its 0re9ention an relie9ing.

Bi*liogra0h! Blaug, R., (en!on, A., Ce<hi, R. >.22LA. +tress at 9ork, The 8or< foun ation, Con on Coo0er Car! C., Ro*ertson I9an, >.22OA. !nternational ,eview of !ndustrial and :rganizational &sychology 500;, 'olume -5, @ile! HYrtel Charmine ". 4., @ilfre 4. Qer*e, /eal M. Ash<anar!, >.226A. $motions in :rganizational Behavior, C"A Pu*lishers Hrn=ica, #. >-3L3A. :p<ta psihologija sa psihologijom liZnosti, /aucna <n=iga, Beogra Ilan<o9i[, '., Ilan<o9i[, /., >-336A. ,estaurativna kineziterapija, Beogra 4e; #te9e M., >.22.A. A +cience"&ractitioner Approach " :rganizational psychology, 4ohn @ile! an #ons, I/C Rogel*erg #te9en ?., >.22LA. $ncyclopedia of !ndustrial and :rganizational &sychology, #A?" Pu*lications #to\l=e9i[ C., O o9i[ ?., >-33KA. &rofesionalno osposobljavanje telesno invalidnih lica, Qa9o za u ]*eni<e i nasta9na sre st9a, Beogra Top !nternational Business 9riters =.22.A. B>+! $++ " The >ltimate ,esource 'itorio i Martino, Mothar Musri >.22-A. ?uidance for the &revention of +tress and @iolence at the 9orkplace, Ministr! of Human Resources Mala!sia, De0artment of Occu0ational #afet! an Health Mala!sia ?uidance on 9ork",elated +tress >.22.A. "uro0ean Commission, Directorate$?eneral for "m0lo!ment an #ocial Affairs ,esearch on 9ork",elated +tress =.222A. "uro0ean Agenc! for #afet! an Health @or< 888.z ra9l=e.<rstarica.com htt0%118e*s0ace.shi0.e u

'ol.-., /r. - s0ecial1.223

"conomia seria Management