You are on page 1of 142

TELL ME AND ILL FORGET SHOW ME AND I MIGHT REMEMBER INVOLVE ME AND I WILL UNDERSTAND

The We are Visual! Educational Toolkit aims to put this proverb into practice within the formal and informal human rights education in our country. We are Visual! is our humble contribution to the efforts to use the power of the audio-visual medium as a teaching aid in the process of acquiring, canalizing and transferring relevant and sound information, knowledge, viewpoints and values that would lead to experiential learning of the complexity of human rights. The carefully made selection of twelve creative documentary films brings creative fragments of the reality these films testify about. They do not only make the viewer relate to the screened reality both cognitively and emotionally but also urges him/her to leave the position of a passive consumer. The creative documentary film simply provokes reflection and discussion, asks for comments and opposing views while its authenticity tempts the viewer to imagine and further clarify the reality before arranging it in the drawers of ones own knowledge. We believe that this process goes hand in hand with critical consumption and moderated evaluation. In the approach to the documentary film these are essential so that its content, which is often multilayered and non-standardly presented, could be stratified, explained and remembered. Therefore, we are suggesting interactive activities that would further catalyze this experiential process. The We are Visual! Educational Toolkit wouldnt have been possible without the inspiring and selfless support of: Kumjana Novakova, Neda Milevska Kostova and Andrijana Papikj (CRIS Studiorum, Skopje), Chris Bowman and Karen OHare (Document, Scotland), Andrea Kuhn and Janine Binoeder (Nuremberg International Human Rights Film Festival, Germany), Margreet Cornelius and Mirjam van Campen (Movies that Matter, the Netherlands).

A BRIEF HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO

23

BICO THE YELLOW TAG

37

BURMA VJ- REPORTING FROM A CLOSED COUNTRY DRONA & ME FACING ANIMALS GIRL MODEL MY NAME IS FEKER THE SHUTDOWN THE SMELL OF BURNING ANTS WRIGHTS LAW

53 69 85 93 105 119 131

A BRIEF HISTORY OF JONH BALDESSARI


USA / 2012 / 6 Directors: Henry Joost & Ariel Schulman

TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO


Bulgaria / 2008 / 4 Director: Boris Despodov

ABOUT THE FILMS:

> SHORT HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI


No more boring art! is what John Baldessari had written over and over again to the (un)known American artist back in 1971. Of all the conceptual artists youve never heard of, John Baldessari is, if not the most influential, at least the tallest. This short documentary film shows a series of details from this artists epic life and work, including some trivial ones, such as the Wi-Fi password that he fearlessly shares with the audience. Tom Waits, a musician known for his unique voice and performance, was Baldessaris first choice for the films narrator. His voice is beautiful, said the old Baldessari. The rest is A Brief History of John Baldessari...

> TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO


Who could have known that Valentina Hassans interpretation of Without You, the song originally performed by the late Whitney Houston, at the audition for the Bulgarian version of the world famous TV series American Idol would become a number-one hit in the country? The YouTube video of this young girl showing an astonishing lack of musical talent and knowledge of English had been seen by more than 17 million people within only a few months. The interesting phonetic transcriptions of the lyrics drew the interest of many young people and caused an avalanche of various interpretations. Composed out of pieces of YouTube videos published after Valentinas original performance, this short experimental documentary film showcases the glory and the misery of pop culture and kitsch.

KEYWORDS:

Art, popular culture, mass media, critical thinking, media literacy, media education

THE FILMS CAN BE USED IN:

Sociology (as part of lectures related to culture), Macedonian language (as an introduction to media literacy) or art education (art, kitsch, art history), musical education, foreign languages

6/7

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The fact that young people today are much more likely to get interested in cheap entertainment than in really valuable aesthetic artistic achievements can be illustrated by the number of clicks that the experimental film on Baldessari got in comparison to the video of Valentina Hassan singing at the Bulgarian Idol. The performance of this young and extremely untalented girl has been seen by approximately 17 million people, while the original and aesthetically remarkable short documentary film on Baldessari, an artist who has devoted his entire life to the conceptual art as an outcry against boredom and unoriginality, had been seen by merely 432 thousand people. This does however not imply that Baldessari is less well known than Valentina Hassan in the world outside of the mass media. Baldessaris worldwide expositions have surely been attended by many more people, and his work has inspired a great deal of exceptional artists such as Cindy Sherman and Barbara Kruger, as early as in the 1970s. But this is just another symptom of the consumption of pop culture through mass media.

1. POPULAR CULTURE AND MASS MEDIA


A constantly changing phenomenon, culture is hard to define, and popular culture even harder. The editors of Rethinking Popular Culture and Media, a collection of articles examining the relationship between popular culture and the mass media, as well as their influence on education and educational processes, lead us to believe that even Michael Jacksons popular album Thriller might be referred to as popular culture, since it was, and still is, widely listened to and purchased by many people. Pop culture also stands for things that are very popular but are considered less sophisticated, typical of what is usually defined as low culture something that doesnt have any aesthetical value, inhibits critical thinking and serves for entertainment only. Finally, the term popular culture is also used as a synonym for consumer culture, for everything that has been made for the purpose of mass consumption, such as Disneys animated films and toys, and even McDonalds products.1 The mass media not only play a crucial role in the creation of popular culture, but are also a part of popular culture themselves. Previously, media was a term attributed to newspapers, books and magazines. Today, whenever someone mentions media, we immediately think of the mass media which are an inseparable part of the everyday life of children and youth - TV, internet, and social networks in particular. Mass media, particularly new media, play a major role in spreading information about everything and anything. They spread not only knowledge but also ignorance and false knowledge, a phenomenon rooted in basic illiteracy and manipulation.2 Working for corporations and for profit alone, the media share a diversity of reliable information and manipulate young (and not so young) people by imposing a particular way of living and seeing things that a high quality of life

Marshall, Elizabeth and zlem Sensoy. Introduction, in Rethinking Popular Culture and Media, rethinking schools, 2010. http://www.rethinkingschools.org/publication/rpcm/rpcm_intro.shtml Please see: Milia, Zlatko, Toli Mirela i Nenad Vertovek. Mediji i mladi: Prevencija ovisnosti o medijskoj manipulaciji, Sveuilina knjiara, Zagreb, 2009.

is based on accumulating as much as money and as many material goods as possible and that the only people worth hanging out with are those who fit into the aesthetical stereotypes of the cosmetic, fashion and pharmaceutical industries. The values that mass media most often promote are those of consumption and competition, kitsch and entertainment, rather than art and education. For instance, during the preparation period of this manual (July 2013), the following information was being spread by the media: On average, our citizens spend 4 hours and 34 minutes per day watching television. According to the International Marketing Committee, we hold the third place among 38 countries in the world ranked on these terms. The only two countries where watching TV is deemed even more important is in the firstranked Serbia, and in the United States of America, where people watch TV only two minutes longer than us. We have watched the least amounts of television in 2008 - 260 minutes per day only. Ever since then, we watch TV in increasing amounts.

2. THE MEDIA AND EDUCATION


In modern societies, the flow of information is in the hands of the media. We live in times where access to information is of immensely importance, given that the information we receive through the mass media plays a role in shaping both our way of thinking and living. The effects can be either positive or negative, if we merely absorb the information provided uncritically. The study that the Kaiser Family Foundation carried out in 2010 shows that on average, young people aged 8-18 spend 7,5 hours daily on consuming media content, video games, internet, TV and (electronic) books.3 The first major study on youth and media in the SEE countries is currently being carried out by the Metamorphosis Foundation and the Youth Educational Forum and will provide insight into how and just how much young people use media.4 Studies found that the two most worrying phenomena typical of the passive consumption of media content are broadcasting itself, and the aesthetical and ethical impressions it leaves on young consumers .5 Therefore, it is necessary to encourage and develop young peoples critical thinking about media content. A large number of people consume popular culture and find pleasure and values in it. It cannot be characterized as entirely bad or good, just as the

Generation M2: media in the lives of 8 to 18 year olds http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress. com/2013/01/8010.pdf For more study-related information please visit : http://www.mof.mk/istrazhuvane-za-mladite-vo-mediumskiot-prostor/ Koir, Manca; Zgrablji Rotar, Nada; Ranfl, Rajko. ivot s medijima: prirunik o medijskom odgoju za roditelje, nastavnike i uitelje. Domn. Zagreb. 1999.

8/9

influence that mass media have on young people cannot be considered as entirely bad or entirely good either. However, we should be aware of the fact that the information and messages sent through the mass media are constructed to fit the package of values and beliefs of those that create them, and very often match the interests of the media owners themselves. The reason behind this is either financial or ideological. Hence, it is important to analyze and examine its relation to our everyday life, that is to decipher the messages and the images we receive via the media and popular culture, understand the influence they have on children and young people, understand why they were made in the first place, and what kind of messages they send. By doing so, it is possible to use the mass media as a means of resistance against the bad influence of media and pop culture in general. This is where the school, teachers and educators can and should play a crucial role. The school and its curricula, as well as the learning and the teaching processes need to be media-oriented, rather than eliminate the media as worthless, given the fact that the media today are not only our main source of information and knowledge, but that they also exercise a great influence over children and young people. It is another question as to how teachers could use the popular culture and media content that students are used to, so as to develop a well-founded critical discussion about that very same content together with the students. The response can be found in the concepts of media education and media literacy, which are crucial in the process of revealing the connections between the media and pop culture and their relation to politics and market trends. Media education encompasses all the theoretical and practical educational activities related to media. The Council of Europe (2000) has defined media education as a teaching practice aiming to develop ones media competence, that is ones critical and judicious attitude towards the media, and to encourage citizens to reason individually based on the information available. Media education provides citizens with knowledge on how to access and analyze the information needed, as well as to identify the economic, political, social and cultural interests shaping it. Media education could be introduced into the school curricula and programs as a separate school subject, or as an integral part of many other subjects, such as languages, environment, art history, art education, sociology and civic education.

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 45

> > OBJECTIVES:


To raise awareness about the quality of media content To encourage critical thinking towards media content To analyze ones media consumption habits To understand the difference between art and kitsch To reassess ones personal views

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEET: THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED
NOTE: In order to have a fruitful discussion and successfully complete the film-related activities, it is recommended that initially one half of the class watches one film and the other half watches the other. This is quite doable in informal educational settings and a bit more challenging in schools. But it is not impossible to do, since both films are very short. It is even better if the films are played simultaneously. School teachers could work with two classes and divide them into two groups the first group would watch the film in one classroom and the second would watch the other film in another classroom. It is important that the person in charge has this in mind prior to the activities, so that he/ she could prepare or get assistance from colleagues. IF IN THE END IT ISNT POSSIBLE TO PROCEED IN THIS MANNER, THEN ASSIGN ONE GROUP TO REPRESENTING THE FIRST FILM AND ANOTHER THE SECOND, but bear in mind that in this case, the work dynamics and the quality of arguments would be on a lower level. Therefore, it is recommended to deepen the discussion and skip the joint screening of the two films that is planned for later.

10/11

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 45

> > PREPARATIONS (2):


Each group is divided into two subgroups, with approximately the same number of members. The educator gives instructions on whether one of the groups would wait outside of the classroom or would watch the film in a different place. It is also important to point out that the activity wont be successful if the participants dont follow the instructions and arent disciplined. The participants should be silent and arent supposed to talk to the other group until the educator says so. The educator then plays the films.

> > One group watches the film:


TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO (4).

> > The other group watches the film

A BRIEF HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI (6).

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 45

> > ACTIVITY:

I AGREE, I DISAGREE (10)


Once the groups see the films, they gather in the same room. At the one end of the room, there is a piece of paper saying I AGREE, and at the other end there is another piece of paper saying I DISAGREE. The educator reminds the participants that they mustnt talk to each other during the activity and explains that they will hear different statements and should go to one or the other side of the room in accordance with their opinion.

> > The educator reads out loud the > > DISCUSSION (3):
How did you feel during the activity?

statements from the worksheet: THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED

Were there moments when you found it difficult not to talk? When? Why? Were there situations when you thought that no one could have an opinion different than yours? Could you give me an example? Why? Do you think that the films that youve watched were the same or at least similar?

> > SCREENING OF THE FILMS (to all participants):


A SHORT HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI (6) TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO (4)

12/13

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 45

> > DISCUSSING THE FILMS (10)


How do these two films differ? Which film can teach us more? What can it teach us? Did one of the films make you think? What quality of content do these two films offer? What kind of content do you usually come across - content that entertains you or content that makes you think critically? How do you find it? Are there any consequences to consuming this kind of content? Do you know what kitsch is? Would you be satisfied if you consumed only that kind of content as viewers? Would you like to see some changes in terms of content? Why? How can you defend yourself from this kind of content? Is there someone here who could share a book, film or a comic book title that he/she has really enjoyed lately? (You could also prepare few proposals in advance)

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > OBJECTIVES:


To raise awareness about the quality of media content To encourage critical thinking towards media content To analyze ones media consumption habits To understand the difference between art and kitsch To reassess ones personal views

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEET: THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED > CARDBOARD BOX with a cut-out bottom
NOTE: In order to have a fruitful discussion and successfully complete the film-related activities, it is recommended that initially one half of the class watches one film and the other half watches the other. This is quite doable in informal educational settings and a bit more challenging in schools. But it is not impossible to do, since both films are very short. It is even better if the films are played simultaneously. School teachers could work with two classes and divide them into two groups the first group would watch the film in one classroom and the second would watch the other film in another classroom. It is important that the person in charge has this in mind prior to the activities, so that he/ she could prepare or get assistance from colleagues. IF IN THE END IT ISNT POSSIBLE TO PROCEED IN THIS MANNER, THEN ASSIGN ONE GROUP TO REPRESENTING THE FIRST FILM AND ANOTHER THE SECOND, but bear in mind that in this case, the work dynamics and the quality of arguments would be on a lower level. Therefore, it is recommended to deepen the discussion and skip the joint screening of the two films planned for later.

14/15

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > PREPARATIONS (2):


Each group is divided into two subgroups, with approximately the same number of members. The educator gives instructions on whether one of the groups would wait outside of the classroom or would watch the film in a different place. It is also important to point out that the activity wont be successful if the participants dont follow the instructions and arent disciplined. The participants should be silent and arent supposed to talk to the other group until the educator says so. The educator then plays the films.

> > One group watches the film


TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO (4).

> > The other group watches the film

A BRIEF HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI (6).

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > ACTIVITY:

I AGREE, I DISAGREE (10):


Once the groups see the films, they gather in the same room. At the one end of the room, there is a piece of paper saying I AGREE, and at the other end there is another piece of paper saying I DISAGREE. The educator reminds the participants that they mustnt talk to each other during the activity and explains that they will hear different statements and should go to one or the other side of the room in accordance with their opinion.

> > The educator reads out loud the > > DISCUSSION (5-10):
How did you feel during the activity?

statements from the worksheet: THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED

Were there moments when you found it difficult not to talk? When? Why? Were there situations when you thought that no one could have an opinion different than yours? Could you give me an example? Why? Do you think that the films that youve watched were the same or at least similar? Do you think that youve watched different films in terms of content and message? Can someone presume what kind of film did the other group watch based on the information you have so far?

> > SCREENING OF THE FILMS (to all participants):


A SHORT HISTORY OF JOHN BALDESSARI (6) TULIBU DIBU DOUCHOO (4)

16/17

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > DISCUSSING THE FILMS (15)


How do these two films differ? Which film can teach us more? What can it teach us? Did one of the films make you think? What quality of content do these two films offer? What kind of content do you usually come across - content that entertains you or content that makes you think critically? How do you find it? Are there any consequences to consuming this kind of content? Do you know what kitsch is? Would you be satisfied if you consumed only that kind of content as viewers? Would you like to see some changes in terms of content? Why? How can you defend yourself from this kind of content? Is there someone here who could share a book, film or a comic book title that he/she has really enjoyed lately? (You could also prepare few proposals in advance)

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > ACTIVITY:

MY VIEW ON MEDIA CONTENT (25)


The participants are divided into six groups. Each group is given a different statement (see below) and should write an essay/short text that supports the statement received. If you think that the group, or a part of the group, can represent the statement differently (e.g. pantomime or acting), feel free to change the instructions for that group or for everyone. You can also divide the participants into more groups (e.g. eight, ten or twelve groups) and assign the writing task to one part of the group and something else to the others. If you choose this option, keep in mind that youll need more time. It is important that the participants make the key points of their performances visible. The statements are as follows: Soap operas make the viewer more stupid. What the viewer sees/reads on the screen should be really enjoyable and make the viewer think. Soap operas are the only good thing that the media show; entertainment is the only purpose of media. It is better to make friends through social networks than in person, because they offer a greater choice of friends, games and information. Social networks are the best place to become stupid: they give access to a bunch of nonsense that distract you, and in the end, you feel exhausted even though youve only been sitting in front of your screen without actually seeing anyone in person. News is the only real aspect of media. When it comes to news, no one lies. Even news is twisted in the favour of the media owners. We should all be careful and accept what we hear on the news in a reserved manner. Then each group presents its work. Other groups are supposed to ask at least one question related to the arguments given. The educator should then open a discussion on the quality of most popular media content, especially that which is popular among the participants.

18/19

ACTIVITY: ART AND KITSCH 90

> > CLOSING ACTIVITY (20+)


A bottomless cardboard box is put on a table. You can also use a frame made of paper, which should remind everyone of a TV screen. The educator writes down the names of all participants on small pieces of paper and folds them. Every participant gets to pick one. If someone picks ones own name, a few participants are asked to return the pieces of paper so the educator can mix them and let them pick again. The participants should imagine that the cardboard box is a TV and that each one of them will have the opportunity to give a short report on the famous person whose name is written on the piece of paper they picked out. Since there is not much time, they should think of a TV article that wont last longer than one minute and present that persons positive traits. They should reflect about the person, remember the situations that show that person in a positive light and share it with the audience. It would be great if the educators participate in this activity as well, writing their names so they can present somebody but also be presented by the participants. Everyone gets to appear on TV. It is important that everyone takes part in the activity.

WORKSHEET: THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED


Read these statements out to the participants but be careful not to show any emotion or gesture that would be interpreted as an inclination toward a particular statement. You can, of course, laugh with them. In that way, you are creating a relaxed atmosphere but are also encouraging them to participate. READ THE STATEMENTS SLOWLY AND GIVE THE PARTICIPANTS ENOUGH TIME TO DECIDE WHERE TO STAND AND TO SEE WHERE THE OTHER PARTICIPANTS DECIDED TO STAND. IF NEEDED, REMIND THEM THAT THEY ARENT ALLOWED TO TALK.

>> STATEMENTS: > I REALLY LIKED THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED. > THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED WAS VERY ENTERTAINING. > THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED WAS ABOUT ART AND KITSCH. > THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED TALKS ABOUT ONE REALLY EXCEPTIONNAL PERSON. TAKES LOTS OF COURAGE FOR SOMEONE TO BEHAVE LIKE THE MAIN CHARACTER DID > IT IN THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED. > > > > > > > >
MANY THINGS CAN BE LEARNED FROM THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED. THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED IS ABOUT A PERSON WITH AN INCREDIBLE ABILITY . THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED TALKS ABOUT A PERSON THAT WORKED HARD TO MAKE A GREAT CONTRIBUTION TO CONTEMPORARY ART. THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED IS ABOUT HIGH, SOPHISTICATED, ART. AMONG OTHER THIGS, THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED TALKS ABOUT HUMAN DIGNITY . I WOULD LOVE PEOPLE TO TALK ABOUT ME ONE DAY OR MAKE A FILM ABOUT ME, AS THEY DID FOR THE MAIN CHARACTER IN THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED. IF I APPEAR IN A FILM SIMILAR TO THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED, EVERYONE THAT KNOWS ME WOULD BE PROUD OF ME, MY PARENTS IN PARTICULAR. EVERYONE SHOULD STRIVE TO ACHIEVE SOMETHING THE LIKE OF WHAT THE MAIN CHARACTER DID IN THE FILM THAT WEVE JUST WATCHED.

20/21

BICO
Finland / 2004 / 5 Director: Aki Kaurismaki

THE YELLOW TAG


Sweden / 2004 / 5 Director: Jan Troell

ABOUT THE FILMS:

> BICO
Bico is a short documentary film made by the famous Finnish director Aki Kaurismki about the life led by the inhabitants of one small isolated village in the Northern part of Portugal.

> THE YELLOW TAG


The mandatory placing of yellow tags on the ears of all domestic animals disturbs the harmony in the countryside. The bureaucratization of all aspects of life within the European Union on the pretext of quality control transforms the meadows into butcheries, the animals into livestock herds, while the unlisted inventory is infallibly destroyed And all of this happens in Europe.

KEYWORDS:

Globalization, Europeanization, European identity, quality of life, environment, critical thinking, Euroscepticism

THE FILMS CAN BE USED IN:

Civic education: European Union, European identity, enlargement of the European Union Sociology: Global economic integration Geography: Europe, European economy, international trade

24/25

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The European Union represents an economic and political partnership between 28 European countries (since 2013). Its origins can be traced back to the aftermath of the Second World War, when the US-led Western Bloc decided to cooperate economically with one another for fear of socialism and of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc. The European Union rests upon the assumption that it is not likely for economically independent countries to enter into conflict again. Established in 1958, the European Economic Community (EEC) paved the way for the future European Union. Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands were the first member countries of EEC. In 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Union, a decision that marked the transition from an economic to a political community of European states, to be based on the two pillars of democracy and human rights. Today, the European Union ensures a common market and open borders, without passport controls, for its 28 member states. The citizens of the EU, around 507 million of them 1, can freely travel and work within the Unions borders.

1. More about the European Union


The three main institutions of the European Union are the Council of the European Union, the European Commission and the European Parliament. These institutions are closely collaborating and form the so-called institutional triangle that enables the functioning of the European Union in general. The Union relies on many treaties and agreements that bring together the member countries in a political sense and further deepen the democracy within the EU. The latest one, the Treaty of Lisbon, was adopted in 2009 so as to clarify the specific and joint competences that the member countries and the Union have. The Treaty of Lisbon did not only give the European Parliament more power but also changed the voting system within the Council of Europe and, more importantly, introduced citizens initiatives as a new legitimate form of participation, allowing European citizens to directly influence the European Commission. Placing many motions into parliamentary procedure, the Treaty of Lisbon has nominally strengthened direct democracy within the European borders, a type of democracy that many critics find much more relevant for peoples lives, given the immense bureaucratization of the entire system and the fact that the European institutions are neither democratic nor open enough to citizens influence. The European Citizens Initiative is an invitation to the European Commission to propose legislation that has to be backed by at least one million EU citizens, coming from at least 7 out of the 28 member states. The European Citizens Initiative can be initiated in any fields where the Commission has the power to propose legislation, such as environment, transport, agriculture or public health.2
1

According to Eurostat 2012 statistics, the EU has a population of 506 820 764 inhabitants. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu European Citizens Initiative: http://ec.europa.eu/citizens-initiative/public/?lg=hr

One of the most important citizens initiatives in 2013 was the initiative to recognize the right to water and sanitation as a human right and a public good that member states must provide access to. More than 1 800 000 signatures were collected, which is almost double the number of signatures that the European Commission needs so as to propose a legal act aiming to protect the right to water as a human right in the EU.3

The Acquis Communautaire refers to the cumulative body of European laws that the member countries or the candidate countries should align to before their accession to the European Union. Every potential candidate for membership must not only be prepared to accept the Acquis Communautaire in its entirety, but also be able to implement it fully. Therefore, every candidate country enters into negotiations with the member countries, a process that is divided into chapters. Nowadays, many criticize the strict European rules and directives for being part of the bureaucratization process.

The term bureaucracy designates the administration of a government through bureaus or departments staffed with nonelected officials, including any large institution or organization. Bureaucratization is defined as the multiplication of, or the concentration of power in administrators and administrative offices of an

organization, usually resulting in its extension into, and regimentation of, certain areas of life.4 The words bureaucracy and bureaucrat are today most often used in a negative context, even pejoratively, as the omnipresent bureaucratization of society tends to dehumanize and deprive individuality by treating human being as objects and/or numbers. As the film Yellow Tag illustrates, bureaucratization is present in every aspect of life of both humans and animals.

2. Visions of Europe
The films Yellow Tag and Bico are two out of the 25 films made within the 2004 Visions of Europe Project: 25 films, 25 directors. The same year was marked by the Unions biggest enlargement ever, when 10 new countries joined the European family: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, the European Union thus becoming a community of 25 states. It was in the very same year that 25 wellestablished European directors coming from each member state made 5-minute long films on particular topics related to the EU, and visually expressed their personal opinions about both the past and the future of the community.5 The principal idea had been to represent the cultural diversity of Europe, as opposed to the globalization and uniformity. This anthology proved the strong potential that highly aesthetic documentary films can have when it comes to a critical reassessment of the present moment, as well as to connecting experiences of the past with visions of the future.

: http://www.right2water.eu/ http://www.eionet.europa.eu/gemet/concept?langcode=hr&cp=1075 Faith Akin, Barbara Albert, Sharunas Bartas, Andy Bausch, Christoffer Boe, Francesca Comencini, Stijn Coninx, Tony Gatlif, Sasa Gedeon, Christos Georgiou, Constantine Giannaris, Peter Greenaway, Miguel Hermosa, Arvo Iho, Aki Kaurismaki, Damjan Kozole, Laila Pakalnina, Kenneth Scicluna, Martin Sulik, Malgosia Szumowska, Bla Tarr, Jan Troell, Theo Van Gogh, Teresa Villaverde, Aisling Walsh
3 4 5

26/27

Another occasion which makes this anthology greatly significant is the upcoming 10th anniversary of the first big enlargement of the European Union which, according to the Maastricht Treaty, should not have had more than 27 member countries in total. Hence, it evokes and provokes a reassessment of the visions that the European leaders had had for Europe ten years ago, in comparison to todays Union with its 28 member countries, and another eight with either a candidate or a potential candidate status. Portugal, the country in whose Northern part the village of Bico is located, became an EU member in 1984, along with Spain, exactly 20 years prior to the big enlargement. Sweden, on the other hand, joined the Union in 1995. Our country had been granted candidate status back in 2005 and, together with Turkey, has been the country that has waited the longest for the bureaucratic-political decision on starting the accession negotiations.

3. We and the European Union


We had been granted candidate status in 2005, and in comparison to other candidate countries (including some EU member states, such as Bulgaria), is far more prepared to begin the EU accession negotiations. Despite the positive recommendation of the European Commission in 2009, Greece and Bulgaria, as EU member countries, had been blocking the beginning of negotiations for several years now. Other countries, like Serbia for instance, who will start its EU accession negotiations at the beginning of 2014, is now gaining an advantage over us. Our government regards this as an example of both inconsistency on the part of the Union and an evident break with its fundamental principles of democracy and human rights. Euroscepticism that has barely existed in the past, is now on the rise in the country.6 The name dispute with Greece is one of the main reasons for the actual situation. According to a survey carried out in 2010, 82.1% of the ethnic Macedonians have declared that the preservation of the constitutional name was more important to them than the EU and NATO memberships. The lengthy and controversial accession process, the economic crisis that is shaking the Union, as well as the rise of nationalism, particularly in the peripheral EU countries who have suffered the most financially, create a space for Euroscepticism, or the opposition to the process of a political European integration. Euroscepticism is often considered by the political elites within and without of Europe as an extremely negative phenomenon, although it is nothing more than a legitimate political opinion.

Ademi, Edmond. Opposing Europe: Euroscepticism in Macedonia, a real threat or a bluff? Alberta Institut 2012. Str.7.

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (45)

>> OBJECTIVES:
To get an insight into the concept of the European Union To develop a critical attitude towards the so-called European values To develop awareness and critical thinking towards social relations To raise awareness about the concept of dignity (of humans, animals, etc.)

>> MATERIALS:
COLOURFUL COLLAGE PAPER yellow, red, blue, black. Cut out 2x2 cm squares, one for each participant.

>> INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (15-20):


The participants are divided into four groups. Each group stands in one corner of the room and is given same-color pieces of collage paper. Each participant should stick one square onto their forehead. The educator explains that they mustnt talk prior to the activity. Once the activity begins, they are allowed to talk only to the participants they have made eye contact with, and can use the following questions only: Hi! How are you? Fine, how are you? Do you want us to make a bigger group? YES/ NO. It is recommended that these questions are written on the blackboard so that nobody forgets them. The participants are allowed to talk to each other only if they look at each other eye to eye. Then all the participants except for those wearing yellow squares are told not to make eye contact or talk to the participants of the yellow group. The yellow group is told to try to communicate at any costs (without violence) with the others, in accordance with the games rules. These instructions should be given carefully so that the others couldnt hear. In the end, the educator explains to the groups that the corners where they stand are their territories but that they can freely walk around, communicate with the others and go back to their territories from time to time. The participants should also know that they can join together their groups/territories, which will become more appreciated in the end. The educator marks the beginning of the activity. The activity shouldnt last longer than 5-7 minutes. It is expected that a single group forms out of all of the participants, except those from the yellow group.

28/29

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (45)

> > DISCUSSING THE ACTIVITY:


How did you like the activity? Did you find it difficult to communicate by using only a few questions? How well did the communication go? Who found it difficult to communicate? Who found it easy? How did you feel during the activity? How did the yellow group feel? Why? How did the others feel? Why? (If it hasnt become clear until now, the educator explains the games rules.) How does it feel to be excluded from a bigger group? How would you describe this experience? How does it feel to have a mark on your forehead? Would you want your identity to be shaped by what you are wearing on your forehead all the time? Why? How would you feel if I told you now that I will put some tags on you that you will have to carry forever (on your nose, lips, ears or your forehead)?

> > SCREENING THE FILM:


YELLOW TAG (5)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (5-7)


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? In your opinion, why was this film made? How do humans treat animals? Why is it necessary to tag all animals? Has anyone asked what the owners of the animals think of this? Has anyone asked the animals? Do you think this is right? Can you think of some arguments that back the opinion that it is right to do this kind of thing?

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (45)

The participants are informed that they will watch another film and that afterwards, they will discuss the two films together.

> > SCREENING THE FILM:


BICO (5)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10):


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? In your opinion, why was this film made? What is the life like in the village? Are the people there happy? How do you know that? What challenges are they facing? Did the life in the countryside change lately? How does life in the city differ from the life that the people lead in the film? What are the advantages of living in a big city or in a village similar to the one in the film? What are the disadvantages? Can you find any similarities or differences between the two films? How does society exercise influence on peoples lives according to the films? Why is this so? What is the European Union? What are the characteristics of this community of states? In your opinion, what would European values be? Have you heard of that expression before? Do you have any questions about the European Union? (You can write down the questions and give answers in the next class/meeting.) What would you recommend to the Council of Europe? (It is a democratic institution that considerably shapes the European Union policy and decisions.) Are these films similar to the ones that you usually watch? Why? What is the difference?

30/31

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To get an insight into the concept of the European Union To develop a critical attitude towards the so-called European values To develop awareness and critical thinking towards social relations To raise awareness about the concept of dignity (of human animals, etc.)

> > MATERIALS:


COLOURFUL COLLAGE PAPER yellow, red, blue, black. Cut out 2x2 cm squares, one for each participant. Writing tools

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (20-30):


The participants are divided into four groups. Each group stands in one corner of the room and is given same-color pieces of collage paper. Each participant should stick one square on their forehead, except for two participants who do not get the collage paper squares. The educator explains them that there werent enough tags for everyone so they will have to do the activity without squares. The educator informs everyone that they mustnt talk prior to the activity. Once the activity begins, they are allowed to talk only to the participant that they have made eye contact with and can use the following questions only: Hi! How are you? Fine, how are you? Do you want us to make a bigger group? YES/ NO. It is recommended that these questions are written on the blackboard so that nobody forgets them. The participants are allowed to talk to each other only if they look at each other eye to eye. Then all the participants, except those wearing the yellow squares, are told not to make eye contact or talk to the participants of the yellow group or to to those that look suspicious and have no color. The yellow group is told to try to communicate at any costs (without violence) with the others, in accordance with to the games rules, but to avoid those that do not have squares on their foreheads. These instructions should be given carefully, so the others do not hear. In the end, the educator explains to the groups that the corners where they stand are their territories, but that they can freely walk around, communicate with the others and go back to their territories from time to time. The participants should also know that they can join together their groups/territories which will become more appreciated in the end. The educator marks the beginning of the activity. The activity shouldnt last longer than 5-7 minutes. It is expected that a single group forms out of all of the participants, except those from the yellow group.

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (90)

> > DISCUSSING THE ACTIVITY:


How did you like the activity? Did you find it difficult to communicate by using only a few questions? How well did the communication go? Who found it difficult to communicate? Who found it easy? How did you feel during the activity? How did the yellow group feel? Why? How did those with no squares on their forehead feel? How did the others feel? Why? (If it hasnt become clear until now, the educator explains the games rules.) How does it feel to be excluded from a bigger group? How would you describe this experience? How does it feel to have a mark on your forehead? Would you want your identity to be shaped by what you are wearing on your forehead all the time? Why? How would you feel if I told you now that I will put some tags on you that you will have to carry forever (on your nose, lips, ears or your forehead)?

> > SCREENING THE FILM


YELLOW TAG (5)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (5-7):


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? In your opinion, why was this film made? How do humans treat animals? Why is it necessary to tag all animals? Has anyone asked what the owners of the animals think? Has anyone asked the animals?

32/33

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (90)

Do you think this is right? Can you think of some arguments that back the opinion that it is right to do this kind of thing? What arguments show that this is not right? If you had the power to decide about tagging animals, what would you do?

> > ACTIVITY:

STORIES (30)
The participants are divided into four groups. Each group gets a piece of paper and one of the following writing tasks: Try to remember one of your favorite folktales and describe the life of the main characters. What are the pros and cons of that kind of life? Discuss the most beautiful villages that you have visited and write down the positive impressions; Try to remember one famous folktale which describes the life of the people in the past and write down several aspects of that kind of life that can no longer be found today; According to what you know so far, what was life like in the past? What was better then and what is better now? Once they are done, the participants present their conclusions by briefly telling what the story is about and what conclusions they have reached. If they cannot think of any famous folktale, it is recommended to give them suggestions (e.g. Siljan trkot, the stories for Itar Pejo, etc. Do not stop them if they interpret the story more freely, or draw conclusions that are different from the general ones.) Lets conclude, what was life like in the past and what is life like today? (Do not encourage clichs like hard life, slavery etc.) Do we often think of people that lived in the past as unhappy and jaded? Do you think that they had always been like that? What were they missing? Seen from todays perspective, what are the advantages of such a life? The participants are informed that they will watch another film and that afterwards, they will discuss the two films together.

ACTIVITY: OUR PLACE IN THE WORLD (90)

> > SCREENING THE FILM


BICO (5)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10):


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? In your opinion, why was this film made? What is life like in the village? Are the people there happy? How do you know that? What challenges are they facing? Has life in the countryside changed lately? How does life in the city differ from the life people lead in the film? What are the advantages of living in a big city and in a village like the one in the film? What are the disadvantages? Can you find any similarities or differences between the two films? How does society influence peoples lives in the films and in the stories? How do changes happen in society? Who brings them in the films that weve watched? What is the European Union, it? What are the characteristics of this community of states? What is the relationship between our country and the European Union? In your opinion, what would European values be? Have you heard of that expression before? Do you have any questions about the European Union? (You can write the questions down and provide answers during the next class/meeting.) What would you recommend to the Council of Europe? (It is a democratic institution that considerably shapes the European Unions policy and decisions.) Are these films similar to the ones that you usually watch? Why? What is the difference?

34/35

BURMA VJ- REPORTING FROM A CLOSED COUNTRY


Great Britain, Denmark, Sweden, Norway / 2008 / 50 Director: Anders stergaard

ABOUT THE FILM:

The Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB) is a collective of around 30 Burmese reporters who secretly film the human rights violations in their country. The footage is then smuggled across the borders and broadcast via satellite from Oslo. These is the footage that was shown worldwide in the summer of 2007, when the revolution was about to reach its climax. With Buddhist monks at the forefront, more than 100 000 people went out onto the streets and protested peacefully against the military regime that has held them in its iron grip for 50 years. Burma VJ is entirely comprised of footage made by the DVB reporters. One of them is Joshua, who is also the films narrator. Hiding somewhere in Thailand, he manages to stay in touch with his colleagues via cellphone and Internet and receives firsthand reports and raw footage of the escalating movement. Armed with small hand-held video cameras hidden in their bags or under their armpits, the DVB reporters risked their lives in order to tell the truth about what was happening in their country.

KEYWORDS:

Democracy and undemocratic regimes, civil and political rights, right to public participation, freedom of speech and expression, digital media and activism

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Civic education: Discussing civil and political rights, the right to life, the freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom of expression, the right to a fair trial, the right to public participation Democracy and civil society Authority Sociology: Politics, government and the state: political structure, territory, the use of force; the modern state and civil rights; political parties; democracy, party systems

38/39

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The military dictatorship in Burma, whose brutal use of force is documented in the film Burma VJ, has been in power ever since 1962 when a coup toppled the elected prime minister. Burma, a country that has until 1948 been one of the richest and the most developed countries under the British rule, is today one of the poorest countries in the world. While in 1987, the United Nations rated Burma as the least developed country in the world, today it is the 7th most underdeveloped country on the Asian continent.1 The Burmese government, growing increasingly repressive over the years, has managed to maintain power for so long precisely by violating fundamental human rights - the rights to life and to a fair trial, and the right to freedom of assembly and association and the freedoms of speech and of expression. The United Nations also reported rape, forced labour, human trafficking, destruction of villages and the forced migration of thousands of members of ethnic minorities as among the most brutal human rights violations that the Burmese people have suffered for years. The first time that civil discontent was manifested through mass demonstrations was in 1988. During these protests, over 3 000 protesters were killed by the authorities, the demonstrations ending in blood and fear. In 1989, without any parliamentary debate whatsoever, the top military leaders renamed the country Myanmar, which remains the official name written in the countrys Constitution to the present day. Those who still wish for the country to be democratic continue calling it Burma, thereby opposing the military dictatorship. Hence, this film bears the name Burma VJ.

Faced with important international pressure and economic sanctions in response to the human rights violations and undemocratic practices, the authorities organized the first multi-party elections in 1990, given that they represent one of the basic mechanisms of democracy. Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese opposition politician and chairperson of the National League for Democracy, won the elections. The authorities immediately annulled the elections and placed her under house arrest in her home. One year later, Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for her struggle for democracy and against human rights violations. The military junta remained in power and Suu Kyi spent almost 23 years under house arrest.

and undemocratic regimes: The 1. Democratic democratization of Burma


It took almost 20 years for the new anti-government demonstrations to happen. This time caused mainly by the 2007 governmental decision to remove fuel subsidies which consequently increased the price of petrol as well as the cost of living, impoverishing people even more. Burma VJ shows the most important happenings of what had often been referred to as the Saffron Revolution, due to the saffron-coloured robes widely associated with the Buddhist monks who
1

UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries 2013. http://www.unohrlls.org/en/ ldc/25/

were at the forefront of the demonstrations. Violence, arrests and murder was the authorities response yet again. The media were once again their principal opposition. Foreign journalists were banned from entering the country, while the local ones were arrested and put in jail for life. The intent was to hide from the rest of the world that the Burmese government has a practice of torturing and imprisoning citizens and violating their human rights. However, thanks to the brave video reporters (VJs) and the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), news from Burma reached the foreign media and shocked the entire world. Fortunately, the protests organized within the countrys borders and the international pressure to democratize werent for nothing, as reforms started being implemented in 2010 and led to the establishment of the new civilian government. Unfortunately, the party in favor of the military regime won the elections. According to the opposition party findings and the reports of international human rights organizations, the elections were rigged. Immediately following the elections, Suu Kyi was released and a year later, in November of 2011, she decided to run in the announced parliamentary election with her party that was once again permitted to register for the elections.2 In April 2012, the National League for Democracy, led by Suu Kyi, won 43 of the 45 vacant seats in the Parliament, with the elections considered free and fair. That same year, for the very first time, the government adopted a law guaranteeing peaceful gatherings and protests. A considerable number of political prisoners were released and the government announced the release of all political prisoners by the end of 2013.3 The USA and the European Union have partly withdrawn the economic sanctions on Burma. As for the media, the existence of private media was allowed for the first time in 50 years, and foreign journalists can now freely travel to the country.

2. Civil and political rights: media and activism


Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. (...) The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Article 21, Universal Declaration of Human Rights The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled. All member states of the United Nations are obliged to fully ensure these rights for their citizens. By defining, back in 1948, what we today call the right to democracy, the UN wanted to put an emphasis on democracy as the only form of government inseparable from the concept of human rights - as it had always stood for the rule of the people. Democracy assumes the active participation of every citizen in the decision-making process at all levels of authority. The freedom of thought and expression are civil rights upon which the freedom of the media rests. In order to participate publicly, people must have the freedom to think and express their opinion without fear of punishment. In the case of the thousands of political prisoners in Burma, it is clear that the authorities imprisoned their opponents out of fear that the free expression of thought against the regime could endanger their rule. As

2 3

BBC News: timeline: reforms in Burma 2013 : http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-16546688 Democratic Voice of Burma http://www.dvb.no/news/burma-frees-around-70-political-prisoners-official/30429

40/41

we can see in the film, repressive governments, like the Chinese or the Burmese, impose internet censorship and ban access to some web pages, withthreat of imprisonment. They also stand in opposition to free and fair elections, the freedom of the press and the freedom of assembly, without which any exchange of ideas and opinions or activist action can happen. Civic action and engagement, as well as activism in general, are preconditioned by the awareness of human rights violations, the understanding of problems and upon having reliable and precise information. Therefore, independent media are a crucial factor in this context. Today, the internet plays a large part in the information exchange, as it enables fast communication with people from around the world and does not depend on the editing policy of any medium. By smuggling footage out of a closed country, the Burmese VJs have succeeded in informing the international public of the horrifying happenings of 2007, and fought for the democratic changes that this TV revolution provoked. Today, thanks to the internet, it is possible to follow revolutions, protests and similar happenings live, as they are taking place in every corner of the world, such as the Occupy movement, the revolutions in Egypt Everyone has the right to freedom and the Arab Spring. of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information Although these rights, known as civil or political rights are an inand ideas through any media and dispensable precondition for democracy, the economic, social and regardless of frontiers. Article 19, cultural rights , such as the right to work, health or social security, as Universal Declaration of Human well as the right to development, arent less important to democracy. Rights Poor people without access to health services, media, food or shelter, cannot really be considered as having equal rights in the democratic decision-making process.

More information: Understanding Human Rights: Manual on Human Rights Education, Wolfgang Benedek (ed.) European Training and Research Center for Human Rights and Democracy (ETC), 2008. http://www.etc-graz.at/typo3/fileadmin/user_upload/ ETC-Hauptseite/manual/versionen/macedonian/RAZBIRANJE_NA_COVEKOVITE_ PRAVA_-_Priracnik_za_edukacija_od_oblasta_na_covekovite_prava.pdf COMPASS Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People, Council of Europe, 2002. http://eycb.coe.int/compass/other.html i http://eycb.coe.int/ compass/en/contents.html

ACTIVITY: A VJ, WHATS THAT? (50-60)

>> NOTE:
The running time of the film is 50. Therefore, it is hardly manageable to work with it during one class alone. It is recommended to watch it during the first or the last class of the day, starting 10-15 minutes prior to the class or extending the class for the same amount of time. The first activity is planned for a 65-minute-long class, while the second is intended for a 90 class, and is applicable only if the teacher or the informal educator manages to combine two classes for the purpose of the exercise. This should not be a problem in the field of informal education. For the purposes of the film, and especially of the 60-minute activity, the educator should be well prepared and go through the additional information provided, so as to be able to complete the participants answers during the discussion. This is recommended not only because of the short time available, but also because it is assumed that the participants will find many aspects of the subject unclear or unfamiliar.

>> OBJECTIVES:
To stimulate the understanding of the essential concept of democracy and of human rights To raise awareness about the extreme human rights violations in the todays world To encourage participants to widen their own area of interest To incite critical thinking about the general quality of life in their own communities

>> SCREENING THE FILM


BURMA VJ 50

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (5-10)


How did you feel while watching the film? What is the film about? Have you ever seen anything similar? Have you ever heard of Burma? What was peoples life like in the film? Why? Why were they protesting? Which of their human rights were being violated? Can the State forbid the freedom of assembly? Can the State forbid the freedom of thought and expression? What about the freedom of peaceful protest? The right to choose? Why? What did we learn from this film?

42/43

ACTIVITY: A VJ, WHATS THAT? (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To stimulate the understanding of the essential concept of democracy and of human rights To raise awareness about the extreme human rights violations in the todays world To encourage participants to widen their own area of interest To incite critical thinking about the general quality of life in their own communities

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEETS: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7

> > SCREENING THE FILM


BURMA VJ 50

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (5-10)


How did you feel while watching the film? What is the film about? Have you ever seen anything similar? Have you ever heard of Burma? What was peoples life like in the film? Why? Why were they protesting? Which of their human rights were being violated? Can the State forbid the freedom of assembly? Can the State forbid the freedom of thought and expression? What about the freedom of peaceful protest? The right to choose? Why? What did we learn from this film?

ACTIVITY: A VJ, WHATS THAT? (90)

> > MAIN ACTIVITY: HUMAN RIGHTS (20-30)


The participants are divided into seven groups. Each group is given one of the seven worksheets: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7. They should read it carefully and identify and mark the rights that they think have been violated in the film. Once they have done this, they should mark differently the rights listed for which they personally know of cases of violation, within their family, community, school, etc. The educator should empasize that it is very important to talk about this openly, as the only way they can prevent situations like those depicted in the film is by exercising the right to free expression that they fully enjoy it in the class, if not anywhere else. The groups should then present their work, by first pointing out the rights violated in the film, and then the cases of violations they personally know of.

> > CLOSING ACTIVITY (5+)


The educator runs a brainstorming session on all possible ways in which participants could use the available technologies to record or document a situation where human rights are being violated, so as to contribute to the prevention of further human rights abuses (e.g. at a school, third graders recorded the educator who insulted them and shouted at them and were able to prove that this occurred whenever other adults werent present in the class. This is a true story!)

44/45

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 1

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

.................

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3 Article 4

Article 5 Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 2

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him. 1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. 2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

Article 7

Article 8

Article 9

Article 10

Article 11

46/47

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 3

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks. 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of movement and residence within the borders of each state. 2. Everyone has the right to leave any country, including his own, and to return to his country. 1. Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. 2. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations. 1. Everyone has the right to a nationality.

Article 12

Article 13

Article 14

Article 15

2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 4

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

1. Men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion, have the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution. 2. Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses. 3. The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State. 1. Everyone has the right to own property alone as well as in association with others. 2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property. Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association. 2. No one may be compelled to belong to an association.

Article 16

Article 17

Article 18

Article 19

Article 20

48/49

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 5

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

1. Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country, directly or through freely chosen representatives. 2. Everyone has the right of equal access to public service in his country. 3. The will of the people shall be the basis of the authority of government; this will shall be expressed in periodic and genuine elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret vote or by equivalent free voting procedures. Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality. 1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment. 2. Everyone, without any discrimination, has the right to equal pay for equal work. 3. Everyone who works has the right to just and favourable remuneration ensuring for himself and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, and supplemented, if necessary, by other means of social protection. 4. Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interests. Everyone has the right to rest and leisure, including reasonable limitation of working hours and periodic holidays with pay.

Article 21

Article 22

Article 23

Article 24

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 6

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. 2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, whether born in or out of wedlock, shall enjoy the same social protection. 1. Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit. 2. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. 3. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

Article 25

Article 26

50/51

WORKSHEET: UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS - 7

Adopted and proclaimed by the General Assembly, Resolution 217 A (III) of December 10, 1948 PREAMBLE (excerpt) Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people, Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law, Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms, () Now, therefore the General Assembly proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.

..................

1. Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. 2. Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Everyone is entitled to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized. 1. Everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible. 2. In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. 3. These rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.

Article 27

Article 28

Article 29

Article 30

DRONA AND ME
The Netherlands / 2009 / 19 Director: Catherine van Campen

ABOUT THE FILM:

Drona and Me is a portrait of an autistic boy called Drona. We are watching him through the eyes of Ajrun, his elder brother, and so a lovingly double-portrait of these two brothers is being formed. The film has won many awards at prestigious film festivals and was screened

within the Children and Youth Program of the Creative Documentary Film Festival MakeDox. So far, it has been seen by thousands of children coming from several municipalities in Skopje.

KEYWORDS:

Autism, disability, impairment, discrimination, stereotypes, preconceptions, inclusion, children with special needs in education, developmental challenges

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Civic education (upper classes of primary education): violation and protection of human rights, childrens rights, right to development, discrimination, stereotypes, prejudices Ethics: Universal ethical values, relationship with friends and other people, the philosophical basis of ethics

54/55

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The term person with disabilities refers to any person that has an intellectual, physical, emotional or psychological impairment or disorder that can be temporary or permanent. These impairments can be caused by disease, injury or genetic disorder. One such case is autism.

1. On autism in general
The term autism comes from the Latin word autos meaning I or AM. Autism is a life-long developmental disorder that affects the persons social interaction with other people. Recently, a wide range of associated conditions have been related to autism, which has led to the newly coined terms autistic spectrum and autistic continuum. It is interesting to mention that gastrointestinal factors are some of the most commonly listed causes of autism, which then manifests itself as a psychosocial disorder. All individuals affected by autism share three common characteristics (known as the triad of impairments): Impairment in social communication: The main problem is not that the child cannot communicate (although a small number of them never learn to speak) but that he or she experiences communication difficulties. Impairment in social relationships: People, and especially children, with autism find it more difficult to establish and maintain relationships with their peers. It is very common for autistic children to manage to develop normal relationships with their parents or those who look after them, but to fail to do so with other children. This is mainly because adults are able to anticipate the needs of the autistic child. Impairment in social understanding and imagination: Imaginary games (imagining, for instance, that a doll is a baby or that a toy car is an actual car) are a very important part of a childs development. Autistic children rarely play imaginary games, which results in developmental disorders. Furthermore, autistic persons find it difficult to understand other peoples feelings and to interpret facial expressions. Generally speaking, autistic persons live on the margins of society and remain almost invisible.

2. Discrimination, stereotypes and prejudices


Around 10% of the worlds population lives with some form of disability. All these individuals face discrimination and isolation, present to different extents in different countries. People are generally afraid of everything that is unknown or looks unusual to them, which is why they often react reservedly, suspiciously or sometimes even violently towards people whose appearance or behavior doesnt correspond to their concept of what is normal. This usually already starts in early childhood. Thus, many examples of discrimination can be found among children, such as social exclusion (for instance, they do not let the child with disabilities take part in a game), avoidance, verbal or physical violence, name calling, mocking, etc. A large number of laws and regulations protect the rights of persons with disabilities, the most important being the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities1 that our country ratified in 2011, after a long campaign led by numerous civil society organizations like PORAKA.2 . According to the Convention, discrimination on the basis of disability is defined as any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability which has the purpose or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal basis with others, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. The right to freedom from discrimination is one of the fundamental human and childrens rights, as discrimination violates the fundamental principles upon which human rights rest those of dignity and equality. Most national institutions abide by regulations that guarantee equal rights and prohibit discrimination, as does our Constitution, the most important legal document of our country. Discrimination is often founded on ignorance and a lack of interest to understand others, those who are different from us, as well as on simplified general opinions and images, i.e. negative stereotypes and preconceptions. We act based on prejudice every time we feel hate, are afraid of, or avoid somebody or something without thinking or being able to find a rational explanation or reason for this. It is not easy to overcome prejudices, as they are rooted in hardto-combat stereotypes. These often emerge out of a limited number of unpleasant experiences with individual representatives of a specific group, who are then attributed to the group as a whole. Stereotypes overestimate the differences between groups and underestimate the differences within one specific group. They lead us to homogenize our own group and believe that the group of others is also much more homogenous than it actually is. They disguise reality because they tend to show it differently than it is. For example, it is a common belief that people with disabilities arent able to contribute to society and that all they deserve is pity, as they are helpless and should be fixed or normalized.
1

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: http://www.mtsp.gov.mk/WBStorage/Files/Konvencija%20za%20pravata%20na%20licata%20so%20invalidnost.pdf Republic Center for Support of persons with intellectual disability PORAKA http://www.nsiom.org.mk/PORAKA. aspx; see also National Council of Disability Organizations of Macedonia (NCDOM) http://www.nsiom.org.mk/ index.aspx

56/57

Up until recently, the very definition of disability was based on the medical model advocating a dual approach of either curing disability, so that the individuals are able to fit into the society or, if this is impossible, isolating and institutionalizing the disabled. Society uses specific mechanisms to isolate children with disabilities, one of which were the special schools, considered as the best way to provide children with special needs with optimal conditions for learning and personal development. While the medical model promotes the belief that a person has an impairment that needs to be removed, the newer, social model, advocates that the impairment isnt found within the person itself, but within the society and the physical surrounding that are full of barriers that disable these persons from discovering and developing their maximum potential. This is why the term disabled person has been replaced by the term person with disabilities. The social model emphasizes that the society is the one obliged to eliminate these barriers wherever possible, by taking a number of measures aimed at empowering persons with disabilities and enabling them to develop individually and live independently as equal members of society, which includes opportunities for education and employment.

3. Inclusion and inclusive education


Changing stereotypes and improving the status of persons with disabilities within our society is a long-lasting process, as communication and interaction with them are still limited due to their isolation and exclusion. Therefore, inclusive education is seen as the crucial measure to help to remove these barriers and integrate people with special needs in the community. As far as society is concerned, children with disabilities are considered as children with special needs and the society has the duty to respond to these needs. More and more children with special needs attend regular classes in public schools and follow an adequate curriculum. Children who manifest some of the symptoms of the autistic spectrum are also considered children with special needs. According to data available, around 20% of elementary school students are children with special needs. These children form a highly heterogeneous group which includes children who face intellectual or emotional challenges, blind or visually impaired children, deaf and hard of hearing children, children with speech and motor difficulties, children with behavioral disorders, children with developmental reading and learning disorders (such as dyslexia or dyscalculia), as well as the highly gifted children. Their identity is greatly shaped by the treatment and the respect they get from other people. Once their individual needs are taken into consideration, i.e. once the learning and the teaching process is adjusted to their needs and capabilities, these children often achieve very good results. It is also very important to work on changing the preconceptions about these children, both in schools and in the society as a whole, through integrating them into public schools and regular classes. This is one of the crucial measures leading to an inclusive education, a concept that is slowly becoming an important issue in our educational system as well.

58/59

ACTIVITY: WHAT ARE WE DREAMING OF? (45)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To better understand the everyday life of an autistic child To make participants aware of persons with difficulties To make participants aware of their own aspirations and of the potential obstacles to their achievement

> > MATERIALS:


> Writing tools

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (7-10):


The participants are divided into pairs. Every participant individually thinks of and shares with his/her classmate what he/she is dreaming of becoming when he/she grows up. Then, each pair comes up with the potential obstacles they might face on the way to achieving their goals as well as with ways of overcoming these.

> > SCREENING THE FILM:


DRONA AND ME (19)

ACTIVITY: WHAT ARE WE DREAMING OF? (45)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10-15)


What impression did the film leave on you? What is the prevailing emotion present in the film? How did YOU feel while watching the film? What is the film about? Who is Drona? What is he dreaming of? What is he suffering from? (this question could be followed by a brief explanation of what autism is) What else would you like to know about autism? Who is speaking in the film (whose eyes are we watching Drona through)? How does Dronas brother feel? Does he get to have the same childhood as the other children do? Why? Is this an advantage or a disadvantage for him? What does he gain and lose by having an autistic brother? Will Dronas dream of becoming a driver come true? What do you think? Why? Have you heard of any other people from your surrounding that face disabilities preventing them from doing what they want to do? (If any examples are given, kindly ask your participants not to mention any names but to only describe the situation in general, and ask them questions related to the example.) How are these people treated in our society? Cant they really do anything to contribute to the society? How could people with different disabilities do this? Would you mind those children attending regular classes? Why? What are your dreams in life? What is stopping you from fulfilling them?

> > CLOSING ACTIVITY (3-5)


All participants work individually. Their task is to write down their life dream the dream they want to fulfill one day, on a piece of paper. They should also write down the date by which they would want this to happen. They should then write a letter to themselves as if they were ten years older in which they explain what theyve been dreaming of and what they should do so as to achieve these goals. The teacher should advise the participants to keep the letters and read them later in life.

60/61

ACTIVITY: DESIRES HAVE A RHYTHM OF THEIR OWN (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To better understand the everyday life of an autistic child To make participants aware of persons with difficulties To understand the social and systematic constraints that persons with disabilities face in society To make participants aware of their own aspirations and of the potential obstacles to their achievement

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEET: RHYTHM EXERCISES A, B and C

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (10+):


The participants are divided into pairs. Every participant individually thinks of and shares with his/her classmate what he/she is dreaming of becoming when he/she grows up. Then, each pair comes up with the potential obstacles they might face on the way to achieving their goals as well as with ways of overcoming these.

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (25-30):


Participants are divided into four groups. Two groups are given the Worksheet: Rhythm exercises A, the third one gets the Worksheet: Rhythm exercises B and the fourth one the Worksheet: Rhythm exercises C. The groups have 15 minutes to do the exercise. Once the time is up, they perform what theyve been exercising.

ACTIVITY: DESIRES HAVE A RHYTHM OF THEIR OWN (90)

> > DISCUSSION (10):


Can we agree that some groups were more successful than others? Which groups? Why? How did you feel while doing the exercises? How did you feel while listening to the others? Why? Was there anything that bothered you while exercising? What? Was this the case with all groups? What obstacles did you meet while doing the activity? (This particularly applies to groups B and C). Do you think there are children/people that face these kinds of obstacles on a daily basis? Could you provide some examples? Would it matter if this kind of exercise was to be done by someone who has good hearing or is hard of hearing? Would it be fair to ask someone who is hard of hearing to do this kind of exercise? Could this person ever do it? (OF COURSE HE/SHE COULD DO IT.) Would this person need help and support? If we had a child with hearing loss in our class, would you want him/her in your group? Could you enumerate all the developmental disabilities you know of? Should people with such disabilities attend regular classes? Why? In the film we are going to watch, we will see the aspirations and the obstacles that Drona and his brother are living with every day.

> > SCREENING THE FILM


DRONA AND ME (19)

62/63

ACTIVITY: DESIRES HAVE A RHYTHM OF THEIR OWN (90)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10-15)


What impression did the film leave on you? What is the prevailing emotion present in the film? How did YOU feel while watching the film? What is the film about? Who is Drona? What is he dreaming of? What is he suffering from? (this question could be followed by a brief explanation of what autism is) What else would you like to know about autism? Who is speaking in the film (whose eyes are we watching Drona through)? How does Dronas brother feel? Does he get to have the same childhood the other children do? Why? Is this an advantage or a disadvantage for him? What does he gain and lose by having an autistic brother? Will Dronas dream of becoming a driver come true? What do you think? Why? Were you missing color in the film? Why do you think it was made in black and white? Have you heard of any other people from your surrounding that face disabilities preventing them from doing what they want to do? (If any examples are given, kindly ask your participants not to mention any names but to only describe the situation in general, and ask them questions related to the example.) How are these people treated in our society? Cant they really do anything to contribute to the society? How could people with different disabilities do this? Would you mind those children attending regular classes? Why? What are your dreams in life? What is stopping you from fulfilling them?

> > CLOSING ACTIVITY (5)


All participants work individually. Their task is to write down their life dream the dream they want to fulfill one day, on a piece of paper. They should also write down the date by which they would want this to happen. They should then write a letter to themselves as if they were ten years older in which they explain what theyve been dreaming of and what they should do so as to achieve these goals. The teacher should advise the participants to keep the letters and read them later in life.

WORKSHEET: RHYTHM EXERCISE A

Here-below you will find a music sheet containing a melody. It is your task to agree on a way enabling all members of the group to participate in the preparations for its performance. Everyone should contribute equally. The melody should be performed by knocking alone. Its rhythm is what you should pay attention to. You can clap your hands; knock on your desk or notebook, etc. Remember that a good performance will be appreciated more than an average one. During the preparations, you can always ask your teacher for help, for instance, in understanding the notes. However, communicating with the other groups is not permitted.

Good luck!

64/65

WORKSHEET: RHYTHM EXERCISE B

Here-below you will find a music sheet containing a melody. It is your task to agree on a way enabling all members of the group to participate in the preparations for its performance. Everyone should contribute equally. The melody should be performed by knocking alone. Its rhythm is what you should pay attention to, the way that you understand it. You can clap your hands; knock on your desk or notebook, etc. Remember that a good performance will be appreciated more than an average one. You are not allowed to communicate with the other groups. You can ask your teacher for help in answering only one question during the entire preparation process. Moreover, the question should be addressed in written form and you are allowed to communicate within your group ONLY through pantomime. NO TALKING.

Good luck!

WORKSHEET: RHYTHM EXERCISE C

Here-below you will find a music sheet containing a melody. It is your task to agree on a way enabling all members of the group to participate in the preparations for its performance. Everyone should contribute equally. The melody should be performed by knocking alone. Its rhythm is what you should pay attention to, the way that you understand it. You can clap your hands; knock on your desk or notebook, etc. Remember that a good performance will be appreciated more than an average one. You are not allowed to communicate with the other groups. You can ask your teacher for help in answering only one question during the entire preparation process. While working, you should also decide who will: Erase the blackboard no matter if it is clean or not Shut his or her eyes for three minutes Shut his or her ears for four minutes Stand frozen, i.e. not moving or speaking, for two minutes Move his or her legs nervously all the time while exercising All these things must be done so that your exercise is considered successful. Otherwise, it wont make any sense. If your group is smaller, someone needs to do two or more of these tasks simultaneously.

Good luck!

66/67

FACING ANIMALS
The Netherlands / 2012 / 30 Director: Jan van Ijken

ABOUT THE FILM:

Facing Animals is a documentary film about the extremely complex and often bizarre relationship between humans and animals. Why do we look away from millions of animals in industrial farms while pampering and humanizing others? The protagonists in this film are pigs, chickens, cows and dogs; the antagonists are the people. We see the world from the animals perspective: the chickens are being placed onto a conveyor belt, a woman caresses a cow out on a meadow, piglets are squeaking while their tails are being cut off, dogs are being baptised in a church. Shocking and yet contradictory visuals provoke a colourful palette of conflicting emotions. However, as the director himself points out, the film is not a tract against the industrial farm animal production but rather intends to reassess the relationship between humans and animals, a relationship which is often quite controversial.

KEYWORDS:

Animal rights, animal welfare, industrial farming and animal production, consumer rights, health

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Ethics: It can be used in developing upon the notion of ethical action toward humans and nature in general, as well as in discussing the ethical treatment of animals, human health, environmental protection, or food production Civic Education: It can be used in discussing the notion of human rights, by focusing on animal rights, and the right to health My Environment: Pollution caused by industrial production and industrial breeding of animals: river/water pollution, environmental protection and the preservation of natural balance, natural breeding

70/71

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The relationship between humans and animals has always been quite complex, but in todays capitalist society it has become even more so, due to the industrial farm breeding and man-made pollution that further affects a great number of animal species. The director Jan van Ijken brings this relationship closer to us by using a series of sequences, visualising some of humans most bizarre actions toward animals. While making the film, the director has had access to industrial farms that is usually impossible to get. No narration is used in the film. The scenes speak for themselves and the sounds come from machines, animals and noise the sounds that farm animals hear constantly. The author twists and challenges our perspective by choosing quite a unique camera angle, which gives us a worms-eye view of the surroundings and lets us see the world as animals see it. This permits us to ask ourselves what the value of an animals life is and whether, as humans, we are indeed treating them with respect to our own ethical beliefs.

USE AND BREEDING FOR HUMAN 1. ANIMAL CONSUMPTION: JUSTIFIED OR NOT?


Mass or intensive industrial farm animal production is an automated form of production of meat, milk and eggs, while keeping large numbers of animals in very confined structures. This type of automation has increased the production rate and reduced the costs of animal products for both manufacturers and consumers. Although this approach might be justified because it makes large amounts of food available to many people at lower prices, this way of production causes a lot of harm to the animals, but also to humans and the environment. The animals that are bred in industrial farms in dreadfully small cages restricting their movement, living in noise, stench and dirt, feel terrible pain as they are unable to move at all, and consequently develop aggressive behaviour which pushes them to cause pain not only to the other animals, but also to themselves. If you wonder why chicken beaks are being cut off, as shown in the film, it is to prevent them from hurting themselves deliberately. This phenomenon confirms just how opposite mass production is to the natural way of breeding animals. Moreover, the conditions animals are bred in are very unhygienic. They live in small cramped structures or cages so tiny that they cant even turn around, covered in their own faeces and urine. Consequently, they are given antibiotics through food or vaccines so that they wouldnt get sick or die. The food they eat is full of artificially produced growth hormones that help them grow enough so they could provide enough meat and therefore profit. The food they eat often contains leftovers of dead animals of their own kind. Even herbivores are fed with industrially prepared food. Finally, all these antibiotics and hormones also enter the body of the people who consume these meat, eggs or dairy products without knowing how they were produced given that, as consumers, they arent well informed or protected against the consequences of consuming this kind of food.

A big debate is being led globally on animal use and breeding for human needs, starting from keeping them as pets up to the controversial mass production of animals. On the one side stand those who consume meat and other animal food sources and justify the mass production with the argument that if animals are bred only for food, even if this is done under terrible conditions, it cannot be qualified as torture, as they have not known any other condition before. On the other side of the debate stand those individuals who cannot stay indifferent to the use of animals- fighters for animal rights and individuals that find their own way to protect them, like vegetarians (people that dont consume meat) and vegans (people that dont consume any animal source food, like egg and milk). Some people adopt animals, others raise awareness about human cruelty toward animals, while many also fight against fur production, etc. Finally, though found quite radical by some, there is the existing idea that having pets should also be forbidden. Overall, if we are aware of the general human treatment of animals, we can hardly stay indifferent and not at the least feel uneasiness when seeing how cruel man can be towards them. In this context, the question to ask is what is right and what can we do about it? Nowadays, there are two ethical approaches when it comes to animal protection. One of them promotes animal rights, while the other advocates for animal welfare.

RIGHTS AND ANIMAL WELFARE: WHAT 2. ANIMAL IS THE DIFFERENCE?


Animal welfare is based upon the idea that animals experience pain and suffering, and that hence measures should be taken to prevent this. The argumentation that animals confined to cages do not experience pain has been scientifically confuted. Namely, back in 1965, the Brambell Commission has found that animals bred in industrial farms for human consumption suffer tremendously. Taking into consideration many complaints made in regard to the mass production of animals, the Commission has visited many industrial farms in the Netherlands, Denmark and England and has learnt of the worrisome conditions in these facilities. The Commission has declared that animals must have the freedom to stand up, lie down, turn around, groom themselves and stretch their limbs. These guidelines have since been elaborated upon by the Farm Animal Welfare Council to become known as the five freedoms: 1. Freedom from thirst and hunger having ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour 2. Freedom from discomfortproviding the animals with an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area 3. Freedom from pain, injury, and disease its prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment 4. Freedom to express most normal behaviourproviding the animals with sufficient space, proper facilities, and company their own kind

72/73

5. Freedom from fear and distressensuring conditions and treatment which avoid the mental suffering of animals. It is based on these rights and research that animal welfare laws have been adopted and are still in force today in many countries in Europe, North America and Australia. In 2007, our government has also adopted an animal welfare and protection law.1 However, it needs to be emphasized that the five freedoms do not include the fundamental right of animals the right to be able to live without being used by men. This is what is being advocated by the defenders of animal welfare. The five freedoms concept rests on the minimal rights of each animal, preventing it from disease and premature death in the process of breeding, transport and slaughter. Back in 1975, Peter Singer, a North American philosopher, has written the well-known book Animal Liberation that has inspired todays animal rights movement. He has developed the idea that both human beings and animals should have the same rights as living creatures. The fighters for animal rights are categorically against any animal use, whether this is for food or clothes, laboratory testing or zoos, circuses or hunting, no matter if these animals are cute and adorable or not, or useful to humans or not. These activists believe that the concept of animal welfare is not motivated by the ethical behaviour towards animals, but rather by economic factors - the lower the mortality rate of animals, the bigger the profits. They believe that the only true animal protection guaranteed through the concept of animal rights is the implication that animal rights are not any different from human rights, meaning that animals also have the right to freedom from distress, traumas, pain, violence and killing.

SEVERAL ORGANISATIONS THAT DEAL WITH ANIMAL PROTECTION IN OUR COUNTRY: > Save the Animals Association (Skopje) http://spaszazivotnite.weebly.com/ > Anima Mundi Animal Protection Association (Skopje) http://anima-mundi.org.mk/ > Heart for Animals (Skopje) > Animal Protection Association Srna (Skopje) > Association for the protection of animals and the environment Mali Heroi(Bitola)

ANIMAL WELFARE AND PROTECTION LAW. Official JournalofRepublic of MacedoniaN 113/07, dated September 20, 2007 http://www.eswacares.org/laws/macedonia-animal-welfare-and-protection.pdf

ACTIVITY: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH (45)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To learn about the concept of animal rights To become aware of the conditions on industrial farms To understand the relationship between humans and animals

> > MATERIALS:


> Wide scotch tap > Writing tools

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (7-10):


Prior to the class/activity, use the scotch tape or some other material to visibly mark two squares not larger than 1m x 1m. Let the participants take a pen/pencil and divide them into three groups. Once they are divided, tell them that they must respect the rules; otherwise the activity wont be successful. Tell two of the groups that they have to find a way to work within the marked squares and that they mustnt get out of them during the duration of the activity, no matter if they need more space or some additional materials. The third group is free to choose its working space. They can decide whether theyll be working in teams or individually. It should then be explained to the groups that they should make a drawing of the following things: Sunrise over the Egyptian pyramids. A caravan of 20 camels is approaching from the left. The leader has an extraordinarily big turban and a beautifully embroidered scarf. On the right, three tourists are documenting the scenes with their cameras. One of them is wearing knee pants and a T-shirt while the other two have winter clothes on. The participants have five minutes to complete the drawing. Once they are done, they all stand in a circle with their drawing in front of them so that everyone can see the drawings.

74/75

ACTIVITY: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH (45)

> > DISCUSSION:


How did you feel during the activity? (The participants are encouraged to comment as much as possible.) Generally speaking, do you think most of you felt comfortable or uncomfortable? In your opinion, what has provoked such feelings? How would you feel if you had to be in such a tiny space with other people all the time, at school and / or at home? Can you think of some living creatures that live in spaces as tiny as this one, even though that is not their natural habitat? Which ones?

> > SCREENING THE FILM

FACING ANIMALS (30)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10-15)


What impression did the film leave on you? What is the prevailing emotion in the film? How did YOU feel while watching the film? What is the film about? How are animals treated in this film? Do people have the right to do this to animals? (Participants are encouraged to express their opinions. It is important not to value but rather to acknowledge all of the opinions equally.) Why? Have you ever heard of animal rights? What is this? Why should we talk about it at all? What rights would you give to animals? Why? What effects does mass industrial production have on the environment? What are its effects on human health? Why?

ACTIVITY: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To learn about the concept of animal rights To become aware of the conditions on industrial farms To understand the relationship between humans and animals To reconsider our personal attitude towards the living creatures on this planet

> > MATERIALS:


> Wide scotch tape > Writing tools > WorKsheets: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH 1, 2, 3 and 4

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (10-15):


Prior to the class/activity, use the scotch tape or some other material to visibly mark two squares not larger than 1m x 1m. Let the participants take a pen/pencil and divide them into three groups. Once they are divided, tell them that they must respect the rules; otherwise the activity wont be successful. Tell two of the groups that they have to find a way to work within the marked squares and that they mustnt get out of them during the duration of the activity, no matter if they need more space or some additional materials. The third group is free to choose its working space. They can decide whether theyll be working in teams or individually. It should then be explained to the groups that they should make a drawing of the following things: Sunrise over the Egyptian pyramids. A caravan of 20 camels is approaching from the left. The leader has an extraordinarily big turban and a beautifully embroidered scarf. On the right, three tourists are documenting the scenes with their cameras. One of them is wearing knee pants and a T-shirt while the other two have winter clothes on. The participants have five minutes to complete the drawing. Once they are done, they all stand in a circle with their drawing in front of them so that everyone can see the drawings.

76/77

ACTIVITY: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH (90)

> > DISCUSSION:


How did you feel during the activity? (The participants are encouraged to comment as much as possible.) Generally speaking, do you think most of you felt comfortable or uncomfortable? In your opinion, what has provoked such feelings? How would you feel if you had to be in such a tiny space with other people all the time, at school and / or at home? Can you think of some living creatures that live in spaces as tiny as this one, even though that is not their natural habitat? Which ones?

> > SCREENING THE FILM:

FACING ANIMALS (30)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM, part one (5+)


What impression did the film leave on you? What is the prevailing emotion in the film? How did YOU feel while watching the film? What is the film about? How are animals treated in this film?

ACTIVITY: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH (90)

> > ACTIVITY: A DEBATE (20-30)


Participants are divided into four groups. Each group is given one version of the worksheet: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH. They have 10 minutes to prepare themselves for a debate. Once ready, they sit in a circle and the debate starts. Initially, the first group gets two minutes to present their opinion, followed by the second, the third and the fourth groups, given two minutes each as well. While one group is presenting their opinion, the others dont have the right to comment. It should be explained that they will be able to give comments and provide arguments the next time they get the floor. In the next round, each group gets only one minute to state their arguments. This could be repeated several times - it is recommended for there to be at least three rounds of debate. It is very important that the person leading the process pays attention to the clock and interrupts the group when their time is up. This person should also make sure that the others dont interrupt the group during their presentation. Finally, it is important to explain to the participants that their assignments reflected the four general categories of opinions that people usually have about animals, and that they should put these arguments aside, as their only function was to bring them closer to the participants during the exercise.

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM, part two (10+)


Now lets get back to the film. Think with your own head and share your opinion on whether people have the right to do these kinds of things to animals? (Participants are encouraged to express their opinions. It is important not to value but rather to acknowledge all opinions equally.) Why? Have you ever heard of animal rights? What is this? Why should we talk about it at all? What rights would you give to animals? Why? What effects does mass industrial production have on the environment? What are its effects on human health? Why? Have you noticed anything unusual in the way the film was made? What was the cameras angle? Why was it filmed this way? What kind of noise did you hear in the film? Where do you think it came from?

78/79

WORKSHEET: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH 1


Your assignment is to prepare and think of arguments that would support the following statement:

>

PEOPLE ARE THE MOST INTELLIGENT LIVING CREATURES ON EARTH. HENCE, THEY HAVE THE RIGHT TO DO ANYTHING THEY PLEASE TO ALL OTHER LIVING CREATURES, INCLUDING ANIMALS, WHO SHOULD BE SEEN ONLY AS RESOURCES FOR FOOD, CLOTHING, ETC.
Agree on and think of all possible arguments that support this statement. A debate will follow during which you should convince the other groups that your opinion is the only legitimate one. Remember that it is not important if you personally agree with this opinion or not. The only thing that matters is that you defend this opinion as if it were personally yours. Once your list of arguments is done, choose one or two participants from the group that will present the groups opinion.

Good luck!

WORKSHEET: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH 2


Your assignment is to prepare and think of arguments that would support the following statement:

>

ANIMALS AND HUMANS MUST HAVE EQUAL RIGHTS AND HUMANS MUSTNT ABUSE ANIMALS, USE THEM OR DO AHYTHING ELSE THAT IS IN CONTRADICTION TO THE ANIMALS NATURAL BEHAVIOUR.
Agree on and think of all possible arguments that support this statement. A debate will follow during which you should convince the other groups that your opinion is the only legitimate one. Remember that it is not important if you personally agree with this opinion or not. The only thing that matters is that you defend this opinion as if it were personally yours. Once your list of arguments is done, choose one or two participants from the group that will present the groups opinion.

Good luck!

80/81

WORKSHEET: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH 3


Your assignment is to prepare and think of arguments that would support the following statement:

>

IN THE CASE OF ANIMALS THAT HAVE ALREADY BEEN DOMESTICATED BY PEOPLE, IT COULD BE ARGUED THAT THEY HAVE MADE SOME KIND OF CHOICE AS WELL, AND THAT THEY, TOO, BENEFIT FROM PEOPLE (AS A STABLE SOURCE OF FOOD AND SECURITY). THEREFORE, PEOPLE HAVE THE RIGHT TO USE THEM. BUT ONLY IN A HUMANE WAY
Agree on and think of all possible arguments that support this statement. A debate will follow during which you should convince the other groups that your opinion is the only legitimate one. Remember that it is not important if you personally agree with this opinion or not. The only thing that matters is that you defend this opinion as if it were personally yours. Once your list of arguments is done, choose one or two participants from the group that will present the groups opinion.

Good luck!

WORKSHEET: CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER EARTH 4


Your assignment is to prepare and think of arguments that would support the following statement:

>

ANIMALS CAN BE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS: PETS, AND ANIMALS THAT WE USE DIFFERENTLY . WHEN IT COMES TO OUR TREATMENT OF PETS, WHO WE KEEP FOR FUN AND ENTERTAINMENT, WE SHOULD BEHAVE ALMOST AS WE DO WITH OTHER PEOPLE. WHEN IT COMES TO THE OTHER ANIMALS, ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT ARENT BORN IN NATURE BUT ARE BORN AND BRED TO BE USED FOR HUMAN FOOD AND OTHER PURPOSES, THEIR OWNERS HAVE THE RIGHT TO TREAT THEM ANY WAY THEY WANT TO.
Agree on and think of all possible arguments that support this statement. A debate will follow during which you should convince the other groups that your opinion is the only legitimate one. Remember that it is not important if you personally agree with this opinion or not. The only thing that matters is that you defend this opinion as if it were personally yours. Once your list of arguments is done, choose one or two participants from the group that will present the groups opinion.

Good luck!

82/83

GIRL MODEL
USA / 2011 / 77 Directors: David Redmon & Ashley Sabin

ABOUT THE FILM:

Not many people in our country would say that the modelling industry can also be seen as an example of human trafficking. The world of modelling runs in parallel to the real one. It sells happiness, flirtation and comfort, but treats people as objects or, at the most, as a pretty piece of flesh that brings profit. The film follows the stories of a modelling scout and of a 13-year-old girl from Novosibirsk that has been recruited to model in Japan. It tries to convey the other, lesser known, side of the modelling story and in doing so connect the two parallel worlds.

KEYWORDS:

Fashion industry, human trafficking, trafficking of children, child labour and child abuse

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Ethics: Justice: encouraging and advocating just and fair treatment of other people, in life and in the work environment Civic Education: 1. Childrens rights (the Convention on the Rights of the Child, article 32 in particular) 2. Womens rights Sociology: Age differences (the level of self-consciousness, age classification guidelines) Life skills facultative: Fashion trends and the fashion industry (discussion about fashion, fashion trends and on the pros and cons of the modelling industry today)

86/87

GENERAL INFORMATION:

In the past twenty years, the fashion industry has set even more rigid weight and age restrictions on the models they cast for shows, despite the fact that the creations the models present arent made for teenagers but most often for adults alone. The current age restriction is below the legal age limit of 16 or 18 years, which is also the minimum age for employment in most countries. The trend for models to be extremely thin begins back in the 1990s, when the famous model Kate Moss ushered in the so-called heroin chic look. As a result, models and many other people employed, or simply inspired, by the fashion world started facing eating disorders, like anorexia and bulimia. Models are pressured to maintain an unreal body image if they are to keep their jobs. Recently, after a number of models have died as a result of anorexia, some actors and employers in the fashion world have started fighting against this trend. These conscious efforts focus on encouraging the leading countries in the fashion industry to fight the existing body weight regulations. As a result, for instance, the Madrid Fashion Show has banned models that have a body mass index (BMI) of less than 18. The Milan Fashion Week also tightened its weight restrictions and doesnt accept models whose BMI is lower than 18.5, which means that a 1.75 meter-tall model must weigh at least 54 kg. But how far trendsetters are still ready to go in taking advantage and diminishing the weight expectations has been clearly illustrated by the recent cover of the Vogue featuring a 10-year-old girl wearing a glamorous and sexy outfit and striking a provocative pose that stirred up a storm. The film Girl Model gives us an insight into the Japanese fashion industry, favouring young skinny girls and recruiting models at an unbelievably young age. Moreover, it brings to light other restrictions imposed by the fashion industry. The film paints a completely different picture, the one hidden behind the mysterious, sensual and attractive faces of young beauties that we see on the covers of fashion magazines. Focusing on the preparations for a fashion show, the film exposes a reality that greatly differs from the one shown on TV.

1. Child and human trafficking


Human trafficking is a high-level organized crime that generates a profit of

32 billion dollars annually. It is often described as a modern-day form of slavery,


as its victims are held in slavery-like conditions and treated as property by those who bought them.

Apart from the competent ministries, the issue of human trafficking in our country is also a top-level priority for the National Commission for Combating Human Trafficking and Illegal Migration as well as several civil society organizations, including the NGO SEMPER among the most active ones. A victim of human trafficking is any individual that has suffered harm, including physical or psychological injury, emotional suffering, pecuniary loss or any other injury or threat to his/her fundamental freedoms and rights due to this criminal act (Article 122, Criminal Code, 2008). Our Criminal Code contains

clauses prohibiting both human trafficking and the trafficking of children, in articles 418-a and 418-g respectively. Anyone can be a victim of human trafficking, regardless of age, sex or social status. According to UN statistics, two to four million people world-wide are victims of human trafficking, the great majority being women and children. The International Labour Organization estimates that between 600.000 and 800.000 persons are victims of human trafficking each year. These numbers do not include the victims of domestic human trafficking (human trafficking within national borders alone). As reported by the US State Department, 80% of the victims of cross-border human trafficking are girls and women, 70% of who are also victims of sex trafficking. Human traffickers use fraud, force or other methods to make profit, either material or other, at each step of the trafficking process. These individuals arent always strangers to the victims but can sometimes also be close family members. Although there are many different factors inciting human trafficking, the most common include prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, pornography, forced labour and service, slavery, arranged marriages, forced fertilization (impregnation), illegal adoption, illegal organ transplantation or trade in organs, forced partaking in criminal activities, etc.1

In conformity with the Optional Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, and especially Women and Children (2000), child trafficking is defined as the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as any person under the age of 18. Although the real number of victims still remains unknown, the International Labour Organization estimates that 1.2 million children are pulled into the trafficking chain each year.

2. Child labour and exploitation


Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives them of their childhood, dignity and the realization of their potential, which is both physically and mentally dangerous and harmful. Child labour is exploitative and damaging to the childs physical, mental and moral development, and interferes with their ability to attend regular schooling. Hence, children are often forced to leave school permanently or attend school in combination with undertaking hard labour. In its most extreme forms, child labour involves children being enslaved, separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illnesses and/or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities, often at a very early age. This is often the case in big cities and metropolises. Nadya, the protagonist of the film, leaves school before completing primary education so that she could model in Japan. She is separated from her family and left alone in an unknown country whose language she doesnt understand or speak. In order to get hired, she has to maintain an unnatural body weight. The situation in which Nadya finds herself is a clear violation of her basic
1

Taken and adapted from the National Commission for Combating Human Trafficking and Illegal Migration: http://www.nacionalnakomisija.gov.mk and the Civil Initiative for Equal Opportunities SEMPER: http://www. semper.org.mk

88/89

rights, as defined in Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by 193 countries (including our country): The child has the right to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the childs education, or to be harmful to the childs health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.2

industry vs. Child trafficking and 3. Fashion exploitation


If we analyse Nadyas actions and situation without taking into consideration the ideals that she or her mother cherish, we could easily realize that the actions and circumstances she found herself in fit the definition of child trafficking. Everything is there: the recruitment by the modelling agency, transportation to another country, leaving the child unprotected and victim of economic exploitation. She is being brutally exploited by the fashion industry which glorifies youth and the innocent female body and uses her as a source of profit. The film portrays this entire fashion trade chain, starting from the owner of the Tigran modelling agency, who represents himself as a saviour, and the modelling agent Ashley, who used to be a model herself but now works as a modelling scout, up to the underage girl Nadya. Most often, the traffickers lure their victims trough promises of a better life through employment. However, due to a lack of funds, victims are quickly driven into debt and often remain slaves for good. Both Ashley and Nadya are victims of the brutality of the fashion industry that doesnt do a thing to protect its employees against the possibility of being thrown back into the reality they left behind without a dime, but with huge debts on their shoulders.

ACTIVITY: MODELS, FOR WHAT? (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To inform participants about the fashion industry rules To engage them in critical thinking about their chosen role models To inform them about, and potentially protect them against, possible similar threats further in life To make them aware of the reality of human trafficking In the long run, to contribute to the fight against child exploitation, human trafficking and the abuses and manipulations existent in the fashion world

NOTE: The film has a running time of 70 minutes. Therefore, it is hardly manageable to work with it during one class alone. If possible, it is recommended to combine two classes for the activity, i.e. two hours during which you will have the time to watch the film and carry out the activities. This should not be a problem in informal education. Given the topic of the film and the ensuing discussion, the educator should be well prepared and go through the additional information so as to be able to complete the participants answers. This is recommended not only because of the short time but also because it is assumed that they will find many aspects of the subject unclear or unfamiliar.

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (5)


Do a short brainstorming session on the lives of famous models and all the commodities and pleasures they benefit from.

> > SCREENING THE FILM


GIRL MODEL (70)

90/91

ACTIVITY: MODELS, FOR WHAT? (90)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (15)


How did you feel while watching the film? What did you think about the film in general? Have you ever seen anything similar before? Was there something that surprised you or touched you emotionally? What was it? Was there something that you have never thought of as possible in todays world? What is the film about? Whats happening to Nadya? What did she have to go through in the film? What was she deprived of in her life due to these circumstances? Have you ever heard of human trafficking? What is it? Can we try to define it together? Child trafficking is defined as recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a child for the purpose of exploitation. Which of these elements are present in the film? What do you think, can this kind of thing happen here? To some boy or girl that you know? According to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, a child is every person under the age of 18. Although there isnt any accurate data, it is estimated that 1.2 million children become victims of child trafficking every year. Do you find this plausible? Its what the facts are stating How can you protect yourselves from such consequences? Do you know all the stories that traffickers use to recruit child slaves? What should we do in situations like these? Has the film changed the image you had of a models life? Would you like to become a famous model yourself? What would you say to Nadya?

MY NAME IS FEKER
Ethiopia / 2011 / 13 Director: Orlando von Einsiedel

ABOUT THE FILM:

Feker Asheme has had a very challenging life. At the age of 7, she ran away from the family that didnt like her and ended up on the streets of the nearby city of Bahir Dar. At the age of 8, she was working in a brothel. Today she is a 19-years-old girl that has found a way out of the vicious circle of prostitution and is trying to rebuild her life. My Name is Feker retells Fekers story by following the lives of three girls who are living today as Feker used to live once. Bleak, wonderful and ultimately uplifting, the film not only reminds us of the enduring nature of the human spirit but also of how a chance meeting can sometimes have life changing consequences.

KEYWORDS:

Millennium Development Goals, poverty, the gender dimension of employment and poverty, child prostitution, education, empowerment, girls and womens empowerment

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Sociology: global economic integration (explaining the role of transnational corporations in maintaining the differences between the rich and poor countries), education (education and society, education and life opportunities) Civic education: social and economic rights, right to development

94/95

GENERAL INFORMATION:

1. We, Ethiopia and poverty


In Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia that is also spoken in the film My Name is Feker, feker means love. Ethiopia is a home to more than 80 ethnic communities, 83 languages and 200 dialects. This country has a population of over 80 million inhabitants, 85% of who form part of the economically active population engaged primarily in agriculture. According to the 2012 Human Development Index (HDI), established by the United Nations in the early 1990s and ranking countries on the basis of life expectancy, education and income indices, Ethiopia held the 173rd place out of 187 countries. In other words, it is one of the least developed countries in the world. Life expectancy in Ethiopia in 2012 was 59,7 years1. The issue of poverty in underdeveloped countries like Ethiopia is extremely complex and cannot be simplified through basic causal explanations. The international system of neoliberal economy, transnational companies and the slavery to international debt are only part of the story. Due to the obligations to repay the debt incurred and the raising interest rates, Ethiopia is failing to meet its international obligations as a signatory of the UN Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and struggles to ensure employment, the right to education and many other economic and social rights to its citizens, as defined by this international document. The foreign debt of Ethiopia is extremely big. In 2012, it was estimated at 9.96 billion dollars. As a comparison, the foreign debt of our country in 2012 reached 6.74 billion dollars.2

In 2013, we held the 78th place according to HDI, with an average life expectancy of 78 years, 20 years longer than that in Ethiopia.3 A study carried out in 2005 shows that 77, 63% of the population in Ethiopia lives below the international poverty line of $2 per day. In our country this percentage was 5.6% in 2009. Comparisons, however, can lead to false conclusions. For instance, the percentage of people living under the relative poverty line in our country was 30.4% in 2011, which is an 11% increase since 19974, whereas in Ethiopia the estimate has been 39% in 2012.

The data is taken from the UNDP Human Development Report for Macedonia for 2012. Available at: http:// hdrstats.undp.org/images/explanations/ETH.pdf INDEXMUNDI statistics. Available at: http://www.indexmundi.com/macedonia/debt_external.html United Nations Development Fund: development index, country profiles, Macedonia. Available at: http:// hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/mkd.html State Statistical Office. www.stat.gov.mk/OblastOpsto.aspx?id=13

2 3

gender dimension of poverty: girls from 2. The underdeveloped countries and prostitution
All around the globe women face many obstacles in trying to develop their skills and contribute to a better society. The film My Name is Feker deals with the topic of poverty overall, but also gives it one particular dimension, focusing on the vulnerability of young adolescent girls and their social and economic exclusion in underdeveloped and developing countries as a direct consequence of their social position. Traditionally, for a very long time these girls have been deprived of access to many socio-economic activities that were important to their personal development, whereas boys have always been given better opportunities. The 2010 UN statistics on the situation of women worldwide indicate that two thirds of the adult illiterate population in the world are women, data that has remained unchanged for the last 20 years in most countries in the world. Women are often confined to living in poverty. Since education has almost never been, and still isnt an option for them, they are missing out on the opportunities to become economically independent and get out of this vicious circle. Furthermore, the tradition of arranging child marriages very often also provides a perfect setting for economic abuse and domestic violence, as well as the prostitution and trafficking of women. In Ethiopia, 19% of girls get married before they turn 15 and nearly 50% are forced into marriage before the age of 19, while in the Amharic reChild prostitution, one of the worst forms of economic gion, 50% are married before the age exploitation of children, is running rampant throughout Ethiopia, both of 15 and 80% before they are 18 in urban and rural areas. Facing poverty, forced marriages, domestic years old.5 violence and the lack of education possibilities in the rural areas, a

considerable number of children leave their homes and look for a better future in the urban centres, where they usually become victims of sexual abuse.6 The streets of the capital Addis Ababa are swamped by young girls and women who got into prostitution only so as to be able to provide food for themselves or their families. In a situation like this one, it seems that few alternatives are available, which is most often indeed the reality. However, the film My Name is Feker explores the other side of the story, looking at the empowerment of the girls and women.

ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children ETHIOPIA 2007. www.ecpat.net/A4A_2005/PDF/AF/Global_Monitoring_Report-ETHIOPIA.pdf ECPAT Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against commercial exploitation of children ETHIOPIA 2007. www.ecpat.net/A4A_2005/PDF/AF/Global_Monitoring_Report-ETHIOPIA.pdf[accessed 4/13/2013]

96/97

Nations Millennium Development 3. United Goals, objective 3: Economic empowerment of girls and women and gender equality.

Those who cannot provide for themselves due to the lack of education, marginalization or opportunities that were never given to them, run the risk of losing their self-confidence as they dont have the possibility to develop personally, contribute to, nor lead a decent life. While looking for the opportunities and chances for improvement, they can often end up being victims of violence, human trafficking or chains of prostitution. Empowerment is a process enabling marginalized persons, women, minority members, poor or neglected people to develop personally and become independent, helping themselves as well as contributing to the community and the society by using the skills that they either possess or have developed individually or with the help of those who didnt lack these basic opportunities. Empowerment also provides encouragement for In our country, 30.9% of the marginalized people to overcome life obstacles and live a more parliament seats are held by women, decent and better life. Empowerment can also provide marginalized while 72% of adult women have groups with the possibility to participate in the political life and completed a secondary or university the decision-making process. The gender inequality index is an education, compared to 85.3% of the instrument through which the UN measures gender disparity using male population. When it comes to three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour the labour market participation, the market participation. Empowerment is based on estimates of mens rate is 42.9% for women and 65.8% and womens education attainment levels per country. for men.

The film shows how the one sole educational program that Feker attended was enough for her to become an empowered and economically independent young woman, someone who is once again a part of the society, despite the fact that she had been forced to work as a prostitute due to her lack of education and basic living conditions. Therefore, economic and social empowerment of girls and women would immensely decrease the problems related to illiteracy, early marriages, child and maternal mortality, as well as to prostitution as the only recourse available to poor women. Womens empowerment would also considerably reduce the rates of trafficking in women, through reducing their likelihood of falling victim to this modern day form of slavery, a trap usually fallen into while looking for job out of the home country. Rupturing the seemingly unbreakable chains of poverty and prostitution is perhaps one of the most important benefits brought forth by empowerment. Finally, we mustnt forget that Fekers story is told by three young girls that

are still making money from prostitution. It could be said that only one in four girls manages to escape poverty, while the other three remain living on the margins of society in the vicious circle of sexual trafficking, a phenomenon that further emphasizes the need for economic and social empowerment, particularly of the socially vulnerable women.

ACTIVITY: POVERTY 45

> > OBJECTIVES:


To acknowledge the importance of education To gain insight into gender inequality and the discrimination against women To understand the situation in different parts of the world

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEET: ALLEGATIONS
Note: While preparing for the following activities, it is recommended to go carefully through the information about the film and the context that it covers. The GENERAL INFORMATION section provides very important explanations that you might find helpful when talking about the subject or answering your participants questions.

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (5-10):


Participants are divided into groups of two or three. The participants of each group reflect on and talk to each other about what they would have been doing if they werent going to school, what their lives would look like. Few minutes later, they are given another question to discuss within the group: What opportunities would they have missed out on if they were uneducated, what would have their lives looked like then. Afterwards, if they feel like it, they can share their thoughts with the rest of the class.

> > SCREENING THE FILM:


MY NAME IS FEKER (13)

98/99

ACTIVITY: POVERTY 45

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10)


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? What does the film talk about? What does the name Feker mean in Amharic, the language spoken in the film? (It means Love.) Was Feker given enough true love? What kind of life did she have? How did she manage to get out of prostitution? In order to describe all those past years of her life, the director followed three other girls that are working as prostitutes during the filming process. In your opinion, why did he choose this approach? (He wants to point out that only one in every four girls manages to get out of the vicious circle of poverty and prostitution, while the others remain inside forever.)

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (5-10):


The participants stand still in the classroom. You explain to them that youll be reading out loud certain allegations (from the WORKSHEET: ALLEGATIONS) and that they should individually think about them and remain standing if they think the allegation is true or kneel if they think it is false. Once they make up their mind and choose a position, ask a few of them why they think the allegation is true or false. Before reading the next allegation, read the explanation to them and then ask everybody to kneel. In that way they will change the starting position and the process will become more dynamic. Before moving on to the next allegation, ask them to stand up, etc.

ACTIVITY: POVERTY 90

>> OBJECTIVES:
To acknowledge the importance of education To gain insight into gender inequality and the discrimination against women To understand the situation in different parts of the world

>> MATERIALS:
> WORKSHEET: ALLEGATIONS
Note: While preparing for the following activities, it is recommended to go carefully through the information about the film and the context that it covers. The GENERAL INFORMATION section provides very important explanations that you might find helpful when talking about the subject or answering your participants questions.

>> INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (10-12):


Participants are divided into groups of two or three. The participants of each group reflect on and talk to each other about what they would have been doing if they werent going to school, what their lives would look like. Few minutes later, they are given another question to discuss within the group: What opportunities would they have missed out on if they were uneducated, what would have their lives looked like then. Afterwards, if they feel like it, they can share their thoughts with the rest of the class.

>> SCREENING THE FILM

MY NAME IS FEKER (13)


After the screening, ask the participants about their feelings about the film and briefly go through the films story (the first three from the questions below). Ask them to reflect upon and point out if they want to the moments in the film that they found crucial. Try to identify these moments together, watch those scenes again and ask the entire class what they talk about and why someone would point them out as crucial? Dont expect too many raised hands. It would be more efficient if you would note down some important scenes prior to the screening, so as to be able to discuss them right away.

100/101

ACTIVITY: POVERTY 90

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (15-35)


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? What does the film talk about? In your opinion, what moments would you pick out as the crucial ones? What scenes affected you (visually, in terms of their narrative, or emotionally)? Why? What made you set this particular scene apart? How do you feel? What comes to mind as a possibility while analysing this part of the film? Why was it made this way? How would you have made it? What does the name Feker mean in Amharic, the language spoken in the film? (It means Love) In your opinion, does the fact that Feker means love enhance the films story? What kind of life did Feker have? How did she manage to get out of prostitution? In order to describe all those past years of her life, the director followed three other girls that are working as prostitutes during the filming process. In your opinion, why did he choose this approach? (He wants to point out that only one in every four girls manages to get out of the vicious circle of poverty and prostitution, while the others remain inside forever.)

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (10-15):


The participants stand still in the classroom. You explain to them that youll be reading out loud certain allegations (from the WORKSHEET: ALLEGATIONS) and that they should individually think about them and remain standing if they think the allegation is true or kneel if they think it is false. Once they make up their mind and choose a position, ask a few of them why they think the allegation is true or false. Then ask the classmates with an opposing opinion to provide counter-arguments. Examine whether these arguments change the point of view of the other participants and see if they think that this point of view is also relevant. (It is extremely important that the person leading the activity doesnt give signs or use intonation that could be interpreted as verbal or non-verbal inclination towards one or the another groups arguments.) Before reading the next allegation, read the explanation to them and then ask everybody to kneel. In that way they will change the starting position and the process will become more dynamic. Before moving on to the next allegation, ask them to stand up, etc.

ACTIVITY: POVERTY 90

> > Group Activities (15-25):


The participants are divided into four groups. Each group has to write down or answer in some other way one of the following questions: WHAT ARE THE ESSENTIAL STEPS TO BE TAKEN BY THE STATE/ SOCIETY/ INSTITUTIONS/ ORGANIZATIONS SO AS TO REDUCE POVERTY AND CHILD PROSTITUTION, ESPECIALLY AMONG GIRLS AND WOMEN? ACCORDING TO YOUR KNOWLEDGE AND POINT OF VIEW, WHAT IS THE SITUATION LIKE IN OUR COUNTRY TODAY WHEN IT COMES TO POVERTY, CHILD LABOUR AND CHILD PROSTITUTION? WHY DO WE PUT ACCENT ON THE EMPOWERMENT OF GIRLS AND WOMEN INSTEAD OF POOR PEOPLE IN GENERAL? (Give examples according to your knowledge.) IF YOU WERE TO MAKE A FILM ON THIS SUBJECT, HOW WOULD YOU MAKE IT? (Try to be as precise as possible when describing the steps you would take. Why would you shoot the film in that way?) Once they are all done, each group presents the results while others have the right to ask questions and are constantly encouraged to do so, as well as to ask for more detailed explanations if needed.

102/103

WORKSHEET: ALLEGATIONS

> > > > > > > >

THERE ARE 12.3 MILLION SLAVES IN THE WORLD TODAY


FALSE: It is estimated that there are at least 12.3 million people that work as slaves. However, the number of slaves remains unknown as slavery is illegal and undercover.

IT IS ESTIMATED THAT 8.4 MILLION CHILDREN LIVE IN SLAVERY NOWADAYS.


TRUE: It is estimated that 8.4 million children are working under extremely poor conditions, including as child slaves (according to the International Labour Organization - ILO).

SLAVERY OCCURS WHEN AN INDIVIDUAL IS FORCED TO WORK UNDER CONDITIONS THAT ARE AGAINST HIS OR HER WILL.
TRUE: According to the ILO, forced labour or slavery occurs when an individual is forced to work against his or her will and is not permitted to leave.

HUMAN RIGHTS ARE INHERENT TO ALL PEOPLE, EVEN TO THOSE WHOSE GOVERNEMENTS HAVENT SIGNED THE UN HUMAN RIGHTS TREATIES.
TRUE: Human rights are universal and inherent to all people. People shouldnt be deprived of their human rights under any circumstances.

SLAVERY DOESNT EXIST IN GREAT BRITAIN OR THE USA, IT EXISTS ONLY IN POOR COUNTRIES.
FALSE: Slavery can occur in any country of the world, no matter how rich or a poor it is.

TWO THIRDS OF THE ILLITERATE ADULTS IN THE WORLD ARE WOMEN.


TRUE: This ratio has not changed in the past 20 years.

EDUCATION CONTRIBUTES CONSIDERABLY TO THE EMPOWERMENT OF THE POOR.


TRUE: A large number of people that live in absolute or relative poverty are illiterate or insufficiently educated. Education provides them with the opportunity to gain the skills and knowledge that might help them escape the vicious circle of poverty.

FINAL QUESTION: WHAT POSSITION FELT MORE COMFORTABLE? WHY? DO MEN AND WOMEN TODAY HAVE THE SAME STARTING POSITION?
You could explain that globally, as well as in our country, the starting position women have is far less advantageous that the position men do.

THINK OF WHAT EVERY ONE OF YOU COULD DO INDIVIDUALLY SO AS TO CHANGE/IMPROVE THIS SITUATION EVEN SLIGHTLY? (Give each participant the time to answer.)

THE SHUTDOWN
Scotland / 2009 / 10 Director: Adam Stafford

ABOUT THE FILM:

Alan Bissett, the author of the autobiographical text that served as a screenplay for the short documentary film The Shutdown, is one of the leading Scottish writers of our time. He is also the narrator of the film, which recalls his childhood days spent in the polluted industrial area of the small Scottish town called Falkirk, as well as his fathers traumatic experience, which was the result of work in the petrochemical plant.

KEYWORDS:

Industrialization, environmental pollution, work and worker rights

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Sociology: 1. Economics, division of labour; the growth of specialization; primary, secondary and tertiary sectors; automation; labour unions; labour unions and industrial conflict; unemployment. 2. Ecology 3. Food processing and ecology Civic Education in the 7th-9th grade: 1. Economic and social rights: right to work, right to protection at work, right to professional development, right to vacation. 2. Ecological rights. Ethics: Health, work and ecological ethics

106/107

GENERAL INFORMATION:

Falkirk is a town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland, located almost midway between the two of Scotlands most populous cities, Glasgow and Edinburgh. It lies at the junction of three canals Forth, Clyde and Union a location which proved to be of key importance to its growth as a centre of heavy industry during the Industrial Revolution. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Falkirk was at the centre of the iron and steel industries. Grangemouth is a small town east of Falkirk whose economy nowadays relies primarily on its large petrochemical industry and one of the largest oil refineries in Europe. The modern petrochemical industry took root in this area back in 1906, and the first refinery opened in 1924. Industrialization, which started with the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain during the 18th and 19th centuries, has gradually spread and finally reached the Balkans after the Second World War. It is nowadays in its decline. Generally speaking, industrialization is a method of economic development, depicted by the transition to new manufacturing processes driven by fast industrial development. Contemporary definitions assign it a leading role in the processes of economic and social development. However, at the core of industrialization in the Western countries before, as in the developing countries today, lays the logic of capitalism. In other words, output is primarily measured by income, or profit, rather than by social development and prosperity found in the provision of better quality of life and social justice. Hence, ecology the right to health and to a healthy environment, as well as workers rights and their safety, come second within this system of values. The film The Shutdown shows precisely how the logic of profit affects people, work and the environment. The shutdown of the petrochemical plant can be entirely explained by the forecast of economic loss. In order to minimize costs, a rapid shutdown of all operations is planned, which increases the risks of mistakes, accidents and pollution.

1. INDUSTRY AND POLLUTION


Industrialization also marks the beginning of a process of man no longer seeing oneself as an integral part of nature, due to its conceptualization as an interdependent system, but rather as its self-proclaimed absolute master. As result, Planet Earth is nowadays on the verge of a major ecological disaster. The dreadful effects of industrialization are the ones to blame for the existing environmental pollution. Nature has become a dumping ground for unimaginable quantities of all types of waste, further complicating the relationship between the nature and humans. Oil, oil derivatives and fossil fuels present some of the most harmful pollutants. Petrochemicals, the organic chemicals obtained from oil and natural gas, are one of the most important industry resources overall. Petrochemistry is a branch of the chemical industry dealing with the transformation of crude oil, natural gas and alternative raw materials (Ethane, Propane and Methane, i.e. synthetic natural gas obtained from coal) into chemical derivatives that subsequently become components of the final industrial products. Some of these products include plastic materials, PVC, synthetic fibres, laundry detergents, tire and

rubber products, paints and lacquers, insulation materials, pharmaceutical products, fertilizers, agrochemicals and many other commonly used products. Refinery and petrochemical production require large capacities for crude oil transformation that are usually spread over thousands of square meters of industrial land. Most often located near populated areas, plants generally pose serious environmental and health risks, as their chemical emission cause air, soil and water pollution. Noise pollution is another consequence of their presence, as is the higher risk of fire and explosions. In the case of plant failure, large amounts of pollutants are released not only into the immediately surrounding environment, but generally spread over a much wider region. Precaution, lawabidance, rigorous production control, regular plant and machinery maintenance and constant emissions reductions are therefore of utmost importance to environmental health and safety. The obligations of companies that are potential pollutants, as well as of countries where these companies plants are located, need to be seen through the prism of the right to health, the healthcare system and the environmental rights that the 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights1 ensures to every human being trough holding state parties responsible for providing the highest attainable standard of health to its citizens. Moreover, the Covenant contains provisions on the improvements of work and industrial hygiene. As far as environmental protection in our country is concerned, all relevant information on laws, regulations and strategies is available via the Environmental Information Centre, a sector within the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning (www.moepp.gov.mk)

2. INDUSTRY, LABOUR AND LABOUR RIGHTS


Industrialization has dramatically changed the way people live and work. In search of a job, people abandoned the rural for the urban industrial areas, which inevitably led to intensive urbanization, the rise of literacy rates and public education enrolment rates, and generally contributed to a better standard of living. At the same time, industrialization withdrew people from their agricultural lands and made them entirely dependent on workforce demand as well as on their capability to position themselves on the labour market. In order to alleviate the possible negative consequences of the new system on those unable to work (children, the ill and the elderly), the system laid down the foundations for the free education and healthcare systems, retirement insurance and thus overall social security. Today, many people still live in countries unable to ensure neither their social rights nor their dignity in the context where the social security system is being threatened by the capitalist demands of the liberal market economy. Rather, people depend solely on their capacity to find and keep a job. The technological developments of the late 19th century have led to the rising automation of the production process, as well the computerization of the activities previously executed by workers. This has profoundly changed the role
1

http://www.aopz.gov.mk/materijali/;

108/109

of workers in the production process and led to a downsizing of the workforce. Additionally, the international corporations owners of the production industry are increasingly moving their plants to the less-developed countries, where workforce is cheap as industrialization has only begun and where governments either have no interest or are simply too weak to protect the labour rights of their work force. Hence, no law obliges the corporations to pay the social contributions or cover the health and retirement insurance and provide decent working conditions for these workers. The unemployment rate is constantly growing in the Western countries as well while workers, for fear of losing their jobs and financial security, often accept working conditions that do not comply with the international labour standards. Labour rights are defined and guaranteed by many international conventions and treaties, the most important being the aforementioned International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in 1966 and ratified by our goverment. According to the Covenant, every country has the obligation to attain full employment and provide every economically active citizen with the following employment conditions: a fair salary and equal compensation for equal work, decent life for the employees and their families, a safe work environment, minimum and maximum working hours, paid vacation and sick leave, a reasonable reduction of working hours, occasional unpaid working days. Are these rights fully respected when the employee works twelve hours per day and only succeeds to work and sleep - as Alan Bissett strikingly describes when talking about the conditions under which his father worked, enforced by the motto that money making is more important than the health and the life of the people who live near the plants? In 2008, 1200 oil refinery workers from Grangemouth went on a two-day strike protesting the inadequate contribution the company had been paying for their retirement insurance benefits. It was the first time in 70 years that the refinery had stopped working due to the workers dissatisfaction. Returning to our local context, it is important to emphasize that the labour unions were incomparably more powerful in the previous system than this has been the case from the 1990s onwards. One of the first measures taken by the liberal capitalism that replaced the socialist system was to subtly take over and weaken the role of the trade unions.

ACTIVITY: HUMAN FACTORY 45

> > OBJECTIVES:


To provide insight into labour relations in the liberal capitalist system To understand the main interests of big corporations To reflect on the concept of labour rights To understand some of the effects that industry has had on the environment and on peoples health

> > MATERIALS:


> Pieces of paper and pens

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (5):


The participants think of and write down the industrial facilities in their surroundings that employ a great number of people and present a possible threat to the environment and to peoples health. Once the list is completed, the participants discuss the ideas written down.

> > SCREENING THE FILM

THE SHUTDOWN (10)


It is recommended to inform the participants that the films narrator is the well-known Scottish writer Alan Bissett, whose autobiographical text has served as a screenplay for the film.

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (2-3)


What impression did the film leave on you? How would you describe the atmosphere in the film? How did you feel while watching the film?

110/111

ACTIVITY: HUMAN FACTORY 45

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (10-15):

The participants are divided into four groups. For about 10 minutes, each group works on one of the following questions: What is the position of the workers in the factory? What effects does the factory have on the environment? What effects does the factory have on peoples life and health? What rights does the factory violate? Once they are done, the participants present the answers to their classmates.

> > DISCUSSION (10-15):


What are the main messages that the film conveys? What are the main problems that the film indicates? According to you, which actions in the film acted unfairly? Why? What was the factory owners main interest? To which extent did they care for the workers and the environment? How were the workers treated? What would you have done if you were one of the workers? What life opportunities lie ahead for these workers children? What is the job they are most likely to have? Why? What would the options be in a situation like this one? Who could help you out? What effects did the industry have on the environment and on peoples health? Can we find examples in our surroundings similar to the problems highlighted by the film? In which way are they similar? How does the restriction of certain rights relate to poverty in the long term? Why? What can an ordinary person do to improve their situation? How would you describe todays activity of watching the film and participating in the interactive exercise?

ACTIVITY: HUMAN FACTORY 90

> > OBJECTIVES:


To provide insight into labour relations in the liberal capitalist system To understand the main interests of big corporations To reflect on the concept of labour rights To understand some of the effects that industry has had on the environment and on peoples health To understand the complexity of todays society in regards to the lack of choice and the subordinate position of the average worker within modern society

> > MATERIALS:


> WORKSHEET: EMPLOYERS > WORKSHEET: CALL FOR EMPLOYMENT

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (35+):


The educator chooses three volunteers among the participants. The other participants are divided into small groups of 3 or 4. The educator explains that the volunteers will play the roles specified in the Employers worksheet, while the others should follow their instructions. One of the volunteers reads the worksheet out loud to the others. At a certain point, the call for employment worksheet is distributed to the small groups. Once the groups finish the first round, the employers give three points for every right that the groups are ready to give up on. There are as many rounds as there are groups still ready to give up on some of their labour rights. In the end, the employers announce the winning group i.e. the group having won the highest number of points. The others give the winners a round of applause.

112/113

ACTIVITY: HUMAN FACTORY 90

> > DISCUSSION (10)


How did you feel during this activity? Was it easy for you to give up on some of your rights? What rights? Why? Was it difficult for you to give up on some of your rights? What rights? Why? Would the winners really be winners if this happened in the real life? Why? What consequences would the workers have to bear if they had accepted to work under the conditions you have accepted?

> > SCREENING THE FILM

THE SHUTDOWN (10)


It is recommended to inform the participants that the films narrator is the well-known Scottish writer Alan Bissett, whose autobiographical text has served as a screenplay for the film.

> > MAIN ACTIVITY (10-15)


Participants are divided into four groups. For about 10 minutes, each group works on one of the following questions: What is the position of the workers in the factory? What effects does the factory have on the environment? What effects does the factory have on peoples life and health? What rights is the factory violating? Once they are done, the participants present the answers to their classmates.

ACTIVITY: HUMAN FACTORY 90

> > DISCUSSION (10-15):


What are the main messages that the film conveys? What are the main problems that the film indicates? According to you, which actions in the film were unfair? Why? What was the main interest of the factory owners? To what extent did they care for the workers and the environment? How were the workers treated? What would you have done if you were one of the workers? Can you find any similarities between the film and the introductory activities? If so, which ones? What life opportunities lie ahead for these workers children? What is the job they are most likely to have? Why? What would the options be in a situation like this one? Who could help you out? What effects did the industry have on the environment and on peoples health? Can we find examples in our surroundings similar to the problems highlighted by the film? In which way are they similar? What can an ordinary person do to improve the situation? How would you describe todays activity of watching the film and participating in the interactive exercise?

114/115

WORKSHEET: EMPLOYERS

>

Read the following teXt to the other participants:


Hello, Our international company Mac Cola is well-known for the production of beverages, breadsticks and food additives. In order to strengthen our capacities, we would like to build a new factory in one of the underdeveloped or developing countries. Having in mind that, due to the global economic crisis, people nowadays care only about meeting their basic needs, our company tends to reduce its operating expenses so as to remain profitable. Hence, hundreds of thousands of people from all around the world would be able to feed their families thanks to the salary they will be earning in our factory. This is why we now face the dilemma of where to build our new factory. It is in our best interest to keep the operating expenses as low as possible as well as to have hardworking and dedicated workers. You are representatives of different countries in the world. Choose the name of the country youll be representing. Now you will be given a list of labour rights. As a next location for our new factory which will employ at least 3.000 people we shall choose the country that best understands the financial crisis we are all facing today. Please take a look at the list of rights and agree on those that you as workers and country representatives are ready to give up on so that we could reduce our expenses and choose you. May the best country win!!!

>

The following teXt is not intended for everybody but only for YOU. > (The person in charge distributes the call for employment worksheet to each group.)
On a piece of paper or on the blackboard draw as many columns as there are groups and at least seven rows beneath them that you will fill in. Mark the countries that are being represented. For each right the country teams decide to give up, add three points. Do the same in the next round and add points in a new row. Once the round is over, ask the groups if they are ready to give up some other rights in order to find a job and give them an opportunity for another round. In the end, when the last round is finished, add the points, announce the winners and give them a round of applause.

WORKSHEET: CALL FOR EMPLOYMENT

> LUNCH BREAK > TOILET BREAK > OVERTIME PAY > GUARANTEED VACATION > PATERNITY LEAVE > LIFE INSURANCE > BASIC WORKPLACE HYGIENE > HOT MEAL PROVISIONS > FREE WEEKENDS > GUARANTEED MINIMUM WAGE

> SAFETY STANDARDS > HEALTH INSURANCE > POSSIBILITY TO TAKE PAID SICK LEAVE > MATERNITY LEAVE
FOR TRADE UNION > POSSIBILITY ORGANIZING

> RETIREMENT INSURANCE

PAYMENTS (TRAVEL > ALLOWANCE EXPENSES)

> POSSIBILITY TO TAKE A DAY OFF > NO THREE-SHIFT WORKING

DUE DATE FOR WAGE > GUARANTEED PAYMENT

116/117

THE SMELL OF BURNING ANTS


USA / 1994 / 21 Director: Jay Rosenblatt

ABOUT THE FILM:

The Smell of Burning Ants is a haunting documentary about the challenges of growing up as a male. It explores the inner and the outer cruelties that boys endure. The film provokes the viewers to reflect on their personal experiences, as well as on how our society often deprives boys of various behaviours and adventures, and of the freedom to choose freely and individually. Through the formative events of a boys life, we come to understand the ways in which men can become emotionally disconnected and alienated from their feminine side. The common dismissal that boys will be boys evolves into the chilling realization that boys frequently become angry, destructive and emotionally disabled men. The Smell of Burning Ants illustrates how boys are socialized by fear, power and shame. The film is a catalyst for discussion as well as an opportunity to begin the process of healing the wounds of childhood.

KEYWORDS:

Sex and gender, patriarchal upbringing, peer-to-peer violence, domestic violence

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Sociology: Socialization, agents of socialization, life cycle, social interaction, family, the role of the family in raising children, gender roles and gender stereotypes in the family Civic education: Childrens rights Ethics: The basis of ethics, good behaviour in the family and with friends

120/121

GENERAL INFORMATION:

The term patriarchy literally stands for the rule by fathers and describes the power relations between men and women, the family structure and the domination of the father in the family. The latter also symbolizes the domination of men in every other social sphere and institution, and explains the spirit in which boys were most often brought up. The general concept hasnt changed much to the present day boys are brought up differently than girls because they must be strong, while the girls must be beautiful. Patriarchy puts boys and girls, as well as men and women, under pressure to fulfil the roles that society has attributed to them, regardless of their affinity or capabilities. In the patriarchal system of values, the father is the epitome of a firm hand. Discipline and control are of particular importance and immensely influence the inner world of a child, its psyche and emotions. Men live under the constant expectation of being strong and brave, having control over things, and suppressing their feelings, as boys dont cry, despite the fact that this is a natural emotional reaction that almost every human being experiences. The social construction of gender differences turns this bio-psychological function that helps relieve stress into a reaction that is socially approved only for women. One frame in the film gets us to think of just how frustrating this must be for a seven-year-old child. As the films narrator points out, boys arent usually given a behaviour model to follow, nor are told how they should behave. Rather, they are told how they should not behave, which most often translates into the idea that they should not be like the girls. As a result, every boy that doesnt fit this picture becomes a target of bullying and of other forms of violence. Ever since the days of yore, violence has been a form of negative aggressive behaviour and one of the most serious problems worrying not only the head teachers but also the majority of human communities and the entire humanity. Many studies show that there is a correlation between peer-to-peer violence and domestic violence, regardless of whether it is physical or psychological. Violence forms a practically integral part of the patriarchal approach in the process of childrens education and disciplining. The children learn behaviour from their parents examples. In most cases, the children that bully their peers have been exposed to violence at home themselves. The adult men who play the role of a father in the family often display this need for absolute domination. Ever since their early years, they have been taught that they must control their emotions, their behaviour and surroundings. While this might work outside of the home, within the family, they will often resort to violence towards their children and/or their partner, in order to maintain the image of a strong person that doesnt have any personal weaknesses. Such violent behaviour considerably affects family relations. Generally, violent fathers tend to pass this behaviour over to their own children. As a result, the children manifest violence outside of the family and heal their frustrations by bullying their peers, a behaviour which later also manifests itself within their own families.

VIOLENCE is the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or a community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. (World Health Organization)

THE PEER-TO-PEER VIOLENCE (also known as bullying) is a specific form of violence and an ever-present problem in schools globally. This behaviour is manifested through a repeated use of psychological or physical methods enabling the more powerful peer/classmate/ group of peers or students to impose their domination over the less powerful. Every day, hundreds of children in our country go to school fearing that they might face all kinds of insults and humiliation coming from their peers (threats, compulsion, insults, or attacks), making them lose their dignity and integrity. The most important feature of bullying itself is that it is a long-lasting behaviour. A significant study on the health-related behaviour among young people carried out in 2002 found that 24% of 11 year old girls and 31% of 11 year old boys have been victims of bullying. Among the 13-year-olds, this percentage was even higher, with 29% of girls and 36% of boys admitting that they have been bullied in the last several months prior to the study. Bullying can have very long-term effects on young people/students. These can be both visible and invisible. While the physical consequences are immediately visible and, so-to-say, less dangerous, the psychological injuries are extremely serious. In most cases, these are invisible but last much longer, sometimes affecting the wellbeing of the victims for good. Some of the most common psychological consequences are the following: Lower school achievement Lessened self-esteem Emotional instability Food and sleep problems Lack of concentration Permanent state of fear Depression and anxiety Consumption of alcohol, drugs or tobacco Self-destructive thoughts and/or self-harm and suicide attempts. An often neglected fact is that violence brings serious consequences, not only for the victims but also for the bullies, in the case if they dont learn (from adults) how to canalize the impulses causing their aggression. Some of the repercussions that often come later in life are as follows: They become aggressive parents They fail to establish healthy friendships and romantic relationships They are often in conflict with the law.

122/123

Every time violence emerges in the school environment, all children, including the passive observers, suffer negative effects. As the film itself shows, the cycle of violence involves three different roles: a bully, a victim and an observer. Although the society tends to cast this aside, the role of the passive observer, that is of the person who does nothing to prevent the violence but has witnessed its act, proves to be crucial in many cases. The lack of reaction might be interpreted as support for the bully, whereas any reaction in defence of the victim might provoke other similar reactions and force the bully to step back. As the director points out himself, the burning ant in the film title is only used metaphorically, so as to illustrate the influence and the contagious effects that violence has on society in general.

The Council of Europe defines gender as a socially constructed definition of women and men. It is the social design of a biological sex, determined by the conception of tasks, functions and roles attributed to women and men in society and in public and private life. It is a culture-specific definition of femininity and masculinity and therefore varies in time and space.

ACTIVITY: BOYS CRY, GIRLS ARE NOT ALLOWED (45)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To become aware of the various aspects of violent behaviour To become aware of the gendered pressure in the socialization process To encourage thinking about creative solutions to the challenges of socialization and growing up

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (15):


The educator asks for three to five volunteers that would, without much preparation, try to act out a typical situation of peer-to-peer violence in school. The educator informs them that they should not all be actively involved in the conflict. The acting shouldnt last longer than 1-2 minutes. Advice: Choose the most extroverted participants, regardless of their grades. In this way, you will not only affirm them and encourage them to cooperate but will also boost their self-confidence, resulting in a more realistic performance. You should however anticipate that participants might not be enthusiastic while acting the part. If this is the case, entice them while on stage by using phrases such as Are you really like this when you are arguing?; Does your performance reflect a real situation?; Dont limit yourself, feel free to tell the situation as realistically as possible, etc. In the end, give them a round of applause

> > DISCUSSING THE ACTIVITY:


Did this situation seem real to you? What was realistic about it and what wasnt? What else would you do in a situation like this one? Do situations like this one often happen in schools? Apart from the bully/bullies and the victim(s), can you recognize any other roles (witnesses, passive observers)? Do the witnesses have any control over this kind of situation? How much control do they actually have? Is there anything that they can do (interfere; inform an adult, etc.)?

124/125

ACTIVITY: BOYS CRY, GIRLS ARE NOT ALLOWED (45)

> > SCREENING THE FILM :

THE FILM THE SMELL OF BURNING ANTS (21)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10):


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? What are the general messages that the film conveys? What are the issues that the film raises? Are these kinds of messages sent to boys as well nowadays? What about the girls? How are they educated? If there is time, broaden the discussion with the questions given in the 90-minute activity in the section DISCUSSING THE FILM

ACTIVITY: BOYS CRY, GIRLS ARE NOT ALLOWED (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To become aware of the various aspects of violent behaviour To become aware of the gendered pressure in the socialization process To encourage thinking about creative solutions to the challenges of socialization and growing up

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY (30-40):


The educator forms groups of 4-5 participants, each tasked with acting out a typical situation of peer-to-peer violence in school. The educator informs the participants that they should not be all actively involved in the conflict. The acting shouldnt last longer than 1-2 minutes. After the preparations are done, each group performs the roles. ADVICE: Choose the most extroverted participants, regardless of their grades. In this way, you will not only affirm them and encourage them to cooperate but will also boost their self-confidence, resulting in a more realistic performance. You should however anticipate that participants might not be enthusiastic while acting the part. If this is the case, entice them while on stage by using phrases such as Are you really like this when you are arguing?; Does your performance reflect a real situation?; Dont limit yourself, feel free to tell the situation as realistically as possible, etc. In the end, give them a round of applause

> > DISCUSSING THE ACTIVITY:


Did these situations seem real to you? What was realistic about them and what wasnt? Is there anything else that you would do to make the situations look more real? Do situations like these often happen in schools? Apart from the bully/bullies and the victim(s), can you recognize any other roles (witnesses, passive observers)? Do the witnesses have any control over this kind of situation? How much control do they actually have? Is there anything that they can do (interfere; inform an adult, etc.)?

126/127

ACTIVITY: BOYS CRY, GIRLS ARE NOT ALLOWED (90)


Who is more likely to be involved in this kind of situation, boys or girls? What role do they usually play? Who is more likely to be an observer in this kind of situation, boys or girls? Is there anything that they can do?

> > SCREENING THE FILM

THE SMELL OF THE BURNING ANTS (21)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (15-20):


What impression did the film leave on you? How did you feel while watching the film? What are the general messages that the film conveys? What are the issues that the film raises? How are boys being raised according to the film? What are the differences between the education portrayed in the film and the education that children usually get in our country? What are the expectations that boys are supposed to meet in our/your community, family, class or neighbourhood? What about the girls? How are they being raised? Keeping in mind everything that we have seen and worked on so far, what might be the consequences of raising boys to be strong under any circumstances, and not allowing them to cry or express emotions on the one hand, and raising girls to be silent, kind, neat and meticulous on the other? Is it realistic to expect all boys to be tough and strong and all girls to be kind and meticulous? Why? Who makes this choice? How would you react if a boy in your class dared to be brave and to cry at some point?

ACTIVITY: BOYS CRY, GIRLS ARE NOT ALLOWED (90)


How would you react if a girl asked to play football with the boys? If she showed strength? We were all brought up in a society where peoples first reaction would be fingerpointing and laughing at these children and we would probably react in the same way if we werent conscious of these things. Do you think that we could try to support the bravest among us instead, without pointing fingers at them?

> > CLOSING ACTIVITY (5-7):


If there is time and if it is possible, divide the participants into same-sex groups so they can share among each other what aspects of the gender roles or constraints bother them the most and how they do or could oppose them.

128/129

WRIGHTS LAW
USA / 2012 / 12 Director: Zack Conkle

ABOUT THE FILM:

What is the difference between a good teacher and a bad teacher? What is the difference between good parents and bad parents? Good people and bad people? M. Wright is one rational human being that knows how to reach the essence of things within his microcosm. The film is an emotional journey through his everyday life and an excellent catalyst for the questions that everyone would think of after watching the film. It is an inspiring piece of work for teachers, as well as for people in other professions and across all ages, because it highlights the human side of people.

KEYWORDS:

Teacher, the role of the teacher, approaches to learning and teaching, parenting, the role of the parent, basic human values, humanity, lucidity

THE FILM CAN BE USED IN:

Civic Education: concepts of human dignity, childrens rights, the right to education Sociology: socialization, agents of socialization, education, modern life and social organization Ethics: moral, ethics, ethical behavior, ethical reasoning, core values of cohabitation, codes of behavior towards oneself and towards others in the community.

132/133

GENERAL INFORMATION:

1. WHY EDUCATION? WHAT KIND OF EDUCATION?


We can freely assume that transferring specific knowledge and skills from one person to the other, and from one generation to the next, is the essence of human culture and evolution. Many recent discoveries prove that the transfer of skills and knowledge is typical for numerous animal species as well. The sharing of key information, findings, skills and understandings has probably had a significant role in what we know today as culture, behavior and evolution of human intelligence. If it werent for the possibility to learn from one another, todays humans evolutionary level would probably be much less impressive. In the beginnings, the very survival of the human kind depended on these elementary things. As life became more socially complex, people began needing a wider range of skills and information to be able to cope with the everyday challenges. As many findings show, ever since the early times, when life became socially organized for the first time, , knowledge and skills were being transferred to young people not only by their parents or family members, but also by people that dealt with this professionally. These were the first forms of the educational system - starting from Chiron, the centaur who taught many famous Antique heroes, to the known and lesser-known philosophers, and over to todays educational institutions. Different periods of human evolution imposed different expectations from the teacher and from the educational system. Ever since the Early Antiquity and up to the Victorian era, education was the privilege of those who could afford it, while the uneducated and the illiterate were a majority. Nowadays, education is generally seen as a universal right, which makes life easier. However, whether in the early times or within the large educational systems of today, the essence of passing on the knowledge baton hasnt change, its main goal still being to qualify the younger generations so that they are better able to handle the challenges of everyday life. This transfer of knowledge was undertaken in many different ways.

Contemporary educational trends work from a theoretical basis of a holistic education that cover almost all aspect of human life, from the basic literacy up until the most abstract problems, and from physical education to emotional intelligence. The teacher strives to steer away, as much as possible, from the role of an authority, and rather focuses on making important efforts to discover and develop childrens individual potentials to the fullest. Unfortunately, this is not always the case in educational practice. Ever since the very beginnings, the decision on approach has been left up to the teacher, depending on his or her take and personality. The film Wrights Law illustrates how one man has successfully managed to adjust different aspects of his personal and professional life to his personal needs, understandings and temper.

The important question that emerges is how to achieve the educational goals mentioned below in every classroom and for every child?

According to our Law on Primary Education, the goals of primary education are:1 Acquiring general and applicable knowledge needed in everyday life or further education; Balanced, intellectual, emotional and social development of students, appropriate to their capabilities; Developing the students literacy and skills for understanding and expressing himself/herself in the Macedonian language and in Cyrillic writing; Developing the students literacy and skills for understanding and expressing himself/herself not only in the Macedonian language and in Cyrillic writing, but also in the language and the alphabet of communities who speak languages other than Macedonian; Developing the students self-confidence and awareness of his/her own personality as well as responsibility for his/her actions; Educating the students about mutual tolerance, cooperation, respect for diversity and the basic human rights and freedoms; Developing students awareness of belonging to the Republic of Macedonia and strengthening their national and cultural identity; Educating students about the general cultural and civilizational values arising from traditions across the globe; Adopting general and applicable knowledge enabling independent creative action in the social and the natural surroundings, as well as the development of capabilities for reasoning and expression through art and through cultural traditions; Developing skills in research, experimentation and problem-solving; Inclusion and support for the personal development of children with special educational needs; Developing the talents of students in different fields; Promoting healthy lifestyles and educating students about a responsible approach towards their own health, as well as the environment. Paraphrased, the question that committed teachers ask themselves every day would be: how could the educational process be adequate and smooth for everyone and contribute to producing thinkers, whose potential development is incited to the fullest?
1 Law on Primary Education: http://bro.gov.mk/docs/zakonodavstvo/osnovno/osnovnoto_obrazovanie_103_19082008.pdf

134/135

ACTIVITY: WHAT IS VALUABLE (45)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To encourage thinking about the basic human values To encourage the development of humane attitudes To encourage the reassessment of ones behavior within their family

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY:


NOBODYS PERFECT (15)

The participants are divided into four groups. Each group should work on a different task, come to an agreement and present to the others: The characteristics of the ideal teacher The characteristics of the ideal parent The characteristics of the ideal friend The characteristics of the ideal partner (boyfriend/girlfriend; husband/wife).

Once the groups are done, they present their work to the class. Then everybody answers the following questions: Is it realistic to expect that there are people with these characteristics? How hard do you try to be a person with these characteristics?

> > SCREENING THE FILM


WRIGHTS LAW (12)

ACTIVITY: WHAT IS VALUABLE (45)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10-15):


How did you feel while watching the film? What is the film about? What impression did the main character leave on you? What is the difference that sets him apart from the majority of the people you know? What kind of a person is he? What was the key moment, when he improved his relationship with his own child? In order to be such a person, do you need to be born this way or can you develop these characteristics in time? Can everyone become this kind of person? What has the film taught us?

136/137

ACTIVITY: WHAT IS VALUABLE (90)

> > OBJECTIVES:


To encourage thinking about the basic human values To encourage the development of humane attitudes To encourage the reassessment of ones behavior within their family

> > MATERIALS:


Writing tools Large sheets of paper (A3, drawing block; 4 sheets) Crayon, markers, etc.

> > INTRODUCTORY ACTIVITY:



The ideal teacher The ideal parent The ideal friend

NOBODYS PERFECT (30-40)

The participants are divided into four groups. Each group should work on a different task and should write down the basic characteristics of:

The ideal partner (boyfriend/girlfriend; husband/wife). Once they are done, each group should think of how would they would represent these characteristics and divide the roles among each other. Every group member should play a role. After they rehearse for a while, they should present their work in front of the class. Then everybody answers the following questions: Is it realistic to expect that there are people with these characteristics? How hard do you try to be a person with these characteristics?

> > SCREENING THE FILM


WRIGHTS LAW (12)

ACTIVITY: WHAT IS VALUABLE (90)

> > DISCUSSING THE FILM (10-15):


How did you feel while watching the film? What is the film about? What impression did the main character leave on you? What is the difference that sets him apart from the majority of the people you know? What kind of a person is he? What was the key moment when he changed (improved) his relationship with his own child? How did that happen? What has he realized and how? In order to be such a person, do you need to be born this way or can you develop these characteristics in time? Can everyone become this kind of person? What has the film taught us?

> > WORKING IN SMALL GROUPS (20-30):


The participants are divided into four groups. Each group should jointly think about and contribute ideas so as to answer the following questions (each group gets one question):

What can I personally do to improve my relationship with my friends? What can I personally do to improve my relationship with my parents/ foster parents? What can I personally do to improve my relationship with my school teachers? What can I personally do to improve my personal growth?

Once they are done enumerating their ideas, everyone in the group should take a pencil, pen, crayon or marker and write down one of the things that she/he has heard and has found important on large piece of paper. (The educator should encourage them to write in all directions and not in rows, and tell them that they are actually making a poster of their own.) Then each group presents its work.

138/139

WE ARE VISUAL!
Education and Audio-Visualization of Human Rights
Publishers:
MAKEDOX Citizens Association for Documentary Film Promotion 143/13, Partizanski Odredi Boulevard Skopje www.makedox.mk Center for Regional Policy Research and Cooperation STUDIORUM 41, Nikola Parapunov Street Skopje www.studiorum.org.mk

Publishers: Authors: Editor: Translation in English: Proofreading:

Kirijana A. Nikoloska, MakeDox Professor Tome Gruevski, President, CRIS Studiroum Sasho N. Alushevski and Alina Trkulja Sasho N. Alushevski Andrijana Papikj Sara Nikolic

Film Selection: Film Translation and Subtitling: DVD Authoring: Graphic Design: Printed by:

Petra Selishkar, Kumjana Novakova, Kirijana A. Nikoloska Petrula Veljanovska, Besmire Adili, Katerina Tocinovski

Dorijan Milovanovikj Jana Acevska Propoint - Skopje

Circulation: 100

In cooperation with:

With the support of the Europe for citizens programme of the European Union.

This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

CIP - . , 791.229.2:373./.5.091.3(035) ALUSHEVSKI, Sasho N. We are visual! : education and audio-visualization of human rights / [authors Sasho N. Alushevski i Alina Trkulja ; translation in English Andrijana Papikj]. - Skopje : Makedox : Studiorum, 2013. - 1 (144 .) : .; 30 ISBN 978-608-65309-6-9 () ISBN 978-608-65631-0-3 () 1. Trkulja, Alina [] ) - - ) - - - COBISS.MK-ID 95025418