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E. 0. S.


^Reprinted fnna Sltnottjiie




"Above all, 1 hope that it w-ill be a point of honour among us all, that we shall never desert those who have acted unsuccessfully upon Whig principles, while we continue to profess an admiration of those who succeeded in the same principles, in the year 1688. Memoirs and Corretpondence of C. J. Pox, voL L p. 146.


chief object of this



to give a true

and correct

relation of the life

and character of Louis
the principles by


especially to point out

whidi he was

guided before and after the Eevolution of 1848.
ductory History





more than a compendium

of such events as contributed to form the character of the

> Hungarian


and conduced to the development of


laws and institutions by which Hungary claims to be
/lation, cafz^A•i

Considered an independent

of .eel^-govem-



defamatory of





as well as of the characte'* of Iiouis Kossuth, have
less credited in Englai-d

been more or

during the last




Governor of Hungary has been represented

h4 as a


Eed Republican


though accusations of

opposite tendencies have like'wise been laid to his charge.

While each separate statement

(like even'thing false) has

r-^ D

been drop^jed wlien refuted, the impression left on many whose

judgment and opinion deserve
to Kossuth.

respect, has been derogatory

EngHshmen, happy in the enjoyment of con-

stitutional freedom, have listened to calumnies ingeniously

devised to court the despotic powers of Europe, and which,
at the

expense of truth, have injured the unfortunate



the author of this narrative trusts
spirit of justice


be read in that



which has ever been the boast

and pride of the English nation


does not presume to

plead the cause of Kossuth, but only to communicate facts,

some of which have hitherto been unknown
while others have been misstated.
fairly judged,

in this country,


actions can only be


their motives are understood, those


would form a just estimate of the character of Kossutli

must never lose
him, like the

sight of the

main feature which distinguishes


William of Oi'ange, Algernon Sydney, and

George Washington, from most other great Statesmen,

that he never stooped to expediency to obtain his object,


excellent, nor sacrificed

one iota of the great prin:

ciple of right,


io' eisti-.b^ish


for this cause

he has

had to contend against philanthropists as well

as against

Jyraats, wti^e ntriving to promote the moral before the
material welfare of the people.

Though some of the chief incidents
ticularly those

related (more par-

connected with the Eevolution) are com-

piled from books already published,

many new


have been

brought together and chronologically arranged, so as to

form a connected whole.

Eor the anecdotes relating

to the

of various shades of opinion.— PREFACE. I 2 . Esq. Stiles. von Arthur Frey. Aus Ungam. with critical Remarks on hLs character as a Mihtary Leader. Crimes of the House of Hapsburgh against F. Speeches of Kossuth in England and America. have been consulted. Travels in Hungary and Transylvania. Austria in 1848-49. 1848 und 1849. in the years 1848 and 1849. by W. books. himself an eye- witness of much in. Schlesinger. Horn. Mein Leben und Wirken in Ungam in den Jahren. A refutation of some of the Principal Statements in Gorgey's Life and Actions in Hungary. late General in the Hungarian Army of Independence. Sieben und Neunzigtes Heft der Gegenwort Dai'stellung der neuesten Zeit Geschichte — Eine fiii- Encyklopadische aJJe Stunde. Headley. E. H. General Klapka. early life Vll of Kossuth. W Newman. impossible for the historian of such recent events wholly to escape the charge of having derived information more from one source than another. Auerbach. von J. Ludwig Kossuth und Ungarns neueste Geschichte. War in Hiingary. collected by F. Life of Kossuth. Revolution of Vienna. its own Liege Subjects. that is here recorded. Edward Laurence Godkin. Newman. Tlie following books have been referred to by the author Ludwig Kossuth. von Arthur Gbrgey. Illustrated History of Hungaiy. though he took It is no active part the political events of the period. and to the affairs is of Hungary pre- ceding the Eevolution. John Paget. by Geoi'ge Kmety. History of Hungary. W. Fessler. as well as people. but with the desire to be impartial. the author chiefly indebted to the kindness of an Hungarian Grentlemau.

in Kossuth New England. Eotvos Hungary in 1851. 1853. 2. a Full Account of the Hungarian Governor's visit to Massachusetts Kossuth in England. Red. E. with an Experience Charles Loring Brace. by Francis and Theresa Pulszky. &c. January.. and Black. 1849. Memoirs of a Hungarian Lady. by . The Parliamentary Blue Books. Westminster Review. The Progress of Russia. 1850. by J. Democratic Review.Ill PREFACE. October. vol. Stiles. Kossuth and the Times. The Eclectic Review. &c. Heningsen. Gorgey. 1853. of the Austrian Police. White. The Village Notary. 1853.

Kings of the house of Hapsburg Ferdinand I. Maximilian Princes of Transylvania John Sigismund Zapoyla Stephen Bathory 99 — — — — — CHAPTER Continuation of VIII. 5 CHAPTER III. Geisa II.II. Matthias IL. 10 CHAPTER IV. 1301—1457. Ladislaus III. 1457—1526. A.. Coloman A...D..D. A.— The Crusades The Golden Bull— Invasion of the Tartars 31 CHAPTER V.. Luxembourg. I.. A. Geisa I.d. - 89 CHAPTER VIL 1526—1576. Ferdinand IL.D. A..---.. Princes of Transylvania — — . Bela - I. Ladislaus —Stephen I.. Continuation of the kings of the house of Arpdd Stephen II.. Kings of the house of Arpad Solomon. Emerick. Andrew I.D. - —Ulasdislaus — Louis IL a. 1576—1657. Kings of the house of Hapsburg Rudolph I.d. Andrew II.. a. Ferdinand III.. Page 1 CHAPTER Settlement of the Magyars . 1114—1301. Emigration of the Huns into Europe «ne another in Pannonia - —Various which succeeded . 1000—1114. Bela II. races - I... Bela III. 880—1000. Kings of the houses of Anjou..— — CONTENTS CHAPTER 376—880.D. and Austria Louis the Great Mary Sigismund— Elizabeth Albert Invasions of the Turks John Hunyady — — — — — —Charles — Ladislaus - 59 CHAPTER VL Matthias Corvinus II.. —The Crusades — Peter. A.D. Stephen IV. Stephen III. Ladislaus II. Andrew III. Bela IV.

A. gary CONTEyxS. Michael Apatfy Francis Rdkoczy II.D. 1802—1832. 1657—1740. .D. 1740—1832. leader of the Reform Pai-ty Klauzal-Beothy Baldgh Wesselenyi joins the Reform Party in the Hungarian Diet Prosecution of Wesselenyi and Balogb by the Austrian Government Kossuth speaks on the occasion He establishes a paper to report the transactions of the Diet Employs a lithographic press His press stopped Writes the reports Employs messengers for their conveyance— Close of the — — — — — — — — — — — — — . Josepli I. Kossuth a delegate Diet of 1790^Deputatio Regnicolaris Grievances Baron Wesselenyi Mikliis Reform party of 1S32 Conservatives Privileged and unprivileged classes Condition of the peasantry Urbarium of Maria Theresa Proposed reform of the Commercial Code Proposed reform of the frbarium—Rejected by the Magnates — — — — — — — — — thirteen times Xagy Pal The Poet Kcilcsey Francis Deak.— • X Batthory. Charles III Princes of TnuisyWauia George Rdkoczy Francis lldkoczy I. CHAPTER Hungary in the Nineteenth I.C. JEt. — — — — —Joseph . boyhood Completes — and education of Louis Kossuth Anecdotes of his He studies law Commences practice under his father — his legal education at Pesth Graduates as an advocate Returns to Ujhdly Assists as a "NobUis" at the Comitate' (County Meetings) Is appointed lawyer to the Cotintess Sz. 128 — — — — — — CHAPTER X. — 161 CHAPTER Birth. Further continuation of Kintjs of the house of Hajwburg Leopold I. Diet of 1832—1836. Betblen Gabor. parentage. Century IL A. Fraucia I. Ferdinand V. Kings of the house of Hapsburg Lorraine Maria Theresa • • Leopold II.. A. 30—34.'lpary His passion for the chase The Polish Revolution of 1&30 The cholera Revolt of the peasantry Kossuth addresses the people He estab- — — — — Cholera Hospitals — Jealousy of his influence —Gambling Becomes delegate for the Countess Szdpary at the Diet of 1S32 — His gaaies of hazard 172 mother's parting admonition —He abjures lishes all - — — — — CHAPTER III... II 143 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. Rakoczy - — The - Reformation - in - Hun111 - CHAPTER IX.

1841—1844. a. retires to Pi'irad Changes which had taken place during hia confinement Death of his father Effect of his imprisonment upon his character Becomes the editor of the Pesti Hirlap 2U4 (Pesth Journal) - — — — — — — .. — — — — CHAPTER ^T. Count Adam Reviczky replaced by Count Fi 'elis PalfFy The Presburg Casino Arrest of several of the Members by order of the Austrian Government The Comitats of Hungary protest against this illegal act Want of combined action in the Comitate Kossuth commences another written newspaper its reception throughout the country Treats of the Impeachment of Wesselenyi.. Embarrassment of the Austrian Government Kossuth ordered to stop his work He defends his The Vice Ispany and the Comitiit right as a Hungarian "Nobilis" support him Is arrested by order of the Austrian Government Is brought to trial in 1839 His Impiisonment for two years Conduct of the Ju<lges Youths of the Presburg Casino Kossuth condemned with Wesselenyi and others to further imprisonment The Diet of 1839 refuses to comply with the wishes of the Austrian The Chancellor Paltf'y recalled Count Anthony Government Mailath appointed to his place The Government demands large Determination of the Diet supplies of men and money The Government yields State of the prisoners on their release Kossuth.. XI on the country of the Journal of Kosl»l CHAPTER IV.d. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — V.. efiecta CONTENTS. broken in health. the "VUag" (Light) Success 215 of the " Pesti Hirlup " — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER VL Coxint 1841—1844. Emil DessweSy Count Albert Sztaray Taxation of Hungary Kossuth opposed by Szechenyi Fund of Szechenyi Is 8up])orted by Kossuth in the Comitat of Pesth The Honoratiores. &c. the leader of the Diet-— — — — — — . or Middle Class The Border Duties of Hungary Kossuth proposes a reform — — — — in the —Croatia—Louia Tariff— Diet of 1843-44 Austria returns to her former policy Gay— Illy rism Klauzal..— Diet suth —Beneficial . Reasons of the Austrian Government for gi-anting Kossuth permission Writers in the "Pesti Its popularity to edit the "Pesti Hirhip " Hirliip " Count Stephen Szdchenyi The Kelet Nepe (People of the East) Early Life of Szdchenyi His schemea for the material improvement of Hungary Kossuth's views more Conservative and practical He desires the "Nobiles" sh:dl reform themselves Admonishes Szdchenyi's the Ultra-Radicals and the Aristocracy respectively enmity against Kossuth Kossuth publishes his vindication The Government stjirts an opposition paper. 39—42... 34—39. — . ^r. Austrian policy hostile to the coustitutional liberty of Hungary Form of Hungarian Government Viceregal Council Hungarian State Chancery Deposition of the Chancellor. 1836—1841.

..Et. November Review of the State of Parties in Hungary Baron Joseph Eotvos Interval between the Election and the Diet Diet of 1847—43 Kossuth leader of the Oppasition Intrigues of Sz<5chenyi— Saentkiraldy Arch-Duke Stephen Palatine— The question of Taxation Opposed by Szechenyi Kossuth succeeds in a motion for obliging — — — — — the " Nobiles " to tat^e their share in the Municipal Taxes Further Heform of the Urbarium Kossuth Cannes the measure through the Chamber of Deputies The Abolition of the Avitizitat Neglect of — — — — .. to March. tl»e viuwB of the - L'hiiuc*!llor — KoiMuth deprivwl of - — ^ The Sclavic Ultra MH<^ar» —Hw'-ch<iiyi — O^unt iiuitt«r« dijilect - — Introduction of the Hditorebip of the "PoBti Hirlap" 228 CHAPTER VIL Vote of the Diet regiird to I'rottH-tioii JE. — KoMutb propoSM k wpanition from Croatia in officiiil Miif^'iir laiif^'uiige KoHKnth "piMimw Ooorge A|)|Mtiiyi.Et. or Society for ai»sf»ciation — KoMuth'i! views with — — inanufiicture — The Vtdeffjlet re^fiirded as a jx^Utical KoHHuth institut«H — Society for etioouraging industry — Tlie eomnuTcial Company — (lovenirnent atteinjits U> put a atop to KoxKUth pro|«j«eH to convert Fiuine into a Hunthese coniineuco<l fmin Vukovan* to Fiuuie — gariiui Port — tion Protection— Count Ciutiinir IJatthaiiyi Kohsutli writeH upon TaxaHis schento8 for the material welfare of the country The Honoratiorea OrganizoH aamx-iations or comi>aui«« for trade and — . tipon tl»o commorcial qucjition and Fret- TnwU* — The Videpjlet. CHAPTER X. 1844—1847. Meeting of the Liberals at Pesth Their Programme Extrpcte of a Speech of Kossuth Death of the P. 1844—1846..... in the Coniitat of Pesth place of the Conduct of the Consen'atives Coniitat Monopoly of Tobiicco Meeting in Buda Declai-ation— Sz^chenyi appointed Quasi-Mlnister 261 of Public Works His Programme — — Royal Administrators appointed in Fo-Ispanye—Speech of Kossuth — Resolution of the — — — . VIII.. . 1847-43....Sjivinpt' Itiuiks iiKH<K'iationH lUilr^'a-l KosHuth comes into closer connexion with the Lil>eral Magnates Effect of the Reforuw of Kossuth on ihe country and on the character 242 of the people ...T. CHAPTER Kossuth 42—45. — 45—46.— XU Deak the C0HTENT8. .. 1844—1847. 42—44..-datine Archduke Joseph The Archduke Stephen Election for the Diet of 1847 The Liberal party desiri' that Kossuth should stand for the Diet He hesitates Is persuaded by Coimt Louis Batthyanyi— Early Life of Batthyanyi Efforts of the Qovemment to defeat the Election of Kossnth Hia 258 aucceas — — — — — .. — — — — CHAPTER IX.

to CHAPTER 1S47— 1S48. and Constitutional Governments Iw granted to all the Austrian Dominions The motion uniuiimously carried in the Chamber of Deputies The Magnates determine to wait the return Viennese Revolution Kossuth's of the Palatine from Vienna speech circulated in Vienna— Constitution granted to the Viennese Deputation Vienna at Their recejjtion by Arrival of the Hungarian the King Kossuth addresses the Viennese people Return of the Enthusiastic reception by the people Deputation to Presburg — — — — . 1848. — — — — — — — — Kossuth proclaims Count Louis Batthyanyi the Hungarian Minister . 1848.. Austrian Effect of the French Revolution of February on Hungary Notes Speech of Ki>ssuth nn the State of the Finances On the Necessity of Constitutional forms of Government being establisheil On a liespunsible Ministry throughout the Austrian Dominions being provided for Hungary and on an entire change of the iK)licy Kossuth moves that a National of Austria throughout the Empire form of Government shall be appuinted in Hungary.. independent of foreign influence. the Government sylvania Xlil Austria foments dissensionB In Croatia and TranKossuth opposed to ultra measures in enforcing the Magyar language Extracts from his speech on the Commercial interests of Hungary 267 — — — . March.. XI.. Kossuth upholds the cause of law..... and of the existing authorities desires the present Diet should dissolve itself Laws passed before the dissolution of the Diet p]ntire Reform of the Urbarium Indemnification of the " Nobiles" Kossuth opposes the admission of — — — — Hu — Proletarians into the National Guard — He maintains the rights uf ... MarcL November Tr&nsylvania Counties of Hungary granted to Princes of TranRylvanS Restored to Hungary Actn of the Diet Neglect of the Govern* ment Speech of Kossuth upon the Of)nduct of the Govemnieut Effect of his Speech The Representittion Speech of Kossuth on the Representation Amendment of Kosnuth carried Rejected by tho Magnates Kossuth urges the Nation should come to a distinct understanding with the Government — His new motion carried Form of the Representation Royal Administrators The subject to be avoided in the Representation ()p|»f>sed by Kossuth His origiiKil • '277 proposition accepted Carried in the House of Magnates — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIL March. first — responsible 289 CHAPTER XIII.— COyTEJTTS.

June. 336 . April.— CHAPTER XV. May. May. 317 The Court Croatia — Latour Minister of War—Return of Kossuth to Pesth — Insurrection of the Serbs — Necessity for military — — pre- parations—Baron Josef Jellachick His life The Emperor proclaims him a rebel — Troops and fortresses placed at the disposal of the Hungarian Ministers Latour sends artillery and ammunition to Jellachich Exchange of the Italian and Hungarian soldiers — — Manifesto of Jellachich ioin his — He — to invites the Sclavacks of standard— They refuse Kossuth's Hirlapja (Kossuth's paper) The King iurited to Pesth— The Diet opened in July Speech from the throne The President of the Diet announces the intention of the Minister of Finance to bring fomard a motion respecting the defences of the country Opposed by the UltraRadicals The Italian question Debate on the proposed motion of the Minister of Finance Kossuth summoned to defend the cause of — — Hungary — — Ministers -.-. 1848. — — — — — — . — — CHAPTER XVL Tuly 11th.. March. CrowB— Endeavonrs new Ihwh — to protect individuala from BufTering in the benefit Iinpruved 8y«tem of Limit of the power of the Ministry repreneiitiition in the townw The Ciibinet of Butthyanyi -K'lrtniith MiniHtar of Finance The iti-puLilicun lienionxtration in Pesth Italian llevoliition Commifsion apixiinted by the riilntiiie Tl>e Hungarian l>iet demauda the Royal xanctiou to the new lawn Battliyanyi and l>eak at Vienna llepurt that the l{<>yal couceshionH would be withdrawn Excitement in Hungary Kossutli endeav<jnnj to api»eii«e the jieople • Conduct of the ralatine—HiH private letter to the King 307 enactinuiit of for the piiblic — — — — — — — — CHAPTKU XIV. Arrival of the Royal Message in IVenburg B»tthyanyi appealn to the Palatine. in Vienna Hia early life Batthyanyi as Minister Kossuth's hejdth fails He retires into the country Is emi)l»ved on Financial matters Anecdote of hia domestic — — — — — — — — life *----.— — iiV the CON rENT«. July.. 1848..ssolves tlie Diet in person Speech from the throne The Miuistiy adjourn to Pesth Francis Pulszky. — 326 Kossuth's speech on the Defences of the country ..... who promises to intercede with the King Republican demonstrations at Pesth The King yields The Palatine returns with a second Message from the King Kossuth returns thanks to the Palatine The King di. Under Secretary of State. 1848.

184S.s being sent to Italy The clause of Kossuth He moves that Hungary should be enKo-suth trusted with the guidance of her intematiouid concerns opiwses two motions in the L>iet one for the union of the two Chambers.Batthyanyi and Lkuik at Vieima Jellachich and the Croats seize on Fiuuie in the name of the Emperor of Austria The Austrian ministers warn the Palatine that the Emperor liad exceeded his powers in granting a responsible Kossuth endeavours to moderate the indigministrj' to Hungary nation of the Diet He draws up a manifesto on the dangers which threaten the country— A dejiutation named to carry the manifesto Autograph letter of the King to Jellachich— Inter\'iew to the King of Pulszky with Wessenberg Arrival of the Hungarian deputation The address to the King Unsiitisfiictory reply of at Schonbrunn the King It^ reception The deputation leave Vienna and hoist the 3-13 red lljig in place of the tricolor - — — — — . August. 1848. — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XVIIL September. — — — — — — — — — — — . Kossuth and the Palatine Batthyanyi informs the Diet he has been appointed by the Palatine to form a new Cabinet Kos&uth supports — — . Proposal of Miiiisters respecting the destination of the troops Opiuiou of Kossuth The Radicals oppose the trooj).st<ibli8hmeut of Government schools The Kossuth notes— The Budget The Kiag orders the Palatine to resign the Viceroyalty. with Seemere. 1843. September. — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XIX. The commencement of the Hungarian Revolution solely to be attributed to Austria Kossuth desirous to strengthen the co'intry Publishes a Manifesto Conduct of Jellachich crosses the Drave Latour towards the inhabitants of Weisskirchen Jellachich assisted by Austrian troops Conduct of his soldiers Mr. and the other for the e.— — CONTEJfTS Vr CHAPTER XVII. British Consul-General at Belgrade The Arch-Duke Francis Cliarles Resignation of Batthyanyi and his Colleagues The Diet calls upon Kossuth to assume the Dictatorship of the country The Arch-Duke Stephen acquaints the Deputies with the resignation of Debate upon the subject Advance of Jellachich Ministers Ko3siith proposes to complete his tiuaucial plan The Diet determine on levying tne troops without waiting for the Royal sanction Kossuth invited. Fonblanque. September. July. to undertake the government until the King had appointed the new Cabinet Batthyanyi seconds this motion Reasons for the confidence of the nation in Kossuth Resolution of Kossuth and Szemere Szechenyi retires Batthyanyi still trusts that conciliatory measures may save the country He desires to form a Ministry without Kossuth Is supported by the Palatine The position of the Palatine towards his own family.

Dictator of Hungary Defeat of the Croat* Death of Count Zichy Koanuth. Ac. — — — — — CHAPTER Baron llecsey.Goi^ey The Hungarian Army crosses the frontiers — Battle of Schwechat Retreat and flight of the Hungarian Army Windischgratz and Jellachich enter Vienna Execution of Blum Jeloyicki. — — CHAPTER XXL NoTember. S84 Hungary — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .— CONTENTS.. 1848.. — XX..-Conduct of the Viennese Prince Windidchgratz atisumcs the command of the Austrian Army Kossuth joins the Hungarian Army at Parensdorf Adddreeaes the troops A herald is sent to Windischgratz Is detained Council of War of the Hungarian Army General Moga Kossuth .i.. and the Hungarian Councillors of State Commencement of the Viennese lievolution Latour liatthyanyi and Pulhzky together join the HunMurder of gariana Hungarian Army on the frontien* of Austria — Resignation of lijiron Ikv. Hungarian Mini»ter for Foreign Aflairv Feeling towards Vienna Conduct of Pulzaky. January.. Jelliuek.. 1848 — 1849. — XVI Batthyanyi the aruiy from the King Jellachicb meet the Palntiiie The I'lilutine reMigni and retire* to QcriiiiiDy KoHMUth rounen Hungiiry t^> energetic action New biitUiiioiiH foniied Count Ijuuherg ii[i|Kniit4Kl CommHii<l>r in 'Kief of the tro<)|<8 in Hunt^'jiry and Croiitia .sey Jellachich and AuersjK-rg prejjare to blockade Vienna Pubzky sent to Vienna. in October. not lawfully King of Hungary He denounces Kossuth and the committee of — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — .IViliutky rcmi. 'h Lutour on the illtgality of thiM aiijxdntmentr Secret C^i e between I^itour and Jellachich Pulazky endeavouri* to prevent I'uhitine rcteivi-H a letter draw — The — The new Cabinet—The Palatine takes the command of — Buttliyiuiyi the King Ut order Jellochich to withn<<j«K*Ht« refuHOM to — — — — — ' — — IjimlMjrggiiing to I'lHth— liitthyanyi at thecamj>— The Diet declare* the appointment of LanilterK iIleg. Sztcheuyi. Francis Joseph. Becker. NoTember. Stemau. Letter of the Catholic Bishops to the King Paatoral Address to Uie People Transylvania Revolt of the Wallacks The Austrian armies advance upon Hungary Russian army in Moldavia Batthyanyi His letter to Kossuth Gorgey organizes the army of the Upper Danube Bern in Transylvania—i<?harles Albert alMmdons Milan Kossuth calls a Council of War Victories of the Austrians in the North of Hungary Kossuth tries negotiation Abdication of the Kmperor Ferdinand The Emperor.. Messenhauser. and Batthyanyi Uorgey General Moga 372 — — .U —He arrive* in Peuth la adviitetl to h-ave tiie city Im munlered by the mob SeoHatioD in the Diet Letteni found on I^imWerg The battle of Sukoro Jellachich appointe<l Militarj..

at Nagy S-irlo Aulich enters Pesth Kf>«. and Nagy Sandor Relief of Ko- — — — — — — — — — — mom. April.. Klapka. May.Gorgey disobeys the Koesuth fails in his eninstnictions of the Committee of Defence deavours to induce England to mediate between Hungary and Austria PuUzky leaves I'esth for London Batthyanyi leads iho Deputation from the Diet to Windischgratz Is thrown into prison Kossuth calls a C<mncil of War Gorgey is ordered to march northwards The Government leave Pe«th for Debreczin.Huth sends Gorgey to relieve Proclamation of Gijrgey Vict4>ry of Damianics. .in Cniistitution Victories Gor^'iy takes the c«>mmaud of the H ungnrians Illnesx of Vetter Kortsuth with the anny The Austrian Giivenmient demand aid from RuHxiii Hungary calls ujwn England to inteifere Hutigiiriau victories l»etween the Theiss and Danube Retreat of the Austrian* Official inWtati jd from Vienna to St Petersburgh to send troojw into Hungary L<jrd Palmerstou assures Sir Stratford Canning Russia will not interfere— The Declaration of Independence Kossuth elected Provision. February.. Gorgey refuses to march upon Vienna — Lays siege to Buda —Send« .— — CONTEXTS. 1849.... and take with them the Crown of St Stephen 398 — — — — — — — — — — . Komom — — — — — — 424 CHAPTER XXIV. 1849..Hungarian victorj.-\l Governor of Hungary Successes of Aj>i»oiuts a Ministrj' I Jem in Transylvania. and of Perczel in the South Escape of Jellachich from IVflth-. IVll defence as outlaws Repeals the laws of March Aiistrijin Ministers a[ipoiuted by Francis Joaeph I'ulsky sent to Gurgey Guyon Perczel Defeat of Perczcl Alarm in Pesth... of Austria annuls the Hungari.. March. 1849. — — — CHAPTEK Defeat nuary. of M^Bzar($B Proclamation of Is 8U{)er»eded by Klapka It« reception by theAmiy He marches north The victory of Bnmyipzko Conduct of Gorgey Dembinski.. Commander-iuChief Is joined by Gorgey ami Klapti Battle of Kuj>olua Szemere with the army Interview of Kossuth with Gorgey Vetter succeeds Dembinski Letter of Gorgey Letter of Ko««uth Kossuth sends Guyon to Komom Windischgmtz nets a jirice on the heads of the Hungarian Leadent Victories of Ik-m in Tnmsylvania Letter of Sir Stnitford Canning to Lord Pulmerston Conduct of Charles Albert in Italy Interference of England in the Italian question Nou-iutcrfereuce in that of Hungary 412 Giirgey^ — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER The Emperor XXIII. XXII. March.

ii» lV-<th — The — — — — and Na^jy S.'i{>Li anjiy insist on Gorgey retaining the command Pesth KoMUth |>ermit8 Goi^gey to retain the command of the army of the Upper Danube. 466 — — — — — ..-l>r. Juna. of MulMii-ilinittiiiii aiiioii^ the < v .. Minister of Public Worka.i. - •> v -'. The Goremmcnt enter Huiigiir}' ItattAlion at — Letter at Penth— Swntkinildv > " 1. ' '- '^' " . and recommends the interests of the country to Xagy Sandor..(ndf>r at — — — CHAPTER XXVI.M'IlK X.:4 — Kl. July.... 1849.- »• . 1849i Gorgey expresses himself satisfied— Calls a Coimcil of War IVopo«e« to act directly contrary to the orders of Government— Kl«plr> remonstrates— Gorgey's opinion prevails— He is taken ill Letter of Koseutli Klapka prepares to oWy Kossuth Goi^y threatens to to Klapka resign He is requested to remain Gor^geys own account of the transaction M(5ssiro8 The Government at Sz^gedin Kossuth notes Kossuth's letter to Gorgey Kossuth returns to Pesth Haynau hangs and inflicts corporal punisliment on the Clergymen at Nagy Igmand Battle of Czem Gorgey commences his retreat The Rus- — — — — — — — — — — sian army approaches Pesth — Klapka is left in Komom. but inaiata on hia resigning the War Depiu^ment— Interview of Csanyi. fT)5TEimi..«-. — Mil i. froiitiurH of HuriK'itry^KffortH KoMuth — (Jorxi'y — — — — — ' ' uiiil . » . ^ ' ill all iitttMtipt til HUinn Kmla ! <»l Komiulti bihI the <»oveniineij' Tnuli! btttween HiiiiKiin' iin<l all other imti<>iii» -St«t« «f t!:«riaii annieii (Vmduci of Oory^y He takeji HiicLt IVKoKHiith Hoiiuun vot4?<l to Obivey hy the L)i<-t -NN'all ' tiou New»j>fti>4«r of S/. . t i. |H)iiilei)c« I{«uiovea the Wu* Ultioe tu bud* • • iu the aruiy — • . I.. -t. Kliipkn U) D. ^ —CotuiueooM hu refunu* H'S - - tH. with Klapka Csanyi writes to Gorgey.vz.. and neglect of the advice of Klapka Alarm Victfirj' at Atnh at Pe«th Gorgey wounded Kwwuth remores (Jorgey.' . ICiuiti — Haynau — Hiiiwian — if Ki>Hxuth to < u ': remonstnitea with Gorgey Battle of Pered Con««<juenoeof Gorgey • (liitol)e<lience U) Kossuth. Intended treason of G<3rgey known to the Russians and Austrians. and apjtoiuts Me«zdro8 to the command of the army News of the rictory of Atcii re^ich Letter of Kossuth to Khii>ka — ^ r. July.:majority iu the Diet 1 .W.

Sejitember.-ill In... Proclamation • 'v lli- Dictator— His siaiiH— The Rii- Komom— C«pitiilat«a— Execution — — — — — England between Hungary.tiiitinii Suoo<'i»«<.— CONTESTS.:. 475 CHAPTKR XXVIIL 1849.Klapka refusee to of the Hungr-^rian Cienerala by Ilaynati Kxecatiou of Count Louiit Ilatthyanyi Cminyi in hung Gorgey Hiii cham<ter I^nl Palmerstau offem the Me<liation of ' complieH oi. — Espresseft his thanks still 403 Kossuth receives a communication from Mazzini —Sketch of Mozzini^ ..n up the Huuirarians— I*uhlic meetings in Kn^dand Oflji-ial comv . XIX CHAPTER XXVII. .iiiiii. Briti-ih Govenmieuts — The Hungarians are release.. -Admiral Parker in the Dardaletter of Sir Stritford Canning — Removal of the Hungarians nelles toShumla — Removal to Kutahia— Konwuth is joined by his wife and (Jeii' 1" theilL.drivn.givt-n uji. . • • . the (turnrnder of Komom and . 1850. ^ In . October.1 Porte— Konsuth in Widdin sf>oii ' — — — 111 — . September. — — — HeMigTiation Hu j'ield - — Thry ' re«)Ufj«t '' • KoKHUth Military t<> aMicate K\irrfii<lfrM to the Rui*\nau.w.nuni«-<l Military Dirtator Gor^ey and K". «.The Sultjui offers his protection on ctmdition of their U'cominff Mahometans Kossuth the Sultan refuses to give refuBcs— He writes to I-onl Palmeptt^. 1851.'..' — Letter of KoBHuth ' — ! dcftat^i . 18-19.'8 of Klapka at Komom. G^irgey attacks the Ruiwian* at W«itr»«n "" '. .:.. - March to Tokny Hayiuiu to Aratl — Kt-trcat of Hem I Party — Proclainatitin of iid the Ciovtniineiit retire .Senat"jr Foote of the United moves in Conpress for the liberation of the Hungarians The Ameritaui and Kn^liah Goveruments offer to send a ship for the conStates — veyance of Koanuth to the accejitH the ... August..-. 1851. October.'.The AmhniuuuiorN of Austria and Russia demand they nh. Comparison of G-irpey with KoMitth Koiwnth escnpes into Turkey with the rest of the Hungarian (Jenenilit..•ijipointt'tl Coimiuiutler-in-chief Battle of Temt-nviir Wuiit of .and A nutria.A rep«rt that Cfryi^y IjuiI r»-<«ivp<i «iv«-rturf!i from Ruiutia KoflHuth KeuilH Szetnere ami Batthyniiyi to the Rustiiao caiiip They stat* the r*p<jrt to be nntrue — A Cabinet Council -'t-y deniaucU to Ik.American American and detained — Petitions of the English People to hasten their CHAPTER XXIX. — children^ — Writes a Turkish He Grammar— .

1852.P. — — CH-Vl'TEU XXX. 1853.. Henry's. 1851. Reports circulated in England during the absence of Kossuth Casimii.— Return to Birmingliain Speech in the Town Hall Return to Lo618 dou Loaves England for America - — — — — — — — — — CHAPTER XXXL November.. in — America — His arrival announce<l — — — by the President — in Con- — — . and Turkey 521 German Citizens of New York. 1851. France. Soutlmmpton Winchester London Kossuth's reception in England Birmingluim Manchester .. KoMuth entniatA an addroM to the Hungarian mjMieni to hu OpinionH of KohmuIIi <iu tLe l)e«t fonn nf (jovcniiiient for Hungary The MiHHi(«ii)j>i war bt<-iiiiier Arrival at Marxi-illcM Kowtutb nxjueata to be allowctl to liiu«l . on England...In refunod Hw rtsception by the jieople of Marrteilk'i* Hih addn-tis to them Etftjc-t of thia address upon the 603 KugUsh public. to June.Batthyanyi Vukovics Szemere Kossuth's popularity in Hungary Is welcomed to England by his friends He lives in retirement — — — Persecutions of mother and Austria — Death of his mother— Kossuth again before the English public — Insurrection Milan— Conduct of Mazzini — The Hale Rockets— House of Kossuth searched—Spies— False witnesses examined —Summary of what Kossuth has done Hungary — His character—Conclusion 536 his appeal's sisters in — — — — in for . Kossuth Progress through America Reception at Washington Speech gress Turkey England — Speech at Pittsburg on Diploat Waahiugton macy—Speech at Cleveland on the Hungarian loan Speech at Louisville on foreign policy and the imjxji-tance of strengthening England States visited by Kossuth Speeches in Faneuil Hall. .. November. BosLast speech of Kossuth to the ton.— II — CONTENTS. — — October.Sj>e«ch at Alex.... M. Esq. — — CHAPTER XXXIL 1852.

succeeded by his nephews. Eugilas was . B . but first appears origin. threatened descent upon the eastern empire. an Asiatic people. were peopled by two Germanic tribes. and soon became such formidable neighbours. known as These various races were all subject to the Jazyges. hundred and an annual tribute of three pounds weight of gold. the Quadi and the Marcomanni. Huns into Europe. They established themselves in Pannonia.D. Bleda and Attila and after the deposition and death of the former. A. fifty Emperor Theodosius II. Pannonia. Hlsr ambition and thirst dominion. Attila became the undisputed chief of hia for tribe. the northern part of the the At a later period country and the borders of Danube. CHAPTER Emigration of the I. who are mentioned in Caesar's Commentaries the Dacians occupied modern Moldavia. . and AV'allachia. combined with talents of no mean order. of the land was iiihabited by a Sclavonic tribe.HISTORY OF HUNGARY. and the rest Transylvania. commenced their invasion of Europe about the end of the fourth century. — Various races ichich succeeded one another in Pannonia. it lost in the darkness of a remote age. 37G— 880. that the paid their chief. the ancient The is early history of Huiigarj'. until Huns. probable that the inhabitants were of Greek with some admixture of Celtic blood. Rome the during the tirst centuries of the Christian era. to prevent their Eugilas.

and from the islands of the Baltic to the Adriatic Sea. no houses. while the palace covered an immense area and was surrounded by a high wall "svith towers.. with no food but roots and raw meat." The camp of Attila. who expatiated on the gold. with all his coui-t and retinue. on horseback. and extended his kingdom from the Khine to the Volga. not even huts air in the . The wives of the King. and all manner infancy They were accustomed to eat and sleep of hardships.: .. they lived constantly exposed to the woods and on the mountains. AYith Attila the power and glory of the Huns reached ita greatest height. &c. those of higher rank occupied wooden buildings. where from their they were inured to hunger. thirst. and commenced its decline soon after .D. The lluns are described by the Romans as "a fierce and savage people. and gorgeous horsetrappings of the princes composing the retinue of the " the guests were all served in silver barbarian monarch and gold. 45-''. 2 HISTOEY OF UL'NOAEY. . [a. and to have availed themselves of the abvmdant resovirces of the coimtry to display a magnificence which astonished the ambassadors of the Emperor Theodosius. Under .. scarcely ever dismounting. Attila they appear to have enjoyed a life of greater luxury. precious stones. lived Avithin this enclosure and that part of the building allotted to the Queen was supported by columns adorned with curious workmanship. exceeding in cruelty the most barbarous nations.. Asia in ancient days." &c. . situated between the Theiss and the Danube. when the splendour of the king and the misery of the his subjects common soldiers inhabited huts of were strangely contrasted mud and straw. and regaled with a great variety of liquors in cups of gold enriched with precious stones. brought the empires of the East and "West to the brink of ruin. appears in some respects to have resembled the cities of . .

D. swept over eastern>t:c EACES. stormed Thessalonica. and Thrace. Illyrians. and uniting with the Gepidae they defeated two Grecian armies. Greece. from the allies . During the reign of Justinian the Sclavonic races began to play an important part in history. Panic-stricken by these successes of the barbarians. and divided the country between himself and his retained ancient Dacia. and descended on Dalmatia. Romans. Ardarich. The Ostro-Goths had spread the doctrines of Arius wherever they had introduced Christianity. Huns. AYallachs. the Bulgarians. and in the commencement of the sixth century. Danube the Ostro-Goths appropriated the rest of Pannorda. attacked the dominions of those belonging to the opposite sect. Italy. finally settled under the pretence of zeal for the orthodox faith. and of the east of Hungary. Pannonians. scla. and established their chief. leaving the remains of the various tribes. Resembling the Huns in the manner of their lives. but with increasing numbers and strength. asserted his independence.Goths. amidst the forests and marshy plains of Pannonia.] his death. whom they of three times conquered. the religion of a large number of the inhabitants of Transylvania. His success appears to have been less in. 527. from the plains of Russia and Lithuania. they became ambitious of a more extended territory. while the Gepidae to the Theiss. and seized on a part of Pannonia. controversy than in arms. they had hitherto been contented to dwell in miserable huts. Dacians. King About this period. :3 King of the Gepidap. in alliance with the Ostro. the Emperor Justinian. for the Arian or Unitarian form of Christianity has continued to the latest period. and the descendants of the Pannonian Goths of the Sclavonic race of the Jazyges in quiet possession of the land they occupied.A. Many followed Theodoric into Italy against Odoacer. and unable to rely first b2 . and near the mouths of the Danube and in Thrace.

who. Bajan was of land. advanced into the country and dispersed In 5G5. attack his enemy. a province of France. and Pannonia The Sclavonic mucs of Bohemia claimed part of Pannonia from the Avars (now vassals of the Emperor).d. with the Sclaves. he endeavoured to strengthen himself by alliances with the various races which occupied the territory surrounding his new doBajan. Justinian concluded Mongolian race. Alboin. but it was not till the reign of the Emperor Charlemagne that they were completely subdued. power of his nation. and as the ambassadors of differences. King of the Gepida. carried his \'ictoriou3 arms into Pannonia. however. the Avars. In the beginning of the eighth century. wliich was also destined. for a time. like Attila. Khan of the Avars. on the armies of the empire.4 Bololy niSTOBY OF nUNOJLEY. and Carinthians were planted in the land. [a-. the chiefs Charlemagne were unsuccessful in an attempt to heal their of both races were summoned to ""wpear before the Emperor hiiuself at Aix-la-Chapelle. successful. 5G5. Tor a third time the glories of a great conquest were . to Kunimund. created and sustained the minions. became. and the other races of Paunonia. to sink into comparative insignificance after His successors carried on a barbarous warfare his death. suffered to remain under the protection of the Emperor. on condition of Colonies of Franks. bribed by rich presents. Bavarians. King Pepin. embracing Christianity. drove the Avars across the Theiss. but ofters when he found his friendly met with threats of invasion. the enemy of paganism. like that of the Huns. and after presenting Alboin with the skull Kunimund as a trophy. an alliance with a of the Lombards. took possession of the whole He sent ambassadors to Justinian in the hope of obtaining his protection. following the example of his father. King the army of the Gepida? and Sclaves. Their Khans were. Charles Martel of Trance. invited Bajan.

the kingdom of the Franks was again subdivided portion. proclaimed himself the enemy of the descendant of Charle- magne.. . Swatopluk reigned in Pan- . 880. 880—1000. It appears probable that they had wandered from the foot of the Ural Mountains. and manly qualities. 5 destined to perish with the conqueror the successors cf Charlemagne were as weak and incapable as those of Attila and Bajan. that King Louis of Germany was obliged to cede all the land NorthEast of the Danube to Swatopluk. who finally resigned the possession to Swato- pluk. possessed of high mental and physical endowments. The Magyars are by some supposed to be a Finnish race. CHAPTER A. peopled by a variety of races.D. while Pannouia Charles the Fat. at the time that Charles the Fat wass King in France. afterwards King of France. The Bohemians and other tribes joined his standard.A. Swatopluk prince of Moravia and chief of the Sclavonic people. in the end of the ninth century. Arnulph Emperor of the west. language. distinct in character and in when the country was for the last time subjugated by a new race. Towards the end of the ninth century. courage. Pannonia was thus. on condition of his supporting his claim to the empire. by others to have the same origin as the Turks. but all agree in the account of their superior hardihood.] SETTLEilENT OF THE MAGYARS. in being able to retain the power as well as the land which they acquired.D. and the rebellion shortly became so formidable. Upon the death of Loui% . IL Settlement of the Magyars. inherited the larger fell to the share of Arnulph. and diftering from all former conquerors. when they advanced upon Europe. grand- son of Louis.

They insisted that whatever land should be acquired by their united strength. in like manner be for ever banished from among the people. come visitants to the inhabitants of this region. were obliged to have recourse to stratagem. the Magyars insisted upon his accepting cer- tain conditions. he and his descendants should promise their Duke . each governed of the Thuiss. being too weak to expel them by force.d. one of rest to lead whom. was elected them forth to new centuries. and proceeding onwards. who. Alom was of mature ivj^t'. but in choosing him a.UISiOItY OF IIUNOAHT. The fame of the riches of Pannonia. tlie of the JIuns reached Magyars in tlie far east. river WTien the Magyars reached the Volga. These conditions were the foundation-stone of the Hungarian Consti tution. ei". they violated the oath of their father. claiming for their chief a descent from the great Attila. 880. by name A lorn. they swam the upon inflated skins. should be divided that. The by the by a separate chief. by which they maintained their own dignity. quick eye. and in and of the paat glories and eagerly search of a wider pasture-land for their flocks and lierds. aud the Bulgarians occupied the region race was divided into seven tribes. as whosoever should fail in his allegiance to the Duke or cause discord between the chiefs. and independence. never to exclude them from the ducal council or the govern- ment and that. possessed a noble aspect. power. and was valiant. and Moravia. they resolved to go in quest of this favoured region. pitched So vast a host were unwel- their tents beside the Dnieper. wise. own free will had elected Alom as or leader. and generous. noiiia [a. which has preserved the liberties of the nation durins. and strong arm.s their leader. so condemned to if should the descendants of Duke Alom. as they of their among them according to their respective merits. They described Pannonia in glowing . would be die.

and the news of their approach preceded them to tlie banks of the Tlieiss. punished with death. and announced to them tliat. "NVallachs. the stronghold of Salan. to his son Arpad. still subject to the king of Bulgaria. secured them a friendly reception from all whose territories they passed through. and set forth once more on his journey to the land of promise. Arpiid immediately turned his arms against the Bulgarians. Some of the nices inliabiting Pannonia came with otters of service to propitiate the Magyars others who refused to bid them welcome were colours. his claim to the Attila. who were ready to acknowledge the supremacy of Arpad but most of the land inliabited by the Sclaves. the Bulgarian in three days they succeeded in taking the fortress. re-commenced the war by the siege of the castle of Borsova. The igno- peace by which Amulph ceded Pannonia to Swatopluk did not satisfy the Magyars. Sclaves. would be easily overcome. and he invited him to come to his assistance. Alom asserted whole land in right of his supposed ancestor. and devoted four days to thanksgiving and feasting on the fourth he assembled the chiefs of the people. and the infirmities of age required rest. was minious . . ants. and to Swatopluk. Their numbers and power had rapidly increased.] ABPAD. he resigned his power. then engaged in war with Swatopluk.D. The formidable aspect of liis followers. the prince sent messengers to Arpad. bidding him withdraw his hordes to the Scythian . 880. 7 and assured the Magyars that the present inhabitcomposed of mixed races. and demanded their obedience. with the accession of other races. and Franks. as he had fulhlled his work. A. Alom evinced his gratitude for this intbnnation by gifts of gold and furs. and with such success that his fame reached tlie ears of tlie Emperor Amulph. Nothing daunted. his chiefs Arpad and prince . Arrived at Zemplin. and the fugitive Bulgarians hastened to inform Salan of his loss. Bulgarians..

It was vain for Salan to resist. Arpad received the deserts. and after a great battle. Arpad answered. Arpad took possession of the whole of the Bidgariau kingdom. and the plain where rich pastiures could feed his flocks and herds. all he now possessed was the free gift of the productive parts of Hungary. by scattered tribes of Bulgariaus and Sclaves. he dismissed them with twelve milkwhite horses as a present to their king. in which the prince was defeated. from Attila. 888. but that he further required the rest of the land between the Theisa and the Danube. the Magyar claimed a recognition of his right to the most : the mountain region where copper. iron. his son took possession of Bohemia. Having thus accomplished the conquest of Himgan'. Swatopluk having resigned and retired to end his days among the hermits on the mountain of Zobor. and reminded them of the feeble resistance which could be olibred him. on the ambjwsadors. a cup of water from the Danube. the water. or assembly of chiefs. the rivers. that he might compare them with the land. and precious stones were found. little dreaming that by the strip of land. viz — Bulgarian king. or purchased by the white horses. and water. Salan accepted the and gladly granted all that Arpiid demanded. lie demanded only a narrow little strip of laud.8 insrouv of hlngahy. and a grass from the plains. Arpad called together the first Diet. Here judges were appointed. in the vicinity of the modern city of Szegedin. and the mutual relations and duties of the . bade them obaen'e the numberH and the power of his followers. [a. When Salan demanded the restoration of that which had been taken from him by stratagem. and where the best wines could be manufactured.s3 of Scytliia then bestowing rich gifts .d. and the grass. and gra. liorses. or submit to his authority. Magyars. ambassadors graciously. which were his by inheritance. and abandoned the district of the AVaag to the his dominions.

by Bcrengarius.D. and to be in the enjoyment of equal rights and privileges . fortified castles were ordered to be built. to They in his wars against Guido. who now assumed the general name of Hungarians. Verona. were all declared free. he was surprised and overpowered by the Magyars. 902. and peasant. The country was divided into counties and baronies. and the surrounding districts were beatowed on the Magyars. who had to till the soil. in 902. those races who had received voluntarily submitted to as friends the conquerors were and shared the same rights with the Magyar. and advanced so far They that Berengarius himself was obliged to oppose them." or and unprivileged freemen (constituting a species of national aristocracy). the tenth century. according to the compact between the chiefs and Alom. on Aquileia. From this time Gennany and Italy continued a prey to their devastations. on the Danube. below the modem city of Pesth. The Hungarians were invited into Italy. the and the people were determined. 9 Duke. "uobiles. chiefs. were reduced to serfdom and compelled Thus commenced the distinction of privileged classes. from whence he and after having secured the succession to his son Zoltan. duke of Spoleto. who had advanced to meet him.] GEISA. however defeated the army he led against them. died in the beginning of The youth of Zoltan emboldened Louis (the last male descendant of Charlemagne in the direct line). The Mag}ars. captives taken in these expeditions were brought to Hungary and included among the serfs. duke of Friuli. to attempt an invasion of Hiuigary but before he proceeded farther than Augsburg. while those resisted the invaders. spread his conquests as far as Italy. and the . and were assist him seized only induced to retire on the payment of a large sum of money.A. Arpad pitched his camp on the island of Csepcl. and Padua. .

. 1000. Geisa I. With in 978. the young prince was among those who his listened to his exhortations. in remembrance solemn betrothal to Gisela. II. was looked upon with contempt by his barbarous nobles. lie surrendered the province of Austria (which Imd hitherto belonged to Hungary) to Leopold..D. of his mother's dream. 1000—1114. Stephen commences one of the most important He was bom in Gran. the grandson of UUNOAUY. who liad niarrit'd the sister of the Emperor Henry Geisa founded schools and colleges in Hungary. Peter.. [a. and the monkish legends relate that his mother had a vision before his birth. When the Bohemian bishop Adelbert arrived in Hungary to convert the pagans to Christianity. Duke of Swabia. Kings of the house of Arpdd—Slephen I. and at fifteen years of age received the oath of fealty from the great nobles of the land.. but his desire for the advance of civilization and of peaceful arts. HAPTER III. periods in the nistory of Hungary. to which and was a convert. who founded the monarchy. He had however sown tlie good seed. and after sister of the duke of Bavaria. £ela I. and established Christianity. Solomon. On the death of Geisa. he possessed the wisdom .. which grew up and bore fruit uiuUt his son Stephen. A. and favoured Christianity. gave consistency to the nation. in which his future greatness was revealed to her by the first martyr. In his early youth he bore the name of "Wait.d. Andrew /. Though only nineteen.10 IlISTOnT OF Geisa. Coloman The — Crusades. Arpad was a lover of peace his wife justifo. Ladislau^ I. Stephen succeeded him in the dukedom. he was baptized under the name of Stephen.

A. for the defence of the true faith and of his country. and a consecrated sword placed in his h:md. example was followed by the princes of Moravia. as a sign of his apostolic mission. He founded ecclesiastical schools. to demand the consent of the Pope. but gave him permission to have the patriarchal cross borne before him. Stephen succeeded in establishing Christianity throughout his dominions. the feast of her ascension. Scrv'ia. is truly an apostle. and yielded to him his right of appointing all the ecclesiastics of the kingdom. and used in the ceremony of coronation. By a wise distribution of threats and promises. for his coronation. and colleges. This sworcl was ever afterwards presented." His holiness next proceeded to confirm the nomination of a monk of the The Apostolic. who. symbolical of his royal jurisdiction. He next commenced the cathedral of Gran. Kuppa was however defeated and slain in battle. and fixed on the month of August. Emperor Otho. According to ancient usage. and finally sent an embassy to Kome. . willing to gratify so zealous a servant of the church. divided the land into ten dioceses. Stephen was invested with the war girdle before advancing to the attack of the enemy. who through Christ has gained a great people. llOO. and then not only granted the kingdom to Stephen and his heirs. being also a descendant of Arpad. to quell an insurrection caused by Kuppa. and of the into a kingdom. both of which he was soon called upon to exert. pope Sylvester sent him a crown as the of gold. Holy Virgin Stephen selected queen and patroness of the kingdom.' but name of Dominic. restore wished to the rites of paganism. and invited German monks to occupy them. the "With the cross. replied to his ambassadors. Duke of Sumegh. and his Bulgaria.] 8TEPUEN I ]1 and decision of riper years.D. and monasteries in various parts of Ilungar}'-. " I called ' am your prince. to change his dukedom Pope Sylvester. to the new archbishopric of Gran.

Preceded by the RTcat nobles of kinj^dom. and pointed with hiu Bword North." including all the freeholders of the kingdom. and })rivileges. he ascended to the top. the altar. barons. and the inhabitants. with full civil and military authority. as performed at that time. in their immunities. prelates. rights. liberties.ssy to Kome had been undertaken with the consent of the great nobles. On leaving the C'athednil he waa conducted on horseback to a circular mound on the banks of tho Danube. and West.d. 1000. but an a pledge for the presenation of their rights and liberties. ]Ie was then anointed pla<-ed with oil. to indicate hia it detennination to defend his kingdom on whatever side should be attacked. South. Next in rank to the Palatine were the Magnates or those " nobiles " employed in the great offices of the state after them the inferior " nobiles. sworn to by the King at his coronation. King all entered the Cathedral. He appointed a Palatine umpire between him and his self. nobles. and kneeling at the Mwore to pre- sen'e the churches. [a.12 U18T0EY OF HUirOABr. who regarded it not only as con- kingdom of Hungary. the archbishop of Gran the sacred crown and upon his head. magnates. The ceremony with little alteration to the late«t periotl of the tlie was continued monarchy. The einba. where after repeating his C(»ron- ation oath. who were careful to provide that neither Stephen nor his successors should regard the kingdom in any other light than as the free gift of the Hungarian people they therefore obtained from him a . and keeper of the royal subjects. who shared in the administration. and sent their representatives to the . he placed an officer (Fd Ispany). Stephen descending generation became an object of profound veneration to the people. . second only to seal . East. Constitution in 1001. near Presburg. from generation to ferring tlie The crown of St. or him- and over each Comitat or county. laws.

Peter.seuburg. Hungarian people by surrounding himself introducing (Jcrmans into his council. inherited his uncle's superstitious political veneration virtue. and died in 1U3G. and his own life was even once attempted. cousins of Stephen. He especially to the with foreigners. The gratitude of the nation was justly due to a monarch who might well be called the father of his country. Magnates and Prelates. went into voluntary exile. for the church. nor of oft'ence pious Christians. and family mis- embittered his latter years. Andrew and Bela. the King having schemes his only the right of annulling or ratifying their acts. they decided all great questions. he granted the people a Constitution by which they were enabled to guide themselves in the road to true He has been canonized by the church for the superstitious zeal with which he enforced the outward symbols of Cliristiauity. were several aspirants to the throne. but he is venerated in the hearts of the people for the truly Christian virtues he possessed. The death of son was not only an atUiction to him as a father. 13 -ftith tlie National Diet or Parliament. kings). the successor of Stephen.D.J PETEH. for his countr)' had not been Stephen resigned his cro^vn to his nephew Peter. and he therefore neither gained the favour of those who still inclined towards gave paganism. the patroness of Hungary.A. His body was conveyed to Stuhhveis. without his wisdom or religious with his His mode of life did nut agree professions. suid his supposed instigators. laSG. Happy in the conviction that his labours vain. since (a rare example among liberty. and there solemnly interred in the church of the Holy Virgin. but caused much embarrassment There in the choice of a successor. Here. The calm courage and magaauiinity of the aged monarch disarmed the assassin. and . Stephen had to encounter many fortunes difficulties in his of religious as well as of political reform.

visit In 1045 he invited the Emperor to the celebration of the feast of Easter. however discovered. in the person of the Hungarian But no sooner did a rumour of this Aba than he coUected an army. After a lengthened contest. with insult and neglect. even appointing tliem governors of A conspiracy was therefore formed against him. and expelled the Germans from the kingdom. carrying off prisoners and booty. the Emperor advanced into Hungar}'. and during all when the Magnates were assembled. one of the blood royal. he was obliged to take refuge in Bavaria. to whom he owed his restoration.. offering to restore all he had taken.D. dition but the while attempting to improve the the con- of peasantry. Peter had learnt nothing from his three years of adversity and as soon as he felt his throne secure. cities. hid intention of supporting and the Emperor had declared monarch. was appointed in his place. victory declared for the invaders. him. and while some of the leaders were put to death. 10-i5. the remainder sought Peter had shelter at the court of the Emperor. he raised enmity of the their "nobiles." who conspired again to overthrow him. conspiracy was already appealed to Henry against his rebellious subjects. reach the sacred cause of kings. and Samuel Aba. and many more of the discontented nobles deserting Aba in the last hour. and treated the Hungarian nobles. [a. Having thus convinced the Emperor of his power. Henry III. and was murdered by his own followers in a vOlage upon the Theiss. and made intention a success- Austria and Bavaria. he sent ambassadors to his court. 14 HISTORY OF IIUNGAEY. the defeated chief fled across the Danube. but the proposal was not listened to. he recalled the Germans into Hungary. on condition that Henry would consent to abandon Peter. He immediately revoked the decrees of Peter. ful inroad into and strengthened by the fugitive Hvingarian nobles. he declared his intention of holding his .

After giving the promise demanded of him. who had fled from Hungary during the reign of Stephen. and was crowned in Stuhlweissenburg in 10i7. and the murder of a vast out the eyes of Peter. with the laws and regulations framed by King Stephen. it was resolved to send to his cousin Andrew. where he ended his existence. and the German and Italian courtiers of Peter. His first act was to punish with death those who had been guilty of putting churches and monasteries. He to next hastened to despatch ambassadors to the Emperor deprecate his wrath at the deposition of Peter.A. arrival. indignant at Peter's conduct.D. after which he threatened to destroy all who practised pagan rites. The reign of Andrew began with a general destruction of number of ecclesiastics. which Henry sent as an offering to Eome. and shut up in the fortress of Stuhlweissenburg. and lastly. he was no sooner secure ia his kingdom than he threw off the mask. required to promise the Hungarians the free exercise of the pagan religion Chrishad not yet taken a deep root in the hearts of the people. presenting to return. blinded. 15 empire. but as the new King was in reality attached to the Christian religion. as well as the independence of Hvingary. and in a meeting held at Csanad. restored the churches. and was associated in their minds with the dominion of the foreigner. determined to depose him. and the whole tianity nation rising in rebellion against Peter. 1047. and had only promised to restore paganism in order to obtain a throne. kingdom and swore him with a crown and lance out of the treasury. On . he was soon after- wards taken prisoner. his he was in the first place.] AXDEEW a fief I. and entreat him as of the German allegiance to the Emperor. through the German monks of Stephen. The people. and restore the ancient rights of the race of Arpad. by . Andrew placed himself at the head of the insurgent nobles.

the birth of a son raised in his mind fears and jealousies of his brother. however. and was. palace. . he eagerly accepted the proposal of Andrew to on his arrival the King bestowed on him one-third of his kingdom. When Andrew invited Bela to share his kingdom. a daughter . As soon as Bela ap- . The brothers were soon afterwards involved in wars with the Emperor. offering to hold the kingdom as a fief of the empire. . but his attachment to his native country having continued undiminished by time or absence. Bela and his sons willingly acquiesced in the decision of the Solomon was accordingly croAvned the following was. Andrew assemfuture coronation as demanded their King of Hungary. and to his WTien Solomon had reached his bled assent Henry III. The fant. 1058." In reward for great services which Bela had rendered to . still dissatisfied. when yet an in- betrothed to the daughter of the Emperor the Diet at Stuhlweissenbiirg.D. and to pay Henry an annual tribute. The King accordingly one day invited his brother to his and received him. seventh year. " companions in misfortune let us now share the joys and splendour of a throne I have no heir or brother but you you shall be my successor in the government. but a few years later. and year. which however were of short duration. whom he had left in Poland. [a. he had return to Hungary . Andrew death of Bela. the King of Poland. stretched upon a couch. These propositions were however rejected. with large estates in Pomerania .16 niSTOET OF UUNOAET. were once. and Andrew turned for assistance " We to his brother Bela." he said. and there were not wanting among the courtiers those who insinuated that the succession of Solomon coidd only be seciired by the Diet. he had received his daughter in marriage. child was christened Solomon. nith the title of Duke. only one child. with a crown and a naked sword at his feet.

but if you are satisfied with the rank of duke. sent two deputies . supposing he was impelled to this measure either by weakness or from some sinister motive. and the destruction of priests and c . followed their representatives to the Diet. him in these words " my . where the inhabitants flocked to his standard. were however defeated. fighting against him.A. They encamped before the gates of the city.D. 17 : peared. when Bela was immediately proclaimed King of Hungary. to which at his command every County fixing the average price of food. and to ofler his protection to the wives and dren of those who had fallen in battle. which was readily granted him. He escaped with his sons into Poland to demand the assistance of his former friends. devolves on you after my death therefore you are free to choose if you desire the kingdom. and not from any schemes of self-aggrandisement. and he returned with three armies to Hungary. The first act of the new sovereign Avas to publish a general chil- amnesty. 1062. statistical reforms. in a great battle near the Theiss. many of the people. I was son. who governed at that time for the young Emperor Henry IV. with his German auxiliaries. He next commenced a series of political and as. such silver diminishing the taxes. resolved to use it in his own defence. The government. coining gold and money. and left the presence of Andrew. by right. and requested the support of the Eegents of the empire." Bela had been already warned by his friends that his life depended on his choice he therefore accepted the sword. and himself slain. take the crown. The King's troops. Andrew immediately sent Solomon into Germany. take up the sword. and sent messages to the King and to the Magnates demanding the restoration of paganism.] BELA I. and He convoked a Diet at Stuhlweissenburg. he addressed induced to place the crown on the head of Duke. regulating the -weights and measures. : . hy a desire for the welfare of the kingdom.

The youthful Solomon was wholly imder the Stephen. he gave a signal. IS IIISTOHY OF HUNGARY. and buried him in its ruins.D. assembled an anny for the purpose. but when this failed. tain possession of the person of his Bela. and the leaders of the rebeldown. On the third day he attempted by argument to induce them to retire peaceably. . the house in which he sat. frustrated by his death. who had now attained his twelfth year. monks. paganism was subdued in Hungary. for as he was one day sitting in judgment according to custom. guidance of two powerful nobles. desirous to ob- nephew Solomon. and sent an embassy to the Margrave of Austria signifying their renunciation of all claim to the throne. and Bela determined to resort to stratagem he therefore irquested a delay of three days before he gave his answer . although the people were not wholly converted to Christianity for some time after. and to have objected to the polytheistic Chiistiauity of the Eomish hierarchy. The sons of Bela refused to accept the crown offered them by the Magnates of Huugar}'. were eflaced li'om the list of freemen.* The insurrection threatened to become dangerous. chiefly on political grounds. and lived under the protection of the Margrave of Austria. they appear to have been simply monotheists. By this act. " nobiles. however. and they lion cut were immediately surrounded. Count Veit and Count * Though called pagans by the monkish historians. His intention was. fell. by virtue of a law of King Stephen. [a." and reduced to serfdom. and their readiness to acknowledge their Solomon was accompanied to Stuhlcousin Solomon king. and the two boys Avere seated together upon the throne of St. in the the casths and meantime he sent trustworthy messengers to all districts. Their followers.. 10G5. weissenburg by the yovmg Emperor of Germany. and collected by night an armed force sufficient to put down the insurgents.

A. the Greek commander. Some of the Hungarian nobles adopted their cause. whom This he delivered himself and the greater part of the garriKing. in Geisa roused the jealousy of son. SOLOMON. and Niketas. followed. had allowed his subjects to commit depredations on the Hungarian terriciliation. and Solomon was time . a Jlungarian maiden. but in the third. his cousins Geisa and Ladislaus laid siege to Belgrade the inhabitants held out bravely for two months. even of that portion of the land which ful inheritance. advanced to Duke Geisa. fell and precious stones to the share of Solomon. had withdrawn into the but offered to capitulate on condition that their lives should be spared. and followed by his soldiers. while the rest offered their submission to the mark of confidence c 2 . and the garrison. The King and the Dukes granted their demand. and place themselves once more under the protection of Duke Bolislaus. was their right- They were therefore obliged to fly into Poland. The Prelates of the kingdom however interfered. the sons of Beha. in tory. Niketas. 19 who persuaded him to deprive his cousins. and accordingly. Ten years of iminterrupted harmony followed this reconwhich time the King was assisted b}'^ the Dukes in defending his kingdom from foreign invaders. Avho had been shortly before led away captive by the Greeks. and that they should be permitted a free exit. with a silver image of the Virgin borne before him. to fortress. Michael Dukas. an entrance for her countrymen. Solomon. which threatened to plunge the country into the horrors of civil war. and oj)ened slaughter silver. and Solomon ^vith his favourites shut themselves up in the fortress of AVieselburg. An immense and the treasures of the Greeks. with . set fire to the city in several places. 1075.D. his cousin Geisa himself performing the ceremony. and terminated these family feuds. in gold. Iriiei. The sons of Bela were restored to cro\\'ned for the third their inheritance. The Emperor of the East.

belause he knew that Ladislaus was at hand with a large army . still further incensed Solomon.oidy Geisa ventured to appear. as a token of his gratitude for their generous treatment of their prisoners. llic brothers became soon aware of the suspicion with which their conduct was regarded. and to resign to him six fortified towns. In consequence of this act. and there discovered that Solomon had souglit the assistance of the German Emperor. by sending rich presents to Geisa and to the Duke. : ( leisaand Ladislaus iuunediately prei)aredtodefend themselves. "While Solomon was celebrating civil the Christmas festivities in the abbey of Szekszard. and entreated him to their by flight. [a.20 HISTOnT OF IICNfiART. promising him in return to hold Hungary as a fief of the empire. An embassy was sent to the Duke. he was advised to terminate the war. Arrived at Tokay. Solomon was deposed and declared a traitor and enemy of his country. the King . Solomon. by ordering the assassi- nation of Geisa .D. appropriating thri'f-i'oiirtlis to hiiuheif and his tavourites. and Geisa was elected King in his place. Michael Dukas. Geisa and Ladislaus were finally victorious. and after a hard-fought battle. incapable of governing. who hastened save his life in disgui. but this counsel was overheard by the Abbot. The Prelates and Magnates of the kingdom met in Stuhlweissenburg. to otfer him the kingdom but though he consented to act as regent. Solomon. and bestowing the small remainder upon liin cousins. he refused the crown. the and the country was soon divided between the adherents of King and of the Dukes. Heedless of every thing but vengeance. and withdrew from the camp and when Solomon recalk'd them. but abstained. riie King was advised to put him to death. UX)9. Geisa sent mes: sengers to his brother to hasten to his assistance united forces met that of Solomon on the banks of the Danube. until further attempts ha I been made to effect a reconciliation with . who inrcveiige made an untMiualdivisionof th j booty. The Greek emperor.

be consecrated king. in this instance. 21 had already scut to the Emperor. as the kingdom of Hungai-y. that Henry was forced to make an inglorious retreat. scriptions. which was attached to the crown of \\'ith Stephen. king. like the remaining kingdoms of the world. the title of country. and the representatives of the kingdom urged Geisa to accept . but with a promise that at some futui-e period he would.s approach. while Geisa only reigned three years. by the grace of God. him a circlet of gold. derived from the papal donation of the crown to King Stephen but an exception was made." The Diet had been at all times jealous of the interfe- rence of the church in the political aflairs of the kingdom. though he still only maintained the rank of Grand Duke of Hungary. " that. had stooped to become a vassal of the German empire. since his cousin. He was further admonislicd. with the late events in Hungary. Michael Dukas.] GEISi. and died in negotiating a peace 1077. Geisa com. the universal mother. Henry IV. to hasten hi. in order to secure the peace of the In 1075 he yielded to their wishes to have him cro\nied. who did not require slavish subjection. D. who was closely besieged . but obedience from her children. and an ac- knowledgment of his rightful claim to the throne. Peter. On this occasion. an a.. but only submit to the Romish church. Geisa had taken the precaution to acquaint Pope Gregory Til. sent adorned with Greek images and inSt. I. and he now received .A. must maintain its independence. Emperor of the East. 1075. manded all the hind to be laid waste through which the imperial army was obliged to pass and his stratagem succeeded so well. so it might not acknowledge the supremacy of any other prince. despising the protection of St. Solomon. and was ready to oppose Gregory in any pretence of i'eudal right. In order to prevent this invasion. without once encoimtering the enemy.ssurance of the protection of the holy see.

Pope Gregory. Ladislaus was not only ready to accept any terms from his cousin. by h'la brutlier LadislauH. [a.22 iu Presburg HISTORY OF lILNGAnT. by which Solomon was permitted to retain his rank and dignity. nor allow priestly menaces to deter him from paying a debt of gratitude. who had offended liim. When the Pope learnt that Ladislaus had taken the Polish Duke under he adopted the cause of Solomon. with his only son. who had formerly assisted and afterwards his sons. in spite of the remonstrances of the Hungarian Prelates. and Ladislaus shut him up in his protection. Scarcely had the fonner obtained these concessions. and unanimously elected Ludislaus as hiu Buceessor. the " nobiles" assembled from all parta of the kingdom.U. fled into Hungary. His intentions were however discovered.. but. and absolved the people from their allegiance to their prince. desirous to show his friendly intentions towards Hungars'. but even to abdicate in his favour. Holislaus 11. The deed was eoinmitted wliile the bishop was before the altar. lii'la duke of Poland. the fortress of Yisegrad. punishment for this sacrilegious act. and his brothers in their adversity. As soon as Gcisa's death was known. while Ladislaus governed the kingdom. and even plot the assassination. offered their mediation. more eager than ever to effect a reconciliation between the princes and avoid further strife. as a. and. and a solemn reconciliation accordingly took place. the King received forget the kindness him with shown to hospitality. his father. 1077. of his cousin. was at this time induced to put to death a bishoj) of Cracow. Pope Gregory jdaced the whole country under an interdict. for his unusual height for his mild and nuijestic aspect and Christian virtues. He could not himself. lie was eelebrated for the beauty of his person. Bolislaus. . sent a nimcio . But the Hungarian Prelates. above all. where. modem city About this period. in the vicinity of the of Waitzen. than he began to conspire against.

Prelates.orc. he separated from his followers. and the King. He appointed his nephew Almos. Solomon fled across tlie Danube. Ladislaus introduced the Hun. Croatia formed a part of the kingdom of Hungary. Attacked by numerous enemies. sent for Solomon and gave him his freedom. 23 . From that time. The on which the monkish historians have loved to build wild and impro- His sister. who had married the Duke of Croatia and Dalinatia. founded a bishopric at Agram. and extended domains to the shores of the Adriatic. was left a widow and childless. and was never heard of n. garian Constitution into the new province. is wrapt in an obscurity which the lapse of even the endeavours of the curious are not likely to virtues of Ladislaus have afforded a theme. which was adminisMagnates of the or tered by the King. where the ceremony took place. Defeated in a battle with the armies of the Greek Emperor (whom he had provoked by an invasion of Bulgaria). . after. Stephen. was to stir up enemies against Ladislaus.D.] LADISLAUS I. disperse. the principal his of the province. Eegent King of city Croatia. she appealed to her brother for assistance he accordingly marched a large army into Croatia. But no benefits coidd move the deposed monarch from his purpose of regaining his kingdom. and the first use he made of his liberty.A. Some asserted that he was afterwards seen as a pilgrim at tlie shrine of St. when she resigned the cares of government to him. 1077. Barons. and retired from the world. with a vast assemblage of Prelates. and Magnates. willing that all should partake in the general happiness. Abbots. soon after the bable tales. to proclaim the canonization of King Stephen Ladislaus. and in an attempt to explore the depths of a thick forest. and kingdom. received the pope's ambassador at Stuhhveissenburg. and that he ended liis days as a hermit. in Moldavia. but his fate ages. accession of Ladislaus to the throne of Hungary.

and though he refused to attend in person. had already appealed to Urban II. the eldest of nu8. Alexius sent ambassadors to liome. believed he saw in had witnessed at The Pope him one commissioned by a Higher Power. Chap. in the course of the last twenty years. established them- Minor. diu"ing • See Gibbon's Roman Empire. who was in Poland. 1UD5 had but one son (Colomaii). Peter the Hermit. and was only prevented by death from fulfilling this promise. of nineteen years. returned just in time to tion of William of Aquitaine. whom was married to the son of Alexius Comne- Emperor of the to East. and promised to summon a council to con. and three daughters. after a reign The Hungarians mourned for him three which time no festivities were permitted. . receive his father's blessing before he expired.D. erecting a kingdom on the ruins of the Greek emjjire. pro^^ded they were in themselves just. who were commissioned to entreat the Pope and demand the : assistance of the princes of the this race West against the Turks had advanced fnjin the East. and Magnates to obey the summons of the pope. and such was the reputation of Ladislaus throughout Europe. The ambassadors of Alexius were supported by the zeal of the fanatic.24 liadislaus HISTORY OF IIUNGAHY. His son Coloman. Abbots. giving them an assurance that he would support them in their acquiescence in ail things ordained by the holy father. [a. Ladislaus was the first to introduce a code of ciA-il and criminal law into Hungary. he permitted his Prelates. In the year lOOi. In Placentia was laid the scheme of the first Crusade.sider the means by which to deliver the Holy Land from the infidel. was invited to assist in a conference at Piaccntia. who.* Ladislaus. requesting to be its leader. among other princes. that an embassy was sent to him at the sugges- him to undertake The King of Hungary consented. and no music Avas heard in the kingdom. years. Iviii. excited selves in Asia by the sufferings of the Christians he Jerusalem.

-. he had those qualities which constitute an able entire.B. 'i^as deformsd and 'ii(Jt but though all no ftc'jom- plished a warrior as Ladislaus. •• nut lei's' of' eceJesifi^ticiH . near 8emlin river.2 COLOMAN. and Coloman led his victorious troops tlie against his enemy. who in return deprived them of the arms they already pos- sessed.^ . and seizing all the gold and silver which they had about their persons. to conduct them by the shortest way through his kingdom they crossed the . body of crusadiTS who demanded a free passage through Hungary was led by Walter the Penny less. 1095. the excitement of the Crusade had reached greatest height in the council of Clermont . . They consisted of a disorderly multitude of fifteen thousand men. He next proceeded to complete the conquests of the late King. The cities Northmon (Xormans) had attacked the maritime of Dalmatia. hi hli • 23 i and secured her independeuee jurisdiction. chasing arms instead of which they committed every kind of outrage on the inhabitants of the surrounding districts. women. as the Hungarian King considered The first it to be his first duty to remain in his own country. sent them back to their comrades. compelling the cities to acknowledge In the mean its supremacy. as the price of his protection. and provided them with guides. a Norman gentleman. on pretence of pur. but he at once subdued them with a powerful army. time. wh(j were encamped before the walls of Belgrade. . and children. . in a ruler. fath'e?. united with resolution and steadiness of purpose necessary to preserve the kingdom time of difficulty and discord. he declined taking any part in the expedition. ('oloman received them in a friendly manner. escorted by eight thousand knights. A rebellion of the Croats disturbed the very commencement of his reign. but. who succeeded his unprepossessing in his person . Coloman.A. Save. It was with . but they had scarcely passed over the when sixteen knights returned. z '.

the victors were in the act of pillaging and destroying all that remained. The King not only granted their request. with fo'ut fenights. tolerable order across the kingdom until they arrived at Semlin. when the news reaching them of the advance of the Hungarian King with a large army. demanded likewise a free passage through his dominions. Eeturning to the city. and Semlin was accordingly attacked . that Peter the Her'ixlit. slaughtered them without mercy. and few of the followers of Peter the Hermit survived to reach the Holy Land. they hastUy crossed the Save. but furnished them Peter led them in ^^ith provisions and all they required.26 -HISTORY OF HUNQAKT. Coloman was informed. 'to Tevenge the supposed Soon.afterwards. and a sys- from their first entrance into Hungary commenced tem of murder and pillage. and forty thousand pilgrims. some iusult tho leader tli6* is t)revented the whole body of crusaders re6rossiYig • Save. where the sight of the weapons and armour of AValter's knights. ir he resolved that the city should pay dearly presumption. and a taken by storm the infuriated crusaders. led by a German priest named Gottschalk.D. His followers belonged to the lowest order of the people. who arrived from the district of the E-hine. The seven thousand of the inhabitants. pursuing who had sought refuge on mountain on the banks of the Danube. commission of similar outrages in Bulgaria. dilficulty thnt [a. 1095. inilamed the passions of the multitude. The misdeeds of Peter and his crusaders did not prevent Coloman from giving an equally hospitable reception to a third band. v/hich they continued imtil the patience of Coloman was exhausted. suspended as trophies from the walls. and he assembled his warriors to considt how he could best rid the country of . was visited with a fearful vengeance by the inhabitants of the country. engaged a holy cause for its . and the zeal of Petei himself was kindled at such a treatment of men.

when King Coloman was informed of the arrival of a fourth body of crusaders. by name Emico.A. 27 these predatory hordes. In the mean time Coloman' s chief care was the improvement of the internal administration of his kingdom he travelled over the whole countrj^ to learn. they found the to^^iis on tlie frontiers strongly fortified. The greater number complied. and accordingly sent a herald to them. Scarcely had these been despatched. jNIayence. and from that time the King closed Hungary to the crusaders. he granted him all that he demanded. until he coidd acquaint them with his final decision. and a large . he would do so on condition. and massacred all but three thousand. and excused his delay in admitting him by relating the ravages committed by the four preceding companies of pilgrims then embracing Godfrey in the presence of his warriors.D. and on their attempting to do so by force. They decided that they were un: worthy to be met in battle. and every entrance barred by warriors they were driven back with great slaughter. The news was accompanied by an account of the deeds already perMany thousand Jews had fallen petrated by these fanatics. ingly refused to permit them to enter his dominions. . Treves. COLOMAX. until the chivalric followers of Godfrey of Bouillon arrived on the borders of his kingdom. the Hungarians fell upon them. by personal obser. who would furnish they required. Coloman himself went to meet the great captain. led by a Ehenish nobleman. 1095. victims to their rage in Cologne. Avho escaped to pursue their journey to Jerusalem. bidding them choose between safety and destruction he was desired to inform them. and they were said to look upon the Hungarians Coloman accordthemselves as little better than pagans. that they should dehver up them A\-ith their all arms to the Hungarians. . that as tlie King was willing to spare their lives. supply of provisions was immediately brought to them treacherously but while they were feasting in security. . and "Worms.

feeling himself unequal to the task. prepared an army to secure his dominion Coloman departed. but being led. Ladislaus. and the sale of provisions. like the last.d. His cousin. submit their claims to a peaceful arbitration they hhn. dividing themselves into twelve bands or companies. imtil became absolutely necessary : he therefore sent to inform them. Soon after the departure of (iodirey of Bouillon. who had been appointed Regent by Ladislaus. on condition of their submitting to his rule and to that of his sue- .28 ration. the Croatian nobles had formed a league. Avitliout any reference to league of nobles. the existing condition of the people. by knights and great personages. provided they . would upon which deputed twelve of their number to confer witb After a lengthened discussion. and rule the province in times of tlie will of their lawful King. He determined first to try measures of conciliation. and All those ordinances of Stephen. which had been shaken by recent events. in Croatia and Dalmatia. [a. lOOG how fur the laws coiuluced to the progress . King being occupied with the aflairs of his kingdom. After six years' absence from this part of his dominions. Coloman returned thither. contributed As soon as his guests had to enrich the Hungarian people. for wliicli aiiijile pa^inent was received. Bela. a sixth band of crusaders passed through the Hungarian territories. the King consented to leave them their rights. and hapof his piness of the people and. each led by a separate chief. and was met on the Save by the to carry on tlieir Avars. were retained many laws were more strictly detined. HISTORY OF iicyoAnr. laid the result labours before the Diet. he was willing to respect their liberties and grant them his protection. pri^oleges. no breach of discipline was committed. prepared to assert their independence. peace. and freedom. finally. and punisluiicnts mitigated. whieh were considered appropriate to . Almos. had rebut the Hungarian signed the government to Coloman . and not it to resort to force.

With Coloman terminated the reign of those princes who founded the Hungarian kingdom. married. both infants.Ladislaus. the abdicated king of Croatia. of tlieir sight. in 1114. He died miserable. deprived him and liis iiniocent son. for a second time. he founded no monasteries. Although he built churches. that the nation is indebted for national independence. and self-government. Bela.strator of justice. and even withdrew the extravagant donations of his predecessors for ecclesiastical endowments . also formed a con- crown of Hungary and two of which he had been pardoned. its constitution and laws for it is to Stephen. died. . COLOMAy 29 After the confirmation of the treaty on both sides. which seemed to eiface from his mind the happier recollections of the benefits he had conferred upon the nation. by the Archbishop of 8palatro. 1114.Stung by remorse at his own cruelty and want of aelf-commaud. but penitent. The destruction of life and virtuous among ecclesiastics. .D. He . A succession of wars with the princes of Russia. .A. Coloman. liberty. after a wise and virtuous reign of eighteen spiracy to obtain possession of the after three attempts. he found his Queen had and daughter. and Coloman was solemnly crowned King of Croatia and Dalmatia. years.] cessors. a Russian princess father at Kiew. and sent her back to her where she shortly afterwards gave birth to a a pretender to the Boris. the king never recovered tlie remembrance of this deed. who subsequently became Hungarian throne. disturbed the remainder of his reign. son. for the possession of Dalmatia. the nobles tendered him their homage. which was at that time cemented bv a strong central power. and with the republic of Venice. he insisted on a strict and was a severe admini. and Coloman. Almos. for . indignant at his ingratitude. Bela. but divorced her in a few months. Predzlava. On his return to leaving him with a son Hungary.

and may be regarded as one of the most remarkable men of the period in which he Uved. He was surnamed Bibliophilus.30 ])!in. Coloman forbade the ordeal. Ladislaus enjoined a due observance of all Christo tian feasts. who formed a second class. : middle class of Hungary. and ordered the markets to be held on . (which service under the banner of the King was called the "insurrection. for ri'lif. since all who professed Christianity were included in the freemen or " nobiles " of llunfj^ary. and while tolerating the Jews. who were employed to defend the fortified castles of Hungary. while the paj^ans were now reduced to serfdom. who led their men into the field the " inferior nobiles " {servi- entes regales). " that there are no sue persons" limited the and commuted tortxires into fines and other punishments. of '> witches." the emancipated serfs and naturalized foreigners.") and the soldiers or freemen (franklins). trial by .'ioii8 the restoration of their ancient rites. on the express ground. obliged them trial keep the Christian sabbath. for the service of the king . Avho fought alone. [a.d. and the introduction of Christianity was less a than a political movement. All these were comprehended under the term "nobiles.anlHin niSTOEY OF nUNGARY. were not required to perform military service. and the . and were subject to none but him out of these have arisen the citizens of towns. and to this may be ascribed the tVctjiK'nt desire expressed by the people." or levy of "nobiles. It was during determined. this period that the composition of the Diet was It consisted of the high aristocracy or Mag- nates. Saturdays King Bela insisted on a stricter observance of Sundays. 1114. including the Prelates. and were therefore confounded with the serfs or lowest order of the people they were obliged to pay taxes to the king. for his love of learning. but possessed nopoliticalrights.

31 CIIAPTEE Continuation of the Jcings IV. LaJisJaus II. LaJislaus III. tlie acquiring an vmdue share of influence in the state. in the commencement of his reign. power Stephen succeeded his father on tlie throne of Hungary . — Stephen — IL. Feom the death of Colomau. to emulate the glory of his ancestors. Golden Bull — Invasion of the A. to gain possession of Daliuatia. Bela II. became in him a mere passion for conquest the while at the same time he disgraced by a life notorious for its vices.A. Andrew III. of the house of Arpdd.. commenced with the Duke of Bohemia. Though ambitious Stephen inherited neither their virtues nor their capacity. Stephen III.. the son of Coloman by his first wife. and the kingdom was accordingly governed for hiin by the A successful attempt Prelates and Magnates of his court. xuitil the latter was obliged to inflict a .. into the dominions of Duke Leopold of -Austria. BeJa III. Stephen The Crusades Tl. the kings of the house of in Avisdom Arpad degenerated and valour .. was made by the Venetians. 1114—1301. he was only thirteen years of age. name he bore. for the possession of some border towns. 1122. .e IV. the weakness of the monarchs however was conducive to tlie growth of central self- dependence in the peopL% and prevented II. before another was This war was scarcely ended. and forced to consent to a truce of five years. Bela IV. Emerick. Geisa II.D. but they were re- pulsed by the Hungarian ]\lagnates.. lummary vengeance upon the Hungarians. — Tartars. He led his people on a war of plunder. For many years . by extending their domain over the unruly pro\inces which surrounded Hungary.] STEPHEN II. "What was in them a desire to increase the power and solidity of the nation.D. Andrew II..

who had some defeats he had once susThe Poli. if Tou may take the city yourself. He aid to this enterprise. enraged at the death of his to revenge commanded him tained in Russia.>jh Duke joined his forces to those of Stephen. he was persuaded to marry a His luxurious court. to the government of his own . [a. and the King of Hungary. friend. the confirmation of the rights aiul privileges of the Dalmatian people. and can only be taken . as the subjects of Kiug Stephen opposed all his projects of foreign invasion. The desire and conquest returning. they not a despotic monarch vengeance against the enemy.D. But a King. or the easy temper of the monarch. niece of Leopold. induced surrounding princes. at the expense of the greater part of our armv and even if you had it in your possession. were. for the restoration of a banished prince to his throne. to whom would you confide the charge of its maintenance and defence ? Kot one of us will consent to perform this senice. considered it . the their thrones ful enemies. to satiate his But the Hungarian nobles was high time to remind Stephen that he was and meeting in council. but was slain in a sally from the chief city. 1122.32 uftiTwarcLs HISTORY OF HUKQABT. foiuidation of a Beutdii-line abbey. be prince of A\1adimir. In 1122. ordered his soldiers to risk their lives. the oidy things worthy of note performed by Stephen during many years. in these words : —" The city is strong. and the con- clusion of a treaty with the for the excitement of war Duke of Bohemia. he engaged persuaded his nobles to lend their it in a contest witli Russia. by an assurance that he undertook in obedience to the dying injunctions of his father. driven from and countries by rebellious subjects or powerResigned to vicious indulgence and pleasure. to seek refuge within his dominions. and you please. peace reigned between Austria and Iliuigarv. who prefers the imcertain do- niioion of a foreign country. despatched one of their number to acquaint the King with their decision.

1131. shall is If such be your determination. and obey their "wishes. Stephen assumed the habit of a monk. giving him in marriage.D. and carried away many of tlie inliabitauts. reconciled to his cousin by his death. Helena. the Hungarians sustained a signal defeat from the Greeks. and adopted him as his heir. the daughter of a prince of Ser\'ia. discontent. and was well received by Jolin Comnenus. Stephen revenged himself upon those among his subjects Avho had opposed expedition into Russia. D . . 33 kingdom. the blind son of Almos. Stephen sent and demanded the expidsion of Almos from the empire and the refusal to comply with tliis demand occasioned another war. Conspiracies were now formed to seize the Hungarian throne. we The nobles accordingly ordered their followers to break up the camp. Under his the pretext of punishing these marauders. which was interred beside his ancestors in Stulilweissenburg. Fear. who had married tlie daughter of the Duke of the blind .A. return and choose another monarch. and hatred of the . and Stephen was forced to swallow the aflront. Poland. and died in the year 1131. As his great nobles refused their aid. monarch prevailed throughout the land and among others Duke of Croatia.] BELA not for us. he sent for Bela." During the king's absence several of the nobles who had remained in Hungary had made predatory excursions into Bavaria. demanded his body. the Byzantine Emperor. and the name of his half-brother Boris. and obtained the assistance of the Duke of Boliemia notwithstanding which. At the instigation of some of his courtiers. disease to a When reduced by bed of sickness. II. Almos died at Constantinople and Stephen. and having no son himself. Almos. fled to Constantinople. suggested fears for his own safety to Stephen. Shortly afterwards. he resolved to give a colouring of virtue to an act of self-preservation. he was obliged to court foreign alliances.

without the ornaments belonging to her rank. that your descendants may ever is remember that the representative of God on earth sacred!" As she ended these words her audit ois started to their feet.34 HI8T0ET OF HUNOAHY. those who had been the advisers of Coloman in his barbarous act. " Kise. Attired simply. the father of these children alone could not behold moving the feelings of her audience tion of the sufferings of the blind. after by an eloquent descripshe appealed to them." she exclaimed. infants in her arms. . spiracies . She was a woman of a bold and opposition. She reminded present. and his Queen soon obtained an extraordinary influence in the kingdom. their loyalt}^ to their sovereign. by . "if you are honourable and valiant men. and a deadly combat followed. she all advanced with a majestic step. Soon after the birth of their second son. a great meeting of the Diet was convened at her desire in Arad. Queen Helena unexpectedly joined them. to which she The Magnates and "nobiles" were invited thither from all parts of the kingdom and when all were assembled. Stuhlweissenburg. [a. masculine temperauR'nt. Bela the Second ascended the throne of Hungary withnut and was erowued with liis Queen Helena at His bodily infirmity obliged him to resign niueli of his power into tlie liands of those who surrounded him. 1132.D. them and. consecrate the field of Arad as a place of divine for justice. that while they were blessed with the sight of the heirs to the throne of Hungary. and execute a deed of justice upon the criminals by their death you will secure your King. and yourselves from vile con. to point out among their numbers. a place she selected because the inhabitants of the surprofessed the Greek faith. these children. with the blind King seated in the midst. and elierished a deep revenge for the suflc-rings which liad bei-n inflicted upon her husband in his childhood. in which sixty-eight nobles were . and bearing her two rounding districts also belonged.

and the Archbishop of Gran. conAros the King's uncle. Sophia. a hardy people had been . Conrad of Hohenstaufen. . in the thirty-third year of his ago. where. and d2 . 1141. and King Bela. to his third and youngest son Stephen. on the rocKy summits of the mountains the chamois ranged. and the aurochs grazed while. That day Boris acquired a numerous accession to his party in Hungary. as many fell the victims of private revenge and hatred. as a sin-offering. who had no pleasure in war.A. which wild horses. field . Queen Helena. leaving Hungary. . Geisa was only t^n years of age when his father died the kingdom sisting of the Palatine Belus. At that period the southern region of Transylvania was partly covered with forest. and their property confiscated. to the son of the German Emperor. mouths of the great river. buffaloes. and Dalmatia . When Helena saw the danger which her thirst for revenge had brought upon her husbaud. 1141. and soon after died. in which whoever ventured to assert the le^gitimacy of Boris was put to tha sword.D. Croatia.] left GEiSA n. long struggling against the encroachments of the sea either invited to Transylvania and. she caused another meeting of the nobles to be summoned. a thick in and partly consisted of luxuriant pasture land. wandered across Europe. leader. by the regents of the kingdom. The Pretender was finally repulsed. contracted various alliances with surrounding princes. . The wives and children of the slain were exiled. on the borders of Croatia. undisturbed by the hunter. or bestowed by upon the church. a colony of or conducted thither by some adventurous these Flemings or Germans. was therefore governed by a regency. b}' which he hoped to maintain his kingdom in his eldest son Geisa Servia to his second son Ladislaus and Sirmium. 35 dead upon the not all alike guilty. He married his only daughter. Reports of the fertility of the soil at the had reached the Rhine country of Flanders.

they called the country Siebenbiirgen or . The following year. A wild tradition told of a rat-catcher. seventy thousand knights. that the Emperor ex- claimed aloud in the cathedi'al. with a hundred thousand followers. who. They seized upon all they re- I . who afterwards succeeded his uncle Conrad in the empire. Bernard so eloquent a discourse. he was ready to fight in the cause of God . where. preached a new crusade in Prance. in remembrance of the seven of the Rhine. resolved in person to lead his warriors to the Holy Land. and thus led the Germans from their homes. and the presence of Bernard alone saved the unhappy Israelites from extinction. poured into Hungary.3G HISTOEY or HUNOART. Emperor to render him assistance to obtain the crown of Hungary. appealed to Austria. was the commencement of fresh Avars. and wdth Henry. the right of electing their own magistrates. having suc- ceeded in charming rats to follow him by music. who had taken refuge in the court of Conrad. At the same time a monk. Boris. excited the Grerman people to massacre the Jews. is was named by them Siebenbiirgen. though repulsed. The Pretender. and Louis the VII. and accompanied by Frederick Barbarossa. but at Spires. &c. Bergen the colonists were welcomed to Hungary." such as exemption from taxation. led by the Emperor.D. to the far East. Bernard of Clairvaux. [a. named Eudolph. and other great princes. countrj^ which. established themselves in the known in England as Transylvania. on their way to Palestine. assxxming the cross. In the year vainly petitioned the 1146. asid were all allowed to partake of the privileges of the "nobiles. received the cross from the hand of the abbot. tried the same liills art on man. which. therefore.. delivered Conrad was at first unwilling to listen to his exhortations. Conrad was too much occupied with his own wars in Italy and Grermany to lend aid to others. and a successful inroad was made into Hungary. Duke of Bavaria. 1146.

he altered his Geisa. Frederick Barbarossa was crowned Emperor of Germany. 1153. and descended Geisa died in 1161. riage caused This mar- Hungary to be engaged in perpetual wars iu aid of the relatives of the Queen. he obtained a grant of troops. there was little peace during his reign. his guardians married him to a Eussian princess. Avithout offering payment. retired for safety into Presburg. appeared on the frontiers of Hungary with a large army..] STEPHEX III. itself. Manuel Comnenus.D. upon his son Stephen ship of his mother Euphrosjiie. Soon after their departure. The Byzantine Emperor. when the and under the guardianNo sooner had Stephen Byzantine Emperor. . alarmed by the report of the conduct of the crusaders in Hungary. 37 quired. to support the claims of his laus his two uncles LadisEuphrosyne with the yovmg King and brothers. and was succeeded by III. Manuel Coinuenus. and as Greisa became also involved in a war with the Byzantine Emperor. concluded a friendly alliance with from whom Italy. immediately hastened to deliver Constantinople. announced to the assembled princes his intention to lead an army into Hungary. abbots. Louis refused to up Boris who had accompanied his army. of the French over the Germans while accepting the friendship of Greisa. and Conrad himself was not slack in taking advantage of the riches of the land. yet a minor. A^-ith his army of counts. proving by their orderly behaviour.A. joined the Sultan Masud in hopes of destroying the marauders. As soon as Greisa had attained his majority. bishops. Euphrosyne. but the Pretender hearing of his danger. and subject that kingdom to the German Empire but a stronger temptation presenting determination. and Ladislaua and Stephen. In 1152. Louis the Seventh of France entered the kingdom. been crowned. and on the day of his coronation. and knights. the superior civilization at that time.

he sent assur- ances of friendship to the Hungarians. and he therefore proposed that the boy ehould be educated in Constantinople. however. and invaded Hungary once more he was. As soon as he had recovered his freedom. released him. and the greater liis number of adherents immediately juined the rightful King. which the Emperor coveted for his own possession. he was taken young King. tlio [a. By own intrigue and artifice the elder Stephen obtained bin at length coronation. too great for its results. but the Byzantine Emperor thought the costs of such a war.d. ander III. the young . and restore the Empire of Constantine. and INIanuel concluded a treaty. and therefore. defeated in a pitched battle. by which he promised the state. afterwards of poison. to unite the Latin and Greek churches under one head. the younger left Bela had been by his father the Dukedom of Sdavonia. and promoted him to a high rank in Stephen meantime had succeeded in obtaining a grant of troops from the Emperor. however. who. and persuading Pope Alexthe inheritance of Bela to him. condition that on the Hungarians should consent to resign Though Stephen died soon Manuel invaded Hungarj' once more on pretence of claiming Dalmatia for Bela the war continued for some years with varying fortunes but while the Emperor of the East was engaged in rousing all Italy against Frederick Barbarossa. 1171. who bestowed upon him the name of Alexius. with an offer of the hand of his daughter Maria brother of the King.38 III8T0HY OF UUXOAnY. and he was sent to Manuel. : never again to support the claims of the Pretender. : . he hastened Manuel to demand his assistance once more. The Magnates consented. instead of 8uj)porting the claims of the elder Stephen. in marriage to Bela. but the war continuing. but condemned him to banihhprisoner and di'livered to the adherents of the to ment. even if successful. shortly afterwards assuiiicd crown of Hungary : he died BuddiMily at the end of hix days.

before he departed. the night King Stephen died. Geisa fled into seized his person. to the Duke of who were passing through Hungary on their way Holy Laud. wear}. 39 King of Hungary celebrated at Vieuua his nuptials with Agnes. but. the daughter of the Austrian Duke Henry. and he con. a relative of Barbarossa. however.] BELA III. promise to cede to him to place his camp demanding the presence of their the Emperor made Bela Daliiiatia. when the birth of a son caused him to set aside the claims of the in strict confinement but their mother Euplirosyne. tinued a prisoner for fifteen years.of the Byzantine yoke..D.the Lion Duke of Saxony. first act was younger brother Gei.died in 1172. contrived his Bela in. while the elder married Leopold the son of the Duke of Austria. and the kingdom devolved on Bela D3 recovered for nobles him Daluiatia. The King next banished Euphrosyne into Greece. 1184. tliere to await Ambassadors from the Hungarians ha. pliK-ed him in Bohemia. he received the infonnation of his brother's death from Henn. Belli by the presence of Hungary. leaving no children. a connecting link was thus established between Hungary and the Germanic Empire. Having thus se- . to the frontiers of the course of events. who tenderly loved the son from whom she had never been separated. where. shortly arrived at the King. supported Manuel himself. Manuel had adopted Bela as his heir.stened with a large army. and the Austria. deprived one of his nobles of his sight. and deposed the Archbishop of Colocza for having been accessory to the flight of Geisa. and his escape. next heir . the Duke and sent him back to Hungary Bela now closer confinement than before. and his which was already The Duke having married Theodora.. and even to dissolve the marriage between him and his daughter Maria: King Stephen of Hungan. His youngest sister accompanied her mother into exUe. was crowned King in L174.A.

40 UISTOnY OF nUNOABT. her brother had presented Isaac niszova and with the territory which lay between BraAViddin. escorted by a thousand kniglits. the sister of the French King. and it was reported that he was preparing to take the monastic vows. and war with the Venetians followed for the possession of the maritime cities. and a few years later commenced the third general crusade. with Constantia the daughter of the King the of Hungary. cured his throne from family. came to meet them at Gran Quecu Margaret presented the Emperor with a tent hung with scarlet and splendidly fumishea. They assembled at Presburg. who had accompanied her mother Euphrosyne to Constantinople. Fre- Duke of Swabia. and was accompanied by the l)uke of Austria and the Princes of Germany. but in the mean time IsaiM . f^aiiist of pretensions from hie own Bda sent asHistance to the Byzantine Emperor the 8ultan. Hia a fief of the German Empire. than Bela seized on the province. In 1184 he married Margaret. all danf^jer [a. was however refused. on the arrival of Frederic. the King of Hungary was faithful to his engagement to yield Dalmatia to him. but no sooner was the Emperor disabled by sickness. Isaac Angelus. it by a AVallack offered to hold offer as The Byzantine Emperor was too and the land was seized who. weak to maintain his authority. and gave command of two thousand men who were to him accompany Frederic to Palestine. and King Bela. and Frederic remained four days at deric Gran to celebrate the betrothal of his son. he himself following the Crusaders until tliey arrived in Servia.d. As long as he had any thing to fear Irom Manuel. 1189. chief. had been married at iiine years of age to the Byzantine Emperor. Bela released Geisa from his long imprisonment. and in honour of so great an alliance. The aged Frederic Barbarossa led his army in person towards the Holy Land. At the request of the Emperor. The youngest sister of Bela.

and disturbed the whole of Emeric's reign.. stantinople. Crusade. had prepared for a new crusade. but died before fulfilling his vow the in 1196 but his widow.] EMEHIC. where she died at Acre a few months later. 41 had thrown the amoassadors of Barharossa into prison. himself. Emeric. : Henry VI. at his request. When Bela heard of these transactions. Emeric sought the assistance of the new Pope. King of Arragon. and his Duke of Swabia. he expected a war between the two Emperors.D. but the feud between the brothers broke out at inten-als. and with the Emperor. Bela. on the ground that their master was approaching with the intention of depriving him of his dominions. at length reconciled by Conrad.'. Queen Margaret. Geisa.. threatened with excommunication all who should support the claims of Andrew. he commanded all his subjects who had started on the Crusade to return. .. succeeded to the throne of Hungan.A. the eldest son of Bela. 1203. both perished in this expedition. \uidertook pilgrimage in his stead. who had married the daughter of Rinaldo. Prince of Antioch. proceeded to Palestine. The King and the Duke were. but the Prince treated his denunciations with contempt and seized the provinces he coveted. and thus enabled them to remain in Hungary and restore peace to the distracted Soon afterwards the King married Constantia the countr)'. however. who. absolved twenty-three Prelates and !^^agnate3 from their vow to join the Crusade of Queen Margaret and the Emperor. family. Archbishop of ]\rayence. and as he did not desire to be involved in their quarrels. who claimed the Pope Celestine III. the Frederic Barharossa. daughter of Alfonso II. but his reign was disturbed by the re- Andrew. proceeded to Con- where he received a wife from the imperial son. Innocent III. who extorted from them both a vow to join in a bellion of his younger brotlior Dukedom of Croatia and Dalmatia. however.

and accepted the condition. he allowed the matter to be dropped in silence. of all the gold and find. The Crusaders did not suspect any concealed design on the part of the Doge. and Simon de Montfort. Jadra was stormed and of their promise. though indignant at this infringement of and at the ofience given to the King of Hungary. the Doge permitted his soldiers to and even the churches. therefore. before he proceeded on his expedition. provided the French would lend them their assistance in subduing their enemies. their vow. In spite of the protests of the leaders. they coidd the capital of the Byzantine empire. Emeric.42 HISTOBT OF HUXGABY. Marquis of Moutferrat. arms to subject all taken. and after destroying the walls and houses they re-embarked for Constantinople. and finally established stormed and seized upon Constantinople. as the larger portion of the money was still wanting at the time of their embarkation. but after a month's voyage they were surprised to find themselves in the harbour of Jadra. of Jadra in Dalmatia. wintered in the city [a. and a Latin Empire. for which the Eepublic was to receive a large sum of money. The Pope. having submitted to the affront offered him at Jadra. where the Venetians claimed the fulfilment and insisted on their employing their the maritime cities of Dalmatia. insisted . Before leaving Jadra. after pretending to excommunicate the ofienders. Boniface. Arrived in plunder the silver city. to grant an easy absolution. 1203. The Hungarians Venetians.D. Innocent to the throne of Hungary to his younger son Ladislaus. they proceeded to de- pose and re-instate the Eastern Emperors at their pleasure. the Venetians offered to ex- cuse the pajTnent altogether. whose possession had long been disputed by the The Doge had agreed on this occasion to fur- nish transports to convey the French army to Palestine. which endured for half a century. it thought advisable in the present jimctm-e. entreated the Pope to secure the succession In return.

Pope Innocent attempting to interfere in an afiair between Hungary and the neighbouring state of Bulgaria. through his astonished and awe-struck followers. and the majesty of his appearance. 1205. and entrustiag command to his brother Andrew. A correspondence between the Pope and the King followed.D. The cowardly suggestion roused aU his energies taking ofi" his armour. . he entered. he walked alone and unarmed into the midst of the rebel " Hungarians. and the King being unprepared to meet this rebellion. Emeric made a complaint of various grievances against the Holy See. during his minority. he not only pardoned his faults towards himself. which however ended peacably by the coronation of Emeric's son Ladislaus. and commanding that none should follow him. and his wife sent home to her parents. and seizing Andrew with his own hand. The king soon afterwards feU dangerously ill. for which they were rewarded by a free pardon. After the death of Emeric. and she could not . He was not long in applying it to that purpose. Andrew alone was thro^^^l into prison.A. and ordering his brother to be brought to him from his prison. 43 upon his raising another army for the Crusade. : . by which to assert his claim to the Hungarian throne. his courtiers advised him to fly. who had thus a force in readiness. led him back a prisoner. aD gave way before him irntil he reached his brother's tent when lifting up the curtain. and thus addressed them King who among you will dare to dip his hand in the royal blood r" Daunted by his courage. all laid dovra their arms and returned to their duty.] LADISLArS II. and laying aside sword and lance. but appointed him guardian of his son. The war was thus ended. and Eegent the . wife Gertrude into : Andrew sent for Hungary her ambitious spirit craved his for the splendour and power of the throne. he placed the sacred crown upon his head. in 1205. behold your host.

Their rivalry and hatred at length became so fierce. if any. so as to surpass those limits within which alone the office can be conducive to the happiness and . brook the haughty temper of the Queen mother. since from him the nobles BuU (Bulla Aurea).D. like II. ot\ti The reign of Andrew that of our John. .44 HISTOET OF IIUNOART. whose fate hers resembled. [a. by their own determination and spirit of indepenobtained their Golden the dence. carried with them the crown and the other insignia of royalty. indeed. and Andrew being now undisputed heir to the throne. increased. that Constantia begau to tremble for the safety of her son. and sent back the crown and jewels to Hungary. and threw themselves on the protection of Leopold. and even the Magnates could not prevent the Monarch giving away any part of his dominions. returned to her own countrv% and four years later married the Emperor Frederick II. forms one of the most important epochs in the history of the country over which he reigned. but just as they were preparing for battle. being hereditary. was considered indeed a necessary condition for the exercise of the royal authority but though this in some measure acted as a check upon his inordinate power. the Prelates and Magnates advised her to fly with him into Austria. equivalent to the Magna Charta of England. secured in their Constitution the foundation of their liberties but the power of the sovereign had in the meantime. They reached Vienna in safety. and by the wisdom and virtue of the first kings of the race of Arpad. the news arrived of the sudden death of Ladislaus. Leopold withdrew his forces. Constantia. The people of Hungary had. .. 1205. more easily consoled than Constance the wife of Geoffrey Plantagenet. The ceremony of coronation welfare of the community. and many of them accompanying her. few. who assembled an army and approached the frontiers of Ilungar}^. still all offices and dignities were in the gift of the King.

she would send them still greater Tlie foUoA^-ing year Andrew accompanied his sou wealth. and after her death she A^as canonized as St. and the life. her singular virtues helped to confirm the superstition life her has formed the ground-Avork of one of the most beautiful of saintly legends. was solemnized with great pomp at Presburg. . 45 first "Wars with Russia and Poland occupied the after the accession of years Andrew. carrying with them a large amount of treasure collected by Andrew. Their uncles fled from the country.D. tated irri- by fresh offences. and . not only presented the Ambassadors of the Landgrave A\-ith rich presents of gold. assuming the authority of her husband. Gertrude. they murdered her in her oaati palace. in 1212. Avho bitterly complained of their ingratitude ia a letter to the Holy See. silver. however. The people. and her children only escaped by the care and fidelity of their tutor. committed by the brothers of the Queen. in which Gertrude appears to have participated. and. showed small regard for the demuiciations of a distant Pontiff. and entrusted the regency diu-iag Time and ophis absence to Gertrude and her relations. who ruled over her husband. to celebrate his marriage with a daughter of the Duke. 1212. and jewels. and in revenge he induced the Pope to lay Hungary under an interdict. Coloman into Poland. Tlie period of prosperity to Hungar}^ which had followed the birth of this chdd made the people look upon her as one favoured by Heaven. The marriage of the young Princess Elizabeth. At her nuptials. Elizabeth of Hungary. to Louis son of the Landgrave of Thuringia. and caused her relatives and friends to be raised to the highest places in the state. made on her brother the escaped with his Archbishop of Colocza he. portunity favoured first a conspiracy attack was : against the imperious Queen.A. however. that if a long life were granted to her. but bid them tell their lord.] ANDEETP rr. and much discontent was occasioned in the country by the imperious character of his Queen.

and re- turned to find the whole kingdom in disorder. in the government of Croatia and Dalmatia. left Andrew appropriated the gold and jewels stantia. which took place about vented her establishing her claim.D. however. He further supplied his to own extravagance. His eldest son Bela had already gained the respect and by the firmness of his character. . Two years later his younger son Coloman took the place of Beia. mortgaging the domains belonging to and selling the crovni lands to wealthy Magnates. Peter was opposed by Theodore Comnenus. who was entrusted with the government of Transylvania. who had already croMoied Peter Emperor of the East. To replenish his treasury. It fell upon Andrew. dete- riorating the coin. and of affection of the people . He was absent from Hungary four years. he established him at a distance from himself. and he was invited to take possession of the Imperial Crown.. 1222. The Pope appealed for assistance to Andrew then on his way to the Holy Land: Andrew accordingly proceeded to Acre. and in order to secure his throne. but was dissuaded from accepting the honour by Pope Honorius. the fortified castles. The King shortly afterwards married the daughter of Peter made a vow to raise another crusade. the treasury emptied. by whom he was arrested and thrown into a dungeon. the choice of a successor lay between the Hungarian King. pre- whose death. Count of Auxerre. by the Empress Conthis time. and his new father-in-law. at last persuaded to invite him to return. by farming the taxes Jews. jealous of his popularity.46 HISTOET OF HUNGAEY. and seek protection from Leopold. his love of justice obliged him to fly the kingdom. which he reached after a long voyage. and greedy Prelates and Magnates devouring the substance of the people. but his expedition partook more of a pilgrimage than of a Crusade. The King was. and dying about this time. Duke of Austria. [a. The Latin Emperor of Constantinople of Covirtenay. and and Andrew.

and of certain other natives of these realms. instigated by the Pope. 1. the nobility and freemen of the country. The ecclesiastics of Hungary. The condition of this peace was. offered to mediate a peace between the King. impelled by their own evil propensities. have suffered great detriment and curtailment by the violence of svmdry kings. demanded the restoration of the ancient Constitution. " As the liberties of the nobility. be subject to taxes 2.] all AJs'DEEW II. by the cravings of their insatiable cupidity. that the Magnates resolved to appeal to the mediation of the Pope: Honorius commanded Andrew to restore the lands which he had parted -with. so that. It was here enacted that. by which he had sworn to preserve the integrity of the kingdom. supported by them. as provided by the statutes of * St. and the disorders of the kingdom had reached such a climax.D. who was supported by the great Magnates. who had the voice of the people. and his son. and immunities. the Golden Bull of Hungary. violent discussions and The King declares he is accusations had arisen now Avilling to confirm and maintain. and as the Mobiles' of the coimtry had preferred frequent petitions for the confirma' tion of the constitution of these realms. sentenced or punished for ^ crime. Stephen. which was granted in the year 1222. in utter contempt of the royal authority. the land had become the prey of barbarous invaders. and by the ad\dce of certain malicious persons. in pri\'ileges. founded by King Stephen the Saint. 47 the country between the Theiss and Aluta. for the future. unless he receive a " . " That the Nobiles' and their possessions shall not. "With a weak monarch and an exhausted treasury. all their rights. in direct violation of his coronation oath. and. 1222. for all times to come. That no man shall be either accused or arrested.A. and the honour of the crown. Bela now assembled the " Nobiles" and Franklins of Himgary. and impositions.

48 legal shall 3. * See Appendix to Austria. until a judicial inquiry into his case have taken place. or the salt mines. This clause was. and the high 5. a Diet held in city of Gran. 1234. the conspiracy Avas discovered in time to prevent execution. 367. The King has no offices of right to entail whole counties. Styles. however. the taxes. but Andrew lost courage and did not venture to insist on his refractory nobles fulfilling their part in the conditions of the Great Charter. In a foreign war. Beatrice. where the all Golden Bull was signed and sealed with solemnity in the Andrew married for a third time in his old age. it shall not be legal to force them to cross the frontier of their country. however compelled to ratify it in Beregher Forest. iL p. John. and was revoked in 1687. to return the land unjustly Those Magnates who by the Golden Bull were compelled alienated by King Andrew. the Knights Templars of Hungaiy and Sclavonia.D. . H. and died in 1234. formed a conspiracy to overthrow the monarchy."* copies were The Golden Bull comprised thirty-one chapters. HISTOBT OP HUNGAET. vol. the Palatine. and seven made and delivered into the keeping of the St. and " [a. That though the to ' Nobiles' and Franklins shall be bound do military seiTice at their own expense. the Archbishops of Gran and Colocza. in 1231. sup- posed to give an undue power to the people. and the Pope. daughter of the Marquis d'Este. Dmiiig W. 1348-49. the coinage. the king shall be bound to pay the knights and the troops of the counties. the King. summons. The thirty-first clause gave every Hungarian noble a right of veto upon the acts of Knights of the King if unconstitutional. abolish the Constitution and divide the land among themselves its . "The Kingis not allowed to farm to Jews and Ishmaelites his domains. the kingdom. He tlie was. 4.

as weU as within the kingdom. who Soon after her arrival left the country disguised as a man. when he passed through the kingdom on his way to the Holy Land. He was seconded in his endeavours by his brother Coloman. He even ventured to demand from the monlis of the Avealthy Cistercian Abbeys. and the powerfid order of St. who had been the evil counsellor of the late King.D. 1234. and they appealed against their king to . some gave the property of the crown. educated at the schools of Paris and Bologna. and by the chief nobles of Hungary. who afterwards married a daughter of a last Venetian noble. and Bela was obliged to appeal to the Pope against this systematic fraud. His first act was to rid the country of the tyrannical Magnates and the Palatine. and with the consent of his Magnates. and the ambassadors departed with Beatrice. To evade obedience to the decree of the King. An embassy from the G-erman Emperor arrived in Hungary to demand a tribute. King Bela the Fourth had been prepared for his office by & long experience in the duties of government. and the Knights Templars. residence it son. she gave birth to a his reign the . 49 Court was first lield at a fixed place of was not only composed of Prelates and Magnates.A. which it was asserted had been paid to Frederic Barbarossa. The cities acquired importance about this period. which they had in their possession to the keeping of various monasteries. Stephen. John. by whom he became the father of the Hungarian King of the line of Arpad.] BELA IT. the widow of the late King. he declared all grants of the domains of the royal castles made by his predecessors null and void. but was frequented by learned men.. As no such tribute had ever been exacted. it was now refused. and the condition of the serfs underwent some amelioration. a restitution of the crown lands. The severe rule of Bela at length roused the indignation of the great nobles. at the court of her uncle the Emperor.

yet the The King assembled an army on the Danube in the neighbourhood of Pesth. whose sister had married the King of that country. v. and entered into a correspondence with the Holy See. Hungarian King advanced to the walls of Vienna. which ended by a part of Bulgaria being yielded to Hungary. fortified all the passes and prepared to repel the invaders first but in the place summoned a great Diet at Buda. Bela. [a. and a dreadful massacre of the inhabitants followed. and stood ready to meet the enemy who had already entered the country. and intelligence having reached Bela of the Three meet him with a numerous preceded him.50 Frederic tliat niSTOET OP nrNGAIlT. commanded Bela to lead a war against Bulgaria. conspiracy. A new danger threatened Hungary in 1240 from the in- cursions of the Mongols from Tartary. . led his followers to the charge before the order of battle was determined.d. where he defor the defence of the country. Trusting to their represeutation Bola was universally disliked in Hungary. which he had placed under an interdict for having abandoned the Eomish faith. he approached to host. the Pope siderable sum of surprised by finding that he was not joined by a single Hungarian. The Duke a morass. Bela . and only consented to peace on condition of the payment of a conThe year following. a man of head- strong and impetuous character. was unwilling to commence hostilities. "Waitzen was taken by storm by the Tartars. and the Austrians believing the whole army of Bela was upon them. 1240. manded a contingency nobles were only la^ish in promises. and only escaped with four of his ceived by a feigned flight of the enemy. and advanced into the kingdom. the Duke He raised a large army. Duke of Austria. The Archbishop of Colocza. The fled in disorder. and de- became entangled in men alive from the field. hundred knights without the necessity of resorting to arms. carrying their Duke along with them.

had. the place in which he was confined was rudely broken open. who had arrived in Pesth. to revenge his late disgraces before Vienna. the nobles resolved to put him to In vain Bela remonstrated and endeavoured to protect the prisoner. after which the Duke of Austria death. One misfortune followed another. in the first His severity had alienated instance. 51 of Austria. and carried off two of the Mongols priDazzled by the brilliant daring he had displayed. laid and Transylvania and Hungary were waste by the ma- The inhabitants fled into the mountains.] BELA lY. body of followers. and that this misery was a consequence of the enervated state of the people. and to gain favour with the Hungarian people. rauders. on pretence of offering alone. came almost Determined. the Mongols fell upon their unsuspecting \4ctims. occasioned by many years of misgoveruThe manner in which Bela had endeavoured to ment. his assistance. The seal had been stolen and used by the conqueror. and his head thrown to the people. restore order and authority in a country.A. and when the land was again cultivated. he was received -nith shouts of joy in tlie camp. they were induced to return to their usual occupations by an order sealed by the royal signet. he made a sally with his small soners to Pesth. put the remainder of the unhappy people These horrors were the more lamented by Bela. the unarmed man murdered. as he knew that had the "Mobiles" from the commencement of the invasion. returned to his dominions. assuring them of tlieir safety. been injudicious.. whom they re- tained as prisoners. acted with energy and patriotism. 1240. and all was ripe for harvest. however. where they lay concealed till from the barbarians for a considerable period. which had been for so long a prey to discord and anarchy. and sparing only a few of the stronger men to a cruel death. E 2 .D. the barbarians would have been di-iven from the land. and believing they had now in their possession one of the chiefs of the barbarians.

accepted the promise.. Martin's on the Holy Mount upon the Danube. and famine and pestilence . virtues which they who could not prize the stern The King was himself at length obliged to take refuge with the Abbot of St. however. When cross iug the moinitains which separate Transylvania from Moldavia some escaped. [a. that their leader withdrew his hordes. and the stains of human their blood were everywhere to be traced. devouring the corpses which lay scattered in every direction. and it laid waste as of was not tiU the autumn 1242. On the plains beside the rivers.d. advanced into Austria. they found the skulls and bones of those who had perished. which they ravaged and they had done Hungary. then in Italy. INIongols. as a Bela resolved to use the remembrance of past misfortunes means to invigorate the people.52 niSTOET OF HXJFGAET. it was many weeks before the fugitives in the mountains crept out of their hiding-places. but sent no assistance against the who crossing the Danube on the ice at Pesth with part of their host. and to promise him the HunThe Emperor garian kingdom as a fief of the empire. and then endeavoured to collect their congregations. while the . or ventured to show themselves in the light of day. Herds of wolves and other wild beasts prowled about the country. the hearts of his subjects. while churches and houses lay in ruins. laid siege to the Holy Mount. 1242. and wandered back amidst many dangers to homes again. on the news arri^'ing of the death of the great Khan in Tartary. He was forced to demand aid from the Emperor Frederic II. The Mongols meantime happily escaped into Dalmatia. and raise their moral and material strength. As the cause of the sudden departure of the Mongols was \inknown. remainder proceeded to Stuhlweissenburg Bela. had never learnt to acknowledge. carrying with them a vast number of captives out of Hungary. He commenced by reinstating the clergy in their various homes.

Bela turned his the Venetians. but the In 1254 Bela married his son Stephen to Elizabeth. therefore. obtained the dukedom for himself and his family. fortunes of Hungary.A. Bela at length consented to resign to him half his kingdom. both laid claim to Austria after the death of the last Duke. 1269. but even then from a and the country was only saved engaged in a contest wiih Bulgaria. other. demanded the hand of Mary. and granting fresh immunities to the people. and leave the city in possession of the Ottocar of Bohemia. and Eudolph of Hapsburg. renewing the charters of the cities.D. the King of Hungary took the side of Eudolph who. princess of Cumania. to purchase com. but the Mongols of threatening a second invasion. for hia son and Stephen was dissatisfied. The Hapsburg dynasty thus owe the position they now occupy to the valour of the very people. endeavouring to apply a remedy for all grievances. the King Hungary was make peace. especially to the Grerman colonists. ci^al war by his being . In 1269 Charles of Anjou. a young prince was ambitious. whom in later years they have endeavoured to deprive of freedom and nationality. To complete the misof locusts descended ripe for har\'est. arms against of the misfortunes of As soon Hungary willing to republic.] finislied STEPIIEX IT. who had taken advantage on the to seize again city of Jadra. 53 the work of the barbarians. a large swarm upon the plain and devoured the fruits The people in desperation murdered each flesh was publicly sold in the markets. and was not contented with the government of Transylvania which his father bestowed upon him. whose industrious population he was anxious to encourage. as order was restored. and and as soon as the severest pressure of the famine was over. who was slain in battle when fighting against Bela. the daughter of Stephen. foreign countries. with his assistance. sent emissaries to cattle. and human Bela.King of Sicily. he travelled throughout the country.

and Ladislaus was obliged to consent to liberate his wife. in a first essay in arms war against Bohemia. was so bitter an affliction to the aged monarch. daughter of the King of Sicily. In the meantime. and many of them drowned in the mountain torrents and the swollen that year. that he followed him to the grave in a few months. Eudolph of Hapsof Hungary burg was crowned Emperor of Germany. which had been unusually When the news reached Ladislaus that the French had been driven out of Sicily. In 1285 barbarous hordes of Wallacks overran the country as far as Pesth. and grandson of . prince of Salerno the nuptials were approved King Bela. and the Eegents Stephen only survived Ladislaus. . and Ladislaus made his as the ally of the Emperor. was consummated. and even to the church. he expressed his willingness to enter into friendly relations ^vith the young King. Passionate and impetuous. heir Charles. was yet a minor w'heu he ascended the throne the foDowing year 1273. and his son. 1290. whom he never loved he shut her up in a cloister in the ^dcinity of Buda. and abandoned himself to . he sent for Andrew. who thus hoped to obtain an ally against Venice. a life of vicious indidgence. he gave frequent cause of offence to his subjects. the son of Stephen and a Yenetian lady. of Hungary sent ambassadors to Aix-la-Chapelle in the name of Ladislaus. and that Charles of Anjou was dead. Though Eudolph refused their demand. his father two years. who represented the matter to the Pope. The death of a younger and favourite son the of by following year. he threw off the last vestige of outward respect to his Queen Isabella.54 HISTOEY OF HUNOAET. and were not expelled until their niunbers were greatly diminished by famine and pestilence. and the treatment of Isabella further incensed the Hungarian Prelates.D. rivers. . In hia eighteenth year his marriage with Isabella. [a. to claim Austria and StjTia for the Hungarian crown.

who belonged to the Morosini family of Venice.A.. pre- vented their attempting to assert their claims by arms. 129C. II. He in^'ited his mother. was sent to drive him and his adherents from the kingdom.D.J AyDEEW by his III. as well as by inheritance. Queen Beatrice and named him of Sclavonia. the last of the race of Arpad. Count Soos.. was called to The news reached him in Dalmatia. Andrew his heir. to the Emperor Frederic II. bestowing upon him the title of in Duke In 1290. a celebrated commander of late King. in the dominions of his son Albert. in his war against the Mongols. he hastened to Hungary. the condition remained also unfulfiUed. and granted rights and privileges to the influential Magnates as well as to communities. Having secured the . 55 d'Este. King of Hungary. gave her the title of Queen mother. to join him in Hungary. . as a condition of his rendering him assistance. Eudolph of Hapsburg declared Hungary a fief of the empire. meantime. Duke of Austria. and placed a royal retinue at her disposal. his throne Andrew. neglected no opportunity to establish more securely. and possessed great wealth. in virtue of the promise made by King Bela IV. Ladislaus was murdered private injur)'. could not receive his crown from the Emperor. but the King and people refused to acknowledge him and soon afterwards. who assumed the name and title of the deceased brother of the George. Happily. the death of Eudolph. He bestowed high offices and estates on the most distinguished Xobles and Prelates. and was crowned in Stuhlweissenburg but soon afterwards a pretender appeared in the person of an impostor. and Andrew. revenge for some Andrew III. and a rebellion the throne immediately after the death of Ladislaus. that time. As the assistance had never been sent. whom he appointed of his council.. The Pope now claimed a supremacy in Hungary. who was by the free election of the Hungarian nobles. .

Queen of Naples. This strict censorship raised many enemies to the King. their present and their former extent. She was at that time with her husband. and he was attached to the King of Naples. and of the domains appertaining to the royal castles. Celestine V.d. Though the Pope's death occurred shortly afterwards. should appear before him and the Magnates of each county. the time and reason for their alienation. He travelled in all parts of the kingdom to ascertaia its real condition. he formed alliances with foreign princes. King of Hungary during his short reign. and the title of the actual possessor.5G services of niSTOET OF IIUyGAET. and the Hungarian territory'. Mary. and he hastened to Dabnatia to claim the allegiance of the maritime cities of that province. 129-i. VIII. and she was supported in her pretensions by Pope Nicolas. in Provence. and that of his successor. he immediately acknowledged Charles. and render an account of the crown lands in their district. and on receiving a refusal. George Soos. Hujigary had little to fear but a more dangerous opponent presented itself in Boniface . [a. King of Hungary. which induced Albert to agree to terms of peace. claimed the throne of Hungary for her eldest son Charles. and though some of the Hungarian Magnates intrigued to substitute Charles plot was discovered before it was ripe. as In 1294. but they refused to acknow- ledge a second king. their Andrew endeavoured to improve the state of the provinces by a wise administration of the revenue. the Legate crowned the Neapolitan Prince. Andrew sent to Duke Albert of demanded the restitution of certain lands he had seized upon. for Andrew. but his son Charles . and required that the oldest inhabitants and men of well-known honesty. at Aix. and to protect himself against them. Charles did not long survive. became Pope. and to withdraw his soldiers from Austria. he sent an army of eighty thousand men across theDanube. sister of the late King Ladislaua.

and threatened the rest with excommunication. to secure freedom to the chui'ch. the capital of Croatia. In the commencement of the year. and had adopted the cause of the boy Charles Eobert.D. but the haughty Prelate refused. at which the Prelates and Magnates were present. to free the " Nobiles " from the oppression of the Magnates.] AyDEEW III. He assembled a great Diet at Pesth. adherents of Charles increasing in Hungary. A him message was sent to the Archbishop of Gran. Andrew visited various parts of his dominions. The Agnes. the daughter of Albert. The death of his Queen. Archbishop of Gran. left Andrew with only one child. who was same year cro^ATied by the Archbishop of Gran at Agrara. and proclaimed Charles Eobert King of Hungary. brought to Dalmatia. where. and he married for the second time. a daughter. were excited to rebellion bidls by the incessant intrigues of Mary. The rest of the Prelates remained . on the left bank of the Danube. traitors as Papal Nuncio. 1300. but that of submission to the Pope. This was and a more numerous assemblage of Magnates was collected even than at Pesth. the first Diet held in the open air. who had been created by Boniface Apostolic Nuncio in Hungary. who that confirmed the nomination of Charles Eobert. who in the Papal was already called Queen of Hungary. and withdrew behind the Drave. with the exception of Gregory. It confirmation of the rights of all classes was resolved to hold another great Diet the following year in the field of Efikos. In the meantune. 1294. 57 Eobert inherited his father's claim and the Papal protection. Andrew was last effort to determined to make a check this all spirit. the boy king was and rebels. The object of the Diet was to confirm the royal power. and a in the state. and even He allied himself more closely than ever with degradation. inviting also to attend.A. and tried every means to secure his throne. Duke of Austria. Elizabeth. he deposed the bishops from their dioceses.

and popularity made his success probable. Agnes retired to a cloister in Switzerland. into prison. accession of . The Arpadian dynasty had laid the foundations of the kingdom of Hungary. including the eccle- Hungary. sent an army to Hungary on her finally liberation. and the people asserted their indefeasible right the free of choosing. 1301. in 1301. they had seldom interfered with the general politics of Europe. After his death. been the same and. and the died Andrew. As winter approached. released from her vows to Wenceslaua of Bohemia. She and her stepdaughter Elizabeth were de^livered to him. which made im- possible for the rebels to get possession of St." No countr}'^ its of the continent of Europe had more boldly asserted independence of the Holy See. They therefore bribed one of his servants tlius to poison him. Andrew sent to all his faithful subjects. Stephen's crown. occupied with internal matters. commanding them to prepare for a campaign in the spring. and the rebels determined not to siastics of await the decision of their cause by a recourse to arms. or of the royal insignia. with the King of the house of Anjou.6S niSTORT OF IIUKOART. followed the example of her stepmother. it faithful to their legitimate sovereign. Queen Agnes was thrown until where she continued her father. A new era was the first opening upon Hungary. deposing. youth. even in matters of ecclesiastical jurisdiction kings. the interests of the sovereign . His energy. and punishing the bereditarj' servant of the state.D. According to Gibbon " The son of Geisa was invested with the regal title. while Elizabeth. under their national and of the people had . the last male heir of Arpadian dynasty. the to insist Emperor Albert. and the house of Arpad : reigned three hundred years in the kingdom of Hungarj- bom barbarians were not dazzled by the lustre of the diadem. [a.

he was finally elected di ]\Iontefiori King. Papal nuncio. Turks — — — — — — — — — John Sunyady. 59" CHAPTEE V. From this argument he deduced that the Hungarian people should in that present time.A. and maintained that he had received his crown and kingdom solely as a donation from the Pope. . A great assembly was convened by the Legate to meet in Pesth. Charles Louis the Crreat Mary SigismuJid Elizaheth Albert Ladislaus Invasions of th. 1301-U57. through his . a secret message from acknowledge that he held his kingdoms of Naples as fiefs of the Holy See. Kings of the houses of Anjou. should ever impose a king over them but hanng elected him of their own free will. 1301.D. and were determined to resist all encroachments from Eome.] CHAKLES. his King Charles at the comLoud mimnurd and his auditors of dissatisfaction followed oration. requiring the Gentilis -n-ith arrived in Ilungarj' as Papal Nuncio. at the feast of Advent. A. Lujce^nhourg. The Hungarians were new King to Hungary and however prepared of Nobles for such attempts. they did not object to receive the ratification of their choice from Eome. grandson of Bela IV. at a great Diet held on the field of Eakos. The Cardinal placed the young King (who was remarkable for his personal attractions) by his side. daughter Anna and secondly by Otho of Bavaria. nor the . declared they would maintain their independence to their last breath. The following year Cardinal his Holiness. until in 1337. accept their mand and from the hands of his Holiness. and Austria. and addressed the people in a discourse in which he expatiated on the dutiful conduct of St.D. Stephen towards the Holy See. was disputed first The ceslaus right of Charles Eobert by "Wen- of Bohemia. and that neither the church of Eome.

and he therefore had a new crown made and consecrated. which agitated Hungary. however. 1310. Matthias was defeated in 1318. Charles took up his abode in the fortress of Yisegrad on . The meeting on the terminated the tine Matthias. still "While the rebellious Palatine Matthias was supported by some of the great Nobles. the ecclesiastics of the kingdom were faithful in their allegi- ance to Charles . tended by his discourse assembled people. and therefore delighted in the society of priests and monks. his intellectual pleasiores. Stephen had been placed upon his head. which the "Woiwode of Transylvania was at length prevailed upon to resign. until the crown of St. The people however could not regard him as their rightful king. did not produce the desired efiect. strife field of Eakos had not. The people were weary of civil war and anarchy. and named him ruler over Hungary. The King surpassed all the Magnates of his kingdom in refinement of manners and cultivation of mind. which he had seized before the election of the King. and the new reign commenced under happy auspices. where Charles was again elected King. continued to oppose Charles. with which the ceremony of coronation was performed for the third time Charles having already been crowned at Agram and at Gran. [a. A second Diet was in consequence held at Eakos. but the manner is of his death imcertaiu. The Pala- nominated to his oflice by Wenceslaus of Bohemia. the Cardinal caused the Te Deum to be chanted before the Geutilis briefly assured them. was what he inupon which all pressed forward to swear fealty to the young monarch.60 niSTOET OF HUNGAET.D. which. 1310. Stephen. and after they had raised him in their arms. tliat such . in August. and the "Woiwode of Transylvania kept possession of the crown of St. who could sympathise with . and crowned for the fourth time with great pomp. and after much blood had been shed on both sides. however. The Legate laid Transylvania under an interdict.

and his elder brother Louis to her younger sister Mary. his son to be dragged to death at a horse's tail. and her husband starved to death. who promised to leave the kingdom at his death to one of the sons of his nephew.A. was left in Italy. was betrothed to Joanna. when visiting the Queen. not finding the object he sought. The rest of the family were either banished from Hungar}^. and mad with rage. in order that none might remain. entered the palace with a drawn sword. daughter and heiress of King Eobert of Naples. an in^dtation which was readily accepted there.* Casimir (Letti) The Prussiaus made irruptions into Poland 1138. but the Pope decided in favour of his luicle Robert.D. the beautiful Hungarian and eager to revenge his child. Charles took a fearful vengeance upon the unhappy man and his whole family. or reduced to serfdom. 1830. her sister was beheaded.] CHASLES. wliicli lie enlarged and embellislied until it became one of the most magnificent royal residences in Europe. ia 1330 his youngest son Andrew. and was paraded through the town. The . . The young Prince Andrew. He accordingly invited Charles to visit Naples. and while his injured daughter had her nose. In the meantime Casimir had ascended the throne of Poland. causing him to be cut to pieces. Having been twice married already. a distinguished Magnate. lips and fingers cut off". Her of brother Casimir. to bear witness against the daughter Felician Zacs. the King of Hungary put forward his claim to Naples. royal Prince Casimir. and even attacked the King. he for the third time contracted a marriage with the Polish Princess Elizabeth. while his father and brother returned to Hungary. Upon the death of his grandfather Charles Martel. Her father inflamed with passion. and was attacked in his dominions by the Knights of the Teutonic * Order who ruled in Prussia. grossly insulted one of her maids of honour. 61 the Danube. he cut off four fingers of the Queen's hand.

appealed to the arbitration of Cliarles. and the country peopled by Germans and Poles. pecidiar privileges. should furnish their contingent to the general armament. mediated a peace between the contending parties. . and adopted his nephew. The Pnassians were Bubdequently extirpated. Bkilful diplomatist who being a more than warrior. he decreed that the castles. with his for his many estimable qualities. A regular tax was for the first time levied upon the peasantry. who sincerely He introduced various innovations. moiimed the most which Hungary. Casimir visited Charles in Visegrad. but died in the his life. observed hitherto had only been partially Instead of trusting to the royal castles with their hereditary garrisons who were all all sufficient for the defence of the country. and persons living under the protection of lauded proprietors. against all encroachments of the aristocracy.d. [a. year of after a reign of thirty-two years. the young Prince Louis of Hungary. while the towns. arbitration in 1342. affections of the people. was the feudal long prevailed in system which had but in the rest of Europe. Charles Robert did not long survive fifty -fourth the restoration of peace. as his heir in the kingdom of Poland. and had maintained the power of the crown. Fre- quent disputes with Austria disturbed the latter years of King Charles' reign but they were at length settled by . 1312. while the great nobles themselves were obliged to serve in war as the vassals of the King. received first commerce was encouraged and gold coined in Hungar)^ After five days spent in mourning for the deceased mo- Teutonic Knights conquered the Prussians 1231. In 1339. important of which. He had laboured more for the aggrandizement of his house than for the Hungarian people.62 nisTonr of nuKOAiiY. but the prosperity and internal peace which the country had enjoyed during his reign. or royal boroughs. had won him the loss.

which soon eft'ected a change in the manners and conduct of the people. his son Louis was crowned at Stulilweissenburg. deserted by her subjects. 1347. and hia chivalrous sense of honour. "When the news reached Louis of the barbarous murder of Andrew. The aflairs of Naples soon called his attention from tliose of his own His uncle Robert had died in his eightieth cousin Joanna had succeeded him on the throne at sixteen years of age. the brother of the King of Hungary. however. The afiairs of Hungary.] LOUIS THE GREAT. and Joanna with her new husband Louis Prince of Tarento. An insurrection against his Vicegerents immediately followed. Tlie Queen. yet courteous.L. and after punishing with deatli Charles of Durazzo the principal murderer of his brother. returned to take year. fled into Provence. kmgdom. and sent envoys to Kienzi. and manners were dignified. he commenced reforms in the administration of law and justice. and accordingly he departed. and did not ofter any remonstrance when he was strangled by her cousins. G3 lie uarch. the Prince of Tarento and Charles of Durazzo. possession of the kingdom. made it necessary that he should return thither. He fire earnest character to aU the his united a serious and and energy of youth. Kienzi consented to act as mediator. but Louis would not brook any further delay. he appealed to the Pope to discover the perpetrators of the deed and when Clement hesitated to comply. Tribune of Eome. about this time . leaving a Hungarian garrison in Naples. and entered the Neapolitan territory. the King of Hungary marched an army into Italy. She heartily despised hei youthful husband.h. but was beloved by tlie people for his personal and mental endowments. and Louis immediately assumed the title of King of the two SicQies he endeavoured to restore order to the kingdom. and his . was only seventeen years of age. Andrew Dandolo. . The Venetian Doge.

but he was soon made aware that the Neapolitans would not peaceably submit to the rule of a Hungarian King. and acknowledged the King of Hungary their sovereign. and to support his pretensions Duke Albert of Austria. having wasted the blood of his people and the treasure of his kingdom. did not . untO. after a vain attempt at storming its fate. that the King who had magnanimously refused the expiatory sum which the Pope had ordered Joanna to oifer him. news arrived that the the chain Venetians had succeeded in breaking which arrived it protected their harbour and had seized on the citadel. After taking several by storm he at last got possession of the whole country round Naples. and just as he was himself preparing to march to tlieir aid. on the Neapolitan Crown. he abandoned Jadra to and advanced cities once more into Italy in 1350. representing their situation. off the laid seigc to Jadra. and re-instated her as Queen of Naples. or to biu'y his bones beneath to Naples ruins . had been corrupted by Venetian gold. AVhen Louis its before the walls of the city he swore either to save from the enemy.vRY. had thrown yoke as of the Eepublic. Louis returned to Hungary. proceeded to Vienna and requested the alliance of the Emperor Louis of Bavaria. the citadel. The immediate consequence was. and only made a feint of resisting the enemy. in order to secure possession of Dalmatia. and on one of their strong fortresses. perceiving the necessity of strengthen- ing himself by Naples. in a vaiu attempt to avenge his brother's death.64 HisTonT OF nuNG. 1350. Louis. the Pope having absolved Joanna from her crimes. but his enthusiasm gradually cooled. whose citizens [a. and to gratify his personal ambition.d. But the troops he had in the mean time sent to the assistance of the citizens of Jadra. The unto fortunate inhabitants sent repeated messages Louis. as his desire to march his troops warmed. as an indemnity for the loss of the kingdom of Naples.

and aU who had fought under the banner of the King in Italy. her betrothed husband Sigismund.A. Emperor Charles r . A second war with Venice terminated fortunately for country it Avas only abolished . were declared free. but on the failure of male and female heirs was to revert to the croAVTi. to unite Poland and Hungary into one great and powerful kingdom. Elizabeth. and with her. and at surrender its its conclusion the Eepublic consented to claim on Dalmatia. In 1370. also decreed that the landed proprietor was no longer to be permitted the free disposal of his own land. son of th(. 1382. Louis presented to the Diet his only daughter and child. Mary. Louis was and after appointing Eegent. and the tax became so oppressive seriously . 65 hesitate to defray the expenses of his Italian campaign. his forcible introduction of that form of Christianity. and not to the individual then in possession therefore that it could not be sold or alienated. the confines of Europe. but that aU property was to be considered as belonging to the family. to compensate for the losses they had the incurred on his account. In 1382. was resisted with determination by the Wallacks of the Greek persuasion: Another aim of Louis was. . Hungary. were for the future to be placed on a footing of equality. . One-ninth of the produce of the peasants' labours was allotted by the King as to the Nobles. to injure the agricultural interests of by the Batthyany Ministry The same Diet which consented to this tax of 18i8. All "nobiles" whether Magnates or otherwise.l). returned to his Palace of The propagation of the Romish faith was one of the great objects of his desire but though he met with success in most of his attempts at conversion. by imposiug a heavy tax upon the people of Hungary. at Cracow his mother. crowned King of Poland. as the future Queen . and thus to form an eastern barrier against the barbarism Avhich existed beyond Visegrad.] LOriS THE GREAT.

commerce. Kmg last of Xaples. The fon'igners. they were equally averse to falling under the rule of Sigismund. consisted of one Archbishop and six Bishops. wim-s . and many young Hungarians were sent to complete their education at Paris and Bologna. The Academy of Veszprim was founded about this period.D. to look towards Charles of Durazzo. were increased to thirty Archbishops and eight hundred Bishops. by nature a warlike people who despised all peaceful occupations. and take up thiir nsidenee elsewhere. that at his death the number of Prelates which. [a. with the Palatine Gara. and discovered the eicelleuce of the soil for the production of the finest art. of the . and science. King of Bohemia.(5 niSTOET OF IIUNGART. having reigru-d forty yeara in Hungary. LouLj died Boon llo ijitroafter.r. who had mai-ried Mary. factures. under St. under Andrew 111. whose native country of Bohemia had always been at war with Hungary. Such was the respect paid by Louis to the Church. by which they were permitted to quit the estates of their lorda. enpeeiiilly that of the right grant<'d U) the pea«aiitry ill the Diet of lijikoH. IV. and her husband Sigismund. some began . Altliough he was the betrothed husband of Mary. and while they regarded the Sclavonic Palatine Gara with jealousy. and confirmed others. at their pleasure. flourished and manuunder the Kiugs of the house of Anjou.. of Luxembourg. who hud settled in Hungary' in va«t Lumbers after the devaatatious of the Mongol Tartars had rt'duecd the number of native Hungarians. her mother Elizabeth. As Mary. 1383. duced many exeillent nfurniH in the lawn. Stephen. were still yoxin^. were not long contented to see their government in the hands of a girl of sixteen. M:iry was crowned under the title of King at Stuhlweisseuburg but the Hungarians. daughter of the Stephen. assumed the regency. had aet^-d beneticially on the country : an Italian colony first cultivated the vines of Tokay.

. he advised ^lary and her mother to retire into Dalniatia. proposed to unite her with Wladimir. his but he had neither courage nor ability to assert his claims. to consent to send Elizabeth was at length obliged to Poland. kingdom of Hungarj'. by offering her son-in-law as Kegent in Poland Shu furnished him with an army and money. and offer the throne to Iledwiga. therefore. tried to evade the proposition. for Iledwiga. On being informed. betrothed whom Duke she Her mother had her to AVilliam. sister of Mary. Hedwiga where the charms of Sixteen months her person and of her mind. Gara next adviaed the Queen to court the favour of the Hungarian people by ratifying the Charter of Andrew 111. G7 plot to effect his ele- of Arpad. that they resolved to assert the inde- pendence of the kingdom. who was only disgusted the Poles. after her arrival she won all hearts.D 1384.] race MABT. to In the mean time Sigismuud hastened . Elizabeth f2 . on condition of her uniting herself in marriage to a prince of their choice. however. and her marriage with Wladiinir accordingly took place. she endeavoured to avoid compliance. where they took up their abode in Jadra. who would consent The Queen mother was unwilling to part with her favourite daughter. she yielded her personal feelings to her sense of duty. whose conversion to Christianity was only to be a consequence of his marriage. Poland to claim that kingdom but the insolent defifteen years of age. and he returned to Hungary to endure the reproaches of wife and of her mother.A. and equally unwilling to have Sigismuud established in the to reside in Poland. a semi-barbarous of Lithuania. . she. the son of the Duke of Austria. A rumour of a vation reaching the ears of the Palatine. that the welfare of the whole nation depended on her consent. set him aside. no meanour "of the boy. before it was demandicl of her by the Diet. to had formed an attachment and when her subjects was crowned Queen.

she and her daughter would gladly receive him as their protector. Sigismund fled into Bohemia. for the Queen of Hungary. As Charles approached the frontiers of Hungary. her schemes for lledw i<.'ield where resistance was vain. Bosnia. gary. had been deputed by the discontented nobles of Croatia. and Hunand. liey invited him to take up his abode iu the royal palace. sent ambassadors to the Neapolitan. the brUliaut promises of Charles out more attractions than the ratification of a Charter. late. 13S5. Charles accepted the offer.'a. did not aid the cause of the young queen. for a second time. new franchise was added. landing in Dalmatia. and Elizabeth deeming it the wisest course to «. to inquire whether he came as an enemy or as a friend as. ratified the Golden Bull of Andrew in the assembly of her people held . and reTlie marriage was ceive him as guardian of the kingdom. to ofter the crown to Charles the Little of Naples. and when he met the Queens at Buda. Louis of Orleans. of France to demand the liand of his brother. and an accomplished Prince like Charles of Naples. In the mean time llorvath. as but her Ambassadors arrived too the Prince had already been united to A'aleutina of Milan. to which no laus.68 having failed in nisTORY OF irrxfiARY. Jiishop of Agram. and half-brother of Sigismund. now tried to hring about a separation between Mary and . next male heir to Louis.d. Charles replied /a the same spirit. in the latter case. . Halmatia. Wences- Xing of Bohemia. who had besides attained years of discretion. proclaimed that he had come to liberate the Queens from the restraint under which they were held by the Palatine Gara. It was iu vain that Mary. pronded Mary woidd consent to fulfil her engagement to the latter.Sigisniund. who was as little loved by his intended wife as by the Hungarian nation. accordingly consummated. offered his assistance to the . Slie sent to Charles YI. [a. but the comparison between a worthless youth of seventeen. unhappy Queen.

. soon after presented herself in the Diet. however. and city to city. and summoned a Diet of all the Hungarian nobles.A. upon Elizabeth as his mother. where I piu^ose to join my husband. Cliarles further insisted on the two Queens being present at his coronation. with an assurance that further consideration had convinced that a Mary woman was incapable of sustaining the burdens of government.D. and he was unanimously King of Hungary. The im- prudence of this step was soon manifest the beauty and patient endurance of the people were touched . . " will I consent to resign refused. in their altered position. but Mary steadfastly " Never. or for my heirs. and therefore she was willing to resign her claim to Charles. Stephen was rent as he left the church. promised to look . and that. in return for tliis concession. but I not hinder you from treading the path of error which as you have chosen. The Diet answered his expectations. demanding her abdication. for myself. that the Queen had abdicated by her own free will. the Queens prostrated themselves in tears on the grave of King Louis. fearing the consequences of her daughter's conduct. . elected the crown of will my fathers. beside Mary . A message was sent to the Queen. and father Louis." Her mother.] CHARLES THE LITTLE. and Mary as his sister and it was proclaimed from county to county. in Stuhlweisscnburg." she exclaimed. the ungenerous the hearts of conduct of the new King appeared the more glaring. Eliza- beth. during the ceremony of the coronation. all they should receive with him the Prelates and Magnates of the kingdom. Fatal omens attended the accession of Charles the banner of St. the nobles repented having abandoned them for a foreign monarch. and a few days later a storm and earthquake destroyed part of the palace. I you still honour the memory of my demand from you a free passage to ISohemia. 13S6. GO He iinmediately named liimself governor of the kingdom. and when. The new monarrh.

under the Gara obtained an interview.with several bands of Bohemian soldiers. A\hile at the same time the Margrave of Moravia took possession of all the land between the Waag and the Danube. she and and one day. at a given signal. and the cupbearer. induced to retire. his JSigismund entered the country. the Palatine rounded them. but the Palatine main- tained their fears were groundless. were both beheaded in the presence of their mistresses they themselves were dragged from their carriage. Elizabeth was meantime engaged in a secret conspiracy against the life of the King . To Sigismund himself she assigned the revenue of the recovered land. whom he quartered at Raab. who had been employed to and murder Charles. termined to revenge the death of Charles. and shortly afterwards where. pretence of desiring to speak Avith him. who surafter a short resistance. A general insurrection of the thro^^^l into a people followed. Elizabeth ordered him to be strangled. wounds beginning to heal. during which. and . and tlie King was dungeon. though not mortally.d.70 niSTOUT OF IIUNOAEY. the cupbearer drew a sword and wounded Charles in the head. [a. on condition of his leaving her sole Eegent of the . 1386. on the Queen of Hungary consenting to pay the debt owed him by Sigismund. The Queen as well as the Magnates were indignant at this usurpation. and Mary applied to AVenceslaus to remonstrate with her husband the Margrave was. if They travelled with a small retinue as their journey they secure from danger. and adAilsed in order to throw discredit them to change their residence to a town on the borders of Croatia. on the report. which Sigismund had pawned to him. kingdom. but on were surprised by the Croats. In the meantime the great nobles of Croatia were deThe news of their rebellion alarmed the Queens. The following day Mary was again proclaimed Queen of Hungary-. at last.

Sigismund made no further attempt to rescue his Queen. laid siege to the where they were confined. in Stuhlweissenburg. she was incapable of carrjing on the government. The news of their arrest was conveyed to ^Margaret. assembled at Buda. where the Magnates. was finally elected King by his own adherents. at length caused Elizabeth to be castle strangled in the presence of her daughter. but instead of immediately entered Croatia. or e\ en knowledge of. 1387. he was crowned by the Bishop of Veszprim.] SIGISMU^D. overwhelmed them witli re- proaches for the deed to which they had consented. and without the consent of the Diet being asked. exonerated her daughter from all participation in. the widow of the late King Charles. the Prince The Queens had been brought down to the coast of Dalmatia. but the Venetians. in 1387. and her body to be thrown over the wall to the besiegers. fleet to with the intention of despatching them by a Naples.A D. and liberate the Queen . she demanded the Queens should be delivered to her alive. were perplexed how to act best for the interest of the country : some supposed Mary to be dead. proceeding to Buda. Eliza- on her knees. . anxious to choose some head under whose banner the strength of Hungary could be united. 71 the nobles who led the attack. The Magnates meantime assembled at Buda. He immediately demanded troops to suppress the rebelthe troops were lion in Croatia. head. others maintained that. No answer was vouchsafed. but the Princesses were ordered to be conveyed to a strong castle in the mountains. and therefore named Sigismund beth fell captain or chief of the nation . The Prior of Yran who bad them in charge. and confessing her own guilt. who was still at Naples. Eager after revenge. and all were agreed as to the necessity of union under one Sigismund. supported by the Venetian ambassador. adopting their cause. the crime before it had been perpetrated. if alive. but retreated into Hungary.

72 jjrantcd. English. he advanced again to the attack of the Turks. laid siege to Lesser Xicopolis. and was not . beauty. . and misfortunes of Mary had gained the hearts of her subjects. at a period when the young Queen of Poland. where her and success attending their anns. even loved by his wife. Mary was brouglit first act was to put the leader of the rebellion to a slow and cruel death. over whom she in reality ruled he. kuights from and then assembling another large army. [a. He was invited into Hungarj' by the "W^allacks who had risen in rebellion against Sigismund and ISIary. engaged in a war against her sister. Bajazet still occupied Greater Nico- when on the 28th of September 1396. He was murdered by a Servian soldier. to be executed. He immediately caused thirty-two of the most dis- tinguished among the adherents of the Pretender Ladislaus. in triumph to Buda. threatened the comitry from the north. on the other hand. In 139G Bajazet conquered Bulgaria. the youth. and crossing the Danube advanced into Moldavia. or Amurath I. which was joined by all parts of Europe.. and penetrating into AVallachia. polis. but the rejoicings at his -snctory were stopped by the news of the death of the Queen. HISTORY OF nUXOARY. and Bajazet succeeded the in 1389. composed of Burgmidians. The Turkish Sultan Murad. pleasures. 1390. lation His sole passion was the accumu- of wealth. and Hungarians. was looked upon with suspicion by the people. Though Sigismund bore the name of King.d. conquered a large portion of the (ireek empire. Sigismund assembled an army. the son of the murdered Charles. was fought that disastrous battle in which the Christian army. Italians. in 1360. new Sultan spread terror throughout Eastern Europe. and had seized the province of Gallicia. and recovered the city. French. and he returned to Hungary to take possession of the kingdom in his own right. whicli he wasted again in extravagant had.

and in 1419 the Hussite rebellion broke out in Bohemia. died a martyr in the year 1415. Peter. to obtain for them the succession in Hungary. and he fixed the place on Sigismund to decide on Constance as the most central spot in Europe. and an attempt was made to place him upon the Hungarian throne. Twenty tliousaud Christians lay dead upon the field. and Margrave of ^MoraWa. and was crowned Emperor of Germany. Treacherous in all things. where the Mohammedans and Christians struggled for ascendancy. the Emperor granted a safe conduct thither to the Bohemian Reformer. by Dalmatia. A Council was called at Pisa in 1408 to endeavour to reconcile the disputants. only liberating him on condition of his promising for the future.AD. as many more were carried away captives. and executed him witliout the form of a trial. but Sigismund secured the leader of this rebellion by treachers'. trusting to his faitli. obliged him to retire. During the absence of the Emperor. Naples and Venice had seized on several of the maritime cities of Dalmatia. . l-ilO. 73 were completely routed by the Turks. and confined him in his own palace. Internal schisms distracted the Church in the commencement of the fifteenth century. The party of Ladislaus had in the mean time gained iu numbers and strength. who. they arrested Sigismund. and from that day Hungary became the theatre of war. invited all matters could be adjusted. and more than one claimant asserted his pretensions to the Chair of St. but another general Council was required before Pope John XXIII. but Sigismund. to abstain from every illegal or arbitrary' act. His intrigues with his relatives the King of Bohemia. being discovered by the Magnates. of meeting. Ladislaus about this time approached the frontiers of at the head of a large army The King of Hungary shortly afterwards added Bohemia to his dominions.] SIGISMC>-D. John Huss.

Thus the three orders of the state became more evenly balanced in their political rela- than under the predecessors of Sigismund. and the peasantry were encou- raged to settle in the to-wns. snatched it from his hand. with her child. the Emperor left Hungary in an improved condition. gained a signal victory over the Turks. who pre: sented his mother Avith a ring. from whence his appellation of John Hunyady. when a crow descending.D. conducted by the celebrated warrior John Ilunyady. the incident obtained for John the surname of Corvinus. was also elected tions. or at least counterbalanced by the pri\-ileges granted to the royal boroughs. and flew with it to a neighbouring tree . the child's uncle perceiving what had happened. The origin of John Hunyady is \\Tapt in obscurity he is believed to have been a natural son of Sigismund. Archduke of Austria. he would bestow upon him riches and honour. and had trusted the boy with the ring. . mouarchs. and promised her that whenever she appeared before him. shot the bird. had lost much of the halo which while the power of the aristocracy had been diminished. He had already made himself famous by his victories against the Turks when Sigismund died in 1437. treacherous. The royal authority which was recovering an undue share of power under the surrounded late it. and lea\ing the disposal of his daughter's hand to the Hun* in 1438. [a. sur- named Corvinus. Elizabeth. and brought the ring back safely . himself and his heirs.74 HISTOBT OF IIUNGABT. on condition of never accepting the imperial crown. now first allowed to send representatives to the Diet. Sigismund left an only daughter. who had been married to Albert. She was one day preparing for her journey to the court. The King presented him with the domains of Hunyad. to which Albert. 1437. and prodigal. and succeeded him in the kingdom of Hungar\'. Though unprincipled. upon Sigismund imperiously demanding the succession for That same year the Hungarians.

wliile the Turkish Sultan King AV'ladimir of Poland to enter into an alliance Avith him. and that the child of Albert should. with the consent of both nations. but the Queen.D. be named heir to Hungary. were undetermined which side they would support . Notwithstanding his promise.and Bohemia.. who had only just attained his sixteenth year. To provide against these accumulated dangers Hunyady proposed. took refuge with the Archbishop of Gran and though she consented to an embassy being sent . but though peror of Germany soon her right to the throne had been acknowledged. Ehzasuccessful expedition against the Turks. the Hungarians joyfully welcomed a native Prince. The proposal was loudly applauded. In this full critical hour. 1439. that Elizabeth should be requested to marry Uladislaus the son of "Wladimir. and Wallachia. the garians refused to be governed by a Hun- woman and a child. beth. and when Ladislaus was born on the 22nd of February following. The Turks threatened them from the South a contest for the possession of the Bohemian crown was preparing in the West. and Austria. into Poland.] LADISLAVS IT. anxious to avoid so unsuitable an alliance. John Hunyady alone' did not partake in the general congratulation. Poland was not yet reconciled to Huugar)-. while Poland should be the appanage of any children bom to Ulasdislaus. The con- was accepted. Bohemia. even before the birth of Ladislaus. gave birth to a posthumous sou. 75 garian Diet. requested that the ambassadors should return immediately dition if her child should prove a boy. he became after he Em- had obtained the crowns of Hungary. but died that same year.A. INIoldavia. and Eed Russia. Ladiskius. and a party was formed against her. . after an unHis widow. John Hunyady laid before the Diet a account of the dangers to which the country was exposed. but anticipated the evils . while the Queen had had already in\'ited already passed her thirtieth .

and while . agreed to peace. Archbishop of Gran. hearing that the Sultan was in the act of sending an army into Transylvania. Stephen. While the enemy advanced through Transylvania. the population. and were finally obliged to retreat. but Elizabeth substituted a false crown for that of St. who. John Hunyady defeated the adherents of the and was in reward named Count of . . powered by their numbers. and in its place the new King was crowned with the diadem taken from the relics of St. which must ensue upon a long minority. and finally sought refuge with Frederic III. after an unsuccessful expedition into Hungary.d. and Governor of Belgrade but. where as the Turks approached. Elizabeth hastened to Stuhlweissen- burg. on the mediation of the Pope. charged them with but his troops were surrounded and overimpetuosity . and prepared for that of Uladislaus but the sacred crown was nowhere to be found. he hastened to Weissenburg. which she own possession. and the German colonists poured in to the . retained in her laus arrived in . and Uladislaus finally accepted the proffered kingdom the proposed marriage was not however mentioned. where her child was anointed and crowned by the The crown jewels were then delivered up to the care of the Governor ofVisegrad. lion now King of Poland. Stephen himself. where he was welcomed by Hunyady and some of the most eminent men in the kingdom. Two months later UladisHungary. on the river Maros. of Austria." the Szekler all the country.76 lIISTOnY OF UUNOARY. Elizabeth vainly endeavoured to raise an insurrection in favour of herself and of her child. 1440. Queen in Croatia. plundering Hungarian " nobiles. Temesvar. [a. The ambassadors also refused to leave Cracow with their mission unfulfilled. he arrived before the enemy Hunyady. They declared the coronation of the young Ladislaus void. who never awaited an attack. was detained by a rebel- among his subjects. Uladislaus.

and met the enemy as they passed the mountain boundarj' of Transylvania. as the guardian of the young Ladislaus. still maintained his the JNIoslems threatened another position near Kaschau invasion from the soutli. ovm victory when they saw them with renewed field. had not long to wait the Hungarians charged and misled by the appearance of one of Hunya: dy's foithful followers the Moslems believed in their who had exchanged armour with him. Soon after the enemy had been chased from Transylvania. attacked he had chased them from the son. and died in December. 1443. and immediately sent another army into Transvl- them not return until tliey had subdued the whole country. success of his stratagem. 1443. leaving their dead.] ULASDISLArS OF POLAXD. the Turks gave way before the impetuosity of their attack.D. but first . was expected to lead an army into Hungary. .A. Tliis 77 assistance of the inhabitants of "W'eissenburg. and Frederic of Austria. general and his with twenty thousand. The name of Jesus was the war-cr}' of the Hungarians . He their ranks. but the Queen only survived the termination of her struggle for power a few days. but the real Hunyady. taking advantage of the vigour. Her . the Sultan vania. him until fall . Hunyady again called the Hungarians and Szeklers to his aid. death so quickly following the peace. he immediately prepared for battle. and another victory crowned the arms of Hungary. On to hearing of this defeat. A Diet was summoned to meet at Buda. who had been her champion during the war. in which it was resolved to lead a Crusade against the Turks. news reaching the Turkish general. respecting the manner of it and the hatred of parties was rather increased than diminished by this circumstance. John Giskra. bidding Amurath was roused vengeance. occasioned unworthy suspicions to be circulated. the peace between Ulasdislaus and Elizabeth was concluded. to support the claims of his ward.

who were all Albanians in the pay of Amurath. and return to his home and his country. prince His father had been conquered by the Turks. He then put the officer to death. his four Castriot or Scanderbeg. He accordingly attacked him.D. saved themselves by flight. and protect the frontiers from the threatened invasion of the Duke latter of Austria. The commander-in-chief of the troops among whom he was taken prisoner by the Hungarians. but George. and ready to revenge the injuries his people had sustained. gary was man. the three eldest had been reduced to slavery. and George officer next in command. he declared himself to be the hereditary prince of Albania. the bearer of the letter. 1443. His gallant bearing of anns won for him the confidence of fully justified in the wars against the the Christians of Europe. desiring the governor of the city of Kroya to deliver his charge into the hands of one Scanderbeg. had been instructed in the Koran. to secure the peace of the kingdom against Giskra. and had been taught the warfare in use and bold feats Amurath. with the Turkish under the seal of the commander in chief. and compelled him to write an order in the name and served. The . George observed the number of attendants upon his companion were fewer than his own. An opportunity. [a. the youngest. at last ofi" by which he was enabled to throw Mussvdman yoke.78 HISTORT OF HUNGAET. hotrever. When passing through a waste and desolate country. The attention of all Hunnow turned towards the war against the MussulA new ally was found in the celebrated George John Castriot. then only nine years of age. which he presented itself mode of among the Moslems. An attempt at negociation with the ended in a truce of two years. and rode on with his companions and having obtained possession of the city by treachery. the son of of Albania. and had given sons as hostages for his fidelity . to which Giskra was at last induced also to consent.

Venice. who accepted his bribes.] TTLASDISLAUS OF POLAND. Christians repent their too hasty acquiescence. Cardinal Caesarini. Just as peace was concluded. or submit to His subjects brought him money. and the Papal dominions. some declared that the oath they had made to the Pope. tageous peace for the Turks. made the The as- sembly was all confusion. and this year added sixty-three thousand more but the intrigues of the Servian Despot finally succeeded in procuring an advan. that it could be violated without any conscientious scruple. he invited him to join their armies. but to the ears of the Christians of those days. temerity. with which he was prepared to encounter the Turkish forces of forty thousand strong. damnable. felt . success. news of the fleet arrival of the Italian in the Hellespont. and to the western Princes. injurious to the rights of the church and the honour of the Hungarian people. 79 Albanians flocked to his standard. was not blading. and therefore null of Christendom. and he soon had an army in the field of fifteen thousand men.A. none gave his consent at once wholly satisfied. and ought to be so. till Ulasdislaus. impossible. tained. before the first lance had been broken. demonstrated that a treaty with Amurath. for the security His oration was received in sQence. 1443. who were advancing to punish his baptism. and in a sophistical. the Pope's nuncio rose. Hunyady had already spent thirty-two thousand ducats of his private property on the war. obliged them to carry on the war as a holy Crusade others main.D. and deceived even the gallant Hunyady as to his iatentions. In the mean time. they were bound in honour to fulfil the condi- tions of the peace just concluded. Ulasdislaus sent to congratulate him on his and acquainting him with the preparations for war in Himgary. Amurath had been tampering with the Despot of Senda. but in its nature impious. . Genoa. plausible speech. and the Turkish garrisons around were soon obliged to yield to his arms.

and while he was yet engaged with the enemy. only three out of fourteen bishops ut the mcetinf. Soon after the Hunga- army had passed the range of the Balkan. and attack the janizaries of Amurath. further parU-y. "A quick decision. or flight. Amurath saw and seized his advantage Ulasdislaus was slaia by one of the Sultan's guards. He.d. forces Amurath would Bend against him. but the Cardinal perisl\ed by the way. other fugitives." he said. He was vainly warned of the superior treaty.^. . in the autumn of that year. and therefore could offer no assistance. the Turks came up with them at Varna. though the and even John Hunyady urged Despot of Servia refused to join his ranks. 1444. and a message arrived from Scanderbeg. To the honour of the ecclesiastica of Hun- gary. but jealousy of his leaders superiority caused dissension among the the very midst of the fight themselves. one time nearly secured the victory to the Hungarians. Cardinal Ca^sarini advised the King to avoid a battle. and turned with shame to fly." Xone ventured to contradict the great warrior. excited the young King to disobey his injunctions. when he learnt his infringement of the The Italian priest.80 to break off all nisTOHT OF nuyoAiiT. him to proceed. and the battle was ordered for the following day. We must decide between victory. who in refused to submit to his guidance. the King with twenty thousand men crossed the Danube at Orsova. "surmounts or conquers dangers delay increases it both in idea and in reality. but Hunyady was of a contrary opinion. The valour of Hunyady at rian . and to lead his soldiers a^'ainst the unbelievers. . vdth. and many feU beside his body Hunyady himself at last gave up the day as lost. . that he had been frustrated in an attempt to enter Sen'ia. consented to countenance this violation of oaths even to the Infidel . death. crossed the Danube in safety. [a. who were present and not a single other dignitary of the church.

He him with an expected a ransom either received . he at length set hun at liberty. Three Diets were held in this year. and Himyady was obhged to accept peace on his terms. when they related a different story. now King of the Eomans. the last at Stuhlweissenburg. to demand the . were only partially believed. Frederic and Hunyady both appealed to Pope Eugenius but as the truth and honour of John Hmiyady were above aU doubt. Stephen. his influence and power had exceeded G . 1446. where it was determined to compel Frederic of Austria. and in the mean time that the whose administration should be confided to seven great nobles. the King of the Romans stdl kept his prize. unanimously fell upon John Hunyady. thousand men to the frontiers of Austria. ously seized by the "Woiwode who had appearance of friendship. lie vras 8l treacher- AVhen Hunyady arrived in Transylvania.A. the Palatine was induced to convoke a Diet in 1445. . that Ulasdislaus Avas still alive. After much time spent in threats and negotiations. D. during the minority of Ladislaus. Hungary. One of his first acts was to lead twenty country should be divided into districts. young king and the crown of St. dis- appointed in both. loading him into ^^•ith rich presents. from the enemies or the friends of the hero but. factions. including John Hunyady. to give up Ladislaus. Frederic received no encouragement from his Holiness. the young Ladislaus should be crowned King of Hungary . Hunyady and others. that if Ulasdislaus was really dead. In the beginning of 1446. and sending him under a safe escort There he found the comitry rent with new asserted. As long rest of the as Hunyady had been on an equal footing m ith the Magnates. One part}- and the eye-witnesses of his death. another Diet was held in the field of Rakos and the choice of a Regent. in order to preserve the kingdom at least on one side from invasion. With some difficulty. in which it was resolved.] LADISLAUS IT.

By the mediation of Pope Nicholas the Fifth. but hin elevation to eo high an oliice as tliat selves his who prided themon the length of their genealogies. man in Hun^an . he against the Turks. with his guardian the Emperor. and Frederic appealed for aid to the Stadtholder of Bohemia. Giskra continued to harass the kingdom in the North. The Pope's Bulls had little effect upon the people. "War was immediately kindled. and forbade Hmiyady to hold any intercourse with rebellious svibjects. Stephen to Hungar}'. of any [a. in support of his valiant ally Scanderbeg. The Hungarian and Austrian envoys met him at Florence on his return. until he had reached his eigliteenth year. but the Em- . on a joui-ney to Eome. the brother of Frederic. and learned that the Duke intended to take the boy The Austrians were with him. provided the young King was suflered to remain in Vienna. and Ladislaus himself appealed to the Pope for his liberation. and even conspired with the Bohemians against Hunyady but a truce of three years with the Turks. laid Austria under an interdict. secured peace in tlie South. Himyady. but Nicholas exhorted him to remain reached Eome in spite Holiness. again requested Frederic to send Ladislaus to Hungary. . who was desirous to retire from the cares of government. but he received only an evasive reply. themselves averse to the heir of their dukedom lea^Tng the country . headed the : party opposed to his project laus. and was Emperor of the "West. that on his return he found the haughty Magnates were more willing to submit to his authority. and Albert. and intrigues against government beeaine fre(|uent. 1 f 50. To divert tlie attention recommenced war of Kegent liad offended those of the Nobles into another eliannel. so disadvantageous to Trederie of Austria at length consented to restore Ladialaus and the crown of St. but Frederic. The war was unsuccessful but his absence had been Hungary. with Ladisof there crowned by His all opposition.D.82 tliut HISTOJIY OF nUNOART.

G 2 . Hunyady willingly resigned an office of which he had been long wean''. to prevent all further interference on his part. 1453. The intrigues of Count Cilly succeeded in again shaking his confidence in Hunyadv. Count of Cilly. as the most dangerous man in his kingdom. the more he ex- pressed a desire to return to Vienna. instilled into him more correct notions concerning the Regent. and resign Ladislaus joined the faction supported by Albert. sufficiently removed from tlie seat of government.X. and the more they entreated liim to remain.s. and believed that he left his country united and . as the grave and decorous manners of the Hungarians impressed him more favourably than the gay to the care of his great uncle Ulricli. he at the same time bestowed upon him large tracts of land in Transylvania. the Hungarian Prelates. and but during a sacrificed the life of Ulasdislaus at Yarna temporary absence of Count Cilly.] LABISLAUS IT S3 peror was obliged in the end to yield. and in a Diet held at Pesth he confirmed a deed depriving his old and faithful subject of the power which had been entrusted to him on pretence of doing him honour. tliough only thirteen years of age. and determined to use aU arts to demoralize the young King. where. enabled him to resist the temptations lie was told to beware of Hunyady throwni in his way. strong under its lawful who had betrayed the great Nobles of Hungary to the Moslems. which the young King was ready to receive. . . and pleasure-seeking Austrians. 1453. Ladislaus however appeared uneasy in the midst of his subjects. the King entered Presburg. in order to obtain complete power over him but the better nature of Ladislau. he received the homage and oaths of fealty from the assembled nobles. who The Count of Cilly was an ambitious and bad man. in the Court of Ladislaus. In February. or the habits of sobriety and strict conduct he had learnt under Frederic.

sent warning to advisers of the King. but Hunyady met the favourite with a band of two thousand men-at-arms. the Palatine Gara. [a. the Eegent imited his eldest son. but though the Eegent only this time brought a suite of fort}' ever. a thousand of his followers lay in ambush. and the Prelates at length succeeded in effecting all a reconciliation. left the whole goverinnent in the hands of a council composed of creatures Hunyady. liok Constantinople had already fallen before the Sultan Ma- homet II. surrounded treachery. Alarmed for the safety of the kingdom. IServia thus employed. Again Count Cilly attempted to entrap him. to vourites. and crossed the Danube While he was to encounter the unbelievers once more. Ladisthe daughter of his enemy. how- kingdom. the son of the former enemy of Hunyady. who had been out of favour. of his own. refused to quit the affronted. and sent Cilly to seize the person of the Eegent.. having established the King at Vienna. while who Hunyady reproached him with hia In the hope of reconciling one of the contending parties within the kingdom. persuaded him to invite Hunyady to court. a second Gara.84 niSTOHY OF nUXOART. Cilly. and. Ladislaus fancied himself and bring him by force to Vienna.d. liesitate to comply with the request. the Turks. and ita Despot. and entreated his aid. and defeated his project. Ladislaus took counsel against the formidable power of liow to proteet Hungary was menaced. they proposed the recall of Hunyady. informed of these tlie transactions. Hvuiyady promised to resign the castles and fortresses he possessed in the interior of the kingdom. regained his former position with Ladislaus. and to undertake the defence of the southern now . Cilly. petitioned Ladislaus to discard his unworthy falaus. who. sought refuge in TranThe old warrior did not sylvania. when in the Diet of li5t. frontiers. but soon afterwards. and his re-appointment to the regency . the Palatine. knights. Those who regarded Hunyady as the champion of Christendom.

while a panic seized ou in the whole nation.D. en- camped near Belgrade. who could. Matthias. Mahomet arrived before Belgrade but instead of sending succour to Hunyady. with his little band of brave warriors. dislaus retired with Cilly to Vienna. and under condition that his younger son Matthias should accompany him. he consented. Lathe people implored . In the meantime Hunyady. The general voice of Hunyady to hasten to its defence. and caverns. while the King promised never again to listen to the slanders of his enemies. their religion and their coimtry. abandoning their honour and duty. among the noble youths who attended in his court. Once again Hunyady pleaded the cause of Hungary and of Europe. and form a line of communication between the citj' and the water. and that Belgrade. In a Diet held at Eaab. and Scanderbeg received large sums from Eome to aid in hung back. a Franciscan by name John of Capistrano.A. friar. sought security mountains. and exhorted tlie King to use . In June. His first object vas to throw provisions into the fortress. news arrived of the approach of Mahomet. and exhorted the Hungarian nobles to unite for the defence of Cliristendoni. A few days afterwards. and was thus enabled to attempt a decisive stroke. in the Diet held at Buda in l-ioG. army but Ladislaus still active measures before it was too late. The new Pope. preached repentance of sins. the Turks might never liave succeeded in maintaining their dominion in Europe. Fortunately he waa there joined by some thousand Crusaders. waa menaced. prepared a fleet for the Archipelago. llunyady offered to bring ten thousand men into the field at his own cost. and had others been as faitliful in the fulfillment of their promises. raising his Calixtus. In this he succeeded. 1456. as a page. to observe the enemy. S5 threatened by Mahomet. after a skirmish in which five hundred of the . the citadel of Hungary.] LADISLAUS IV. and aU castles. and to receive the youngest sou of the Regent.

while the priests chanted psalms around the dying hero. anxious to wipe out the shame of his flight to Vienna. imagined that the death of Hunyady would place on the pinnacle of his glory. By the active exertions of was sent him from the several European nations. He will graciously receive His soldier worn out in Hi." Then liu'uing to his sous Ladislaus and ^Matthias.d. as an abiding inheritance all else that falls to you from me belongs to . and the love of your country.86 HISTORY OF HUXO. Per- permitted long to sui'xive his last victory : ceiving the approach of death. he added. hastened Cilly hi. he found Ladislaua . fortune. after a short death-struggle.n to Belgrade with a baud of Crusaders . my whole life has only been a preparation to receive that Friend uie to the throne of who is to lead my Omnipotent King. lloG. that Mahomet. " I am prepared for my journey . Avere deposited. and grant him rest in the dwellings of His saints. yoiu" hearts . The hero was not the Franciscan friar. and could receive reinforcements.-*t of duty upon which He placed une. Brother John of Capistrano acquainted him with his danger. where he could watch the operations of the Moslems." he replied. despairing of success. was attacked Anth the disease. abaiuloncd the euterprize. and there. he expired. " Holy Father. enemy were lie then established himself at Semlin.s sennce. slain. continue in the path of uprightness and virtue . aid the plague had broken out in the camp at Semlin. which I have pointed out to you as the safest I leave you the fear of God. then eighty years of age. The King.vnT. I have sened and amidst all the storms and perils of life maintained the po. and by the end of July he had »o exhausted the patience of the besie^'crs. according to his wishes." He requested to be carried into the chiu*ch. " Let the actions and the example of your father bear fruit in Him faithfully. in His remains the cathedral of TTeisskirchen. and Hunyady. [a.

and she . They . in the city. attired in deep mourning. their trial was short. " God is am sent. before whose judgment-seat I would willingly have given my life for my country and my King. be raised and embraced her. Informed of this. in his almighty wisdom. King to take possession of the fortress but their sovereign had listened to the base Cilly. ot insinuations of Count and accepted his ofter to rid the country of the sons llunyady. Cilly and was himself attacked and slain soon after his arrival at Belgrade. May He who." he exclaimed. and before sunset the eldest Hunyady was led to exe" God is my witness. when the young life still man (the love of strong within him). Elizabeth llunyady. but the dances and knightly sports mind of Elizabeth was not thus to be tranquillized. though in his heart he vowed vengeance for the death of his uncle. forgive the executioner gave being able The King and my enemies aa I do now.A. . orders the fate of mortals. started to his . the widow of the deceased hero. 1156] LADISLA. their friends and thrown into prison . King Ladislaus went through the ceremony of a formal A few months later.D. appeared before the King. that I my witness. the offer was reported to them by their friends. and pleaded on her knees for the pardon of her sons." him three blows with the axe. a plot was laid to induce the Hunyady to join in an act of seeming disobedience to the King they were arrested with many of reconciliation. splendid gifts. doubted the sincerity of one who loaded with favours those who had slain his beloved friend and uncle. and endeavoured to dispel her fears. without to sever his head from his body. scaffold.US IT. when on the cution. I am innocent of the guilt for which I must now die the death of a criminal. tlie 87 walls and ^Matthias Hunyady the former had repaired the of which invited at his o\vn expense. parties of pleasure. Alter presenting her and them with should be provided he ordered that every kind of amusement the days were spent in the chase or in .

to demand the hand of his daughter INIargaret . On they the journey thither. Their relatives. Ladit^laus. wliere the King wiudow to witness his death and appealed to him . Hungary to him. Matthias was imprisoned in a fortress. 1157." if longer. and the Turks were making great preparations for another campaign. of France. said. carrying him Matthias as his prisoner. and demanded unconditionally the liberty of Matthias. appalled at the hideous spectacle. to gain a powerful ally in Charles YII. but scarcely had they departed before Ladisluus died suddenly. was unable or unwilling to speak." at being King of Hungary. "the hand of the executioner .f<8 iiiSTonr of hukgary. who was aware that by his treatment of the it. sat in a I'or and ran some steps towards the palace.d. indignant at their fate. leet. the Austrian courtiers ridiculed the unhappy youth. I will -with certainty be your King Ladislaus she would Elizabeth her only remaining son. He hoped resign the fortresses of . ?" As he ended these words he fainted from loss of blood. Michael S/. a. mercy. who am innocent. in a manner which gave . gives the to my accusers the worst malefactor haa suffered the penalty of his crimes after three strokes of the axe. to a fourth and who would dare to condemn me. Another signal was given from the palace.ilag)% seized upon and their mother Elizabeth conducted an army into Hungary and proclaimed war on the King. she wovdd sooner deliver them to the Moslems. and for that purpose sent ambassadors thither. " If I offered am spared to live a also. and the executioner completed his work. resolved to revenge Their uncle. " to aim " You begin too soon. After the death of his brother. Transylvania. Hunyady he had inspired the people with hatred. retreated ^^-ith to Vienna. The King had few on whom he could rely in Hungarc the German Emperor had already commenced a quarrel with him about some disputed territory." To which little Matthias fearlessly replied." he lie cried. and the King. young sir. but she answered. "King.

pleaded the right of his wile Elizabeth. he took the reins of government into his a own hands. elected King of Hungary CHAPTER Matthias CorviuHS VI.] MATTHIAS COETIXUS. Though only vears of age. he caused him to sixteen be arrested. apart from the inferior "Nobiles" and representatives of the to\ni3. Michael Szilagy. in the year lioT. burst of joyful acclamation. Matthias resolved to Though magnificent in his introduce a strict economy in . the Nobles asserted their ancient right of free election. — Louis II. — Z'lasdislaiis II. King of Poland. Michael Szilagj-. bearing tlie banner of the Iluny- demanded the election of his nephew Mattliias to The proposition was received with a tlie vacant throne. maintained her prior the Palatine Gara who had married the aunt of Ladislaus. 89 rise to a suspicion of poison. and field of Kakos. consisting of twenty thousand warriors. . A Diet was the same year convened at Buda. of which the Diet had been hitherto composed. The government was at first confided to but when ^latthias perceived tliat his uncle proposed to rule despotically and dispense with the laws. where the claim . various claimants aspired to the throne Casimir. The country had been the in latter years prey to oligarchical factions. had each some reason to adduce why the crown shovdd be bestowed upon them. another and an elder sister. had been divided into two. the sister of the late King. while Anna. 1-457. single chamber. and deprived of all power. widow of Duke "William of Saxony. A.. tastes. and Mattliias was forthwith. with the army of his sister Elizabeth Ilunyady.A. and the ^lagnates had formed themselves into a separate body.D.D. appeared upon the ady. 1157 — 1526. and even the Emperor Frederic III. Immediately upon his death.

when he was commanded by the Pope G-eorge his pro- to load a crusade against the Hussites in Bohemia. IIISTOBY or lUNOAUV.d.90 the public purse . Stephen in 1464. to which Louis XI. Catharine of Bohemia. and niarched to the Mahomet gates of Vienna. but for which Matthias now generously him a large sum money in compensation. therefore. as against a sect of re- power may. the taxes which were to be levied on the peasantry. . and unflinching in hia encroach meuts from the aristo- deterniinatiou to resist The Emperor Frederic ISIatthias. which he of still retained in spite of his offered promises. the first standing army in Exxrope. which was always kept under arms. and war was tlierefore declared by who at the sanie time stedfastly refused the prof- fered alliance of II. still maintained his claim to the kinf^dom of Hungary. After reducing Servia and Bosnia to subjection he entered Austria. Stephen. the Princes of Europe sent letters of condolence. the war of extermination agauist the Hussites was formally declared. surrections Formidable in- among the "Wallacks in alliance with Mahomet next engaged the attention of Matthias. and to ligionists. here he obliged Frederic to restore the crowu of St. It was on this occasion that he raised his celebrated Black Legion. had taken them under and the interference of Matthias was as much a war against the government of the country. III. [a. aud in the Diet held the same year at Agria. hinjsell' to be a severe ruler. The lust of to the zeal of fanaticism. King of Bohemia. and these had scarcely been repressed. and to increase Accordingly. tection. aud while a friend to all liberty he tsoon Bhowed cracy. Podiebrad. On the death of the Queen. But in the first place he had to alter the manner of raising the supplies. have added fuel Matthias was crowned King at Stuhlweissenburg with the crown of St. and formed the nucleus of the levies which joined his standard. of France added rich presents. llGi. he prevailed on the Diet to fix their amount.

son of Casiiiiir. a proud and ambitious Princess. Podiebrad vainly resisted the invaders. and Paul Kiniszy. Zapovla. and Lusatia. where the "NVoiwode Bathory received six wounds.] MATTnilS COBTIXUS. led his cool courage his army. restored to luiless they. weie men of acknowledged c'lerg}' prowess and daring. he celebrated his second nuptials with Beatrice of Naples. Podiebrad died. 3Iag}'ar. iu the first him Dalmatia. in Transylvania. The Catholics of Bohemia joined the Horrible atrocities were committed on both sides. Ii71. he again attempted to oblige the Venetians to restore Dalmatia to Himgary. The encroachments of the Sultan on liis territors". place. which they had gained possession of in the reign of his predecessor. and the Bohemian Diet then offered their crown to Ulasdislaus. engaged with his wars with the Moslem the Sultan had seized on Negropont. and contributed skill. and nobles under the cover of a voluntary His generals. King of Poland. and the Hussites retreated or were destroyed by the Hungarian arms. himself. by and On his return Hungary. whose family became famous iu Hungarian history. to the King of Hungary. The attention of ^Matthias waa Silesia. and in a few weeks ^latthias was elected King of Bohemia at Ohnutz. 91 tax the subsidy lor extraordinary expenses. to its success to He. recorded in Hungarian history. and would have been slain had not Paul Kiniszy rushed forward vrith . forced him into a war for the protection of Sclavonia and Croatia. and the Venetians apjdied for succoui' .A. Blaise. and one of the most tremendous battles took place between the Christians and Turks. In 1471. but was called in another direction by a large army of ^loslems which again approached the frontiers of Hungary. They met on the plains of Kenyermczo. Immediately afterwards. ^Matthias refused to assist them. standard of ^latthias.D. The appeal of Matthias to the nation for assistance was readily responded to. however. the capital of the Provinces of Moravia.

who drove the Turks into a hasty Hi^d't* le*aving a large booty behind them. ment of Vienna natural son. and lived in ease The corrupting influence of a became apparent in * See p. the criminal law was reformed. tliat in 1485. the oligarchial factions of Hungary rejoiced in his death for they had long been wear}. the King was obliged to send another army into Austria. he entrusted the govern- and set out to attend John Con-inus. wkQe it .ABT. and active measures wrere taken to repress the robbery and violence of lawless Nobles. 1190. and died in 1490. Matthias frequently summoned the Diet during his reign. besieged and gained possession of this Vienna itself up liis abode prophecy. sent them : to Naples to assist his fatlier-in-law against the Turks but Emperor Frederic invading Hungary. he fulfilled hia own he should one day reign over Austria to Stephen Zapoyla. While mourned by the people who had bestowed on him the title of The Just. and rescued him from the enemy. For the first time the power and duties of the Palatine were strictly defined. their services less necessary'. I lis itself. wherever existed. their descendants. a dniwii sword in each hand. he was seized with apoplexy.* As he felt his health declining. virtuous monarch. in As Matthias from time took the Austrian capital.D. life and luxury on their of indolence and pleasure. The valour of the general iuhpired the troops. was here proclaimed heir and shortly after Matthias had returned to Vienna. after the taking many cities. 88. . which. and though permitting the great Xobles to it retain the dignities belonging to their class. estates.D2 IIISTOIIT OF IILXC. . finding the standing army of the King rendered retired to their castles. !>Iany of the ^lagnates. Matthias believing that he would have no for his further occasion famous lila^*k Legion.of the thraldom in which they were held by this severe though the Diet at Breda. he was always anxious to advance merit. [a.

mode of life. maintained at the cx- Seven great halls. and his greatest delight was in reading the classic authors of antiquity : he spoke Latin. . German. same time to weaken the arts real 93 power of the tended at the aristocracy. and it was intended to versity of Presburg. Matthias had copies of the celebrated statues in Europe. the scholar of Masaccio. and wrote several poems. accommodate ponso of the forty thousand students. mounted on all of tlie same size and colour. the plate of massive gold. and was the intimate friend of Lorenzo de' Medici. cians. apothecaries. French. he was escorted by three hundred youths of horses. were destined for lecture rooms. Luxury' of every kind increased during the reign of Matthias.D. Such wad the splendour of the tahle of the King of Hungary. lege near Pesth the principal building was divided into two spacious courts in seven stories each. which was divided into three compartments. and of his ters. and chief among them. He also founded the L"niand introduced the first printing press One of his great works was a colinto Hungary in 1470. He founded the Eoyal Library at Buda. Pain- were invited into Hungary. -. dressed in scarlet and covered with diamonds. with his son Filippino. and Italian with equal fluency. adorned with precious a AVhen Hungarian ambassador was sent to France tlie first families. 1490. ancient and modern Latin works. and the two others. goldsmiths. and of otiier great men of that age. and baths were provided for the sick. and every arrangement made for the domestic economy. The King was himself an author. declared it would take fifty carriages to contain stones. who encouraged and artists and manufactures hv the magnificence of his palace.] MATTHIAS CORViyUS. one of which contained the richest store of oriental literature then in existence. Fra Filippo Lippi.A. that the Pope's nuncio when describing all it. furnished with lamps and desks. and the Professors had also their dwelling houses within the walls even physicro'vvn. . all In his royal palace of Buda.

own sovereign. and Albert of Poland. aud a truce when the Pope instigated the Hungarians once more to join in a crusade against the Moslems. the Turkish sultan. took up arms to assert their several pretensions. was no more. The widowed queen. govern. classics. aud his son Maximilian. to be quietly abandoned. reserved aud cunning. [ad. but Ulasdislaus was maintained by his Magnates as lawful King of Hungary ho was thirty-four years of age when he was crowned at Stuhlweissenburg in 14:90 he was by nature indolent and easy tempered. 1 190. who added virtues a character devoid of ambition. The insurgents inscribed " Grod and liberty" upon their banner. w hile elect their father's The crown of Hungary was again contended tlie for by various to hia Xobiles continued to assert their right to Jolni Coninus. he displayed a knowledge of the feeling. the Em- peror Ei'ederic. Beatrice. but their real object was soon apparent when they tiimed upon their oppressors. wlio was unwilling to resign the royal dignity. and had been sorely At the head of the movemeut was a Szekler oppressed. and a deep and tender claimants.. Matthias. who had already distinguished himself by his valour against the Tiu'ks. had been defeated by the skill John Corviuus and Paul Kiniszy. flew to arms. . their protector. George Dosza. wUlingly resigned his claim and supported the choice of the ^Magnates. fell upon Ula. oftered herself in marriage to Ulasdislaus. under the pretence of obeying the mandate of the Holy See. aud since his death they had been biu'dened with hea^y taxes. and was accepted but so rich a prize as Hungar}' was not wliich . King of Bohemia.94 in wliicli niSTORY OF IIUXOAEY. Tlie loss of Vienna and the Avhole of Austria followed. peasant. yet without the capacity to .sdislaus II. the Nobles. . and commenced the work of extennination. and who now and valoiu" of of three years had been agreed upon. Selim. The peasantry'.

D. lost During comhad pletely recovered the influence and power which tlicy under Matthias.A. and. entitled. alive. and the massacre of all who had the misfortune to be rich. to be acquired by the subversion of the existing order of things. Placing themselves under the near Temesvar. Dosza endured the torture with a heroism worthy of a The Nobles inart\T. The period of tranquillity which followed enabled tlio King and his magnates to collect.arian decreed that his son Louis should succeed to the throne. not of rights au and privileges. his flesh was torn from his body by pincers and thrown to his followers. and they their verj' fled into the walled towns. and property. two centuries elapsed before their fonuer rights were recognized. but of rank. the aristocracy Bohemia. "NVoiwode of Transylvania. and were forced to devour it. Dosza. and died without uttering a groan. who had been kepi without food for some days. having thus punished the ringleader. they armed to resist the insurgents. command of John Zapoyla. perceiving existence threatened. It Avas presented to Ulasdislaus in the Diet held at Buda in . wealth. preached the doctrine equality.':i. at ten years of age. the common law of the land. until. and a red hot crown placed upon his head. Jus Consuetudinarium Heqni Hungarice. though tliey were gradually emancipated. Louis. they finally defeated the peasants in a battle Having taken their leader. they determined to s\Teak a dreadful vengeance upon him he was seated on a throne of red hot iron. 1516. 1514. in writing. was acknowledged King of Hungary' and his long minority. persuaded Maximilian . The ancient valour of the Nobles seems to have forsaken them in this hour of danger.] ULASDISLArS u. of equahty to his 95 followers . In the beginning of 1517 Leo X. reduced the whole of the peasantry to serfdom. and was there solemnly confirmed the same Diet Hur. By the death of Ulasdislaus in 1516.

[a. "Wasteful. and the bearers of them malhostilities. Louis had all the desire. for he cared little at whose expense he gratified the whim of the moment. The disputes. Tliis man had the good fortune to possess a falcon which was coveted by the King. was united to Ferdinand of Austria. treated. and celebrated his marriage with Mary the sister of the Emperor Charles the Fifth. roused Luther openly to protest against the abuses of the Church of Rome. the revenue of the bishopric reverted to the treasury of the state. occasioned by the fraudulent conduct of the manager. brother to the Emperor. and extravagant. and in consideration of his handing over to him the bird and its keeper. in 1521.d.* and assistance of an Augustine monk to invoke the the King of Hungary. "Woiwode of Transylvania. On the demise of any one of the Hungarian Bishops. They were rejected with scorn. until a successor was appointed. leaving a debt upon the property amounting to fortj. and rivalries of the Palatine Bathory and John Zapoyla.thousand gulden. In 1522 Louis and his Queen were crowned at Stuhl- * The sale of indulgences for this Crusade. as follows. occupied the period of the regency. Germany and Francis sent I. but the death of Maximilian in 1519 put an end to the whole project. and sent an embassy with proposals of peace to the King of Hungary. until. Louis forgave him the whole sum. without the capacity to rule. Louis assumed the government himself. thoughtless.96 of HTSTOEY OF nUXGAET. Hippolytus d'Este. died. jealousies. Solyman the Magnificent had ascended the Turkish throne the year before Louis attained his majority. of France to prepare a new Crusade. while his own Bister Anna. upon which the Sultan immediately commenced The rash and imprudent conduct of the King was not confined to his treatment of foreign Princes. Bishop of Erlau. . 1522. An instance of his caprice is related.

and to banish foreigners from his court to countenance them. and the investigation brought to light. when was presented to the King the Diet. The Turks crossed the Danijbe and the Drave. herself drew a line through the resolution it . and from that time her stronger cliaracter supported and guided him iu the conduct of his govenmient. an examination to be made into the state of But the Queen. It was vain for Zapoyla to H . had iu the meantime laid waste Sclavonia. He therefore assembled a Diet at Xuremburg in 1523. The dangers to which Hungary was peculiarly exposed. however. the against both "Xobiles" ofiered to support the King if the rival factions of Bathory and Zapoyla. to he would consent remove those all officers who squandered the public money. insisted on their right. indignant at their pre- sumption. urged by the Archbishop of Colocza. and in resisting the will of his people. to encourage Louis in arbitrary measures. The Queen continued. Suliman Molda\-ia. to which Louis also sent ambassadors. and "Wallachia. . that they only voted a subsidy for the war. but the King the field with an stiU delayed to commence his march. 97 weissenburg. Disgusted by the oppressive rule of the lesser Magnates. and the now reached the frontiers Pope who had long watched the impending danger with anxiety. however. Suliman the ^Magnificent had of the kingdom. and seized on Belgrade and the German Emperor himself began to feel alarmed at the . rapid progress of the Turk in Europe. such a system of fraud and misdeeds by which the treasuiy had been exhausted.D. sent a sum of money to Louis to expedite his movements. induced the nobles at the next Diet in Buda to order the exchequer. he took army of not more than twenty thousand at men. or but Louis refused comply with the condition demanded.3 LOUIS II. 1523.A. until. and encamped Mohacz. on the express condition that the to King should promise employ the money solely for the defences of the covmtry.

stumblod and so severely bruised his rider. and it was two months before his remains could be discovered. and of haughty and unprincipled nobles. he oft'cred battle to the ]\Io8lem8 on the 29th August. and after waste the whole country. 1o20. while endeavouring and fell. "With the battle of Mohacz ended the government of the native Princes of Hungary and the struggle had now to commence between the principles of despotism and constitutional liberty. The fatal combat commenced. number fell by the sword of the enemy. men truly cast upon the the few grudged the struggles for power. to pass away with the age to which they belong j . As in material things that which is of . His attendants were obliged to abandon the body of their master and secure their own safety by flight. till [a. The King. attempted to leap a rivulet.d. with some few but noble exceptions. being hea\'ily caparisoned. and how We Burface. least value often rises to the surface. 152G. where he burnt the library of Matthias Corvinus. many the have read. that he expired a few after being moments dragged from under the animal. and in spite of the valour of the Hungarians. and committing many atrocities on the people. to effect his escape. returned to Constantinople with two hundred thousand Hungarian captives. of weak and wicked kings. "We have seen recorded the rights they themselves enjoyed. yielding to the sell-conlideiit impetuosity of the Magnates who surrounded him. and twenty-eight Magnates were left dead upon the field. and the remnant The Archwas engulphed in the surrounding morasses. bishop of Colocza.98 nisTonY of ncKOAnY. which made the Turks doubtful of their own victory even after the battle The larger was won. the army was totally annihihited. seven Bishops. but his horse. so in history the most conspicuous are not always the most excellent or characteristic features of a great nation. entreat Louis to wait he c-oukl join him ^\'ith his forces. laying Suliman marched to Buda.

she immediately secured her own safety by leaving Presburg and entering tlie fortress of Buda. and to join with the whole nation in the justice.D. common cause of freedom and CHAPTER VII. John Zapoyla meantime hastened interests to secure his own by promises of high offices to all : the most influ- ential stagnates of the kingdom to confirm his election he proposed that a great meeting should be held at Stuhhveissenburg. Maximilian.] JOHN' ZAPOTLA. 152G— 1570. to become true patriots. Ferdinand I. and crowned by the oiJy bishop present at the meeting. 1526. and proposing that he should take possession of the vacont throne of Hungary.D. immediately sent messengers to the kings of France and of Poland to announce H 2 . on pretence of paying due honour to the remains of Louis. pearing. and the death of the king. foyla. and to which he invited the Queen. John Sigismund ZaStephen Bathory. and to be roused from their dreams of selfishness and ambition. whose natural leaders had yet to be united to them by a period of adversity. Tears were now ap- proaching in which the aristocracy were to be schooled into better things. Princes of Transylvania. 99 but beneath thia apparent degeneracy lay a deep and enduring foundation of solid worth and excellence in the body of the people. — — — — — A. Kings of the House of Hapshurg. informing him of the disaster. she wTote Instead of ap- more urgently than before to Ferdinand. Queen Mary of the defeat at When the news reached Mohacz.A. from whence she despatched a letter to her brother Ferdinand of Austria. Zapoyla having been elected by the people.

and others wjjosu naujes have become familiar in later llungariaii historj'. Ban of Nyary. On the 3rd of November. the former however possessed energ}. and her huaband. Zapoyla with precipitation into Transylvania. and to join hiiu at and. 1527. he might still have been King in Hungary The . defection of their chief caused those who had been him their alleand thus he gained quiet possession of a kingdom. deposed him from his stead. God. the eldest daughter of King. sister of the late Batthyany proceeded to declare Aima. . by which he bound himself. to preserve the the the churches consecrated to God Lords. now to offer giance. his olhce of Pahitine. tlie fortress of iiuiLi. Barons.sbur^'. his accession to the throue of llunj.100 iiioTouY or jiLNOAUV.'ary he next coiuiiiunduj liathory to resi^'n StuhhvL'issi'uburj^ . and wife of Ferdinand of Austria. [a. Nobles. which had only at first been presented to him by an arisliitherto adverse to Ferdinand. of Hungary. . Duke King An envoy was in consequence sent to Vienna with the offer of the crown. Fnincia {Stephen Muilath. as where they deelared that hehl at JStuhlweissenburg it had not been summoned by the Palatine. While the states of Sclavonia acknowledged Zapoyla. Croatia and Batthyany. Pre. and by saints. obeyed the sunimonB lo tlie Diet at Presburg. 1527. IJlasdislaus. Inspired by hatred to Zapoyla. His Mother. Dalmutia. IJathory and a])i>ointed another and the Queen convoked a Diet in at to be illegal. those of Croatia tendered their homage to Ferdinand liad .u. and free Cities of Hungary. uj)on his refusal to obey. with the inhabitants of the kingdom. Prelates. and by the Blessed Tirgiu. in their immunities. Ciuspar Ilonath. he took his oath to the Constitution. tocratic faction. " By the li%-ing all . but after the fled first battle in which he was de- feated. heiress of the kingdom.or courage sufficient to maintain his claim. Francia according to ancient iwage.

and Jerome Laszky. but met tliere with so stout a resistance. Jerome was the friend of Erasmus of Rotterdam. but same time demanding the cession of Iklgrade. to act jus'tly.vND i. in the hope of deriving advantages from the dissensions in the state. withdraw his troops. franchi. who next seized upon Visegrad. and commanded the people to acknowledge him as sueh. who had already Kaschau . 101 rights.*<3iritance of the Sultan. 3(X). ard. but his restless temper ever pn)mpted him to enter into iwlitics. when an ambassador arrived at Constantinople at the from Ferdinand with oft'ers of amity. 1 1 is courteous and agreeable manners won the favour of the Sultan. flocked to his standAugust. the people of Hungary. and in and Sdavonia. Zapoyla and Suliman encamped now garrisoned and commanded by Germans. The place was soon yielded to the Turks.^et>.0(X) appean^d on the frontiers of Hungank' with defeated the Austrian party at and men. After his return to Buda. to whom he offered Ilungar}' as a fief of Turkey. and should he not find him there.A.shed statesman and warrior. that he was obliged to before Buda. by whom he was highly esteemed. The object of the embassy Zapoyla sent to demand the his amb:u><sador employed as had scarcely been accomplished. pri\ilegcs. provided he would in return lend his support to Zapoyla. 1527. and all good customs anciently and generally approved . llie Sultan indignantly rejected the terms. 1.] rERDiy. he caused Zapoyla to be a<^n'\n proclaimed King. of France. follow him to Vienna." a.«»ylvania.D. and to keep inviolate the decree of the most serene King Andrew.527. Zapoyla soon afterwards received offers of friendship from Francis I. where he was soon joined by Zapoyla. The Sultan reached Vienna in September. and bade the ambasacquaint his sador mai<ter that he would seek him at Buda. and gained possession of the Hungarian crown. a learned and accompli. Suliman was not long in executing his threat. . Tnin.

It was the transfer of a part of lluuijar}' to the Princes of Transylvania for the lifetime of each. a Hmall wliieh jjave met with au uuexiH'cted town on the way. enter- ing the Dukedom dieek before Guntz. while Ferdinand was to rule over tlie remainder of the kim:dom. friend in a For many past years Zapoyla had found a constant George Utjessenovitz. that he was willing to ally himwelf with any enemy of his hou»e. in 1540.D. garrif«t)ned (tftlie He them with those autVered so fiirtlier. they had not the strength to any resistance. and of Bona Sforza of a princess of only eighteen years of age. After Sulimaii hiul ntireJ. [i. It was there ntipulated that Zapoyla was to retain Transylvania for himself and his heirs. 1510. which later on. whom he caused to be crowned Queen at Stuhlweissenbm^.lOJ wlu>»i' HIHTOBT OF lirUOABT. in which the Emperor Charles the Fifth acted as mediator. Ein|K'ror. and unite by Styria. siu"vived his marriage birtli He one year. better known as Martinuzzi.ain lulvanced into Austria. Lilian. daughter of the King of Pohind. the war eontinued for itome time between Fenlinanil and Za|K»yhi. until Ijiviky effected a ree(meiliati(»n between tlie contending partieu. and received the news of the of a son just before his death. by the terms the land he had then in bin pos* of wliieli. that without att4*mpting to advance a lia. hatred of the Emperor wa* such. but the Sultan luid aln-ady many he made looses. In l. tlie Zapoyla soon afterwards married Isabella. and part of 11 unitary durini^ his lifetime. each wax to rt*tain Kession. Ferdinand time to collect bin force*..">2i>. Until 153i). until at length a treaty wa« con- eluded at Groswardein. became a fertile source of contention between the Diet and the Sovereign of v'ary. Hunoffer If the Hungarians were at this time displea-sied at a partition of their countrk-.xty retreat to Constantinople. Ferdinand continued to carry on a desultory warfare against Zajwyla. name he derived from his mother who was a Venetian . Suliman ai.

than in the warlike mansion of the Ilunyady. Paul. ia3 Ilunyady. an«l having prtK-laimed him K ing under the name «)f Stephen. he prepared to fulfil the last wishes of his friend received the .' as demand a fief of Turkey. in the ca.] FEUDrNAXD Educated I. appointed Martinuzzi false Bishop of GroBwardein. forti- tude. On death-bed. Having been Zapoyla. which she retunje<l an indignant refusal. and at twenty years of faniilv. He next required Isabelhi to cro\»'n acknowledge him as Soverei^. following the example of Zapoyla. life. in al'ter- wards entered the monajster}' of of the vicinity first Buda. who had his mother. as a lay brother. His father waa slain fighting against the Turks.A.:^ was received into the retinue of a hidy of noble John Coninus the son of Matthias.510. Here he was tau«:jht readuig. and revered aid safe protection in the castle of Buila. and Martinuzzi soon St. After Martinuzzi luid deix)sited the body in the royal vault at Stuhlwrissenburg. he placed the child. the Bishop possessed courage. gan. Za|)oyla confided his young widow and her infant son to his care. but this time. Meantime.«tle of belougtHl to been early a. the country had been devoured by the German to anmes of Ferdinand and the laws set at nought . and as the monks soon discovered their pupil possessed ordtT. raised to the dignity o( Prior. and ability as a (lenend as well aa a Priest. uiuliani^ed tlimugh and the when in power. 1. he had inured to hardships. he sent to Con- stantinople to ab»o sent Ferdinand had an embassy to Suliman.D. it Though ambitious and when his suited his purjwse. where he met Their friendship continued latter. and the Latin tongue. in name of John Sigismund. where he acquired more courtly and relined nmnners. and to deliver up the jewels . they permitted abilities of no mean him to be onbiined for the priestluxjd. which now by birth. tho . he was removed first to a monastt^-rv' in the East of Ilungarj'. he likewise offered to hold Ilunfrom the Sultan. writint^.

Suliman deIsabella . who desolated the land by plunder. this. dition of as Hungary to Ferdinand they declared that terrible had been the sufferings of the people caused by the Turks. in which they were countenanced and even assisted by the officers in command and they implored him to put a stop to this disorderly . and having entered Buda. to seize and her child but Martinuzzi twice repulsed the Austrian troops. vainly The Nobles. which she was to hold as a fief of the Porte. and violence. refused to comply. people already began to feel the disadvantage of a foreign Sovereign. rejecting all the offers of Ferdinand to treat with him. . who. his election. and represented the con. [a. and kept them at bay vuitil the arrival of the Sultan beneath the walls of the Citadel. Martinuzzi was liberated.104 histout of huitoaet. manded the young prince from until JNIartinuzzi his mother. during which . and quitting Htingary to take possession of her dominions in TransylAfter vania. returned John Sigismund resigning all others as his prisoners. or the welfare of its inhabitants. Suliman soon gained possession of Hungary.d. he sent an army in 1540 to Buda. conduct. when the Sultan gave a to Isabella. she was obliged to have recourse him as an adviser and with him departed to obey the mandate of the Sultan. 1540. doubting the sincerity of his offers of friendship. they were trifling compared to those they had endured from the soldiers of the King. "VVliile the Ambassadors of Ferdinand were still at Conon stantinople. A war of many years followed between Austria and Turkey. to whom he owed remonstrated. and though Isabella feared his pride to and ambition. persuaded her. He then insisted on the Queen claim to the Hungarian Crown. but detained Martinuzzi and great entertainment. whose interest it was to drain the riches of the (country without caring for its future prosperity. rapine.

105 . Martinuzzi. unable to resist the anr. she spoke as follows jewels of the : As she presented " I present to them to Castaldo you the croA^Ti and Hungarian kingdom for your King Ferdinand. and as her Moslem allies did not send her any assistance. time Hungary was of battle both sides pro^iug unhappy country and burned. which he immediately despatched to Transylvania. in 1546. there joined by Martinuzzi. and was appointed governor of the province. and left the Queen a mere shadow of royalty.ies of Austria. the belligerents consented to a truce of five years. he withdrew from her court. the Spanish general of Ferdinand.A. Charles the to lend him a body of troops. the daughter of Ferdinand. he determined to His intrigues being disoffer his services to Ferdinand. was the first time that the sacred crowii had been for- mally transferred into the hands of a foreign sovereign. and Ferdinand consented to pay the Sultan an annual tribute. On Suliman remonstrating. equally indifferent to the welfare of the which was piUaged. covered by the Queen. Queen It Isabella delivered at Kolosvar. 1551. Isabella was obliged to agree to a reconciliation. Martinuzzi. In 1551. in the mean time. to Castaldo. . At length. in July. Isabella. He was who had placed himself at the head of the insurgents son's . re- ceived a Cardinal's hat. the Emperor. laid waste. while the young John Sigismund was betrothed up the crown jewels.D. had seized upon tlie whole power in Transylvania. and even the Hungarian crown and jewels. in I'eward for his perfidy. and prepared for rebellion . by which each retained the land they had conquered. Ferdinand persuaded his brother Fil'th.] rERDiyAXD tlie field I. 1551. finally consented to resign to Ferdinand lier claims on Transylvania. which she had hitherto retained iu her possession. to Joanna. while the inhabitants were massacred by Germans and Turks. and it was a day of as much sorrow to Hungary as to the unfor- tunate young Queen.

he was accordingly assassinated a. whoj notwithstanding his perfidious conduct. * Martiuuzzi Mehemet Pasha had proposed to siege to Agria. was a Bidl of excomall munication from Pope Julius the Second. notwithstanding our present be one day restored to his rights. I cannot conceal that I feel my sou and I have suffered wrong. accusing him of rapacity. Isabella hastened to join rose in rebellion. a circumstance which gave rise to incessant disputes between him and Martinuzzi . and even of tampering with the Turks. . Ferdinand hoped to become undisputed King of Hungary and Transylvania. in December. which Ferdinand the emanoiation of the peasantry. will of the stranger. alas! I feel loitluti me a forehoding that they will never again he worn hy a King of your people and Hood. comforting myself with the hope. the Szeklers and even Buda revolted against the laid Austrians. The first consequence of the crime. by God's help. Almighty Grod grant that it may be for the welfare of and of all Christendom. complaints were sent to Vienna. will. 1551.* AVith the death of Martinuzzi.gainst the arrogant priest in his castle of Linz.D. Ferdinand had ordered the murder of Martinuzzi less because he feared his intrigues with the Sultan. But. Mav tlie country. By the command of Ferdhiand. nourished in the land some lingering hopes of liberty and of nationality. that the orphan born and bred to exile. 1551. and even with your co-operation. [a. nevertheless. than to rid himself of the last Hungarian still leader. Queen them from Poland.106 HISTORY OF IIUNGAHT. against cerned in the mui'der of the Cardinal . I will fulfil what has been dictated to me by the rule. by the Spanish general and his soldiers. con- and soon afterwards the Sultan sent two large armies into Transylvania to assert the right of John Sigismund to that province." After the departure of Isabella. Castaldo was appointed to the military command.

of peace. the Emperor Charles the Fifth. who had scarcely The attained his seventeenth year. The siege lasted end of which time the besiegers were obliged to retreat. its and had nothing bat the strength of old citadel. 107 to trust was in ill provided for defence. The Turks were. and where John Sigismund. and Charles. and establishing a despotism there. though he was not proclaimed until two years later. at the . while garrison. Isabella died in 1559. generally A-ictorious and in 155G. which he hoped woidd be followed by the complete subjugation of Hungary. During several succeeding years a predatorv* warfare was carried on until 1562. than yield to the Turks. and her son invited by the principal nobles She summoned a returned in triumph to Transylvania. retired into a monastery. Even the women armed in the defence of the town. Maximilian. however. the Emperor. which was numerously attended. met the Hun- . though even then a saUy was made in which a considerable number of the Moslems were slain. they determined sooner to eat one another.D. fight. great Diet in Klausenburg. and fearlessly encountered the enemy. The inhaput any one to death -n-ho should speak of a surrender and when the provisions were exhausted. encouraging the soldiers in the forty days. bitants themselves agreed to .A. and John Sigismund declining to treat with the Emperor. and his brother Ferdinand was chosen as his successor on the imperial throne. the A'alour of its and their hatred of foreign invaders. formed a fresh alliance with the Sultan. loG2. with eons. seized the occasion of elected when Ferdinand. was elected King.] rEiiDiyA>-D its I. Isabella same year. assuming at the same time the title of King of Hungary. Durmg those two years he suc- ceeded in destroying the liberties of Bohemia. A\'ith desirous liis son Maximilian being the Porte. to conclude a truce In August of the same year. his three King of Eome. Ferdinand.

sister of Philip II. and the title of Duke but while the daughter of Ferdinand. when the banners of Transylvania. were borne before the King at his coronation. without further delay. as King of Hungary.108 garian Diet at IIISTOEV OF IITTNGAEY [a. suggested to the peror that as the crown and royal insignia were in his hands. one of whom was Em- ambitious of being appointed Palatine. Besides the representatives of the counties. . but the King in gold. Bulgaria. though without any signs of rejoicing from the spectators who lamented the past glories of Hungary. and jewels forbade the nobles bringing more than one attendant each. and Cumania. of Spain. Dalmatia. silver. the rest of the Nobles were induced to give a tacit consent for the to this measure. it shoulder. and Francis Batthyany. Senda. that of on her right ceremony. and to claim the demand the acknowledgment of hereditary right to Transylvania. three Abbots. The Magnates looked back with vain mortification and accompanied richly attired . was vain to for Stephen Bathory. Sclavonia. order the coronation of Maximilian. was crowned with a new crown. Presburg. attended the ceremonial. consummation of his marriage with J oanna. and of the royal boroughs or cities. regret to the days of their youth. . By various means. the envoy of his John Sigismund. After Stephen was placed the performance of this St. he should. first and he was accordingly crowned time in the Cathedral of Presburg. On the following day the wife of Maximilian. 1562. Bosnia. and They came by three thousand followers on horseback. where the eldest received the oath of allegiauce from his future subjects. five Prebends. when they assembled Count eighty thousand men upon the field of Eakos. Nicolas Zrinyi. and a part of Hungary. and the other hoped for the decision of a suit in his favour. The Emperor would concede nothing but Transylvania. forty seven Magnates. and ac- cording to ancient custom. eight Bishops.D.

which both Hungarian and German nobles were present. the had only been preserved by the payment of an annual tribute to the Porte. before the royal tent. Sclavonia. but they made no attempt to rescue the toA^Ti. a small vonia. witli Hungary had been lost to the kiugdom. that it laid siege to Szigeth. were encamped within sight of the scene of action.] MAXIMILIAN. Francis Batthyany. offered to continue the tribute his fatht r had consented to pay but his proposal was not accepted. The Turks . . at Maximilian was thirty-seven years of age wheji he sucIn the first council he held at Vienna. effect this His generals fearing the might have upon the troops. ceeded his father. he proposed to treat with the Sidtan. 15G6. assisted still by his confidential adviser. The Turks overran ing the truth. John Sigismimd received an assurance from the Sultan of his support. The garrison made a determined resistance. who. caused the before it. still ll"»0 the negotiation "was pending. healtli A slow fever was gradually undermining the of Ferdinand. and such was the irritation of the Sultan. two-thirds of rest and whUe Transylvania. of which he died September. and recalled Bathory. During his reign he had twelve times broken his faith to the Hungarian people. ordered his physician and attendants to be strangled. town on the borders of Sclawhich was commanded by Count Nicolas Zrinyi.A. fit of apoplexy. brought on a 1566. was occupied with the cares of government when lie died in 1564. but not until Zrinyi and all the Two Austrian armies garrison had been put to the sword. and Croatia. and placing the body of the Sultan upon a throne army to pass in review such a distance as to prevent their discover- at The attack was then renewed with vigour and the place taken. at his want of success.D. and sending an embassy to Suliman. and the war recommenced with fresh vigour. one of them under the command of Maximilian himself.

In 15G8 ^laximilian concluded a treaty with Selim. . and Hungary should be divided between the two Powers. war. but John Sigismund con- sented to accept the terms offered by Maximilian and the He did not long survive the conclusion of the Sultan. was his . and joined the aniiy of an insurgent reality of . when Henry of Yalois abandoned Poland. The Sultan and the Emperor confirmed the election of the Did. the Emperor neglected the interests of his Hungarian subjects. but he could only obtain a promise that after his death the province should revert to the Hungarian crown. To add tliis pt.. and re- turned to France upon the death of his brother Charles IX. entire toleration of every religious denomination his court that Socinus it was in found a refuge. Maximilian Avished to attach the condition. Maximilian further presented him for his lifetime with four counties of Hun- gary which he held as Viceroy. the new Sultan.riod. in- one-tliird of ITungarj^. and carried away 80. with the that title of AVoiwode . and was highly esteemed in Hungarj'. and violated the laws in the appointment of Q-ermans. leader named G-eorge Bocksay •. to take The IMagnates indignantly refused any part in an administration where they were no longer consulted. and other foreigners to the high offices in the state. the which had been usurped by the King some even fled into Transylvania. though successor. [a. The Transylvanian Diet elected Stephen Bathory as his he had been educated at the University of Padua. that Bathory should hold Transylvania as a fief from him. 15GS. under the Sultan and the Emperor. In 1576 Stephen Bathory was elected Kin-g by the Polish Diet. by which it was agreed that John Sigismund was to hold the government of Transylvania.d.110 nisTony of nuNGAnv. The most distinguished feature in his reign. and where they were only permitted a shadow of power.000 of the to the troubles of habitants prisoners.

in A. 1576.D. who succeeded him in 1576. ia the year of his age. The struggle for religious as weU as political liberty was now commencing in Hungary.A.D. he be- came timid. was a narrow understanding and heart. He concluded for himself several treaties of marriage with the all of which he broke off before they were fulfilled. Transylvania. he . Rdkoczy — The Beformation Hungary. fiftieth CHAPTER Matthias II. — Hudolph Ferdinand II — Princes oj Bethlen Gabor. that would be taken by his most confidential friend. Continuation of Ki)igs of tli e Ho use of Hapsburg — Bathory. YIII. and melancholy. whUe hi himself resided in Poland. suspicious. which he employed prhicipally in the cultivation of science. especially of those belonging to Ferdinand I. . Princesses of Europe. left them at liberty the race of the Magyars. and Maxiniiliau sylvania constitutional freedom. brother of Stephen acted as his Eegeut iu Transylvania. Eudolph. The doctrines of Luther had early reached Hungary. In the first Hun- garian Diet he held after his accession to the throne. where the Princes of Tranbecame the rallying point of Protestantism and the Catholic and despotic principles which the Hapsburg dynasty endeavoured to force upon the people. to follow their own views in this respect. Ferdinand II. . 1576— 1G57. against even encouraged the new faith. his life and believing the warnings of astrologers. I..] ErDOLPH time Christopher 111 the From that Bathory. Maximilian died that same year at Eatisbon. and the great principles of the Eeformation had gained a hold on the minds of the people. with some man of a talent.

D. . until the Magnates offered to mediate. Prince oi Transylvania. •drove the armies of the Sxiltan back into Turkey. that all their reasonable desires for woidd be granted. and their perseverance in the demand for immediate reform excited the anger of the King still they maintained their groimd. the money was therefore voted two years. in order to ingratiate himself with his Hungarian nobles. iutention to place his uncle and his brother in command tices of offices of of the army. which every year became more oppressive but the complaint had to be repeated the follo\\-ing year. they were to return to the Hungarian crown. and thus to continue the illegal prac- Ferdinand and Maximilian. demanded the redress of grievances. and the These successes of the Christians roused Mahomet. wliile the Emperor was amusing himself at Prague with . . and with as little success. Sigismund. who permitted him if to retain the counties of Himgary. held in 1580. in 1586. . During fifteen years the country was devastated by G-erman and Turkish soldiers. Christopher resigned his charge to his nephew Sigismnnd. Austrians in Hungary recovered Visegrad and Gran. to send a large army into Hungary. and the war recommenced in good earnest. but the King afterwards refused to redeem the pledge. in alliance with the Princes of Moldavia and Wallachia. by bestowing the high the state on foreigners. In 1583 Rudolph demanded a supply of money and. he laid a project before them to remedy that of which they complained. i Sigismund concluded an alliance. and pledge loudly . could only be a work of time the Diet was not to be thus easily pacified. [a. with Eudolph. The Diet. as well as the Principality of Transylvania. which he at the same time reminded them. After the death of Stephen Bathory.112 aiiuounced liiiS HISTORY OF HUNGAET. on condition that he died without children. 15SG. their honour for that of Eudolph. offensive nd defensive. the son of Amurath.

but Maximilian. before they encountered the HunI . own the purpose. resided. A year little he sent offers of friendship to . The Hungarian Diet urged Eudolph to commence the campaign early the following year. who seized on Eaab and Erlau. plundering the inhabitants. the Porte. the last of which was. weary of the cares of government. Eudolph. As he had abeady begun to repent where later his abdication. Sigismund demanded the assistance of the Tartars. in spite of the poverty to which the country had been reduced. the Princess Christina. and scientific 113 astrological studies. and resigned his milian. Such an army presented no formidable barrier to the advance of the enemy. he immediately complied with their wishes. but the Turks had advanced to Belgrade and entered Hungary. that it . who appointed tlie Archdidie MaxiGovernor of Transylvania. instead of hasPi-incipality to tening his departure. and came in disguise to Kolosvar. Eudolph. by which he was totally defeated but while the victors were engaged in disputes among themselves. The Austrian troops were permitted the utmost licence. and cotemporaries describe the in commanders as themselves spending whole nights drinking and the pleasures of the table. they invited Sigismund to retvina. however. his wife.A. gi-ew In 1597 Sigismimd. in the only brilliant action they performed during the war. lingered in Prague.J EUDOLPH. and after the Magnates of the Principality had awaited his arrival some months. was not untU 1601 that Soon afterwards the King sent an army against him. retaken by the Austrian troops. and voted him a sum of money for Principality. while their men roamed ver}- over the country for miles around the camp.D. but with sincerity on his part such was the divided state of parties within his he was fuUy re-instated in the government. and the King of Poland. though only twenty-six years of age. The Txirks were then hanging on the frontiers. 1601.

or confiscation all who professed the new form of religion.ho observed that liberty of conawakened the spirit of political freedo. and ten years later introduced dental fu-e them into Hungary .n order of Jesuits into Vienna. garian troops. as heretics the people were opposed to one another on religious matters. For many years afterwards. where they elected their elders. again opened a free ingress for a The success of the Turks the Lutheran Chiirch. a law was passed. and framed laws for the regulation of the infant chm-ch. but voted another supply to raise a fresh army to repel the invaders.Ill' HISTOET OF hunoahy. received the established them as teachers the University. and hundred and twenty evangelical communities subsisted under the protection of the Porte. When the doctrines of Luther were first preached in Hungary-. and under the turbulent reign of John Zapoyla the property of seven bishoprics had been placed under lay jurisdiction. In 15i8 the Protestant clerg\' were enabled to hold synods in the north of Hungary. the ecclesiastics took advantage of the indignation this act excited. the Patroness of Hungary. and enemies of the Holy Virgin. their example was followed in other parts of the kingdom. to exercise an tlieir whole aim was to apply an antidote to the litlbrmation. between the Danube and the Drave. to recover their power and influence. When he sold the country to the Moslems as a price for their assistance against Ferdinand. and support the declining power of the Papacy. and the progress of the Eeformation was checked. the clergy and of property.d. [a. Avhom they totally defeated. 1G02. but an accithe destroying part of their College before . in Grei'many. princii)ally tlirough the influence of the Bishops. in science had already Ferdinand w. extraordinary influence throughout Europe the King was called upon to punish by which by death. The Diet re- proached Kudolph with his want of energ)^. About this period the Jesuits had begun .

from They were obliged to depart. jority. The i2 . and two hundred ii\ tlie K^orth of Hungary in the counties of Zips.] RUDOLPH. 1603. the "When. prompted by former tutors. In the seven Diets held by Maxi- milian. the complaints of the Bishops. the Calvinists had made converts of vast numbers even of the people inhabiting the region of the Theiss. tliey 115 building was completed. Sigismund attained his maDiet required him to banish the order from his it dominions. recalled In 1003. who turned out the Protestant clergy. not one of the order should be permitted to set foot in Transylvania. and point out the spots where heretics most abounded. four hundred on the left. their property was confiscated to the state in the same manner as they had confiscated that of the Pro- testant clergy. within five and twenty days. Sigismvmd.k. looked upon this circuin- stance as an iH omen. burnt their books. When Eudolph ascended the throne there were three hundred evangelical communities on the right bank of the Danube. Stephen Bathory had entrusted the education of his sou Sigismund to the Jesuits. and therefore postponed their work there to a later period. however. and confiscated their property to the state.D. they were permitted the free exercise of their religion. were set aside. against the Lutherans. his was vain for the young Prince. the representatives of the people refused to accept him as their ruler. and Gomor . to seek. all the Jesuits eicept his o^vn confessor. and commanded their chief to appoint such among the fathers as were acquainted with the various dialects spoken in the country. notwithstanding this law. during his reign. and the Unitarian form of worship prevailed in Transylvania high offices in : the state were held by Protestants. them into the Principality. to entreat for delay. and a law passed that from that time forth. Saros. however. until he had expelled Transylvania. and.

outrage reached the Diet assembled at Presburg. the Bethle s. in obedience to his commands. Eakoczy. previous year. until this and other grievances occasioned by the foreign soldiers and their commanders were redressed. Eudolph. as their leader.. Stephen Botskai. and when the intelligence of this ment in protestant villages. " nobiles. determined to appeal to arms. the deputies refused to proceed with business. &c. The representatives .IIG histout of hunoaet. the heir presumptive to the kingdom. and seized upon eight and tweuty The Lutherans were noted for their industry and sobriety. and elected him He was assisted with men and money by "^he Turks. at length ofiered to mediate . Prince of Transylvania. while he was absent at coui-t pleading the cause of his oppressed brethren there he had been further irritated by the insidts of the royal favourites and courtiers. and chose. and in 1G04 one of his generals. and proceeded to the conquest of the principal places ia Hungary. only admonished his Protestant subjects to refrain from disturbing the order of the Diet. and was by them received on the field of Eakos with the honours due to royalty he however disclaimed all rank their priuce. His castle and lands had been ransacked and laid waste by Eudolph' generals. the principal Magnate of Upper Hungary and uncle to Sigismund. The Protestants finding peaceful measures of no avail. [a. Numbers joined his standard. the seat of govern- Upper Hungary. and even the Haiduks or soldiers employed in the Austrian service deserted in a body to enter his army. in reply. of the principal families of Transylvania. met at the castle of Botskai. Eudolph had commenced his persecutions of the Protestants iu Hungary. Eudolph' s younger brother Matthias. 1G04. banished all the evangelical preachers out of the city of Kaschau. and power Avhich was not conferred by his feUow nobles." and peasants. . and forbade the members in futiu-e from interfering in matters appertaining to religion.d.

tion of Vienna. as Governor of Transylvania. and on the papnent of a large sum of money. who declared their determination that not one of for the Company of Jesus should be permitted to enter the The Prince. that Matthias should be appointed Governor of Hungary. the Sultan consented to absolve the Hungarian kings from their tribute to the Porte. 160S. Matthias also acquiesced in his nomination. and who di'eaded another civU war. and forbid them to hold property in the same. the House King promised for the future to observe the rights and immunities of the people.] EUDOLPH. that the same religious granted as under Ferdinand and Maximilian. to natives of the foreigners to leave the kingdom. but requested that the Jesuits. as by ancient law established. and to order all and other charges.A. 117 between the King and his subjects. A truce twenty years was at the same time concluded with the Turks. who had learnt the moderation of character and peaceable views of R. good. to pennit the Hungarians to select their own Palatine out of the candidates nominated by him. toleration it By this treaty. contrary to his own desire. and Botskai. he was elected Prince by the Diet. . accordingly. should be restored.ikoczy. with the should be addition of the four border counties. to revert to the of Hapsburg if the prince died without heirs . to entrust the regulation of the finances and all ofiices country. called the Pacifica- was enacted. who had been again expelled by Botskai. who was then suiFering from a mortal disease. and Principality. Prince of Transylvania. he was enabled to conclude a peace with his master. but the choice was confirmed by the Emperor. Sigismund had been obliged to abandon the principality and died in exile in 1610. and ha%-ing gained the confidence of the minister of Botskai. after assuring the Fathers that he believed them to be honest.D. Eakoczy laid the matter before the Diet. Botskai was succeeded by Sigismund Kakoczy.

sent the Cardinal Bishop of Olmiitz to mediate a peace. 1G08. placed to obey their Governor Matthias. had again sworn allegiance to the King. the Jesuits augured well for their success in Hungary.118 niSTOET OF HrNOAKT.d. the Hxmgarians believed that a new advent had dawned upon Hungary. In the mean time Sigismund . and heirs. in freedom : all things necessary for the recovery of their in a secret article. with their resolutions. 1609. They were invited to join the movement. where they expressed their resolution to maintain the conditions agreed on in the Pacification of Vienna. and soon afterwards a desire for the elevation of the Archduke IMatthias to the Hungarian throne was publicly expressed. in alarm. and the Haiduks were offered a free pardon for all past offences. The Bishops at first kept aloof. Austria. press the rebellion but when IMatthias appeared at the head of twenty-five thousand men. as decreed by a majority of his subjects. he determined to send an army into Hungary. The Diet closed its sittings in February. With IMatthias. or Provincial Assembly. Eudolph's jealousy of his Matthias in so equivocal a position that he found it necessary. where the principal strongholds of Pro- testantism in the North. promising to resign Hungary. Moravia. the Emperor. and consent to his being crowned King of Hiingary. and Austi'ia. in 1608. but were finally induced to acquiesce in the general wish. to deliver up the Hungarian crown and jewels. As soon as Eudolph was informed of what had occurred. and immediately despatched envoys to Kaschau to acquaint the Comitat. Kaschau and Leutschau. to supfortnight later. A Eudolph opened the Diet in person. . on condition of lending their assistance to establish the new King on his throne. informed them that they must submit to their fate. [a. Though ex- pelled from Transylvania. the leaders pledged themselves to oblige the King to abdicate. upright men. to call a meeting of Nobles at Presburg. and Moravia to his brother.

two Catholics.D.] MATTHIAS. or in the provinces. in Hungary. as well as free cities and classes of the people. heir. That the King should not commence a war of the Diet . the kingdom . and villages. The Pacification . G-abriel Bethlen.A. of Vienna was violated a second time by his election as his predecessor left since no male : Transylvania should have reverted to Matthias but at a time when Eudolph had just been forced to abdicate. . they required him to sign in due form the contract by which he was to be accepted as their King. to be presented to the Diet that the croA\"n should immediately be brought to Presburg. to obtain title the confirmation of his by the Sultan. to Constantinople. and. The experience of the past century had roused the jealous Hungarian people at the accession of every new monarch and when the Diet met at Presburg. 1G09. should be permitted the free exercise of their religion . better known as Bethlen Gabor. the market towns. The following were the most remarkable stipufears of the . the government of the Principality was allowed to pass into the hands of Bathory without opposition. feeling himself incapacitated by bodily infinnities from carrying on the government. and pro- prietors. without the consent that in the choice of a Palatine. a weak bad man. and two of the Lutheran persuasion. the King should select four candidates. . and Matthias was scarcely yet firmly seated on the throne of Hungary. lations it contained : that all Barons. 119 Eakoczy. Magnates. whether li\dng upon their own land or upon that belonging to the Royal Exchequer. after the coronation of the King. turbed or hindered therein. that the Jesuits should not be permitted to . He immediately despatched his confidential adviser. and was succeeded by Gabriel Bathor}'. should \e preserved within . or intro- duce foreign soldiers into the kingdom. guard. &c. within a month of the election of Matthias. abdicated. as well as the Hungarian border that no one should be dis.

though he permitted no persecution of the Protestants. with the assistance of the garian Council of State proffered. conduct the government. by the hand of an assassin. Bethlen Gabor. 117. hold any landed property in the country that foreigners should be excluded from all share in the administration. [a. * By which the four border counties should revert to the House of Hapsburg. . and he fore . See p. who favoured the Catholic interest. failed in both his demands.120 EISTOKT OF HUNGAET. to accept tresses him as and especially because they did not refuse their monarch. Matthias afterwards crowned. their faithful ser- vices to the King. and that the King shoiild pledge his word only to employ native Hungarians in the affairs of Hungary. if the Prince of Transylvania died without male heirs. The death of Gabriel Bathory. and the on Stephen Illehazy. . The Jesuits made great efforts to obtain power under Matthias. . Croatia. 1603. the Palatine should be invested with full powers to . but in case of his necessary absence. dissatisfied Tvith his conduct. or delivered to the care of Hungarian Magnates. gave the King of Himgary an opportunity of claiming from the people of Transylvania the fulfilment of the clause in the Pacification of Vienna * evaded by the late Prince and for this purpose he convened a Diet to obtain support in men and money.D. and govern in person. : Hun- and because the Hungarians had and still continued to proffer. and that. Protestants were. and Sclavonia should be reintegrated into the Hungarian kingdom that the King should for the future reside in Hungary. they desired that all for- on the borders of Austria should be restored to the Hungarian kingdom. without any regard to religious creed that Dalmatia. there- who had been elected to succeed Gabriel Bathory. however. The shortly fell was choice of a Palatine .

entered Himgary with a large army. to support the cause of the Protestants. not^vithstanding his well knoAvn bigotry. and a promise that on the restoration of peace. to the end of his life. 1612.A. Bohemia. The efforts of Bohemia to resist religious persecution were seconded by Bethlen Grabor. who. the husband of Elizabeth of England. 1612. his inveterate hatred of the Protestant religion. only exacting from him and his adherents an oath of fidelity to the Constitution. Ferdmand was elected to the thrones of Hungary. after a feeble attempt to resist his arms.] FEKDINA2fD II. took quiet possession of the Principality. daughter of James I. Second. they adhered more firmly than ever to their resolution. 121 Mattkias died. In order to his fulfil a vow he had made fire when on a pilgrimage all to Loretto. Perdinand the The Kings of the Hapsburg Dynasty had hitherto vainly monarchy the . leaving as his successor his cousin. he resolved to extirpate heretics from first dominions with and sword. was the most remarkable feature ui his mind. of maintaining their constitutional rights. surgents. he at one time had serious thoughts of taking the monastic vows. when. and even Presburg yielded. and while never failing in due respect towards the person of the Sovereign. endeavoured to lessen the power of the Diet. The Thirty years' war had already commenced in Europe. they . in order to increase that of the fruit of all their despotic schemes had been to unite the Nobles more closely in opposition to their claims. and. tyrannical in- Bohemia rose in insurrection against his violation of her political and religious rights. Prince of Transylvania. He Palatine permission to depart iminjured. offered their cro^^'n to the Elector Palatine. and Austria. led being invited to their assistance.D. He was gave the everywhere joined by the people. and the by the celebrated Count Thurn. Educated in a school of Jesuitism.

mia. ISTadasdy. it waa numerously attended. would promote a more just system of admmistration in the country. Thomas and Nicolas Frangipani. and that Bethlen G-abor should be crowned King of Hungary. and was received with enthusiasm by the Protestant popu- . because Bethlen Gabor proposed that Bohemia and Moravia should pledge themselves to contribute a certain sum for the support of the border fortresses. the Dukedom should be incorporated into the kingd. Silesia. which Catholic ritual. was first performed according to the Roman secondly according to the Calvinistic. Bethlen Gabor marched to the gates of the Avistrian capital with the intention of giving battle to the generals of of Hungary. if Ferdinand should lose Austria. and returned with his new dignity to Vienna. and however.D. and Austria. Moravia. and lastly to the Lu- Although Ferdinand had expressly forbidden Pazmandy. Silesia. and attended divine service in the church of Martin. The only exceptions were the Bishops among the Magnates. After removing the crown jewels to a place of safety. but as they remained within the city prepared to stand a eiege. . as too violent and sudden a measure. that Ferdinand had in the meantime been crowned Emperor. for which the season was unfavourable. and on the 30th November recrossed the Danube. were also negatived. [a. resolved upon the T'rotestants proposed that Ferdinand should be forced to abdicate. and the Palatine himself opened the and. Bethlen made his solemn entrance into St. the city. Nothing decisive was. but this was rejected. Nicolas Esterhazy.. he withdrew his troops. Moravia. which had already been drawn up.122 IIISTOET OF HUNGARY. Archbishop of Gran. Bohemia. The terms of a league between Hungary. and Austria. and the JMagnates to appear in the Diet held by Bethlen. sitting. 1G19. the Palatine Forgacs. and even included envoys from Bohetlieran.

and on being proved that the larger number were Lutherans. The Envoys immediately sent to inform Ferdinand of what had passed.D.A. 1G20. not to adopt the . entered a protest against it. cause of and insurgents they replied. On be found the inhabitants disputing the church of St. finally. that they had only consented to the truce in order to obtain time to establish order and peace in the states to which they were allied that they to recognise the Envoys as competent Emperor. led by the Archbishop of Grran. as well as against the ordinances of Bethlen Grabor. he bestowed the churcii upon them. while acting of the year 1620. and he shortly afterwards concluded a fresh alliance with Bohemia. A truce of one year was at last concluded with the Emperor. and by in the rebels their exhortations to the Diet name of their master. The national pride of the Hungarians Avas offended by the excuses alleged for the late arrival of the Envoys of Ferdinand. when the Catholic clergj^. but to propose a renewal of the league against him. but the terms had scarcely been agreed upon. the Diet obliged Bethlen Grabor to accept the title of Prince of Hungary. in conjimction with the Diet. at the same time to sow dissensions in the people. 123 his return to Presbiu'g fo^r lation of that part of Hungary. Martin lation to be .] FEED1>^AXD II. In the commencement of the year 1620. and the consequence of their bigotry was the resolutions of the Diet of Neusohl. upon the intolerant spirit of the King. not to consider the terms of a final peace with the king. Here the Magnates and representatives of Hungary assembled in vast numbers in the spring contrived. the possession of he accordingly ordered a calcuof the adherents of the three made of each its Christian sects. by which entire toleration They had been granted to all creeds and professions. and in return received did not represent the . that the affairs of Hungary must be decided by the Palatine.

124 credentials niSTTonT of iiingaut. the Diet. king of Hungary of but Bethlen refused the crown. and confirmed the 8}'nodal statutes of the Protestant communities. by their insolence. in spite of the entreaties title only accepted the King provi- One creed. without iu^'iting the inhabitants to enjoy perfect religious freedom. and pronounced null all their past or future resolutions and void. in his name. The war continued during the two follo^ving years with varied fortune. lie further ordered that the state.d. and Bethlen promised to resign his title of King and restore the crown jewels to Ferdinand. Palatine. Ferdinand appointed his favourite. 1023. peace was again restored. who returned with promises of friendship and succour. Soon after the conclusion of the peace. with the view of inducing him to exert his influence in obtaining the consent . empowering them still to treat. religious bigotry of the people against one another he reduced the Bi.shopric3 to three. and of his friends. Xicolas Esterhazy. preaching against the adherents of an opposite or inflaming the . to elect Bethlen Gabor his stead. of whatever denomination. declare in far from yield- proceeded to Ferdinand deposed. who bestowed upon him the counties of Hungary bordering on Transylvania. upon which the Envoys dissolved the meeting. and promising to confirm whatever tliey should resolve upon. of his first acts was to forbid all priests. but at the end of that time. and . Irritated ing. Ambassadors were despatched to the Porte immediately the dissolution of the Diet. sionally. limited their incomes. [a. The Diet declined treating with any one but the sovereign himself. but Bethlen contrived to sustain his Moslems into the kingdom. church lands should be resumed by the and their after revenue applied to the maintenance of the border fortresses. on condition that he would permit the Eoman Catholic position.

the country The Diet place insisted that the young Prince should in the liberties of tirst .D. self however. and declared null vehemently protested against the oath extorted from the and void all treaties which tended to destroy the unity of the Church. compact could be followed by any practical the Prince of Transylvania died in the forty-ninth year of his age. had been nominated future Kegent of Transylvania by the . The the . and to various Three years before the death of Bethlen. swear to presene the and the council of state advised Emperor to yield. Bethleu allied with Christian of Denmark. to the many Hungarian stagnates. December. 102G. and servants. but before result. and the churches and colleges. and in defiance of oaths and compacts. abolish the Lutheran and Calvinistic form of worship.A. Bethlen Gabor about this time concluded his marriage with Catharine. rious Va- Princes of Europe. and liis son was accordingly his master. to his old soldiers. He left rich legacies to King of Sweden.] FEBDIXAXD U. 125 of the Diet to the coronation of his son Ferdinand. and among others the Emperor Ferdinand. all against this who violated the rights of conscience . King's conscience being cro\\Tied in satisfied on this point. This apparent amity did not prevent a renewal of a short intenal of peace. The Archbishop Pazmandy. as tliey observed that the oath was worded in so general a manner that it need not in any way restrain tlie actions of the Prince Esterhazy went so far as to maintain that the King could at his pleasure change the Laws of the kingdom. besides to Ferdinand and his son. sister of the Elector of Brandenbourg. and Gustavus Adolphus. as the future King of Hungary. 1G26. of long continuance. his wife Catharine. sent presents and congratulations on the occasion. he complied with the wishes of the Diet. Sultan. more honest than young King. Tlie hostilities after war was him- not.

To avoid a cinl war. the champion of the cause of Protestantism. and died in 1637. however. tavus proceeded in his conquests. Eakoczy. advanced into Germany. in the mean time. Ferdinand upon Transylvania. and he hastened to of the armies of the Emperor. was already entering before the Transylvania to assert his daiujs. and li^ikoczy was elected. and slie brother-in-law. in reuard for reli^'ion conver>ion to their during the ul)r»ence of her hus- No sooner was Bethlen dead. But news of his own election reached him. had. the celebrated AVallenstein assumed the command by the successes of the Swedish King. on condition that the Emperor should acknowledge him Prince of Transylvania. party in the Diet. was sent Esterhazy to seize obliged to acknowledge the new Prince. when the news reached him of the death of Gustavua Adolphus on the field of Lutzeu. as Kakoczy. 1G37. had proclaimed war on Ferdinand. GustaA-us Adolphus. C'utliolic [a.12G HISTOHT OF UlSOABY. Steplien liethlen. therefore. and the Emperor. lier secret Komaii band. Ferdinand only lived a few months. with the Palatine. fired despatch another embassy to Vienna with offers of peace. The Archbishop Pazmandy did not long survive the Em- . . Her . after the conclusion of the treaty. and it was now too late to retract.d. with sonK) thousand Hungarians and Haiduks. carrying until all before him. than Catharine intrigued to deliver the Principality to Ferdinand. and sent from Frankfort to demand the alliance of Bakoczy against Ferdinand but the Transylvanian Prince had enough Gusto do in establishing himsell" in his new dominions. conspiracy was. Stephen had invited George liakoczy to succeed his late brother. discovered. was set aside while her was elected Prince. but the Austrian anny was defeated. and therefore re- fused to consent to the conditions prescribed by the Protestants for her acceptance of the Keg«ncy. Stephen resigned.

The Emperor endeavoured parties in order to induce the people to consent to the coronation . but he was too much engaged in de\'ising means of aggrandizement for himself. however. For many years the country enjoyed peace and tranquillity. with heretics. stipulating for entire religious toleration. as against the Catholic. lie was then elected King of Hungary. and was only disturbed by the religious dissensions of the pcoi)]e themselves.sonable and Hakoczy had invited the assistaHce of tlie Turks but as they did not arrive. he proved a useful counsellor to Ferdinand tlie exhurting him to be true to his oath in other to maintain the respects. with a grant of certain lands in Ilungar}'. at Pi'csburg. In lGi3. and he himself wanted b(jth skill and resolution. The Palatine Xicholas Esterhazv tendered his resignation. marched a large army into Upper Hungary. . and issued a proclamation to the people. The Lutheran population joined his standard in vast numbers. but the new King entreated him peror. 127 to and one of the first acts of Fenlinaud the Tliird was appomt his successor. and the recognition of his right to Transylvania. reproacliiiig ambitious views. to confirm the articles of the treaty but such was the violence of the Catholic party. that ten months elapsed before the matter could be definitively settled. he connnenced negotiati(ms in 10 lo. and Hungarian constitution. to attend to tlieir complaints. him with trea. vrere as bitter against The Protestant sects one another. li'a\"ing his son in charge of the Principality. 1645.A. though so zealous a Catholic he could advise the former Emperor not to keep faith Tliird. liis to continue in tliat office .sehau offered no resistanee. and Ka. The Protestants hoped to find a protector in Rakoczy.D. to conciliate all each believing the faith of the other to be the invention of Satan. to which Ferdinand replied in an edict. The Diet met .] FEBDiyAXD III. and accumulating wealth. and. he concluded an alliance with Sweden and France against Ferdinand.


sou ycrdiimjid,

[a.d. 1G57.

who was


thirteen years



liakofzy was engaged in negotiations for the crown of


when he

died in 1048, and was tiucceeded by his son



few days

the peace of Munster temiinated
early death of the

Thirty years' war.


young Fer-

dinand iimdc his fatluT desirous that the succession should be
secured during his lifetime to his younger son Leopold,

who was

accordingly crowned in


Ferdinand the

Third died in April, 1G57, leaving behind him a character
for genuine kindness of heart, wliich

was so


even by his education under the Jesuits, that the Protestants

had not much to complain of during

his reign.



Further continuation of kings of the hou^e of Hapslurg Leopold I. Joseph I. Charles III. Princes of Tran-

— — — sylvania — George Bakoczy — Francis Michael Apajfy — Francis Bdkoczy

— —








year of Leopold's reign he was


occupied in securing bis election to the Empire, after which

he turned his attention to Poland, where Charles Gustavua
of Sweden, in alliance with George Eakoczy, was engaged
in a

war with the King.

Leopold stimulated Denmark to
his ally,

attack Sweden, and thus obliged the monarch to return to

own kingdom and abandon


retreated before

the combined armies of Austria and Poland, into Transylvania.

The Sultan sent to depose Eakoczy from







Principality, for liaviiig

in a

war without asking


consent of the Porte, and George was soon afterwards killed
before Klausenburg, while seeking to establish his claim against his rebellious subjects.



one son, Francis


but as he had been converted to Catholicism, the people


acknowledge him, and Leopold attempted to

upon the

The Turks, however, who

had entered the countr}' from an opposite direction, raised Michael Apaffy to the vacant throne. The wars of the Turks

and Christians recommenced
of his coronation oath, led a


Leopold, in direct violation

and Transylvania, under the IMontecuculi, who demanded quarters

German army command of the

troops in

Italian general

Kaschau, but was refustd, and obliged to garrison them in

Lower Hungar}-. The Diet met in

^fay, 1GG2, at Presburg, and indignantly



for his introduction of foreign

and commanders into the kingdom a manifesto of Montecuculi had still further given them cause of offence, as he had therein declared the Hungarian people to be wanting
in valour, ignorant of the science of war,

fighting their





and incapable of document was

answered by an anomniious publication, attributed to Count Nicholas Zrinyi, who proved this statement, so offensive to
the national pride, to be false throughout.
plaints relating to various acts of violence

Bitter comcommitted by


and to the restraint placed upon their religious

freedom, were addressed to the Diet by thirteen counties


restoration of the churches

same time thev demanded from the Kins:, the and lands, of which the Protestants had been deprived by fifty-three Eoman Catholic ^L'li^late3 and Prelates. The royal answer only contaijied
at tlie

an exhortation to peace, and a denial that the Protestants had suffered any injur)'. The dissensions in the Diet between




[a.d. 1668.

Protestanth and Catholics, and between the former and the
court, were reported

eoiimieiu-ed liostilities in

the llunpjiiriau

and the Turku reCount Nieolim Zriiiyi led army against the Mobleuis, and while Monteat Constantinoj)le,

cuculi, out of jealousy, refused to support him, he gained a

victory over the troops of the

Grand Vizier near
an ignominious


Tlu' EinjKTor, however, consented to


1GG5 for twenty- one years, and promised to pay the Sultan

two hundred thousand florins. The Oltunians were not long in breaking through the treaty, and nuide frequent inroads into the country, so that,
during the supposed peace, GO,UOO of the population perished between Vezprim and Papa. Wlien the Diet assembled in 16G8, the Hungarians were irritated beyond measure, and refused the subsidies demanded by the King for the maintenance of his German soldiers. The Pidatine AVesselenyi, who

bad long supported the patriotic party, died about tliis time; and Leopold, in violation of the law, left the office vacant the people became daily more incensed against their sovereign, and when the news arrived of the death of Count Nicolas Zriuyi in a boar hirnt, it was reported that he had died by the band of an assassin. Peter Zriuyi, the brother of the
deceased, placed bimself at

the head of the discontented

Nobles, and persuaded Francis Eakoczy, (who had married
his daughter



Helena Zriuyi), to join them as "weU as a young Magnate, Count Frangipani, and other great

officers of

the state. Tlie confederates allied themselves with

IMiehael Apafly, the Prince of Transylvania, and solicited aid

from the Porte they then summoned a Diet to meet at Kaschau, in accordance with the law by which they were required to fulfil those duties to the country which the sove;

left unperformed. Sanctioned by a clause in the golden Bull of King Andrew, they resolved on an appeal to arms, to defend the violated constitution.


A.D. 1673.]




Leopold was prepared to resist the attack of the Xoblea and sent troops into the north and south of Hungary. Zrinyi, Fraiigipani, and others were seized by treachery, imprisoned and executed, and their children sentenced to perpetual banishment, or condemned to change their names.

Rakoczy was only pardoned on condition of laying down hia arms and paying a large sum of money into the Austrian exchequer, while Paul Esterhazy, who had supported the cause of the Emperor, was rewarded by the confiscated estates of his unhappy countrymen.
Leopold next abolished the

of Palatine, Supreme

Judge, and Ban of Croatia; declared the monarcliy to be hereditary in his family quartered thirty thousand troops

in the kingdom,

and oppressed the peasantry




next declared the Constitution changed, and

placed the administration in the liands of a council composed

of members nominated by himself; the Protestant churches

were closed, and many of the clergy sent to the galleys two hundred and fifty of them were condemned to hard l.ibour and perpetual imprisonment and when tlieir fate excited the compassion and sympathy of the people, they were sold at fifty crowns each to the Neapolitan galleys, from whence they were however finally liberated by the Dutch admiral, De Huyter. Even the widow of the Palatine Wesselenyi, whose husband had died before the commencement of the insurrection, was condemned to end her davs in a dungeon; the cruelty of this persecution induced the Roman Catholics and Protestants to unite ia one com;




the defence of their political as well as religious


They were

by Apafty, and furnished with

arms and anununition by the French and the Turks. Leopold, however, sent 10.000 fresh troops into Hungary, which, with
the aid of Paul Esterhazy, succeeded in crushing the

efforts of the insurgents, and the miserable people either



nisTORT or iiuno.vbv.
tluir ranks, or

[a.d. 1C81.

an Leopold waa with Louiu XIV. of France, war at tliis time lu- now otti-'red his Bubjeets iennn of iM*a*:c', but they were not Hucli at* they thou«,'l»t ])rojHT to accfpt; each djiy their numbers became more formi(lal»le, till at lenj^th they gained two sigiuU into Tr.iiisvlvania


in a

victories over the Austriaus.

They were

assisted by



of Poles, led

Emeric Tokolyi, a llunnarian Mngiuitv, who had been exiled bt'cause bin father had joined the insurrection Though only twenty years of 1( d by Zrinyi and Franfjipani.


he wa.H placed at the head of the Hungarian army; he en-

and came to meet him. After the death of Francis Kakoczy, Tokolyi wa« desirous of marrying his widow Helena, the daught4.T of Zrinyi, and Leopold commenced negotiations with a promi«*e to sanet on the marriage, and grant an amnesty and toleration of the Protestants of the kingdom. These propo-sals were, howtered


un^'ary from Tninxylvania w ith 20,000 men,

utterly routed the Austrian troops which

ever, only a feint to gain time for the Austrian armies to

advance, and Tokolyi, discovering the deception, broke otf

the negotiations suddenly; they were, however, afterwards

renewed and the original terms accepted. From that hour Tokolyi lost his influence with the people, who suspected him of sacrificing the country to his private interests, and his followers deserted him to join the
standard of a rival patriot, AVesselenyi, the brother of the
late Palatine: before his

marriage with Helena B-akoczy had

taken place however, Tokohn found he had been the dupe of
the Austrians, and, the covu*age and energy with which he re-

ncAved the war restored the confidence of the Hungarians but

their forces

were now broken by rival leaders, and the plague had decimated both the armies of Hungary and Austria. AVesselem-i was at last taken prisoner by the enemy, and
Tokolyi concluded a truce for the second time with Leopold

but the truce was of short duration, and



A.D. 1C81.]



terms of the patriots

until the Kin£» consented to accept the

he was required to
to send


the candidates for the oHice of

to dismiss the viceroy he had lately appointed
his foreij^ troops out of the country, or



to obey the laws

compel and authority of the Palatine and,

finally, to reinstate

the Protestants in those rights of which

they had been unjustly deprived.

The Viennese


delayed ^^\ing an answer to these

propositions, until Tok«Jlyi, wearied

with their duplicity,

»ent to the Sidtan



his assistance in case the

negotiations failed.

Leo|K)ld was alarmed by the intelli-

gence of warlike preparations at Constantinople, and con-

vened a Diet
continued to

in lOsl,

but Tokiilyi refused to attend, and

aid from the


meantime, conceded
Esterhazy, Palatine,

the Diet demanded and

Emperor named Paul

who had


at;ainst his



Fearing the success of Tokiilyi's negotiations
peace, but the envoys

with the Porte, Leopold sent and)assadors to Constantino[)le

propose a prolongation of


from Louis


of France had preceded

and the


his request, unless

on the payment of an

annual tribute.

pared to renew

meantime, married Helena liakoczy, and pre]lis alliance with the ^Moslem hostilities.

kindled the indignation of

Europe against hira'when

by the Turks and Apafly, he entered IJuda in triumph in 1G82. He captured several towns, and was joined by many of the Protestants, but the Diet was favour-

who had so lately granted all and even permitted him, from the urgency of the occasion, to retain his German troops in Hungary. A large Turkish force entered the country in 1G83, and joined Tokcilyi the Austrians fled in consternation and
ably disposed towards Leopold,
their demands,


towns surrendered without striking a blow.





[x.D. 1CS7,

army, rommamlc*! by



Ixtraiiu*, ivtn*aU*d

from which





ul)iindoning the



to their late

the MoHlemt
if it


Ht»on at the ^hXvh of

thr capital, and

had not

been for the »kiU and valour



of Lorraine,

and the timely












The tHo military heroes obliged the enemy to retreat, and they followed in puruuit, until the last Turk had crossed the Hungarian frontiers. Esterhazy, Hat thy any i, and many of the ^jreat Nobles of

llungar)- contributed to the gueeeBs of this brilliant cam*



wa.H jealous of Sobieski,

and accused him

of secretly

intri^iin^j with




garian crown

the Polish kin;^ therefore returned to his


country, justly ofleuded at the baue ingratitude of the



The Sultan in the mean time, suspected Tokolyi of and caused him to be arrested, and brought in
accusers were

chains to Constantinople, but his innocence being proved,

freedom and honour.
in the

As the Prince

and he himself restored to of Transylvania had
of peace with Leopold,

meantime concluded a

there was no further hope left to Tokolvi,
retired into Asia Minor.




up in two years against the Austrians.
in the ncinity

His wnfe shut herself and her the fortress of Mungacs, which she defended
Early in 1687, Tokolvi
of the castle, where he continued


some time

in concealment.

a conspiracy against Leopold, and

Rumours were circulated of many thousands of inIt

nocent persons were thrown into prison, and a tribunal
instituted at Eperies for their

was presided over

by Count

Caraffa, a


of a cruel, covetoiis, and sanguinary



sent soldiers to scour the country in

A.D. 1C87.]

briu«^ iu




whom!*oever they could lay hands on.


caused a scaffold to be erected in the market place, and

there torture*! his unhappy victims to
their guilt.





of the



in the ci>untr>'


deprived of their right liands, and then executed,
the town the effect




parts of


prison from

and hung upon gibbets in m>me were hung, some died of torture, and others saved

themselves from an ignominious death by committing suicide.

The Palatine Esterhazy waa

length obliged t^

r«Mnonstrate with Leopold, on the cruelties perpetriitt'd in hi*


The emperor appointed a commision
sufferers, only

to imjuire into

the case, and while expressing his compassion for the wives

and chiKlren of the

ordered Caraffa to remove

the scalFuhl, and resign his post to another, whih* allowing

him to retain the command of the fortresses of Upper Hungary, and even sending him soon afterwards, the order of the Goldtn Fleece. The scaffold of Caraffa is remembtred
by the people

the Bloody Theatre of Eperiea.

In October, 1GS7, Leopold restored the crown of St. Stephen which he had carried from Presburg to Vienna,

and convoked a Diet in the former city, at which the Queen and the young Prince Joseph were present. It had been prenously resolved by several of the Magnates and Prelates to ingratiate themselves with the Emperor, by abolishing
the right of election, and rendering the




The Bishop of ErUu,

therefore, addressed

the Prince before the assembled Diet in these words


kingdom which is yours by inheritance, and receive the Hungarian Crown under the protection of God, and by the unanimous voice of the States." As no
to this


opposition followed from the Prelates or Magnates, Joseph

was crowned on the 9th of December, and


was do-

creed that the Cro^Mi of Ilunjzar^- should descend to the

last malt'

of the

[^.D. 1095.

of IfapHburg, in




Hhoukl become elective aa before.



side promised

maintain the rights, freedom, and

traditional customs of

Bull of

as their

meaning should

be deciiled bv the King and Diet, and to obsene
decrees of the Golden


King Andrew.


wholesale murders of the chief Protestants had so iiMich
increased the power of the Catholics in the Diet, and



so predominant, that the Jesuits

were now

admitted to the right of citizenship in Hungarj', the Lutheran fonn of worship waa abolished in Dalmatia, Croatia,

and Sdavonia, and religious toleration only granted as a
favour from the Sovereign.



the noble wife of Toktilyi was betrayed to her

and obliged to surrender the fortress of Mungacs to CaralVa. She and her children (both by her first marriage) Were carried in triumph to Vienna, where the mother waa
shut up in a convent of Ursuline nuns, a Cardinal and a

Bishop were appointed the guardians of her children, and
the boy, Francis Kakoczy, was delivered over to the Jesuits
to complete his education.


who had



the Theiss, protested against the illegality of the decrees of
the late Diet, and he was joined by
followed him into exile.


of the Xobles


After the death of Apafty he

attempted to obtain the Principality of Transylvania, and was
once more assisted by the Turks

he was, however, defeated

and obliged to retire again to Constantinople where he was joined by his wife, who had been released by Leopold, as a preliminary step to offers of accommodation "ndth the Porte. In 1095 the Turks again invaded Hungary, but were repulsed by Priuce Eugene of Savoy, and the peace of Carlowicz waa finally concluded by the mediation of England and Holland, in which it was determined that Leopold should receive Transylvania, and that the male heirs of his family should be

A.D. 1695.]




considered hereditary sovereifins of


and Transylvania, while the Turks should be permitted to
continue their protection of Tokiilyi.


the peace of Carlowicz, a period of



degradation and oppression for llungarj' commenced.
treated the





conquered province, the

peasantry were exposed to every insult from his


who were quartered upon them


and the Palatine

was converted into a mere agenr of the King, who with tho Chancellor and Priinute of Hungary resided at Vienna. The countrj' was governed by decrees from Austria or by
the orders of the military commander, while the offices in the state which had become vacant by the deaths of those

nuudered by




by German favourites or

corruption, bribery, and intimidation were every

where employed to demoralize the people. The coin of the countr}' was absorbed into the Austrian exchequer and barter used instead, and the representatives in the Diet were




a Constitution


appointed by



by men were be-

stowed upon the Magnates to place them on a level with
the Austrian Nobles, by which Leopold hoped to separate the wealthy aristocracy from the " Nobiles," whose proudest boast

had ever been, that the laws and Constitution

of St. Stephen recognized no difference in every free-bom


An avenger of the wrongs of Hungary was in the meantime
growing up in the Austrian court itself and under the eye of tlie Jesuits; with all their skill and artifice, the fathers could not efface the impressions of early youth, or make the son of a
his earthly career in poverty
Tiikolyi had closed Kakoczy forget he was an Hungarian. and neglect, forsaken by all but his faithful and aftectionate wife Helena, who died one year

before her husband.


son, Francis Bakoczy, afler hia






Hcparution from his inotln-r, had


into I^ohciniu to


while his

}»istrr wiis

phiced in an Ursuline








to enter a inoiuiytery and the

to take tlie veil, but in

During a temporary absence of her guardian, Juliana
Rakoe/.y married Count Keelihi'im, the commander-in-chief

Upper Hungary, and soon


her brother Francis

returned from a journey through Italy, he united himnelf to
Eleanora, Princess of Hesse Kheinfeld, and retired to his

Hungary, Spies were there phiced around him, and German soldiers were garrisoned in his castles; the emissaries of France were at that time in Hungary secretly exciting the people to revolt, and Itakoczy was accused
estates in

of having listened to their overtures he was accordingly thrown into prison at Neustadt, from whence he escaped at the end of six months into Poland. After a year-and-a-half

of exile, the times favoured his return to his native country;

the AVar of Succession was raging in Europe, and the Emperor

had been obliged
gary' to


withdraw many of

his troops

from Hun-

defend the Empire against the attacks of the Elector

of Bavaria.

The absence of the German


had been

taken advantage of by the oppressed peasantry, who rose in
rebellion against their Austrian tyrants

and when Eakoczy

appeared in Hungary at the head of a small body of Poles in
1703, the insurgents chose him as their leader.

The hopes

excited by his arrival occasioned the revolt to become general

throughout Upper Hungary,
the yoke.


classes joining to

Alexander Karolyi, who was sent to suppress the rebellion, represented the alarming state of the country to
the Emperor, but Leopold treated him with such scorn, that,

indignant at the personal aftront he had received, he joined the insurgents. The Emperor himself at length began to think

the matter growing serious, and opened negotiations with

A.D. 1705.]




Eakoczy,but just at that period the ncton'of Blenheim, gained by Leopold with the assistance of England and Holland, encouraged him to proceed against his Hungarian subjects,

and enabled him to send General Heister, w-ith an army of German mercenaries into Hungary, where their extortions only served

further to incense the people against


The insurgents, commanded by Karolyi, advanced

to the very gates of Vienna,

when Leopold

again oftered to

negotiate, and promised to respect the Constitution which he

the word of a

had ahnost annulled, but the nation had learnt to distrust man without honour and without principle. General Heister, however, succeeded in driving the Hungarian anny back over the Austrian frontier, and Leopold died soon
after, lea\dng

the remembrance of a reign of forty-eight years

of mingled cruelty and injustice; he was execrated by his

their political

Hungarian subjects whoni lie had endeavoured to rob of both and religious rights, which nevertheless survived
him, as they will survive the latest of his successors.

As soon




was established on the throne of

Austria he recalled Heister, and ottered the Hungarians au

amnesty, with a promise to redress their grievances. Though
the coimtry wa.s

in a state of too


irritation against

the late monarch to be ready to accept terms from his
successor, Rjikoczy

was sincerely desirous of peace.

As he

could not singly oppose the will of the majority, he sum-


a Diet,


was resolved to restore Hungarj' to


form of government, a kind of federal union, in

which each state or county should continue as heretofore to manage its ovni local administration, while sending deputies
to the general Diet,



united under one chief,


should bear the


of Duke, as in the days of Arpad.




difficulty that

accept the honour, but as

on a shield according to

Eakoczy could be persuaded to soon as he yielded, he was raised ancient usage, and the Prelates,

and offered to resign his and release them from their oaths of allegiance to frontiers of Turkey. Diet. the King of France did not arrive. and encountered Rakoczy at Trentsin in the heat of the battle. These conditions were however rejected. Rakoczy accordingly went . they steadlastly refused. 1710. niSTOET OF IIUKOABT. and the time was wholly occupied by religious discussions. The ^Magnates had now begun to wear^. . and this accident turned the fortunes of the day when he recovered his faculties all was already lost. swore allegiance to The propo-sals of Joseph to negotiate were then accepted. he would abandon tlie latter country wholly to Rakoczy. In 170S. The Czar of Eussia about this time offered to procure the crown of Poland for Rakoczy. which was but thinly attended.110 Maj^nates. aiul that if he was received as their King. and deputies of tlie [a. from thirty-one out of the fifty counties attended the sitting.of the war. The Diet met at Onad. insensible. and war recommenced in 1707. General Heister entered Hungary with a large : army. Kiikoczy again urged them to listen to proposals of peace. and the rest were dispersed by the Austrians.D. many captives were taken.sty was declared to be deposed. on condition of his resigning the hereditary claim of liis family to the throne of Hungary and Transylvanifl. and swear to observe the Charter of King Andrew. by Josepb. him. and the deputies him. vliieli were however again refused. posals of peace sent office. Six thousand men lay slain. but he declined the honour. and the throne vacant. which they themselves had continued contrary to the advice of Rakoczy but when in 1710 he laid before them the pro. the Prince was thrown from his horse with so much force as to become . and the promised succour of his ally. on the The plague had broken out and cut off all communication v»-ith the strong places there which still declared for the Hungarian leader. Joseph convoked a Diet at Presburg. the Hapsburg dyna.

of Hungarj^ and the yith. Vienna during the war. Germany succeeded to the throne. and who now wandered an exile from the country' for A\hich he his nobles had vainly sacrificed the best years of his life. Louis Xiy. and Charles III.] to CIIAKLES aid. leaving III.on a firmer basis were vain. received him graciously. and was there occupied with literary labours imtil his death in 1735. restored the Stephen. at Szatmar signed a treaty his Eiikoczy perceiving the liberties of to now that all hope of establishing Hungan. and roused the hearts of her people once more to deeds of heroism. the obliged him to send an army against them commanded by . ple to his sailed for then embarking in a vessel at Dantzic. But the frivolity of the French court had no attractions for a man. and the jewels. He left France for the shores of the ISea of Marmora. of bled the late racter. crown of to toleration to the Protestants. 141 Poland to demand . England. granted complete Nothing disturbed the peace aggressions of the Turks- of his reign until. and the wild music of the Eakoezy march which then echoed amidst her mountains. and his literary taste. has a century later been heard again in louder strains. which had been carried He St. and passed from themce into Prance. He resemEmperor in his noble nature and humane chaconfirmed the treaty of Szatmar. 1715. and further. who were charmed with his romantic history. and was borne by the winds across her plains. Joseph died in 1711.A. and he was treated with much kindness by and the ladies who surrounded the King. wrote Joseph and recommended the unhappy Hungarian peomercy . allowing him a hand- some pension. whose hopes had been crushed.D. in 1715. Karolyi in charge of the troops but in his absence his general accepted the media- tion of of peace England and Holland. His memory is ever cherished by Hungarj' as one of the last of her patriots. and w ith the Emperor.

D. an oppressive tariif was imposed on all articles of trade between Hungary and Austria. led by their Pahitiue John ApaHy. The Hungarian Board of Chancery was established at Vienna. was to be secured to his eldest daughter. Prince Eu<. and Hungary was governed b}' foreigners being subject solely to native constitutional The sovereign also made under the King. the three Diets held in the reign of Joseph. and the " nobiles " coiild not be legally taxed. and a council was appointed instead of ministers. Maria Theresa. aa well as to the empire. In 1730 ^Maria Theresa married Francis Stephen. at the same time. by which the 8ucceasi<jn to the crown of Hungary. and Cliarles died in 1740.142 niSTORT OF nUNOAHT. The loyalty of a people to their sovereign. The iJiet signified their aasent. greatly detrimental to the commerce of the former coimtn\ . to whom the local administration was entrusted- Lastly. Vienna his place of residence. which was equally a violation of the ancient law of Hungar}'. 1740. but. which placed its acts under the superintendence of the Austrian cabinet. and to obtain certain reforms in the laws. of' ollered tlieir asr^istance. to wh«Jin the Iluuparians. more Thus during prejudicial to his kingdom than that of a bad. which have proved a permanent injury to the country. Duke of Lorraine. several im- portant alterations were made in the Constitution. when carried 80 far as to induce them to sacrifice the interests of the nation to his interests and to those of his family. In 1722 Charles convened a Diet at Presburg to the consent demand the lluiifi.arian8 to the Pra^^iiiatic Sanction. as the unprivileged class could not alone defray the expenses of a large standing army for the sersice of Austria. has sometimes rendered the reign of an otherwise good king. took tlie opportunity to rea*isert their own rights and privileges.ene. [\. at Pesth.

The crown. now rested on the head of one of the most beautiful and majestic women in Europe.D. St. and even France intrigued to : Confiding in the loyalty of her Hungarian subjects. according to ancient usage. and entered Silesia with a large army in December 1740. and west.] MAEIA THEHESA. she rode to the top of the King's Mount. gary.A. slie ^Iahia Theresa was only twenty-three years of age when succeeded her father. Her next wa4> to declare her readiness to take the oath to its original form. east. 143 CHAPTER X. en- crown of city. resa Joseph II." Her first act was to nominate the candidates for the office of Palatine. sides the Elector of Bavaria asserted that Bohemia and his. 1740. Rival claimants started up on all . and Count John Palfi was unanimously chosen by the Diet. to receive the in May 1741. Maria Theresa accepted their invitation to Presburg.D. Ferdi- — — — — nand V. where she waved the sword of St Stephen. north. 1740—1832. to signify her determination to defend the countr}^ against all foreign invaders. Kings of the House of llapshurg Lorraine Maria TheFrancis I. "Long Live our Lady and King. Philip branch of the female V. Stephen. Austria were by right of his descent from the elder line. south. and the vaulted roof of the the Constitution in cathedral rang again with the cries of " Long Live our Lady and King " ! After her coronation. — Leopold II. . At her solemn trance into the loud shouts resounded through the streets of. A. of Spain laid claim tollun- dismember the Austrian empire Frederic of Prussia. was the first to invade her dominions. who had promised the young Queen his protection. which was only placed on the right shoulder of a Queen consort.

explained the eause tliey why young Queen. the fidelity and devotion of the States is inalienable.144 niSTOBT OF nr>'OA. " Vitam et sanA guinem moriamur pro rege nostro Maria Theresa!" profound silence followed.) then rose from the throne. the Primate of Hungary. and they are resolved to do all in their power for the preservation of your Majesty. and thousrh the Hungarian kinordom is exhavisted svith much sorrow and suffering. the A-ictorious arms. and representativert of the kingdom. at Presburg. To your protection I resign myself and my child my last hope rests in your affection and fidelity. and Count Louis Batthyanyi. tion. security of the Crown of this kingdom. you will not refuse to me and to him your wholesome council and powerMoved by the tears and beauty of the Queen ful aid. opening the meeting. (jf [a. lates. when the aged Emeric Esterhazy. in epite of the who Burrounded her." as much as by her words. and addressed her subjects in the had been thus »unnnoned .d. and as I repose with confidence upon them. The condition to which my righteous cause is reduced. and warlike valour of the Hungarians. exclaiming. and by my faithless allies. 1741. nhe determined She axHeinbled the Pre- to appeal for nueeour to Ilungar)'. Abandoned by all. to the number of nearly GOO. spoke in the name of all " The afflicted have heard the words of afliicpresent. nothing remains for me but to rely on the fidelity. and of my child.HT. the Latin tongue. (aftenvards the Emperor Joseph II. the whole assembly drew their swords as by one impulse. and of your well-foimded rights. of my person. The enemies Marin Theresa were gathenuf? their forecB together. with her infant son in her arms. attacked by my own relatives. makes it necessary that I should no longer conceal from you It concerns the the dangers which threaten Hungary. Magnates. iiml in the remonstraneea of those autumn of that year. "We acknowledge " : .

l. was signed at Success attended lierlin. put forth contradictory claims.] MARIA TIIEBESA. Even the clergy raised a large subsidy among tiicmselves for the war. the people flew to arms. John Palfi. when the King of Prussia again joined the enemies A series of disasters followed. . nothing daunted. 1742. and the treaty. who. but Maria Theof Austria. ofl'ered their sersices to all the Queen. 174 1.D. and earth. the rights and privileges of frcome'j. under the guarantee of England. and the inhabitants of the country near the tlie Theiss. She sent her own horse to the Palatine. to consider by what means they could best avert the danger which became daily more immiuent the French had already seized Prague. and these words — L . granted to the peasantry who took up arms in her defence." A conmiittee was that day appointed under the presi- dency of the Palatine. and our lives. once more appealed to the Hungarian . and I bear witness before God. we are ready with our united strength. and Twelve thou- rand Croats. of tlie justice of your birthright for which jealous enemies. to defend your Majesty. a ring. resa. once again. but happily the King of Prussia consented to peace in July of the same year. Save. in an incomprehensible manner. nation. the Austrian arras on all sides the French minister made overtures of peace. and . immediately entered Tliree thousand Silesia. our bodies. ly which he obtained the whole of Silesia. 145 your Majesty as the iuseparable soul of the body of this kingdom. before heaven. the Drave. in Bohemia yielded to the united arms of " Hungarian " Nobilcs order to check the advance Palatine raised the red flag of the Prussians. our blood. in return. when the of war in Hungar}'. with a : sword. before Jannary. France and Prussia. Tlierefore. our possessions. but the terms proposed by Maria Theresa been accepted with 'JTfcre such that they could not have honour by France the war was therefore prolonged until 1744. and.

the peace of Aix-la-ChapeUe w. To unite into one vast empire the varied nations and races over which she ruled.d. and agricxilture notwithstanding the restrictive and ccmmeTce hrid flo_rl£noA ia^s and regulations t^ Joseph the First.146 HISTORY or IIUNGAET. owed to their native "VATule striving to imderxnine the Protestant religion and the Constitution in Hungary. when a reconciliation w. and the Eijpreift all in qiiiet possession of her hereditary dominions. left between and Franco. After the conclusion of the war. Palfi. nnd take this ring as a token of my affection for you. " Maria Theresa. of England.i-s at length con- cluded in 17-48. in the mean time. and taught to regard their own language and manners as barbarous. as well as of the Low Countries. For this purpose the great Magnates of Hungary were in^-ited to her Court. 1748. one law. at the same time." This appeal called forth another burst of enthusiasm from one end of the kingdom to tie other.v3 cfl'ected Austria. a sword to defend me against my enemies. [a. "Father " I send you this horse. Prussia. and to forget the duties they land. thi Queen had leisure to turn her whole attention to her am bitious schemes of extending her power and dominion a". Hungary had. enjoyod peace and in- ternal security. The pragmatic sanct:o:i was thus recognised in Evirope. The death of llie Elector of Bavaria opened the way for the election of the husband of Maria Theresa to the Empire and through the mediation . "worthy of bcmg mounted by : none but the most zealous of my faithful subjeets receive. her conduct vas guided . from wrich Frederic was soon forced to retire. were the aim and policy of her Efe. to introduce one language. home. Poland. and to reign over the whole with despotic sway. diately raised A large anr-y was immeand sent into Bohemia.

By them she contrived to insinuate measures which conduced to the power of the monarchy. La believed that. he travelled through every pf^if of his future kingdom. he could remodel the rationp e\9-' which he was called to govern. stud\4ng the character of tho people and their institutions . to nbolis'j thj ancient • For further explanation of tho Qrbariun of Mail Thrreea. and best kings of Hungary. Hi3 training himself for the task which lay before h-m. Thus she eu" NobL^es. ind'icri fc. Although she expelled the Jesuits from the kingdom. that Frederic of Prussia felt himself called upon to interfere in their behalf: she. fiu-ther. if not acknowledged as legal.r. instead ] of laying the result of his observations before the Diet to aet o determined upon his own responsibility. were at least obeyed. but. and issued royal decrees which. left the office of Palatine vacant after the death of John Palfi seldom convoked a Diet. She died in 1780.B. authority. not unnatural in a bencvuVnj man placed in a position of pov.* by which she defined and recognized the ri^rh'^B of the unprivileged order. deavoured to weaken the influence of the by courting the favour of the peasantry in the celcbialei Urbariimi.] JOSEPH artifice II. 1780. and that ho Cvuld several millions of hiunan beings to acquiesce ir. 147 \dtli so much and skill. iiL l2 . by apparently conferring pri\"ileges on the people. that she continued to retain the affections of the people.^er vnd. was a common mistake. Chap. Joseph the Second ascended the throne in tlie forty He had been long occupied in first year of his age..n that of government which he considered n-cst likey to condad Like som(. the Protestants had to endure so severe a persecution. singly. leavirp^ tix sons and ten daughters. while in of old fact they were only the confirmation kws or usages. e^ llemoir of Kossuth.A. of the earliejr to their well-being and happiness.

they murmured at the detention of the croAvn of St. AVhen the Hungarians refused to accept the new order of things. unscrupulously. matters. over which he reigned. to amalgamate the various nations. conferred several important privileges on the peasantry. and ordered He further forbade the use either of the Latin or Hungarian language in official the substitution of the The Comitats. from the despotic manner in which they were forced upon the people and because they were associated in their minds with the foreign rule introduced by Joseph. and bestowed their wealth upon schools and colleges. Germans were appointed to carry on the government in all parts of the kingdom. of though to prevent the possibility of another being crowned in his stead. to A^ienna. Atove . Joseph has never been included in the their kings . and. capital. because he was too conscientious to swear to a Constitution he had determined to abolish. opposed his innovations. But even these salutary reforms failed in their intended effect. He commenced entirely jurisdictions in the counties of by forbidding the exercise of separate Hungary. granted toleration to Protestants. all. German. . all convents and monasteries. and by forming an of administration . with the regalia. and were therefore abolished. Stephen.MS HISTOBY OF UUNGABT. following the example of his mother. garians acknowledge no sovereign As the Hunwho has not bound list himself to maintain their laws and institutions by his coro- nation oath. or County Meetings. Stephen in the Austrian An attempt was made at rebellion all manded disobedience to be put but the King comdown by an armed force. and endeavoiired to equalize taxation among all classes. he carried off the crown of St. constitutions of the land. into one great empire. At the same time he swept away.D. and a German form of administration introduced in their stead. new system he next refused to be crowned. . and the Municipal Institutions. 1780. [a.

expresshis labours moments. and determined to act in compliance with the wishes of the people. that. in his last liad fulfil his promise he died in 1790. his reverses in a "war he on against the Turks obliged Joseph to yield. throughout Hungary. it Avas indisputable that the sovereignty v. carrjTiig was . The address declared that. and placed in the cathedral amidst the rejoicings of the people. He forgave the excitement caused by a sense of recent injuries. received the address sent him from Pesth graciously.'i of -ce nations and of men. . Towards the end of his reign he consented to return the crown of St.«\nd the people. met the people overcame all in a spirit which opposition.. never succeeded in a single derived from the people " of .A. On his : tomb he directed there should be inscribed these words " Here lies Joseph. and from that social compu't states arise. and German troops were immediatelj Happily. with the best inten- tions. but the Nobles refused both subsidies and soldiers. the conviction that been vain. in such a manner that the means necessaiy I'jt the security of person and propert-y were in their power. to the wishes of his Hungarian subjects. 149 He next summoned a Diet. " from tV:o rij. a Sovereign who. before he could ing. and to govern as a eonptitutional monarch. 1790. " as the Constitutioc Hungary placed the government jointly in the King . and promised to submit to his coronation but sent into the kingdom. and the new ideas derived from the revolution in France.. The crown of St. in some measure..'its \v." cele- Bonfires and illuminations. A large and powerful party at first declared themselves against the succession of Leopold.. brated the death of one who was a better man than king.D. Stephen. before they had broken out into open insurrection. the brother of Joseph but the new King who had long governed Tuscany with wisdom and moderation. Stephen was carried in triumph to Buda.] LEOPOLD II.

his successor shall be crowned at Presburg. Leopold immediately convened a Diet. 1790. and the Some of the most important of the nation. "defining the powers and duties of the King." that " Hungary is a free and independent kingdom. approaching Diet his Majesty would restore their freedom to them as he had already done to the Belgians. other hereditary dominions.'Tirc be assembled every three years. and after recognizing the Constitution and the freedom and independence .d. that " the right of making. liberties. except wbere such patents are merely designed for the more effectual publication of ordinances legally enacted . which moreover it shall not be la^^-ful for any authorities to receive. repeal- ing. and customs . and is to be governed by its lawfully cro^Tied King." &c." its own laws. Still further to the liberty of kingdom decrees were issued." &c. and oftener welfare render it if the puLne necessary. but according to rights.150 tney trusted that UISTORY OF HUNGARY. . consented to be crowned. was fraught with danger." were as follows that " within six months after the death of the King. and privileges of the kingdom . and that this right cannot be exercised croAvned except in the Diet of the nation ." that " the imposts shall never be leAded by the King. On this occasion he assumed the national costume of Hungary. who had obtained theirs by the sword as the example which would teach a people that they could only protect or recover their liberties by a resort to anns. and shall take an oath to observe the laws. of the nation. and interpreting the laws belongs to the lawfully King and to the states of the realm in the Diet assembled conjointly. in the [a. &c. not according to the customs of the rights articles ." that "the Diet shall for the fi." that " the King shall never attempt to govern by edicts or patents. but freely voted by the Diet. and his fourth son Alexander was secure chosen the Palatine. in no way subordinate to any other people or kingdom.

of France. Many of the youth of Hungary were in correspondence with the leaders of the revolution in France. than for order on one side. and a party was formed. was at that time in the hands of his subjects.. and Leopold tottering beneath them. entertained fears that ho might aspire to the crown of Hungary. n92..D. people.] FBA2TCIS I.. had met at Pibiitz. The approaching struggle might rather be considered one for power. and all the sovereigns of Europe felt their thrones The King of Prussia. or libertj^ on the other. the people of aU the nations of Europe were in communication with the republicans of France. 151 Entire religious toleration was granted. and others in Austria. who had just attained his twenty-sixth year. \arious stran^'^ . the Emperor IVancis I. in revenge for some private injury. was succeeded in 1792 by his eldest son. Kings had long forgotten for what purpose they were placed upon their thrones. He About this time the Palatine Alexander. led by a Franciscan friar of the name of Martinovics. and the people who had been for centuries oppressed to gratify the vanity and ambition of worthless Princes. when his sudden beloved by iLo happened to be at Vienna when an explosion of fii-cworks took place in which he was killed it was asserted to have been accidental. to overthrow the government. supposed to have been oci^asioned by poison. and determined to attempt the deliverance of the French King. who was mi. but as it was known that the yovm'^ Emperor. while destrojing the barrier which had so long excluded them from the broad light of heaven. and the reign of Leopold promised well for tte peace and happiness of Hungary. put an end to all the hopes of the people. now dazzled and blinded by the new davsn of liberty. threw down aU the partitions which secured the harmony and well-being of society. But while sovereigns were combining to support the principle of monarchy.A. Loiiis XVI. .

Areh-Duke John was totally defeated in the battle of Hohen Linden. Numerous Hungary. In the meantime the Austriana had met with so many reverses in their wars against the French. In IMay. but the to defer approach of the enemy obliged them such questions to the next . and in a command to the Diet to find means for the maintenance of the Hungarian army in its full complement. 1801. ending with the peace of Luneville. which was followed by a series of victories on the side of the French. to relieve the people from the heavy burden of taxation. A\Tien the ambition of Napoleon threatened all Europe. and to accelerate public business. 1805. the the internal aflairs of France. "While g^nting these. that an inquiry wovdd be made into the grievances arrests immediately afterwards took place in .d. In retiu-n. Francis summoned another Diet in August. rumours were his end. and of all interference in In December. 1805. The Hungarian troops had distinguished themselves so much during the whole campaign by their valour and fidelity.'* This announcement from the King raised the greatest hopes but to their disappointment it ended in mere hi the nation words. all In reply. the states expressed their disapprobation of the war. with the condition that the llungarian troops should be only commanded by Hungarian oilieirs. that Francis was obliged to convoke a Diet at Presburg to demand new subsidies for its continuance. credited respectiiif^ [a. his Majesty promised at the dissolution' of the Diet. 1802. the States recapitulated their grievances. he convoked the third Diet in his reign. that the Emperor paid them the most flattering compliments at its conclusion. to consider " the means to secure the welfare of the kingdom. and to increase the royal revenue by two million gulden.152 niSTORY OF UUXOART. others were condemned to perpetual iinprisomnent. to demand a fresh grant of soldiers and money. complained of in the country. and while some of the adherents of Martinovics were put to death.

and on the 2nd December the battle of Austerlitz -was fought . rendering the contingent of Hungarian troops unnecessan'. Murat entered Vienna. that free Nine days afterwards. 1807. in person. the army was disbanded. which immediately followed. On the 13th November. that they should furnish him. the Diet was again convened for the . that he could not lawfully exercise this pri\'ilege imtil they had decided upon those questions for which they were summoned. and though both chambers dissented. ^vithout delay. and the nobles returned to their homes. and until the royal demands were satisfied. The Diet protested against the mal-administration of the finances. In August.] FRANCIS I. Majesty threatened to dissolve them. and support the country in the present exhausted state of the Treasury^ and that they should prejjare the form of a Constitution for the better administration of justice. fifth Diet was summoned. that all the vacancies occasioned by death or other causes in the standing armies should be filled up. it thev submitted on the 11th December following:. and to promote the interests of commerce by the introduction of a court for the reguLation of the Exchange. secondly. 1808.D. the peace of Presburg. and Napoleon Schonbrunn. Francis declared was his intention to dissolve the Diet by his own will and pleasure. that the States should . appeared at the second of sitting. with a larger subsidy than had yet been granted for the pay of the soldiers . and declared themselves in favour of the principle of free trade and the two Chambers differed as to the amoimt of the subsidy to be granted to the King. consider how they could best maintain the credit of the government. In 1807 a Palatine jects . should be ready to march further. 153 Diet. but was met with a remonstrance. and delivered a list to the what he required from his Hungarian sub- first. His . The King. and that the "insurrection" or levy of Nobiles.A. and a remedy applied to the grievances complained of in the kingdom.

to the nation." to aid him in his distress.d." or levy of "Xobiles. and in his speech from Pri- the throne. however. to caU upon the "insurrection. after consulting with the Palatine. as well as those from the Queen and the mate. ample justice was done to the valour of the Hungarian people in the late wars. The King immediately it granted a building for the academy. and as it was therefore necessary to conciliate the good will of the . on which occasion the Queen's brother. Charles Ambrosius. Maria Ludo^^ca d'Este. and requested should sepa- name of Ludo^dca. laws. The Diet was admonished by Francis to be careful of their conduct during this session and he bade them look around. coronation of the King's third wife. The attention of the representatives was also called to the foundation of a national academy for the instruction of youth. and Ban of Croatia. the King had received information from Mettemich (his ambassador in Paris). [a. Hungarians. The Diet and the King his parting speech : rated with the most amicable feelings towards each other. continued to involve herself in heav}' expenses. Hungary thus. 180S. and Francis thus concluded " "We were . which had been suggested by the munificent gift of Count Francis Szechenyi. and to expose the lives of her people to preserve the hereditary dominions of the Hapsburg family. and see how the constitutions. and liberties of neighbouring states had been lately abolished. was made Archbishop of Gran. the States permitted the King.154 niSTOET OF nUNGART. in the preceding Diet had containing manuscripts and other collections. with an imprudent generosit}'. who presented his Hungarian librar}'. that certain communications from Napoleon made the war inentable. Apprised of the dangers which threatened the empire. Primate. The day the Diet had been summoned. Francis restored to the deputies their ancient right of the initiative in the Diet . and the Queen presented to bear the it fifty thousand gulden.

! I have repelled this unjustifiable aggression." The Hungarians. On the plains of Eakos. who had hitherto been the Austrian Ambassador to France. and to make known me your determination. Assemble in your national Diet. raised another army to assist him in his wars against France. was now appointed Prime posals of the Minister. especially that of 1805. upon the plain of Eakos. In hopes of inducing the nation to take part with him against Austria. They paid dearly for iu which Hungary had no concern. we shall remain imitea until God your father. when a few years later they were involved iu the hankruptcy of Austria. this is the desire of the King. " Napoleon. Hungarians The moment ! for the recover)^ of your inde- pendence has arrived I offer you peace. 155 united. Napoleon had again entered Vienna.D. of your liberty. refused to listen to the proFrench Emperor.A. however. loves : " Hungarians " The Emperor of Austria. who you tenderly as sons. the presentation of your countr)'. for in violation of our treaties. Eugene Beauharnais defeated the Hungarian army. of your institutions. won by the fair speeches of the King.] FBANCIS I. and continued faithful in their allegiance to Francis. vre are united. after which aU the pro^'inccs on the Adriatic were annexed to the French Empire. an office he continued to hold for thirty-eight . 1808. this stretch of generosity." The Hungarians. when he learnt that upwards of thirtj'-eight thousand Hungarians were preparing to cross the frontiers. according to the usage of your forefathers. Count Metternich. who sought refuge among them while Napoleon was at Vienna. he sent them the following address parts us . has again attacked my armies. and ungrateful my generosity towards him in three con- secutive wars.

HISTORY OF nUNQABT.755 gulden were required to restore the credit of the Austrian bank notes. the eldest daughter of the Emperor. was imperative that the whole Empire and he therefore requested the Prelates. "the representatives might proceed to the consideration of effect this. The foUowing year the Diet was summoned time. The financial system is not only closely connected with the economy of the state. it To should contribute tlieir share. by which he expected to reduce the quantity of paper money issued." the King continued. but also with the regulation of commerce and the taxation of the land it must therefore be inquired into by the assembly of according to the laws . and afterwards to raise the fund necessary to guarantee them. 1811. and at the same time to prevent a stoppage. . . a policy wliich he openly avowed. [a." The reply of the states was to the following effect. the affairs touching the if internal administration of the country. matter was finally arranged. In 1810 the Arch-Duchess Maria Louisa. was married to Napoleon.790. Like Maria Theresa. which. He further laid before the representatives a scheme. might be postponed to the next Diet. the King announced 1060. . and Deputies. time did not permit. To the conthat sternation present. he aimed at bringing all under the despotic sway of the monarch. and was the ad\^se^ and promoter of those measures which tended to destroy constitutional liberty.15G years. to consider in what " When this manner the kmgdoin should be taxed. He proposed to lower the value of the notes by one-fifth. and maintained to be most conducive to the general happiness of the people. to for the seventh meet the exigencies of the of all state. Magnates. at this reduced valuation.d. The executive power must be exercised in Hiuigary the King possesses the leglslavive power in conjunction with the Diet therefore Hungary caB never be ruled by edicts.

laws bestow the right of coinage on the King. interval. absolute power. indignant that the Hvmgarians should persevere in refusing to (in pay debts incurred by Austria whose cause they had already lavished so many sums in the late wars). If to introduce paper money. as it might easily happen that the necessity which made the . introduction of paper money inevitable may return. so much the more was the Tlie Diet resolved to withhold their consent. * Brother of Francis. but also that aU private property If paper be at the disposal of an at pleasure. the Arch-Duke Joseph. citizens.] FBANCIS I. issue notes. Prom 1812. .l). 1812. what can the freeholders caU their own ? and what is the purpose of those laws which empower the Diet to regulate the subsidies and the taxation of the land ? The King has indeed assiu-ed us he wiU not increase the quantity of paper money but as long as he retains the power to issue paper and lower its value. by the new Palatine. as the royal commissioners. &c. money can be issued be confounded with the property of the and accord- ing to circumstances be increased or diminished in value. This document was laid before Francis. they bestow upon him nothing less than the exclusive right to fix the value of money. then all property becomes insecure and the object of the connexion of the King with the Diet is abrogated. ordered the Diet to be dissolved in 1812. King.A. and in the royal letter be maintained. and lower their value be also a prerogative of royalty. assisted In the by Mettemich and his Austrian ministers.* and the Primate. the states liberties. Francis svunmoned no Diet until 1825. Should the principle contained in the royal rescript to the several legal authorities. must fear. and the more determined he was to cany out his financial scheme. not only for their ancient rights and wiU. 157 If the the states according to the laws of the kingdom. the evil remains the same.

suspicious.158 lie niSTORT OF ncNOARV. . who was whoUy under the guidance of Mettemich and of his uncle the Arch-Duke Louis. . and by ridiculing of mind. other grievances were added. leaving the Empire to bis half imbeede son. In 1815. and I. of Austria.b. and (sfcablish a despotism in Hungary as in the rest of his dominions. a man of a stubborn temper and narrow capacity. to tliem ia their whom he flattered by speaking cultivation own dialect. The Comitiits loudly pro- tested against this infringement of their constitution. Hmigary was left Arch-Duke Joseph. the counties wck.. [a. and He had gained a sort of popularity amongst the all lower orders of the people. 1-8. forbidden to elect their own officers. who died before his father had been crowned King of Hungary. alarmed by the movements of the Curbonari in Italy. he endeavoured to levy taxes in Hungary without the consent of a Diet. to the administration of the Palatine a man of considerable abUity and with a true love of his country. and a^Jn in 1832 wlide it was still sitting he died. and was therefore re<. wanted money Napoleon. . Ferdinand V. See p. and when in 1822 the Emperor. narrow-minded. Francis left behiud him a character for harshness and cruelty selfish.ognifled among the sovereigns. endeavoured as far as possible to destroy the Hungarian Constitution. he was ignorant. at a time when they him voluntarily gave their in blood and treasure to assist the wars against Far from complying vdih their wbhes. * Ferdinand. the son of Ferdinand III. 1832. but wanting energy to contend against the intrigues and despotic measvu-cs of the Cabinet of Vienna. the Hungarians ven- tured to remind him of the promises he had made to redress their grievances. He was therefore obliged to summon a Diet in 1825.* of Hungary. and soldiers. and Francis vainly endeavoured to gain his point by force.



and droves of swine. Herds of cattle. whose wines equal those of France and Spain. oats. the forests of the North and East are extensive enough to supply Tlie vast plain which the centre of the it produces sufficient corn to enable : to . flax. while other vintages are gathered of high value. The wines of Tokay are celebrated throughout the world. the it life and labours of be necessary to give a brief description of Hungary. lies in kingdom become the granary of Europe wheat can in some parts be grown for twenty years consecutively on the same fields without fresh manure. hemp. are successfully cultivated. though little known beyond the boundaries of the Austrian Empire. at will commencement of this century. . CHAPTER I.000 bushels annually rye.161 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. Indian corn yields on an average 25. barley. lucerne. and the state of its laws and institutions. vast flocks of sheep. besides that which is necessary for home con- sumption.000. and though there is almost an entire absence of wood in the Southern part of the kingdom. Jlungary in the Nineteenth Century. and tobacco. In order to form a just estimate of the Louis Kossuth. foreign markets.

. affording means of transport. The Sclaves are chiefly Eoman Catholics. and Sclavonia. St ma. they are the most indiistrious race inhabiting Hungary. worked and in the Carpathian IMountains of the East and North. on tlie East by the Bukovina and Moldavia. Croatia. while other branches of the same race occupy Croatia and Sclavonia in the South. yet not an inconsiderable number profess the Lutheran faith they are naturally slow in comprehension.. which have descended to them from their fathers. since the absence of wood and stone in the rich alluvial soil of the plain. renders the construction of good roads very iron. which are the more needed. such as the Eussniaks. name appear gary. to bave one origin. expensive. so that only a few Some stni retain their distinctive qualities and names. to Sclaves now principally inbabit the West and North. and on the AVest by lUyria. It is bounded on the North by Moravia and Gallicia. composed of Upper and Lower Hungar}'. &c. feed in the wide pasture lands of the plain. and Dalmatia. coal salt. &c. but all are alike subjected The the laws framed by the Hungarian Diet. besides a small but active aud hardy breed of horses. Bosnia. Serbs. Great rivers traverse the country. on the South by AVallachia. and mines of gold. 1800. enjoy peculiar rigbts and privileges. and destroyed others. silver. among The Germans or . and opal and other precious stones are in the South-east. and tribes which though distinct in is Hungary Transylvania.D. and apt to be ser^ole to their superiors. though their too frequent vice of drunkenness imhappily prevents them reaping the fruits of their industry. but with the exception of the Saxon. Servia. and leaves them the least prosperous of the peasantry. . are scattered throughout the whole of Hun. [a.102 MEMOIE OF KOSSUTH. have poured into it during many centuries but time has amalgamated some. and Austria The land is peopled by those various races which Proper.

Wallacks. more variety of national customs.] EACES 1>UABIT1>'G HUXOAET. Turks. The Magjars. by the low prices at which the land was at that time sold by the Austrian Government. so general elsewhere. called the Banat. district they for form a distinct colony. 1800. and an in- They are besides ignorant Jews met with in all parts of the country." keep the public houses. Tliey are often em- ployed as middlemen by the wealthy " Nobiles. also inliabit Transylvania. who towards the close of the last century were induced to settle in its rich plains. the most ScLaves. are in a lower couiiti'v. numerically greater than any race in Hungary. foiiiid in all 163 as Saxons are parts of Hungary. in order to liold out As each group retains its own a temptation to colonists. than can be foimd within so limited a geographical space in any other part of Europe. revengeful. ajid oowtirdly. is peopled by many races Germans.A. being here confined to the German population. and pursue their usual avocation of lenders. tlie weU as in Transylvania. and Italians. for money which there is a large demand in a country Their religion is tolerated on the where coin is scarce. their character naturally and superstitious (all being members of the Greeic Church). Szeklers. M 2 . language and manners. are . like Catliolics. but as they have been long subjected to oppression and iU-treat- ment from their superiors (wht?ther their is own countrymen deteriorated : or foreigners). and are better treated in Hungary than in most other European nations dustrious colony of Saxons. but have shown good qualities when treated with kindness. where in tlie so-caUcd Saxon Tl\ey. payment of an annual tax.. there is here. the prejudice against them. French. state of civilization than any other race in the They are said to be treaclierous. The Wallacks of Trans} Ivania. are also part Eoman though many are Lutherans. are . perhaps. and who. while inhabiting the whole of the extensive central plain. Greeks.D. IMagjars. The southernmost part of Hun gary.

to preserve it in its last hour. 1800. and become a Gypsey lad of fourteen. [a. loving the freedom which has now become traditional more than real. travelling in the country. they are dignified yet courteous in their manners. and had studied under Strauss at Vienna.D. and tKe fervour of their devotional feelings. They first appeared there about the commencement of the fifteenth centur}' and fivr^uent attempts have been made. and as such. however vainly. They are also the best musicians in the country. less remarkable in the higher or educated classes. mentions who was an accomplished violinist. and abandon their vagrant habits. they have not been led to anto the higher classes. The characteristics of each race are softened. to induce them to settle. Some enli. retaining the strong lines of character pecidiar un obliterated by the influence of . arc a powerful and hand- to their ancestors.16-i MEMOIU OF as soldiers. to whatever creed they may chance to belong. as well as at the dances of the peasantry. and despotism daily throwing further back. The men belonging edu- . Paget in his work on Hungary and Transylvania. where they find are rarely met with . they are summoned to perform at the feasts of the aristocracy. always meet with cordial hospitality and a hearty welcome in the homes of the Hungarian gentlemen. Foreigners and the inns are few and bad but those who are tempted by curiosity to visit this remote part of Europe. The wandering Gypsies must not be omitted in an enumeration of the races which inhabit Hungary. Tliey are frank and generous. scattered throughout the cuuutry. and grateful to those who liave striven. Their most striking characteristics are their attachment to the ancient institutions of their country. Hiodern civilization with much passionate eagerness of voice and gesture. which raih-oads are daily bringing nearer. but in vain. as yet some jKople. but their occupations are chiefly brickmakiug and . farriery. luxuries and refinements ticipate.

wealth. united with a consciousness of per- sonal dignity peculiar to a nation of oriental origin."* they camaot legally be subjected to corporal punishment elect their own magistrates. and soldiers could not be quartered upon them they alone could send . be held on the sole condition of military service. 165 one or other of tlie many collegiate establishments of their native land. The term "Nobiles" by no means limited to in men of rank. or contributions. members trict to the Diet. except in cases of high treason their being subject to none but their legally crowned King.] THE MOBILES. and to . together with certain others of a similar natm-e. . polish of education does not deprive The them of the fire and ea?e their of expression peculiar to their nation. as Grovemors of Counties.A. many respects. level Their chief prerogatives lay in the inviolability of their persons. their property was supposed to be the gift of the sovereign. They are. rated.\ only to be distinguished from foreigners of a similar rani. or even as DisAvas Judges. and they have the right to tithes. and they retain the picturesque costume which has descended to ance«>tors. except in the advantages already enumeon a with the imprivHeged class. or National Legislature and could act as Eepresentatives. if the country * See page 9. they paid no . and their exemption from taxation. them from AH the descendants of the belonging to other races first Magyar settlers or of those who have obtained a grant of land or letters patent from the King. or absence of conventionality.^ large? cities. therefon. tolls. spend a portion of each year cated iu in th. ISOO. or influence. At the commencement of this century their property was stiU seciired to them free from aU payment of taxes. are called "Nobiles. the larger number were.D. if not in Pesth or Vienna. in life artificial by a certain simplicity.

not excepting the IMag^ar. At their [a. Their houses.D. a crucifix or picture of the Virgin adorned the walls. The unprivileged most intelligent class included a large numbor of tJie men in Hungary. and the scorching heat of summer. undtr circumstances which deprived them of the rights as means of asserting men and . &c. profcuxjxs in various branches of learning. as well as all means of progress. their well-used bibles and hymn-books were usually found. who acted as their judge power was sometimes cruelly abused. in the enjo^Tnent of physical comforts. the protestant clergy. bmt the majority consisted of the rustic population. citizens.. in default of heirs. were threatened by foreign invasion. the condition of the peasantry was. became careless and dirty in But even when their habits. if CathoUcs. it was often valued at ten or twelve. this state of prosperity. cost them two povmds English at the lowest when ornamented. were clean and well . tmhappily. and corporal punishment could be exercised by the petty tyrant of a village. gary. But all improvement in their condition in Hun. for like our The Wallacks formed an exception to low Irish and Scotch. ISOO. they were habitually dirty.166 MEMOIE OF KOSSUTH. and their like They were well fed and well clothed their " Bunda " or sheep-skin cloak. or left to the mercy of agents. when unhappy enough to be subjected to a harsh landlord. whose lot in many parts of the coxintry was as happy as it could be. physicians. and given to intoxication. of others the gratuitous justice they received was dispensed according to the caprice of an arbitrary lord. furnished . in which when Protestants. . deiifche. was a sure protection from the extreme cold of winter. and often even ragged the pea- santry of other races also. was checked and . or peasantry. which the plaid of the Scotch Highlander. dependant on the wiU. the property devolved to the state. their political independence.

or also by the Deputy Lieutenant. these Comitats or In County meetings. and were indispensable salifications were confined to collecting the taxes. they were.J THE C0MITAT8." who elected the several municipal officers undar him. generally His duties were. 1800. Reoding. The lative fifty-two Coimties of Hungary had each a separate administration independent of the Diet. or National Legis- Assembly. and punishing petty ofiences.A. respectability of character his duties . The Fo Ispany. and instructions senttotheir deputies how they were to vote. The Fo Ispany. The Lord of the Manor nominated thxoo of thdr number. This electioi was one of the few rights appertaining to the peat. these were considered unconstitutional. they were respectfully laid aside. settling the disputes in the \allage. the conduct of the Diet was discussed. elected by the " Nobiles. four times at least in the course of every year. 307 impeded by a foreign govtTiiinent. was by law obliged to convene a meeting of all the "Nobiles" and Catholic clergy of the County. Vice Ispany. and even the decrees of the sovereign were submitted to their approval. however. seeing that the soldiers were fairly quartered peasantry-. These meetings served .antiy. permitted to eltct their o\vn tax-gatherers in the persons of the Biro or Village Judge. * See page 12. however. among the apprehending rogues and vagabonds. D. as was sometimes the case. was appointed by the King. The care and management of the local afi'airs of the country devolved upon them. furnishing the appointed number of conscripts for the Austrian army.* or performed LcFrd Lieutenant of each County. paid by the unprivileged claist* Though the taxes were alone. If. or Vice Ispany. writing. and liis Jurassores or assistants and were therefore generally satisfied wiUi the manner iu which this unwelcome duty was performt»\. from whom they chose their judge.

to educate the people for political taught them their (nvn interests. and the benefit of an early lesson in selfgovernment outweighed the temporary evils which it brought it.D. They were all nominated by the cro\\'n. they did not belong to the institutions. and the " Senatus" or Board of Alder- men were whUe self-elected. the "IS'obiles" refused the borough members a vote in the Diet." The Diet was composed of two Chambers. and the ease by which corruption and intimidation coiild be used within the narrow precincts of a city. or composed of the peasantry who had been induced to settle in them. affairs. which they were enabled to do. ISOO. since the cities had only each the priWleges of a single " IS^obilis. and retained their situations for life. the "Senatus" could not dispose of any amount of public money. was not so independent as those of the Comitiits. when the citizens hesitated to accede to the royal demands. and this permission was never granted selves refractory. the House of . but these were evils which admitted of remedies. but to tlie men. and the value of institutions which promote order and method in the conduct of public true. the " Varos Biro" or Judge. and that violence and shameless bribery wore frequently used. and from the limited nimiber of candid<ites. The " Koszeg" or Common Council. along with The IMunicipal Government of the royal boroughs or towns which were chiefly of German origin. were elected annually. exceeding six pounds.1G8 WKMOIE OF KOSSUTU. the Eoyal Commissioner had an undue influence in every election. It is that scenes much the reverse of order took place during the elections. life. The boroughs were therefore accused of being mere tools o± government. [a. To add to their dependence. the " Polgar Xester " or Mayor. without the permission of the King. or in any way showed them For this reason. and the "Yaros Capitany " or Head of the Police.

Transylvania and Croatia had each a separate Diet. which was confirmed by Maria Tlieresa. consisted of the deputies from the Counties. and dissolved by the King. or the Chamber of Deputies. been conducted in the Magyar or Hungarian language. and of those who were Magnates by birth and title. the representatives of the chapters of cathedrals. Tlie initiative lay in the Chamber of Deputies. He was obliged by his coronation oath to call it together at least once in three years. The Diet was summoned. and received the royal signature. or his representative.* The change took place in the reign of the Emperor King Joseph I. the Diploma Leopoldinum. by which the crown Avas to be rendered hereditary in the female line of the House of * See page 142. and those of absent Magnates. on the condition that the Transylvanian people should accede to the Pragmatic Sanction. 1800.] TUE DIET. The Palatine was assisted by the Vice-llegal Council. They were then forwarded to the chief magistrates in every County to be made public. and the House of Deputies. the deputies from the towns. first 169 consisting Magnates. or the widows of Magnates. the of the higher Clergy (the Catholic bishops).A. over whom the Nandor or Palatine presided.D. but for several centuries Latin had been used instead. out of four candidates nominated by the King. The Emperor Leopold I. He was elected by the Diet. the Barons and offices Counts of the kingdom (who derived their dignity from conferred by the crown). granted the Charter of Transylvania. in early times. and within the boundaries of Hungary. " Consilium Locumtenentiale Hungaricum. The second Chamber. . The debates had. when this last was removed to Vienna. prorogued." which had been substituted *br the old Hungarian Chancery. from whence the acts of the Diet passed to the Magnates.

occasionally held one of their own. over which Ban of Croatia presided. besides the exercise of certain rights which in general are the exclusive prerogative of the sovereign. Serbs. called the Banat Table. The Pro- testant church was peculiarly obnoxious to the court. Jesuits. enjoyed a royal revenue. The " Nobiles " of allowed to into disuse. Diet was gradually and the boasted liberty of the people became more nominal than real. were not paid more than was fulfil though the priests in general necessary to enable them to the duties of their ofiice. and their were said to be not unfrequently agents of the Czar. Hapsburg Lorraine. 1800. priests Diiring the three last centuries. and numbered about three millions of the population. however. and had become the chief guide in matters which related to education. The Protestants had however increased in number. were peculiarly jealous of its influence. the They had a separate court of justice.D. or Archbishop of Gran. The The Wallacks. by whom he was enabled to carry on his political intrigues. gained the ascendant in the affections of the Magyars. by which they excluded Hun- garian Diet. Prance. Prelates of The Catholic Hungary were extremely wealthy. in spite of the powerful support lent to it by the government. and Scotland all : it had. and the Catholic influence had gradually diminished. and enjoyed all Protestants also from the boundaries of their provinces. and the Protestant clergy often fell under the suspicion of In spite of this it was ever the Austrian government. who all professed the Greek religion. from its democratic form. her object. Croatia and Sclavonia. advancing. Having secured her the [a. resembling the Calvinistic churches of G-eneva.170 MEMOIE OF KOSSUTH. and Croats. The Prince Primate. there has been one continued . she forgot promises to fall Transylvania. while they sent deputies to the peculiar privileges. including most of the intelligence of the coimtry. were under Russian influence.

. contain the germs of Hfe and strength. in of danger which threatened their sovereign. which. laws have been broken by the Imperial despots.D. She in is indebted for this extraordinary vitality. people. and afterwards by the consent of Hungary to the Pragmatic Sanction. are. and have trained first the people in the elements of self-government. The election of the Austrian monarchs was first secured by the undue influence of the wealthy Magnates. Castile. even among the sons of Hungary some have. but Hungary. and which has preserved their fidelity whenever misfortune befel the House of Hapsburg. but not subdued. might still have continued. to preserve herself from the fate of Bohemia. and Germany.] HTTKGABT. rude and imperfect as they Yet. 1800. Oaths have been violated. Though a deep and settled hatred of foreign domination had been grafted in the hearts of the it seldom extended to the person of the monarch was the feeHng of loyalty in Hungar}% that. been crushed by violence or treachery and again and again she has risen from the blow. and oppression. stdl maintained her gion. where free constitutions. had not the Austrian Emperors perfor so strong every moment severed in their determination to convert the country into a province of the empire. the blood of thousands has been shed. those democratic institutions an aristocratic guise. and were rewarded by fresh acts of ingratitude. Italy. or County meetings . That loyalty which induced the Hungarians to refuse the offer of Napoleon to restore their right to elect their own sovereign. Valencia. have successively independent existence. granted on conditions which have never been fulfilled. cruelty. 171 struggle on the part of Himgary. or the Protestant reli- been destroyed or blighted by the Kings and Emperors of the House of Hapsburg. Again and again Hungary has . to her Co- mitats. weakened. his faithful Hungarians were the first to defend his cause. Arragon. in this ceutuiy.A. until within the last six years.

the Diet of 1832 all His mother's games of hazard.172 MEMOiE ov Liossurn. and situated in the neighbourhood of Tokay. parentage. well as tlie ami Austria was rearm was thrust Fully aware of the defects as a strong peculiar advantages of tiiese institutions. blindly attempted their destnvtioii. [a.bling — Becomes delegate for the The cholera Countess Szdpary at lawyer to the Countess Szdpary His chase— The Polish Sevol ut ion of ISSO — parting admonition — He abjures A. a wholesome life still breathed in Hungary. a gentleman belonging to the untitled nobility.D. His profession was that of an advocate and he OAvned a . Birth. lived Andreas Kossuth. of the Hungarian people. joicing at the suicidal act.d. 1802—1832. faults as well as the virtues of the CHAPTER dotes of his boyhood tice II. in the Ls' the little town of Monok. and education of Louis Kossufk — — lie studies law— Cornm/'vces pracunder his father — Completes his legal education at Pesth — Graduates as an advocate — Returns UJhely — Assists as a at the Co?nif (County Meeting/. ISOO.) to — Anec- "JS^ohiUs'^ cits' Is appointed passion for the — — Revolt of the peasantry—Kossuth addresses the people — He establishes Cholera Hospitals — Jealousy of his influence — Gan. descended from an ancient family of the race of the Magyars. Louis Kossuth cherished hopes for better days from the vigour which had sustained so many sliocks. and believed tliat if the luxury of the court and aristocracy at Vienna rivalled that of Kome in its decline. when between them and their aim. County of Zemplin.

made him a favourite with his masters from Vjhely he was removed to the Calvinist College of Saros Patak. he could not bear to live apart from his family. He lie was highly was a man of resolute character. and pursue his studies. who treated him with the kindness of an elder brother and who. one . Many anecdotes are told by those who have known him from his boyhood. where the early indication he gave of talents of a superior order. while taking him long wjilks into the country. he completed his education. and would often leave his well-stored library. the eldest. wife. his parents . undisturbed by the sound of the young voices around by her gentle mannara the him. after his birth. for to an almost feminine tender- ness of disposition. united with an intellect of highest order. just in strong affections. and soou removed to Ujhi'ly.A D. . or Louis. to sit in the midst of his children. 1802. Their ftimily consisted of one son and four daughters. though of themselves insignificant. Pie left the entire charge of their education to his who Avas well fitted for the task and tender disposition. which. the principtil town of the Count}' of Zemplin. he added the stern inflexibility of will. and keen sense of justice of Andreas Kossuth. stern and inflexible in w^hat he considered right. 173 small landed property in the County.] HIS BIRTU A>-D EDUCATION. yet ^\-ith warm and Even while absorbed in the duties of his profession. all things. at no great distance from his home. directed his mind He was afterwards sent for a short to the study of nature. was bom in 1802. marked the future man in the child. between which and the Lutheran College of Eperies. The characters of both his mother and his father were singularly blended in him. The boy received his first instruction from a young Pi'otestant clergyman. It happened that his father. time to a school in Ujht-ly. where esteemed. Lajos.

to save the idle or incapable from punishment. it was discovered he had bestowed it on a comrade. and received the boy once more into favour. whicli he endearing featiu'es of his character were especially displayed One severe day of winter he returned home without his cloak.D. a task he was often in the habit of performing. at supper. went in search of him with a message of forgiveness. irritated by the injustice with had been treated. and in that of his mother. . amidst the trials of her later years. home but Louis. and when questioned. who. whose parents were in poor circumstances. . in addition to his own. without watchful care and judicious treatment. had a safeguard in his ovra afiectionate and tender nature. and clad. 1812. who had left him there. [a. but waa still Lingering on the spot when Andreas Kossuth. found her greatest consolation in the strength of her son's virtuous resolution. punished him severely and sent hiin His mother missed him at dinner and and on learning the cause. might have degenerated into a vice. The gentle and fatlier's pardon . day. towards his young schoolfellows. of whose com- panionship he did not approve. and desired him to leave the game Louis obeyed. The firmness of character which. Another time. who had already repented his own violence. who being his thinly mother was surprised by finding several of Louis's college companions assembled at the door of their house. and hastily concluding the boy liad taken advantage of hij absence to play again. with some boys. The talents he had exhibited as a boy continued to develop •with his increasing years. and having entered upon the more was shivering with cold. declared he would sooner die of starvation tlian beg to be forgiven a fault he had not comnutted.171< MEMOIE OF found him at j)lay KOSBUTII. and to learn from them they had brought him their themes to WTite. yielded. returned. if he would aek his in disgrace. and his father.

The history of his native country political state of the numberless also. p.A.* and after graduating as an advocate. superiority Tliough scarcely twenty-one years of age. life. 5(57. in a disputed point. and took his seat as a "Nobilis " in the Comitats (County Meetings) of Zemplin. 1S23.D. and his unceasing and activity gained for him the confidence of the moat distinguished men in the County. the loyal devotion of lier people. generally yielding his : opinion to that of his son aftair his advice also was asked in any of importance in his OAvn family. J'aget't Hungary and Transylvania.] PBACTICES LAW. read law and attend the Courts under the name of Juraten. profound knowledge of law. and of becoming acquainted with abuses which neglect. he rctui'ued practice under his father. member of respect. • Jurat s. life. The sur- where his industry The young nobles who desire to take any part in public who have finished the regular course of itudy. It home to commence was in the course of these studies. every which looked up to him with affectionate end of a year he removed to Pesth. He had now attained his majority. At the attend the High returned to his native County of Zemphn. and having himself for an advocate. to Courts of Law as a Juratis. were sufficient to kindle the imagination and Avarm the heaa-t of a nature so ardent. had introduced into her otherwise enlightened constitution. and yet so earnest as that of Louis Kossuth. whether of independent fortune qualified is or required to understand). 175 Berious studies of his college he applied himself to law profesj^ioiial (which every Ilungariuu gentleniun. or the policy of ambitious iiilers. that he had an opportunity of learning the Hungary. voL ii. and resinned practice under his father. as well as all the lawyers . rich in incidents of romance. and the noble and patriotic struggles of her heroes. the of his judgment had unfolded itself all in a remarkable degree. and he was consulted in cases : difficult the father.

He life. lS2o. who aj)j)i)inted him to the The peace and happinoHa of a olfiee of her lawyer. he came upon a passage where after describing the death of a young prince by the . towards animals which necessarily attendant The cruelty upon such . and at this period of his devoted more time to the chase than to his profession. many of his leisure hours were given to literature.170 prisiiif^ MEMOIH OF eloquence also. and once. and the high qualities of his mind. but those of their numerous dependants. An ii(lj\istinent of their various claims. to whom the lawyer was too oft<?n a just object of suspicion and hatred. waa enabled by personal observation to acquire a more distinct knowledge of the evils attendant on the undue share of power.D. and was remarkable and dexterity. which the laws of Hungary bestowed on the lot " Nobiles . when reading the works of Firdusi (the Homer of Persia). The manner in which he fulfilled the trust reposed in him may be inferred. He took particular pleasure in hunting the bear. wealthy proprietors. even where he had nothing to coinphiin of in the treatment he received from his superior. c/l which he Jii«j)lft-. secured for }um th^' friendship of the Countess Szapary. in this position. was an ardent sportsman. amusements Avas however repugnant to his nature unlike most lovers of the chase. in pursuit for his success is of which he would often spend weeks in the mountains. from the love with which he was regarded by the peasantry. devolved apon him alone." and the unhappy of the peasant. when tvrtinj^ County Courts (. community depended much on the conduct of tlie lawyers wlio were thus miploycd by tlie great " Nobiles " of HunThey had not only to settle the disputes between gary. an old lady jxjufleaBiiig large estates in the County. Kossuth. KOSSLTir.St-driji) exeitt-d riiueh attention. and a fair adminlBprofesHionally in the tration of the laws of the country respecting them. So brilliant a conuneneement of hiM cc:rvr. [x.

committing horrible nujrders and pillage in the houses of the upper classes.1 THE POLISH RKYOLlTIoy. and oondudes with a line calling upon man not to injure the livt-s of those who have as good a right to live as he. These disturbftbces were believed by many to have been fomented by agents from Kussia. and them from one in maintained and concealed them their houses for many mother of Kossuth. that they awoke reflections. driven from their country. with the consent of her husband. the poet appeals to tlie general feelings of humanity towards all living things. the Nobles continued to ofter hospitality. In 1831 the Polish Revolution was crushed. In detiance to another. IJut the spnpathy for these unhappy men was too strong in Hungary them years. The Viennese Government. 177 hand of his brother. various rumours concerning it were circulated by ill-disposed persons among the ignorant peasantry. and strained others. forbade all crown to harbour the rebels against a friendly power. of Austrian spies and police. gave a home to the exiles. souglit refuge in Hungary. the little Among the fortune of the family to tlie utmost. to allow the mandate passinj^ to be obeyed. 1831. in revenge for the sympathy which N . was not less alive to the sorrows of his fellow men. The cholera about broke out in Europe and devastated the north of llungarj' as the origin of the disease was unknown. their necessities. and many unfortunate Poles.D. The heart which felt so ready a sympathy for the brute creation. which favoured the subjects of the Austrian interests of Eussia.A. They rose in masses throughout the country. to provide for this time . which ended in a resolution never again to iudidge in pleasures bought at the expense of animal suftering. who were led to believe the wells had been poisoned by the Priests and Nobles. The sentiments of the poem were so accordant with his own.

1831. he prevailed upon them to arm for the defence of their common country and society. they had many interests in common witii the Notaries. in the who assembled market place to hear him. The and besieged Ujhely. in. that they proposed to treat with. ±c chiefly inhabited by those who had been peasants themselves. for himself and his family yet the bean^rs refused the wine offered them by hia mother lest it should l)e j)oisoned. }m(l oxpreHsed towardi) the Polea by the Hungarian in the The and revolt waa most alarminj^ in tlir villiij^t' County of Zemplin. kc. that wiiile attempting to n-duce the town by famine. addressed his countrATuen. He organized a National Guard on the spot. «'»|H'cMiilly of 'rurabcHh. Manager of the Estate. a retired military officer.17f^ IfEMOIB OF^entrt The fused to obey the authoritieH. the Steward. even join the insurgents. presented to them as their leader. * Tlie authorities of a district are either those elected by the vil- lage cr communities. but in the idl midst of the exeiteincnt against life. The pr<»visions. and instead of joining the insurgents. or those appointed by the lord. such as the Judge. He represented to them the delusion they laboured under. which belonged to peawantr}' of that diutrict re- theCountesB Sznparv. of such waa the aflection with which he had inspired them. Kossuth. were liberally disj)ensed citizens at last among the standing people. residing in Ujhely. for the first time. sent in provisions to him.t At this perilous juncture. and ward off the vio- lence with whioh both were threatened. such as they were. and so impatient and under their sufferings. Iti'cn [a.D. but the became so much alarmed. in ascribing the calamity of the cholera to the upper classes. and declining the offered command him by the enthusiastic populace. where in a superior station Kossuth resided with parents and sisters.* next surrounded his who fled for their liveB. they . •f- As the towns were population rUiStic .

owners to h-nd them needed for their si. which were kept in the building where the Comitiits were the jealousy of those. to keep open house during the sittings of the Comitiits.sters. post of duty in the lost as held. for the use of the sii-k. the to^ra of Ujhely. He had. and tlie all inhabi- tants of Ujhely readily sent in beds. 1831. and a like young lawyer Kossuth would have attracted in his notice. Tlius he at that time saved the country from anarchy. and with it. cheering and consoling them by their words and example. at this period. frequently invited to the Kossuth did not escape from the fashionable vice or amusement of young men belonging to the aristocracv he joined the gambling table in the house of the Vice Ispany. 179 He himself proceeded to turn his whole attention to the establishmi'iit of hospitals for the cholera patients.] TUE CHOLERA. he thoughtlessly staked all he V 2 . sometimes risked and lost a higher stake than his small means justified. had It feel much influence with the people as he had gaim-d. Kossuth the yount^est yet a child.1. however. . ner described house. In the meantime. vi. and carrying them medicine and all they required. therefore.D. It the eflect of tlieir was customar}' for the Vice Ispany or Deputy Lieu- tenant of a County. the valu- able archives of the County. There were several Lirge buildings for the manufacture of wine in the \'ineyards on the outskirts of the town he persuaded the . roused who having themselves deserted the commencement of the disturbances. was not long before they made him enmity. .. and that was accommodation. and carried on by the excitement of play.sited with his the patit-nts both in the hospitals and in private houses. and preserved from the fury of the insurgents. One evening after having received money on the preceding morning for the Countess lSzapar\'.. rising The Vice Ispany of the County of Zeniplin was a kind-hearted hospitable man. even if he had not distinguislied himself the man- he was. tables.

1849. mother bade him farewell in words your acquirements show a capacity justifies us in entertaining the best hopes for the success of your future career. and she was so entirely exphinatiiiu." Though this was the first time that many of those who had known him from his youth had ever heard the story. Diet. countess. by which Kossuth was accused of " malversation in his younger days of an orphan or education fund. . and the whole circumstance would been furgdtten. brought They continued to intrigue against him. who hastened to report the whole matter to the tliirty or forty j)Ounds. and at the election for the Diet of 1S32. until. this malicious fabrication of the enemies of Kossuth gained so much credence among the readers of that paper. that it may perhaps . or the Magnates who did not desire to attend the widows of Magnates could send a deputy.f * ALlegatits alsenttum. tliat she continued to place the same confi- dence havi' in him it as before. without considering that only part of it was his own. at the expiration of another year." Kossuth gave her a solemn promise that he would never again play for money. had about hia person. he resigned his the office. had no riglit to vote. and to represent Kossuth to her in as disadvan- tageous a light as possible. 1832. but your propensity for play makes me tremble lest you should yield to its temptation. The sum belonf^ing to her did not exceed which he immediately repaid to her account but lie had been obsened by one jealous of his influence. had not the malice of his enemies forward on every occasion. fessed Ills Without hesitation.ISO MEMOIB OF KOBSITII. and he kept his word. accepted that of delegate {ahle()atu^ absentium)* for Countess Szapary and some other Magnates in the his departure his : county of Pesth. however.D. who. as life such a vice in you would make my miserable. [a. satisfied he conwith his fault. t A statement appeared in the " Times " newspaper of October. On which to this eftect " !My son.

or those employed by him.bourers. thn lord himself being the responsible person. he was bound to replace the money. therefore.A. When Kossuth. 181 CHAPTER XT. her dayl. or tradespeople. Grievances — Diet of 1790 the Deputatio lirgnicoJaris- of 1S32 — Conservatives — Privileged and unprivileged — Condition of peasantry — Urharium of Maria Theresa—Proposed reform of Commercial Cod€ — Urbariiim — Pejected by the Proposed reform of — Nayy Pal — Poet Kulcsey— May Francis Deak. the candid readers of both sides of the question must decide.-. servants. If mismanaged or squandered by the lord.] KOSSUTH A DELEGATE. — — ejj'ects It was in the Diet of 1832. 1832. that Kossuth commenced his political career. they might be said equally to belong to the Orphan Fund. which he immediately refunded. DIET OF 1S32 — 1S3G.l).iry acted as a kind of guard iiius to the orjihans of the peasantry. Tiie the the in the Prosecution of Wesselenyi and Bulogh by the Austrian Government Kossuth speaks on Hungarian Diet - the occasion — He establishes a actions of the Diet press stopped — paper to report the transEmploys a lithographic press His JJVites the reports Employs messengers — — for their conveyance Close qf the Diit Beneficial on the country of the Journal of Kossuth. AH " Nobiles"' possessing large estates in Hung-. 30—34. Though in his capacity of a dcU'gate it from be as well to state here on what foundation was built. III. Kossuth a delegate. . leader qf lieform Party — KlauzaU Beothy — Baloyh — Wesselenyi Joins Peform Party classes — Baron Wesselenyi Miklvs — licform party the the nates thirteen times. and consequently had the administration of the funds for their supjjort. the Countess Sziipary's private purse. The first appears to have been selected as most likely to influence the English public against Kossuth. one night gambled away a few pounds belonging to the Countess Sziipary. with how much truth and justice. The Fiscal or Law adviser of the lord of the manor was the principal agent to whose it management was confided.

and with other men fonn of influence and importance. During the Diet of 1790. vhich colaris) . the report of the Conunittee (DepuRegnicolaris) of 1790. which intenened between 1790 and 1825. 1832. and incorporated into . and governed by Hungarian laws * that the di\xty on salt should matia. was laid before the House. whose society assisted to his cliaraeter. related to the demands of Austria for money and troops. an opportunity was presented to him of learning the duties of a statesman. except an acknowledgment from the Emperor. succeeded that of 1825. was a peculiar in- etitution protection of the frontiers. Fourteen especial grievances were selected. on his part. Welfare of his country. and of forming his judgment and opinion on questions Avliich affected the future. (Ahlrgatus Ahsentium) [a. Gallicia. as well as present. Transylvania. that the military frontiers should be placed under the command of the Palatine. These. In the Diet of 1830. and submit a systematic plan of reform to the Legislature. In the Chamber of Kcpresentatives he became acquainted with the leaders of the Liberal or Reform Party. Baron ANTisselenyi Miklos.D. that he had committed an illegal act in attempting to levy taxes on the nation without the consent of the Diet. and prepare him for the events in which he was destined to play so prominent a part. were tatio : — Lodomania should be reHungary. Mapiiatc ho had no vote. a Committee (Deputatio Eegnihad been instituted to revise the laws of the country. produced little. and remedies " That Dalsuggested. according to Paget.1S2 a MEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. King Francis the First. not to repeat the offence. and a promise. * The Border Guard for the of the military frontiers. The result of their labours was not presented for forty years and the only questions which had been discussed in the Diets. to enable her to The Eeform Diet of 1825 carry on her wars against France. and commenced a friendship with the Transylvanian patrictt. vrhich consists of a .

they received all War in Vienna. vol. and that the exportation of gold and silver should be prevented . . justices sliould be discontinued that the laws respecting that the the taxes on the clergy should be observed. and Provosts for the maintenance of fortifications. German wa« and the German languiige was used as the language of the service. lastly. 1S3 officers of be reduced that the edicts of government to . and twenty-seven men. An attempt was made.A. Xtuente StatUtitrh G oyruphiache BeackreiOung dcM Koni/jriicht I'mjarn. 1S32. that the Hungarian language shoidd be the paper abolished. enforce those which were already in existence averse was the Vieiniese and vet so government to all independent action on the part of Hungary.* Hungarian Chancery be made nally. Hunfor They had certain grants of laud and privileges iu return their service. and not sold. coinage should bear the arms of Hungary. that and return made to a metallic currency. money should be business used in all official . 93. 1832. on the extinction of the families to whom they were granted. . and not merely nomithat the independent of the Austrian Chancery. t The Subsutium Eccletiastkum paid by the Bishops. iL p. that spies should not be employed and trusted by the Austrian govern- ment. to two hundred thousand. and the reserve (Landwehr) called out. but insteati of being a national force. The regular di. as at present.D. Abbots. See Patjet's Huwjai-y and Trangylvania. as the law directs. be given only as the reward of public services. amounted to upwards of 121 florins. and. should. that no favourable answer could be obtained to these demands. but only a proposal to . The Hungarian Diet had no control over them.-sposable force amounted to thirtytheir commands from the Council of taught exclusively in their schools. that the fiscal estates — such aa have fallen to the crown. and when all united. thrown round one half of the circumference of gary." These were not new laws. by the "Nobihs" of militAry force. four thousand. at this time. eight hundred. to the highest bidder. really.] GRIEVANCES.

his report was more satis- the Liberals than to his employers.D. unless the Diet of Transylvania were again summoned. the repeal of laws preventing the free purchase and sale of landed property. the navigation of the Danube. the Austrian ministers granted their demand of a Diet. 1B32. [a. " after strengthening the nationality of Hungary. took advantage of these opportunities to rouse the Transylvaniau people to a sense of their grievances. though without binding himself . increased freedom and education of the peasantry.*mble the old County meetings. and Wesselenyi boldly declared his intention to refuse bis permission to quarter soldiers upon the peasantry of his estates. awakened to the illegal fact that the people would no longer submit to an usurpation of power. and the improvement of internal commiinication. freedom of commerce. and the freedom of the peasantry* was. . The government alarmed at these demonstrations. the object of greatest importance to the Liberals. by the purchase of lands in each County of Transylvania as well as in JIungar)'. withdrew him but. although not till 1834. twenty-three years having intervened since the last. The amelioration of the condition of the however. the object of the reform party of that period was. urf^ed on by the ]>atriotic Baron Wesselenyi Miklos. . deputed General Vlasits to inquire into the state of affairs . They zeal of liberties. who. who happened to be in Hungary during the session of the Hungarian Diet of 1832. and he and his frienda obtained a right to attend them all. perfect press. accordingly. at last." equality of all religious. to recover their ancient and to revive the constitutional forms which had been diseoiitiuiied by the arbitrary decrees of Austria his exertions procured permission from tlic Viennese government to re-ass . According to Paget.18i MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. the sister country of Transylvaniu. and an improved commercial code. whose party Kossuth joined.

The Consenatives were ]\Iagnates. would undergo a considerable diminution by an act which must enl ail a sacrifice of no small amount on the part of the *'Nobiles." This question principally engaged the attention of the Diet of 1832. the is taken from the work of Fdnjes Elek. the church tithes were paid by them alone. to unite the interests of into one. tain dues in produce and labour to their landlord who exer- cised a right of seignorial jurisdiction over them. the remainder were included in the unprivileged order. and formed a majority in the Chamber of where the Catholic Prelates opposed the Reformers in every measure which was intended to advance the liberties or establish the rights of the country. iinder the present system. 185 to all their opinions as the constant endeavour of his subsequent career was to express the sentiments of the Hungarian people. of Hungary contained a population of thirteen and five which one-ninth only were inhabitants of towns. edited in The census made by the Austrian government in 1850 states population of Hungary to be ai that period fifteen millions. The members of were they cultivated by law rendered incapable of possessing an acre of the soil they were under the obligation to pay cer. hundred and fifty thousand " Nobiles" patricians . 1832 ] COXDITIOy OF THE PEASAXTET. employed chiefly in agriculture. The pro- posed reform of the unjust laws relating to the peasantry was peculiarly obnoxious to them. millions. composed of those attached to the Court. but to bear the whole burden of taxation for the support of • 1840.D. all classes and to advocate the cause of justice without regard chiefly to religious or political creeds. as the immense revenue derived from the Church lands. who thus constituted the bulk of the people. and they had not only to defray the expenses of their separate villages or communities.A. and \ievrs .* this numerous class. This statement .

as seems. In England. bcHitlcf*. at least from the reign of Henry II. if injured • by him. or convey them. 1396—1437.Tibed the Hungarian peasiintry as gerfs.d. in a court of justice. and destitute of redress. though. to a stranger. equally liable to this confinement. and that the inferior species existed. 'J'he Hungary ha«l an early period been encouraged to nettle in the towns. are under an error wliich the able statement peasantry of of Paget in his work on Hungary and Transylvania hax not yet been able wliolly to fronj (li«pel. whose condition waa exceedingly different. who seemed to have possessed an its equally unbounded right over their labour and fruits. who have de(H. persons abject state in this from villeins. except against the most outrageous injuries. apart from the land. " wa^ his obligation to remain upon his lord's estate.. and the lord might reclaim him suit any time. thi* [a. " The third Id the reign of Sigismund. and distinguished who were only boimd to fixed paj-ments and it duties in respect of their lord. liowever. He was not . iind for try. and indeterminate in their degree the felling of timber. there were two classes of villeins. the public adininit^tration. But by the customs of France and Germany. one only. incapable of property. only precluded from selling the lands upon which he dwelt but his person at was bound.1S6 MKMOin OF KOHSL'TII. deffnccs of the counreMtrietiomi in They suflereil. viiriouH their perHonal rights. ignoble in their nature. . " The characfcristic dit' Unction of a villein. by But. they were unrepresented in the Diet.^ and were not attached to the soil. the carr^-ing of manure. 1h32. Their tenure bound them to what were called villein services. if he ventured to stray." according to Hallam. seem to have been failed se}-fis. Those w riterx. the repairing of roads for their lord. Tlie lord could seize whatever they acquired or inherited. without state of any legal redress. and though many of them were wealthy men. See page 74.

" says Beaumanoir. although. this was not. for however benevolent may have been the feelings of the Empress Queen. \ . The revolt of the peasantry. until the middle of the eighteenth century. and had acquired stability from tradition.A. the third and last held by iNIaria Theresa. The part taken by the crown was not wholly disinterested. t See page . and imprison able to none but him whenever he . In the reign of IVfaria Theresa a decree was issued from reis the throne. " is that of such as are not free and these are not all of one condition. all had been practically conceded by the " Xobiles" at times. beiuj^ account- God while others are treated more gently. jdeases.D. althougli it was not the Hungarian statutes secured certain in rights to the peasantry. Hungary. long maintained all . stating and cognising the peculiar rights of the peasantry. and the habits of the people. that he may take all they have. ii. by which tliey were reduced to complete serfdom . slaver)' tlie tenth cen- had ceased until the year 14:05.t sened as a pretext to the XobiU-s" to enact a law. chap. and that of her successors on a firmer basis. alive or dead. however. which commi-nced its sitcitgs in 17G1. however. for some are so subject to their lord. in the beginning of *' the sixteenth century."* "With the introduction of Christianity. 1832. in the form of a code of laws. though at their death aH they have escheats to him. was in this. and history proves that tically the peasantry soon afterwards prac- recovered their rights. These rights. no legal enactment secured them from oppression. 18T men. the ultimate object * See Hallam'g Middle Ages. Attention was first called ir grievances in the Diet. in tur}'. and com- to th( monly designated the Urbarium. as well as in her other schemes. from whom the lord can take nothing but customary pay- ments.] THE mtBARIUM. the establisliment of her own despotic power.

Its easy reception it may be accounted for by the fact. that insurrections followed throughout the country.188 she had in view. seizing the advantage presented to her The Queen. MEMOIR OF Kossuxn. The chief benefits the peasant derived from the Urbarium . In had almost the authority of law and it was only in exceptional cases that the peasantry had suffered from the want of that pro- Hungary. and secured the rights of the peasantry. and she hoped. as well as under one monarch and the Constitutional G-overnment of Hungary. was little more than a which though not hitherto had been long established by usage. Hungarian Constitution. rendered them inalien- and was at any rate a step made on the side of justice and humanity. but roused benefit. she desired to see the Austrian dominions united under one administration. 1765. A true daughter of the House of Haps- burg. as well as in all Eastern nations. contrary to the spirit limited. by advocating the cause of the peasantry. issued a decree the following year. Hardly any opposition followed this illegal act. was adopted. proand letter of the visionally. I). 1S32. (by an act of arbitrary power. unsanctioned by the Diet.) which defined. able. usage . Maria Theresa broke her faith to the Constitution by only summoning the Diet three times during her reign of forty years. to weaken the strength of the privileged order. that confirmation of certain rights. and the power and freedom of her " Nobiles" were dangerous obstacles to such a union. legally recognised. the independence of her Diet. by the alarms these insiurections caused. She made various attempts to introduce tlie German language into Hungary. The proposition to ameliorate their condition so strong a feeling in those was negatived by the Diet the first year it was intended to . [a. as the law of the land. and the Urbarium of Maria Theresa. tection now offered them in the I7rbarium it : but besides ascertaining what these rights were.

obliged to pay two shillings house-tax to his lord. or Manor Court. the principal of which was the long established system of Eobot. 189 were. so they did not interfere with the interests of the sovereign. the Sedes Dominales. in which the lord or his representatives appointed the judges.D.] THE rnBARiiM. rights under certain conditions.A. inflict twenty-five blows The peasant Avas. of retailing veines a certain number of months in the year. and his lord. which the dispute lay between him and offender. after condemnation. but the blows might have been already inflicted before it The interests of the peasant far as were only considered in the fallen Urbarium. allowed a right of could be made. without due process of law . at his pleasure. 1832. a legal acknowledgment of his right. appeal to the superior courts. took cognizance of all cases in which the peasant was concerned. besides. and the ninth of all the produce of the soil. incumbent upon him but even this. or in case of the peasant being incapable. in consequence of the wars carried . to which some small contributions were added on a marriage and other family events. and of cutting wood for building and firing (without payHe obtained these ment) on the property of his lord. the lord could not exchange the peasant's fief without giving him another The peasant had also the privilege equally large and good. including those in his lord. after giving due notice to a and paying his debts of the lord only being empowered to dispossess him on the committal of a crime. He was. or a fixed term of labour for his lord. however. . or refusing. to fulfil the duties . not at the same time. The heavy taxation which had upon the Hungarian peasant. or when he had absolute need of the land to build his own to Quit his farm magistrate. house. who could on the lawftdly. during a certain number of days in the year. which varied according to the number of acres cultivated by the peasant from a hundred and four to eighteen. A legal tribunal.

and the " Nobiles. and even to bequeath it to his children. voL iL p. 1832. even in the defence of In the middle of the 18th century. in return for their and immunities. held. • See Paget's Hungary and Transylvania. the imposition of soldiers which quartered upon him. formed the King's army." or freemen.* privileges . the reign of the Emperor. such as the obligation to furnish horses at stated and to Government officials. during his country. under his native kings. to was added. ou by Austria during the reign of Maria Theresa. and to protect him from the possibility of being deprived of his fief by his lord. a standing Before tliat period..d. the Magnates (Seniores Domini). and rendered personal service to defend the kingdom from foreign invaders the cultivators of the soil meantime (with the exception of those upon the lands round the fortresses). had the effect of depriving the " Nobiles" of tlie power of resuming them iuto their ovra occupation. constituted the national army. and the conscription to supply the Austrian army. subject to taxation. and the Counts (Cotimes to liis lord. He had. The Urbarium did not relieve the peasant from various other grievances iinder which he laboured.. (the officers whom Arpad had appointed to the castles and military settlements) with their followers. in later times mites Castri).190 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTn. for the internal protection of the country. and thus secured to Government the taxation of at least one half of Hungary. so long as he was faithful to the conditions by which it was The recognition of certain lands as permanent fiefs. [a. army was introduced into Hungary. weighed the more heavily upon them by the harsh manner in which the leWes Avere made. he was given a right to retain the land he cultivated. King Charles III. though to render it less oppressive. was not diminished. were never required to bear arms on any occasion whatsoever. The new law of conscription by which they were forced into a foreign service. been ever exempted from the duty of war. 575. . &c.

They considered that this would have as beneficial an effect on the community at large as the Reform of the Urbarium. After the Urbarium there Avas no question which so deeply Hungary as that of the Commercial Though from the fertility of the soil. 191 The committee of inquiry proceeded to lay before the present Diet several large folios containing their projects of Reform. they determined to commence with the most difficult. render Hungarian commerce subservient to the supposed . than one which also comprehended the interests of the Austro-Grermanic Provinces.A. the Eeform of the Commercial Code. and that it might dispose those " Nobiles " who were less liberal in their views. to a cession of their peculiar rights in favour of the peasantry. But the Deputies. and fed by streams of no small magnitude and importance from the north. though convinced of superior importance.] THE COMMERCIAL CODE. offers an easy mode of transit by which to convey her produce to the Black Sea. be more easily carried. wood. and iron supply the material and the means : On the shores of the Adriatic are harbours for her ships. 1832. and from thence to all the ports of the world but it has always been the policy of Austria to . which concerned themselves alone. more selfish than the Reformers. would for that reason. she possesses every commerce. were not the less aware of the opposition they all had to expect from the Austrian government. and recommended that tlie attention of the House should in the first place be directed towards the question of ita the Urbarium. facility which natural position and internal riches can afford for manufactures and Her great mineral wealth. and the Danube tra- versing the whole countr}-^ from west to east. in and believing that the Eeform of the Urbarium. and the impediments offered by Government to all commercial enterprize. Hungary has hitherto been almost entirely an agricultiu-al aftected the interests of Code : and pastoral country. or their schemes.D. her coal.

yet in spite of this. 408. The endeavour to remedy these evils.D. Avine. this. The Hungarian Nobles are taxed most heavily. more favourable juncture and.t party insinuated that the advocates of the Eeform of the Commercial Code were actuated by self-interested motives. Austro-Germauic Provinces. with heavy duties. claims of the injured peasant finally led . L p. it is well known. which have not been put in practice to improve it. or refused to give them an answer. and that for the sake of revenue. iron. after laying before the King a remonstrance respecting the oppression of the Protestant * By the ancient Liws. of enlightened policy and honest administration. &c.* was thus with some of the most important tobacco. them to determine to leave the discussion to a . every article imported from any other country than Austria pays a duty of sixty per cent. The Hungarians claim the right of free import and export on the payment of a five per cent. 1832. [a. . and the desire to postpone or throw into shade the just It among the raw products . and has been for centuries in a miserably low state. proved fruitless the Viennese government evaded the proposition of the Diet. and still less for the markets of other foreign countries. is.192 interests of the articles of MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. — PayeCs Hungary. so as to make them hardly available even for the Austrian market. &c. vnth other obstacles. only an import and export duty of 3^ per ad valorem could be imposed. Vol. except those cent. no sooner did the Austrian dynasty ascend the throne of Hungary. which has gone on increasing to the present moment. and in a manner which leaves them no control over either taxation or expenditure. than a system of indirect was begun. and the right has been as solemnly acknowledged as it was possible to have been by royal oaths taxation . when almost. and there are no arts. duty. + The Austrian Exchequer. Hungarian manufacture were burdened. however. and the Deputies soon nerceived that the Austrian ministers were resolved to support the monopolies of the Germanic portion of the In the course of the debate the Government empire.

35.] THJt: tiiuiBiLM. now in lication at exile. and they tried to escape from it by concession and adjustment.. in.D. in a work destined for pub- some future time. instead of the seignorial jurisdiction • The revolt of the peasantry in Gallicia in 184G was openly incited and protected by the officials of the Austrian government. with what view the subsequent events in shown. 193 and Greek churches. goaded on by injustice and hardships. lord opened the eyes of the greater number of the "nobilea" to the danger of their position. This was by no means displeasing to the Austrian government the nobles . 1834. and the dependence of the peasants upon the " Nobiles. gradually lead to the conversion of the peasant's fief into freehold property and make him dependent on the regular tribunals of the country. retained the seignorial jurisdiction. and every appeal was decided against the latter the artificial means to foment ill-will between the peasant and the land. the eighteenth soil. they proclaimed that five florins (ten shillings English) should be awarded for the head of a noble cut off by a peasant. but the government opposed every such attempt."* The conditions by which the land was held. Newman. and after many cruelties had been perpetrated. to proceed to the consideration of the TJrbarium.A. " When. see " The Crimes of the House of Hapsburg. writes thus on the question at issue. For an account of these proceedings. p. the first and natural consequence was a feeling of ill-will towards his superiors. aimed at replacing this antiquated system by one which should . sought the means of improving his condition. century. the officers of the central government saw a fiscal question in every case brought to trial between a taxed peasant and an untaxed noble. and the unjust favour bestowed on the Roman Catholic." by F. the peasant claimed possession of the and. A distinguished Hungarian statesman. W." presented a serious Gallicia have clearly impediment to all progress the Liberal party. O . therefore.

while court. redeem they and he could not come to an : met with the most determined hostility from the Conservative party in the House of Magnates as well as from Vienna. • See Paget's Hungary and Transylania. the Imperial family was act of justice. p. It was for this end that they chiefly inBisted on that clause to in the new Urbarium by which his duet the peasant was towards the lord of the manor. to the increase of the wealth and influence of equally opposed the monarchy.D. a "Xobilis" holding a if it should pay the taxes for such land as . and a landlord accede to the compact. and that the jurisdiction of the (Sedes Dominales) should be restricted to cases between peasant and peasant.191 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH.. peasant's fief viz. it was to depend on an agree- ment between them respecting the terms." desirous of fulfilling an make a sacrifice of their own 1 vol. since by that alone he could hold his true position he enabled to as a free redeem and independent citizen . of hia landlord.. offered to when community of peasants though if agreement he would then be forced to accept those terms prescribed by law even with these reservations the themselves . 1834. though the rest of the Act was agreed to and clause passed into a law. the right of appeal remaining as before. were possessed by a peasant that the landlord should no longer be permitted to inflict corporal pimishment. 302 — 305 . composed of five disinterested persons. were willing to now when the "Xobiles. * Manor Courts those between a peasant and his lord should be decided by a new If the sovereigns of the Hapsbiirg dynasty had formerly advocated the cause of the peasantry so far as that cause was subservient to their claims. the still only to be permissive. the clause paswed the majority : House of Deputies by an oveiT\helming redemption of the peasant was not compulsory on his lord could only be obliged to two-thirds of a . [a. that. in future.

and other adxisers of the crown. advantages. that which was only interrupted by the sound of weeping in the ladies' gallerj'. if which they pre- once converted into freeholds. and his eloquence had roused the enthusiasm of Hungary in the cause of liberty and justice since that period however. knew well such a measure woidd eventually tend to strengthen the power of Hungary. rose. poured forth a speech replete with sarcasm and bitter invective against those who selfishly versely refused to sanction an act of justice towards their fellow countrjnnen.] LEAJ)EE8 OF THE BEFOSM PAETT. fiefs. and in which even some of the male auditors joined.D. which had produced a change in his political conduct. 1834. drew so touching a picture of the fate of the oppressed peasant.A. trust under Grovemment. Paul Nagy (Nagy Pal) had been the leader of the Eefirst formers in the Diet of 1825. all 195 classes. This fund consisted in the peasant's tended. The poet Kolcsey succeeded Paul Nagy. on the quessense of the tion of the claims of the peasantry but the oratory which now most stirred the of men to a the wrongs of the people was that of Kolcsey Ferenz o 2 . Paul Xagy. and extend rights and privileges to Mettemich. and enable her to resist the aggressive rule of Vienna. and amidst and per- loud applause. ing how deeply their sympathies accorded with the words of the orator. deafening cheers followed. would be no more liable to taxation than the land of the " Mobiles. though he spirits stiU stood firm ." The after it clause had been was thirteen times negatived by the Magnates finally vetoed by the sovereign. : one of the principal members of the Diet. While the Hungarian Conservatives rejected the obnoxious clause on the groimd of the preservation of class interests. evincafter a silence. the pretext used by the Viennese ministers was their duty to presence the fund of taxation unimpaired. he had accepted a . and gradually warming with his subject.

(Francis Kolcsey) the poet. that his audience.19G MEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. and at the age of thirty -two he took his place among the Deputies in the Diet. He possessed the virtue of an Eoman. and full of deep meaning and truth. words which they were expressed touched a chord in every The eloquence of Kolcsey as an true Hungarian heart. chosen as such by the Liberals. pared himself for his present position by an assiduous study The actual leader of the 1832 —36 of law. orator was such. views were those of the most decided of the liberal while his pure and elevated character eeemed rather to belong to the romance of a chivalrous age. had been early distinguished in literature. were carried their sentiments roused the feelings of the people. scholar. but he refused to renounce principles. Klauzal had already acquired considerable ^ 1 . the Lessing of Hungary. the in whithersoever he led them. logical.D. [a. than to real life. and was the friend and companion of Kasinczy. for the acuteness of his understanding and the He had long presoKLudness and solidity of his judgment. offered his The government stoical is said to have him place and power. He not only convinced the understanding. and while centuries. and destined like Deak to ancient play a prominent part in the events which rapidly followed. but moved the He was supported by his intifeelings of his audience. drawing forth its capabilities and power. 1834. as well as of poetic beauty. Eeform party in the Diet of was Francis Deak of Kehida. heralding the Revolution of 1848. Like the poets of Italy of the thirteenth and fourteenth He Hungary in the eighteenth and ninewere the reAavers and purifiers of the national language. His part}'. Though only tliirty years of age. and pliilosopher. mate friend Klauzal Gabor (Gabrial Klauzal) Deputy for the Comitat of Csongrad. those of teenth. unprepared for its effect by the unpretending appearance of the man. and his eloquence was clear.

" because he had formerly served in a regiment of Hussars. though a Eoman Catholic. The former. 19T popularity iu his native Country. in spite of illegal con- on the part of the Government. was distinguished as the boldest asserter of the rights of the Protestants. His voice was clear. The Transylvanian but under auspices wliich were not calculated to render the Austrian Grovermnent more popidar than before. Klauzal was returned for every Diet from 1832 to 18i7. and were especially favourites of the young men. sonorous..A. Balogh. which seemed to fit him rather for a leader of the fashion than for the champion of his country's riglits. .D. 1834. during the elections by the opposite party. and his genial disposition and kindly nature secured the friendship of aU with whom he In spite of the lavish sums expended in bribery associated.] LEA. AVhile the Act concerning the Urbarium was ing. and his diction attractive and captivating. possessed influence in the County). and as such was so hated and feared by the priesthood that his admirers honoured him with the name of " The Priest's Hammer.DEES OF THE EEFOBM PAETT. "Wesselenjd. Beothy Oden (Eugene Beothy) and Baldgh Janos (John Balogh) were among the most popular members of the Diet. and strong. though remarkable for his attention to dress." he was also called familiarly " The little Corporal. a powerful ally still pend- was added to the party of the Reformers in the person of Wesselemn. headed by the immense Counts of Karolyi* (who. contrived to spread a knowledge of them by means of lithography. and finally * The Counts Karolyi were allied by marriage to the farjily of the Batthidnys. The stormy debates which followed were forwith the aflairs of his Diet had met in 183-1'. who had hitherto been engaged own pro\ince. was one of the boldest leaders of the opposition. bidden to be published fiscations . firom their vast estates.

a proclamation was issued in the name down Emperor. The Austrian rule had by this time so completely alienated all feelings of respect in the minds of the people. conduce to the welfare of every order in the state. a word from him would have called forty or fifty thousand men into the field he loved his coimtry however too well to commence an insurrection. that though the weak. 1834. their affections by acting as the champion of their ancient and constitutional rights. was nominated absolute Governor of the Province. and who had already rendered himself obnoxious by the introduction of additional troops. An action was immediately commenced against him for the publication of his Journal. Arrived at Szatmar. where he might stiU hope to obtain his end by lawful and have carried matters too : pacific means. by which the Diet was dissolved. He quitted Transylvania at the dissolution of the Diet. and Wesselenyi had so won upon cautious.D. and repaired to the Hungarian Diet at Pres- burg. there to join the ranks of the Heformers. began to draw back. [a. who had been sent as the Eoyal Commissioner for the opening. would in the end. but he was prevented from attending the summons of the Court by severe illness. He was therefore condemned for contmnacy. he found the Comitat engaged in discussing what instructions they shoidd send their deputy in the Hungarian Diet respecting the Reform of the TJrbarium. and threatened with arrest should he return to Transylvania. the and the timid. fearing he might far. that to act justly towards that class of their countrymen who wanted their protection. He had further incensed the government by his conduct when on his way to the Hiingarian Diet. a few of the hours later. and when speaking of the manner in which the privileged classes (even those . and the Arch- Dnke Ferdinand d'Este. Wesselenyi succeeded in convincing them. presented his lithograpliic press to the chamber.198 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. and by his well-known despotic sentiments.

Kossuth had been employed in labours of the utmost importance for the country. declaring strongly his opinion." His worda were few.* Kossuth has been most usefully employed during the Diet. Questions were at stake on whose issue the future welfare • In this Mr. . as though Kossuth could speak. appropriated them " to vampires No sooner had he taken his seat as a Magnate in the Hungarian Diet. the offer was indignantly rejected.. thus speaks. and without a vote were not much listened to in the Diet. followed by a few words from Kossuth.D. of whom Paget." : House and declared of any great crime lenyi. he compared addressing)." " he should not consider himself guilty For this. and the Government. a strict censorship. secretly offered Wesselenyi immediate pardon if he would demand it. the protests of the Diet. 199 whom he was at that moment everything to themselves. the debate. forbids the publication of the debates. and maintains here. in spite of the laws of Hungary. than he was indicted for high treason Balogh rose in the nourished by the life-blood of the people.] BAEON WESSELENTI MIKLOS. in spite of . if he adopted the very words of Wessehe was rewarded by being included in the The Diet protested against the infringement its members. Deak rose in the House to propose a remonstrance being laid before the King He was against the illegal measures of his Ministers. and the side on which he should vote. . as young men in that capacity. of the liberty of speech of one of happened to be present at. he could not vote as an " ablegatus ahsentium." Though unable from his position to take any active part in the Diet. spoke next he was content with two or three sentences. Paget must have been mistaken. as elsewhere in the Austrian dominions. "Kossuth. now aware it had made a false move.. Grovernment. 1834. a young man of considerable promise.. The absence of a free press was at this moment a real misfortune to Hungary. who prosecution.A.

This was what Kossuth accompKshed. [a. This expression was used in Hungary at that time to express the rights of property and the personal rights of . as of combining its action. In of the nation greatly depended. a free press. The large landed proprietors feared the losses they might incur by the proposed Reform of the Urbarium. not meant the sovereign iu the exercise of his legitimate authority. had been wrested from the * The lesser " Mobiles" were called in derision the Bocskoros Nemea. her power. f The land and the peasantry. in in who had no more right to dictate the affairs of Hungary than the English Mioisters had those of Holland. tJit men. 1834. politic-al rights. The con. but the interference and intrigues of his adrisers the Austrian Ministers. other caoIs was the only inherent and organic arose from the interference of Austria this loy continued to exist supported difficult}''.\ it was neIt was not so much a question of convincing the country. from the sort of shoes they wear in some parts of Hungary. when "William III. privileges Avhile the lesser " Nobiles"* were jealous of those in ) which alone separated them from men who were every other respect their equals. but the only internal question affecting the principles of government or dition of the peasantry evil . " the condition of the peasantry was not only the most important question at issue.d.200 MEMOin OF KOSSUTH. the highest and lowest. or Sandal Nobles. The main source by which public opinion formed in other coimtries." By Austria was cessary to beat Austria bact. belonging to the patrician order. According to the Hungarian statesman whose work has been referred to already . there were ppfjudiees to be oAereome as well as an aversion to any radical change. was Kiug of is England. The middle class among the " Nobilea" were duly impressed with their urgency. To solve the and emancipate the land and the men.

The Members of the Diet were not only representatives. 201 nation b}' To supply this defect. In those congregations too. From the Observer. as without such knowledge there could be no com- The the proceedings of the Diet was too dry in and contained too voluminous a report of all the speeches. 1834^. as gravamina or grievances. in order to carry any senger.A. congregations. the civil corporations of each town met under the presidency of a Commissioner. whose sole occupation was politics.D. that ever}' Comitat should be in- formed of the opinions of bined constitutional action. Diet. Kossuth applied himself to the editorship of a journal. In these assemblies were elected by acclamation or ballot the magistrates and municipal functionaries for the three years next ensuing. " question of importance. to the Diet. 1849.* it was thei*efore the more necessary." or. all the Eepresentatives in the diary. July. to be read except by the few. the instructions for the Deputies to the Diet were prepared. who were obliged to give their consti- tuents an account of their stewardship at quarterly meetings called At these congregations all the acts of the government were submitted to the assembled body. especially appointed for the purpose by the Government. The Orzaggyiclesi Tuddsitasok. and to make the people at large ac- quainted with the transactions of the Diet. and while served * Once in every three years the " Nobiles" of every county were accustomed to assemble under the presidency of their lord-lieutenant (F6 Ispdny). Parliamentary' MesHis object principally was to produce concert in the deliberations and resolutions of the Comitats. — . which he entitled. the usurpation of the Austrian IMinisters. Kossuth's journal was the first publication in the form of a newspaper which had dared to comment on the acts of the Diet and of the Government . in order in case of any illegality they might be forwarded.] jouexjlL of kossuth. but delegates from the separate Counties. At the same time. whose assembled " Mobiles" gave them instructions how to speak or vote. praise and blame were admiit nistered in a fair spirit and able manner. or daily record of its details.

thereby acquainting liim with the disapprobation his proceedings had incurred correspondence.D. like To evade the which forbade the debates bein^ printed. to encourage the patriots. in the House of Magnates. its sittings in the spring of . which secretaries. The fundamental principle of the act remained the same. 1836. spirit of reuA^tion. it had bequeathed a greater good to the coimtry by the . helped to discountenance the letter of the decree he. but even in this they had finally been forced to succumb to the intrigues of the Government. litho^jrapliic press.. he therefore resorted to a written he carried on by means of hired Ilia papers wen* next intercepted at the Post and he was compelled to transmit them to their destination by carriers hired for the purpose. but the demand for the journal increased so rapidly. it [l. Office. had effected little each project of reform which had been taken into consideration by the House of Deputies. or negatived. The former had alone maintained their ground on the subject of the Urbarium. and while opening the eyes of men to the real state of the country. as they Apparently it were successively postponed. The high expectations which had been raised of this Diet. it waa This memorable Diet closed 1836. tlie Wesselenyi. and the violent opposition of the Magnates. But if it had failed in were doomed to disappointment. had been dropped one by one. made use of a The Palatine intimated a it desire on the part of (Joveniment to purchase from him.202 HEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. Hia success exceeded the expectations of his friends. and it was only improved by some further regulations of the duties belonging to the peasant and to the landlord. that at one time an edition of some thousand copies was circulated. . he roused them to demand a redress of grievances whose exist- ence Austria would willingly have made them believe their interest to maintain. carrying the measures for which it had striven so manfully.

Even some of the staunchest opponents of reform admiite. and mercantile inhabitants of the towns. and the persecutions they had to endure from a foreign (iovernment only caused them to be regarded with the greater affection by their country- men.D. Beothy. even they and for a re-organlike ization of their municipalities. and the duty they themselves owed to them as well as to humanity in their maintenance. The eyes of the trial millions were opened . 203 tor\'. had united hearts and generous desire in bauds in the cause of justice and patriotism. Klauzal. had raised a lated the It wand of a magician. Bahigh. 1836. and to behold those who had his claims rejected by the King. The truths revealed the speeches of Deak. Kolcsey. the desire for justice which animated the rustic population had reached the induscalled loudly for a fairer representation. spirit in the laud. and stimu- men to sink selfish interests in a for the good of their countrvmen. that the Conservatives could not prevent the measure for the emancipation of the peasant being carried in the next Diet. that the now change which had taken place in public opinion throughout the countrj' was so overpowering. The journal of Kossuth. and become household words by the pen of Louis Kossuth.A. and had led the way to future vicNot only did the peasantry themselves (forming five- BLXths of the Hungarian people) aspire to possess those man in a commonwealth. but a large majority of their privileged fellow citizens had acknowledged the justice of their claims.] JOUBKAL OF KOSSUTH. moral influence exerted. The leaders of the Liberal party were revered and looked upon as the true representatives of the people. The peasant was astonished rights which are the natural inheritance of every free to find liis defender and champion arise from the ranks of hitherto been his oppressors. and Wesselenja.l. whom he was taught in church and in school to consider his protector. . had re-echoed throughout Hungary.

D.D. 1830. replaced by — The Fresburg Casino —Arrest of several of the Members by order of Austrian Governinent — The — Comitdts of Hungary protest against Falffy the this illegal act Adam lieviczky . A. Count Fidelia Want of combined out the country lenyi. 3i— 39 183G — 1841. [a. . IV. action in the Comitdts its — Kossuth com- mences another written newspaper .. broken — in health.201i MIMOIE OF KOSSUTH. Sfc. CIIAPTEH ^T. of Hungary Austrian policy hostile — Form of Ilunyarian Ooveminent— Viceregal Council— Hungarian State Chancery Count to the constitutional liberty —Deposition of the Chancellor. ment —Kossuth — Treats of — Embarrassment ordered to reception through- Impeachment of Wesseof the Austrian GovernHe defends stop his work the Hungarian " I^obilis'^ The Vice Ispdny and the Comitdt support him Is arrested by order of tlie Austrian Government His Imprisonment for two yean Is brought to trial in 1839 Conduct of the Judges Youths of the Presburg Casino Kossuth condemned icith TVesselenyi and others to further imprisonment The Diet his right as a — — — — — — — — o/"lS39 refuses to comply with the tcishes Govermnent The Chancellor Falffy recalled Count Anthony JSIaildth appointed to his place The Government demands large supplies of men and money Determination of the Diet — The Government yields State of — of the Austrian — — — the Prisoners on their release retires to Farad — Changes which had taken place during —Kossuth.

and Mobiles" of Hungary.] rOEM OF nUXGABlAN GOVER>'MK>-T. till her last was extinguished. Magnates. The Diet had no . 1836. had begun to subside. 205 of his his confinement —Death of his Father imprisoment upon his character the Pesti — Becomes —Effect the editor of Hirldp (Pesth Journal. that the spirit of disaffection had spread widely. and they were bound to see the acts of the Diet duly executed. But though they it victories '" v-orresponded immediately with the King. The King was supposed to be advised by them on questions which he laid before them. who. that their had only added strength to their opponents. adhered more obstinately than ever to the principle of intimidation. It consisted of what were called the five and twenty intimates. The Government of Hungary was conducted by the Viceregal Council (Concilium rcgium locum tenentiale) over which the Palatine presided. and Poland had been crushed by the iron arm of despotism but in the kingaom of Hungary satellites liberty still breathed. the mere tool of the Austrian Ministers. he was not long suffered to remain idle. all their jiunications were obliged to pass through the comHungarian State Chancery in Vienna. and to extend them to those who had hitherto been excluded from a just participation. and INIettemich and his spark of life could not rest.A.D. appointed by the King from the Catholic Prelates.) Although there was no further occasiou for the work in which Kossuth had heen hitherto engaged. instead of trjing the effect of conciliatory measures with Hungary. and that the people of Hungary were more determined than ever to assert their ancient rights and liberties. Germany and Italy were silenced. They had been victorious over almost every project of refonn in the late Diet. The terror witli wliieh the revolutionary spirit of 1830 had inspired the Courts of Europe. but was impossible to be ignorant of the fact.

and Count rant. 1836. AMiile the larger number of persons joined in ar lesf indignant outcry against the authors of the arrest. great questions of the day. Count Adam Keviczky (who had liberal tendencien) was deposed. The event caused a sensation throughout the whole their respective country. or debating society. servile. far from incxirring ceusiu-e. The manner in which the leisure houra of these young men was thus spent. on a charge of higb treason. called the " Presburg Casino. [a. as secretaries or clerks to the Deputies. sooner been disHolved. read aloud. interested in political matters. false reports circulated against these attri- The . and the youths belonging to the Casino had returned to homes in the country. by an order of the Austrian Government. igno- and Btubborn. and bute to them words which they had never uttered. took his place. terest. Tom by soldiers from the midst of their families. a creature of the Court.d. There were a number of young men in Preaburg belongwho were employed during the sitting of the Diet." where the were discussed. preferred against tbem by the Attorney for the Crown. were too ready to believe tha young men. they were conveyed to the fortress of Buda. but no sooner had it been dissolved. and the next step was to attempt to put a stop to the liberty of association. there to await their trial. which served to initiate them into the duties of public Some of them had formed themselves into a club life. Liberty of Bpeech had already been attacked in the persons of WeBselenyi and Balo'i^h. During the sitting of the Diet they were allowed to continue their meetings without interruption. some. Fidelia Paltiy. ing to the best families of Hungary. or any subject of political in- Papers wTitten by themselves were and books and newspapers provided for the use of the members. than four of them were arrested in the same night.206 MEMOin OF Kossrxn. met with general approbation. tlian the Chancellor.

There remained but one course for Hungary to pursue. but a deaf ear was turned to their appeal. but to produce any prac- from this unanimity. and to present a barrier to the illegal measures forced upon the nation. 207 to publicity of the meetings. had not the laws concerning high treason been couched iu so ambi- guous a form. and young men would Perhaps so daring a measure as the arrest of these four scarcely have been ventured upon. which was. The Comitiits.D. as to give the act some appearance of legality.A. it was imperative that the same hannony in opinion. was of itself sufficient it was evident to the thinking and educated part of the community. or written newspapers. and he undertook to supply the deficiency by a regular communication in the form of letters which he addressed to the several Comitats. that the ease was improvises to serve the purpose of the Austrian Ministry. resistance The " Comitiits " were indeed imaninious in their ^news respecting the conduct of the Government during the tical result late Diet." Messenger . to to Austrian encroachments. however. though passive. as weL as to the mass of the people. that the application was false. or County Meetings. as if by one impulse. In this case. made an energetic protest to the King against the proceedings of his Ministers. oppose a steady and constitutional. should be continued in the intervals when the Diet was not sitting. who hopea to undermine another of the Hungarian liberties. Again Kossuth was called upon to exert his talents for the service of his country a centre. These letters. he entitled the " Torvenyhatosagi Tudositaaok.] 8EC0KD JOUBXAL OF KOSSUTH. and combination in action and expression. such as could only have been attempted with the most sinister intentions. . prove the absurdity of the charges made. or focus was wanting. by the opportunities afforded through the political institutions of the country. and an abuse of the spirit of the laws. however. tlie dullest intellect could perceive. 1836.

Its reception was as great in Pesth as in the provinces. and men of . 1836. . besides furnishing them with infonnation on the opinions it was the became acquainted with and actions of all the Parliaments of the kingdom. in each of which. and by the still farther publicitygiven to them by means of Kossuth's newspaper. . could not find a shadow of legal pretext for interference with him they could not even hope to weaken its effect on the people . he established correspondents.d. [a. as . and the arrests of the youths of the Presburg Casino. well-arranged whole. and the very peasantry in the villages bespoke the written newspaper of Kossuth. he proposed to give an abstract of those of iifty-two Parliaments . and clothed it with a language adapted to the comprehension and taste of those for whom it was intended. His sound logic and vigorous style was not destitute of that ornament which was required to render it attractive to the [lungarian people their imagination was fascinated whUe their reason was convinced the profound politician and the man of the people alike approved of the work. opposite ^^ews hailed the arrival of the " Ton-enyhatosagi Tudositasok" (Messenger of the Municipal Bodies).208 MEMorn of kossutm. aa iiiHk'ud of only reportin>^ the acts of a single Diet. The first subjects wliich occupied its pages were the late impeachment of Wesselenp and Balo'gh. which was read aloud every Sunday by the nearly every notary to hundreds of attentive listeners Comitat ordered copies to be retained in the archives. he met with ready co-operation in the various Counties. moulded it into shape. of the jSrunicipal liodics tla* work was one of herculean local labour. principal source through which they the leading topics of the day. The Viennese Government. though much embarrassed by the sensation these events had occasioned. rogeneous mass of facts and opinions thus laid before him he constructed a harmonious. as well as in several of Tran- Out of the hetesylvania.

in violation even of the law which in was arrested by a com- pany of Grenadiers. and prohibited from holding any communica- tion with his parents or friends. They had no resource left but force. and conveyed to the fortress of Buda. pen and habits. with an order to and when he pleaded his right as an to write and despatch what letters he pleased. Hungariaa " Xobilis" of the County of Pesth. but. 209 by a rival paper. sent an order to the Vice Ispany. ink. or principal officer desist in his work. before executing was communicated by the CoThe consequence of their refusal was. when speaking life of this period. 1837. His trial was suspended for two years. and to the letters already in the Post Office were de. against Kossuth. aud himself.] AEBEST OK KOSSCTH. by which to destroy so dangerous an antagoniBf. to prohibit the publication. the long hours of quiet thought and contempla- tion onlv sensed to give fresh vigour to his intellect. He was at this time residing in the neighbour- similar charges admitted to bail. the Attorney for the Crown tik-d an es officio mitat of Pesth to every other Comitat in Hungary.^^ or lower treason. but it p . in which time he was kept in solitary confinement. He two years of was was all my after life gained.A.Htruction. 1837. that in the month of May. when. it To a man of his active was a period of severe trial. said " It lost. sentence was passed on Kossuth. referred the matter to the Comitat. he hood of Buda. indictment of " no^a infidelit^itio.D. condemned this command. and renewed energy to the inexhaustible powers of his : mind. and this attempt at an arbitrary invasion of their liberties The Vice Ispany. without whose sanction it wonid have been illegal for him to act." la 1839. The sanction was refused. as Lord Lieuti'iiaut of the kingdom. A message was in the first place sent to Kossuth. denied the use of books. the Palatine. Wesselenyi. far from sinking beneath it. under the conmiand of Count Thurn.

dubious character. was more than 8usp>ected of having denounced his coTorades to the Austrian GovernHis harder sentence. the four youths of the Presburg Casino. of re- them were found honest enough to signed his time.'i9. timidation and bribery were alike used by the In- Austrian Court to bias the judges against the prisoners. for which they were indicted.210 MEMOIR OF KOSBLTir. lS. that the charge of high trenson. where. gave a colour of probabUibf. iiiipa^tsioned temper. All the ardour of his enthusiastic nature was enlisted in the cause of his country. sequent fate. could not be proved against them. an idea to which the mystery which hung over his subsecretly ment. Two of these last were released. if not his release. of a distin- guished youths of the Casino.* office. during his trial. one of the most age. resist both one while the other abeented hiiusell" for a The prisoner Ladislaus Lovassy. endowed with un- and a fervid eloquence. Kossuth and "Wesselenyi were each condemned to four more years' imprisonment in the fortress of Buda. was supposed to be only a subterfuge to impose on the public. though it was expre»sly declared in sentence. . misfortune. * The Judges in the higher Courts of Hungary were nominees of is the King. his persecutors frequently suggested to him that signs of penitence might obtain a common more lenient sentence. be firmly maintained the righteousness of bis charged his judges with their iniquity. who had always borne cause. and when. Two .D. a dull a and boldly His companion in youth. of ten years' imprisonment. was only twenty-two years of wann and abilities. [a. and the case of these young men only an additional proof of the superiority of the Institution of the Jury over a tribunal com- posed of men appointed by any political power in the State. while the remaining two were condemned severally to an iinprisonment of four and of ten years' duration in a fortress tlieir . Lapsanzky.

and the youths of the Casino had been liberated. until Kossuth. selected mind for future and was Shakespear»^. he determined to take advantage of the leisure afibrded him. and the law on treason revised p2 . and for the first time he applied himself diligently to the the wisdom of Metternich study of the English language could not dinne that the prisoner in the fortress of Buda. The younger age of Kossuth was in his favour. was. Kossuth imbibed a deeper philosophy. the delight this science pletely abstracting his mind from the painful position in which he was placed. only a few years he woidd rouse the sjTnpathies of a Continent for the trampled Europe. now permitted to hold intercourse with his he expressed. and.. not to listen to any proposal on the pail of Government. in a letter written to his mother from afforded him. provided the books he selected had no politendency. the bodily strength of the Transylvanian patriot. acquiring the masterdom of a later. weapon by which. was doomed to exhaustion. and make Austria tremble for her the profound knowledge of the down people of own safety. through his means. Much of his time was also devoted to the study of matliematics. The book he . 1839. that every one was prepared to expect a stormy session.A. as he was friends. 211 under the depressing influence of solitary confinement. AVesselenyi. and as he was tical now per- mitted to read. to prepare his greater exertions. by com- his prison. and per- haps learned more political ^^^8dom. than he might have found in all the avowedly political works which he was pro- hibited to read by the fears of Austrian tyrants.D.] HIS IMPEISOITMENT. the proceedings against them declared illegal. which was already failing. In human heart taught by our great poet. The Diet met again the year Kossuth was condemned. and the feelings of the Hungarian people had been wrought to such a degree of exasperation. The Members of each Comitat sent instructions to their delegates.

unless the above-mentioned grievances were redressed. mistaken the majority of the Deputies refused to first comply. and the clause in the Urbarium which had been during which time. In their stead. 207. The contest lasted six months. soldiers Austria again required a grant of money and from Hungary. and attached to their country. who could not blind themto the unanimous feeling which prompted these it demonstrations. • See p. Metternich and his colleagues thought these concessions sufficient to satisfy the of the Diet in the florins Hungarian people. . although they were devoted adherents to the Imperial House. and his cousin. ever. and anxious now to conciliate the representatives. the supporters of Government hinted to the leaders of the amnesty might be granted to Kossuth if the Diet would withdraw their other claims. Chief Justice of the realm. caused by the accession of Thiers to the ministry of France. how. demanded four millions of and 38. 1840. [a. and plxiced in of trust in A^ieuna. would probably have tried to avoid sum- niouing the Diet.d. recalled the Chancellor Palfly.212 MEMOItt Of KOSSUTH. and more exactly defiued. those in authority. and at the opening autumn of 1839. so long disputed in the preceding Diet were also conceded. and the dubious aspect of artalrs in the East. the two Presidents of the High Courts ment offices in the late trials) of Pesth (the agents of Goveniwere also removed. had not been forced upon them by the a{)prehensiou of war. Count Antony Mailath was appointed Chancellor. reputed honest. and send up a humble petition to the King for their opposition. They found themselves. that an and his companions.000 recruits. Count Both were John Mailath.* in order to provide againut the possibility of a recurrence of similar abuses on the part of selves The King and his Ministers.

Wesselenvi. The following day (the 29th April. of his bodily mountains of Parad. though by no means with the force of original conception. where he retired on his and where the extraordinary vigour and elasticity spirit seemed to exercise a beneficial influence on his health. had become totally blind . revived in the free air of the release. he had never rested the stream which had entered altered only . a maniac. to liberty. offenders (as the and granting the redemption of the peasants' duties. Kossuth. as concessions to the Magnates and the Crow». The ardent spirit left of Lovafisy had sunk under his calamities. and ho fortress of the Buda. . as in the world. however.] release. Conditions and restrictions had been inserted. and consequently rendered it fer lei«B adrantageous to the peasantry than had been expected. 213 The proposal was indignantly spurned by the but the Conservatives at last patriots. and. but by a further growth and development of his intellectual and mental powers.A. He he though some assert that been seen in Austria. bearing a feigned name. voted the four millions of florins and the and was immediately dissolved. an amendment by a majority of one in consequence of which it was agreed that the Eoyal propositions should be taken into consideration. In seclusion. in return. proclaiming a general amnesty to aU political King was pleased to denominate those who had acted in accordance with the laws of their countrv). with the exception of Lapsanzky. though suffering from illness oc- casioned by long and close confinement. returned to their families. and in the emplo^Tneut of Government. 1840. EZLEASE OF THE PEISOI^EES. which had weakened its efficacy. succeeded in carrving . The Diet.D. broken and infirm in health before entering his prison. The prisoners were once more restored has never since been heard has of. • all The celebrated clause its now became a law. He had come out an altered man. 1840).* recruits. a resolution from the throne was read before both Houses.

. lenyi. di-privcd of her son to whom she would ha e looked for 8uj)port. The " Pesti Hirlap. Tlieir marriage was followed by the union of her brother with Kossuth's youngest sister. and. Rich in experience. rolled durkness a mighty Changes family. A sum of money was . the patriotic virtues and sufferings which had excited the enthusiasm of her countrj'. prior to the revolution of 1S48. narrow cireuuistances. therefore ap» peared in 1841. had obtained a license for the publi. of a inouutaiu river. He re- remained a short time in retirement at Parad for the cover}' of his health. as they believed no danger could ensue from a work which must be submitted to their censorship. and the interest left his presented to her but no sooner had Kossuth prison than he refused to accept the principal which waa offered him. the t'urce [a. and Grovemment permitted the transaction to pass unnoticed. her position awakened Jlis the sympathy of those in whose cause he was a sufferer. torreut. cation of a political paper Ludwig Landener. and with it commenced the most important period in the life of Kossuth. at his desire the editorship. Kossuth found himself at once in the position of a leader in the meetings of the Comitat of Pesth. Istl. he married Tlieresa Mezthe daughter of an Hungarian " Nobilis" of good Her affection for him had first been awakened by family. liad also takm place in the circle of his . and soon after his return to Pesth. therefore subserilx'd.d. bis plans matured. and by his desire school for the it wa:j devoted to the foundation of a eneounigement of natioiml industry. on the 9th of September. own mother was now a widow her husband having He had left her in very died while Kossuth was in prison.214 the cavern forth from witli its MEMOIB or KOSSUTH. and appearing before the public now in the light of a p>olitical mart}-r. a Kossuth accepted publisher in that city." or Pestb Journal. 1841.

— I8i4. Contrarj. or at any rate weaken hii* influence with the |)eople. in the so unusual a con- on their part would either conciliate a dan<Torous 0})ponent.--' CHAPTER ^. while its fearless editor contrived. and the necessity of acting in defiance of their authority .to their expectation*. -THE PE8TI HIBLAP. the " Pesti Hirlap" rapidly gained in popularity. to discus* Buch subjects as the redemption of the pea«antr>'. the Hirlup.-^ylvania. Kossuth contrasted with Szechenyi edit the " Pe^ti Ilirldp" more Conservative and practical biles*^ shall reform themsvlres — Admonishes — He desires — Kossuth's vieics the " JW the Ultni- Radicals and the Aristocracy respectirtly enmity against Kossuth cation — The Goremtnent — Kossuth publishes starts — Sztchenyi's his vindi- an opposition paper. 1841 V. 39—42. unthout giving a handle of otlence to the Government. 18il. being looked upon as a political martyr. the lujion of Ilungarj' with Tran.. — Its popularity Etist) Ueoions of the Austrian Government for granting Kossuth pernii-tsioH to — Writers in the " Fcsti Ilirhip" — Count Stephen — Szechenyi — The KeJet Xtpe (People of the Early Life of Sztchenyi— His schemes for the material improrement of Hungary — An Aristocratic be- lieved that the censorship to which this paper would be subjected would throw unceasing difficulties in his way. the reform of the . by depriving him of two attractions in their eyes viz.'' " ViUig'^ (Light) — Success of the " Pesti hope tliat The Viennese cession Cjvbinet had g^ranted permission to Kossuth to edit the Pesti llirlap. they aJ.] . 215 .

and her brave people alike entitled her. Pulszky. which iiifluenctd and guided tl. tlie at) the articles always* aj»j>eari'd with the hi^^iuiture of writerw. ' the father of the "Jashionable" opposition party in Hungary. so that the journal soon boIts chief power. that the institutions of nor by the impatience of his countr\'men. centralization and inunicipnl government. in her elevated in her relations both at home and and political exi. and required a radical reform.stence. Nepe (People of the East). they carried with to express the opinions of the leading Szeutkiraly. in however. and he therefore spared little the abuses of the municipal bodies as ations of Austrian despotism. &v. was with ainflinching courage and energy that he ditions fulfilled.d. men of IIk' lirHt tiilent for his pajKT and. which charged Kossuth with an attempt Whateyer view might be entertained of the political opinions of Szechenyi. them considerable weight. its Fay. [a. his fondest desires and the object of social was to see Hungary abroad. of lie uecured the aerviceB . Count Stephen Szechem-i. to the letter. published at this time a work entitled the Kelet to revolutionize the country. to that importance to which her free constitution. &c. contributeil to pages. Bi'z:tTt''dy. no doubt could exist with regard to . the con: upon which he had accepted the task " that he would neither be led astray by the frowns of the powerful.216 HEMOin OF KOSSITH. Baron Jcii*eph E<itvoH. her produa»ive It soil. lay the sincere and earnest spirit of Kossuth himself. 1841 jiunicipalities. in the province of ber material as well as of her spiritual interests. as being known men of Hungary. as the usurp- An enemy however presented himself from a quarter where he might have been least expected.e work : the main- spring ot all his actions was an ardent love for his country." He perceived Hungary were still in a mediseval state. the extenBioii of tlie frauchwe. came a rich niagazine of politieal science.

D. both by words and actions. " the superstructure While the foundation and principle of a government remain good.* our o^\^l contented himself with reforming. what shall be the end ?" Innoralif/nt. . t See Hume's History of Enghuid. spirit of by an abuse of the of their just share.iying of MtHitecucculi. and the third again money. extending. and the genuineness of his patriotism . the question had been fully discussed without the means having come imder the consideration of the Diet. that three things were wanting to their scheme was money. and wisdom and counsel shall Bacon ." any prejudice to Al'jtmon Sydnty. remarked. however. Euay </n not alter them to the better. " the first Apponyi's. and who did not even apeak their native tongue with sufficient accuracy to enable them to make use of it in the Diet. of its actual rights. since Kossuth. "as a wise man. These allusions were intended for the Esterhazy's. i.. to strengthen and maintain the ancient institutions of the country by adapting them to the necessities of the time he did not wish to deprive any class pletely false grounds. first di. Palffy's. may be changed according to occasions. 1841. without it. the second money. in the Lower House. he.^'tinguished himself in when a propos*ition was made for the foundation of a national academy of science." he proce<'dfd to draw a picture of the idleness and profligacy of the Hungarian ^lagnates. quoting a celebrated s. and executing the institutions which he found previously established. were deprived He was like indeed a radical reformer. &e. when Paul Nag\'. but only to extend thoin to those who. he attac-ked the Pesti Hirlap.] 8ZECHE5Yr. who dissipated their means at court regardless of their country." t Count Stephen Szechenyi the Diet of 1S25. vol. but Alfred. upon comit was the constant endeavour of at this period and throughout his career. 217 the rectitude of his intentions. 93 . p. the Constitution. • "If time alter things to the worse.A. no revolutionist.

even while allowing Austria for the present to encroach upon the liberties of Hungary. of Lombardy. Schemes such as he devised could not meet with any serious objection from Vienna. . hoped from the to obtain an opposite result. 18il. and opportunities might thus be : . rose to ofier the year's revenue of his estates. . impart renewed vigour to the country.* and the noble ofter of the son did not proceed from a momentary impulse. the examples of France. but was the result of a well-deliberated scheme to benefit his country by material improvements while overestimating the artificial strength of Austria. by impro\*ing the means of communication and increasing the material prosperity of the people. and made a deep impression on the House Szechenyi. and enable it in time to shake off the usurpations of a foreign power..218 MEMOIU OF Kossuxn. His father had already founded the National Museum. 154. [A. then a young man. on the contrary. he might. to submit quietly to the despotic rule of Austria Szechenyi.D. valued at 60. he did not comprehend tlie healthy vigour and native power of constitution which lay concealed beneath the more feeble exterior of Hungary his only hope for her regeneration lay in measures which he knew would not be opposed by the Government. same measures that. and believed. and to lead them . for the Academy of Science. How often have not See p. since Mettemich trusted that while the Hungarian people were occupied with scientific discoveries and projects for the improvement of their material condition.000 florins. and of Germany might have warned him that material prosperity and all the facilities of communication may co-exist with a despotic Government and the deepest moral degradation the "wily Austrian minister had calculated more svirely the means by which to obtain his ends. their attention would be diverted from political matters. afforded to facilitate the gradual destruction of their ancient liberties.

] SZECHENTI. but we are slow to gather wisdom. but they did soil . and institutions herself. and had returned so much impressed with her prosperity.D. A company was formed by his exertions. or were occasioned by himself. which were the growth of eight centuries. England. Szechenyi had resided some time in England. as to make Hungary.A. 219 despots. He established Casinos (the Clubs were thus styled. enjoy are rather an eft'ect than a cause. and the improve- ment of the navigation of the Danube. term was prohibited by the Austrian police). and that he might as well attempt to force an Englishman to assume the dress of an Hungarian noble. and institutions of England to those of Hungary. baited their hooks with material benefits when which the people have gladly swallowed. angling after power. chain bridge across chiefly at his instigation. and the practical working of a Constitution which in some associates. tlicy proceeded from. In spite of many obstacles. however conducive to both. like In free countries. They have not produced virtue or freedom. not spring from the The benefits cou- ferred were in themselves undoubtedly great. the Tlieiss. He forgot that Hungary had customs. diligently to the construction of roads. and the canals. manners. to repent the wide pages of history are spread before mankind. and to adapt the customs. and another company. and a small body of his friends or England and America. the material advantages the people respects resembled that of his native country. the Count applied himself too late . . in which he principally endeavoured to imitate what he had as the English seen successfully practised in England. river. which first introduced Hungarian steam-boats on the Danube. manners. and succeeded in various other schemes of public utility. that in his en- thusiasm he wished to make the resemblance still closer. where they already securely flourish. threw a \\"ith the to connect Pesth Buda. 1841.

Napoleon did all for t'leFVench people. 1841. . and it is not settled whether those who have a right to their seats derived from their title alone have an equal vote with those offices who derive theirs from vol. the old municipal institutions of the country. had disgusted him with the whole system. by whatever name their govermnent is called. which together with the abuses which had crept into them. . country must originate and ho waa pcrwiiadrd that all t^ood for the in." an he endeavoured to prove by a careful political calculation. to sec tlie Hungarian aristoenu^y o<'cupv a position approxi- mating to that of the English ariHtocraey. By birth ana education. + The practical effect of this in maxim may be seen on the Continent. in these meetings the titled noble had to meet the untitled on terms of equality. Paget' s Hungary and Tramylrania. and be carried through by. " all or much ahould he done for the people. He wished. benides. but nothing hy the peopled f * In his admiration for of the The Magnates of Hungary date their titles only from the accession Hapsburg dynasty. and estates.* He advocated the commercial law«. At one time the two Chambers sat together.d. and his fame rests more on his material improvements and his laws. 182. 15(>4. and that of the reverse England and America. was. i p. and were simply Barons or Counts of the kingdom. and he was against referring measures of importance to the consideration and decision of the C'omitats. chiefly on the ground that they would eventually promote the interests of the " Nobiles. ciple. and summary justice in cases of debt. Szc'chciiyi bclongt'd to the high aristocnu-y. aa in former times they were only the Considerable obscurity seems to great officers of the Court and Governors of Counties. [a. with the aasistance of the U'8i*er " Nobiles. where the lesser " Nobiles " had the pre- ponderance over the titled Magnates .'220 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTn. exist concerning the origin and rights of the Chamber of Magnates. his own order. like His prin- Napoleon's. than on his victories yet the French people continue under a despotism." but •without that of the niasH of the people. It has no power but that of veto or approval of an act sent up by the Lower Chamber.

tlie wishes. who like Kossuth. were the foundations of all her prosperity.' . with the exception of PariB. the higher courts of justice. built almost entirely upon an imitation of a foreign nation. and were neither dependent for their salaries upon their electors nor upon government. in short.'d. elected every three years by men of their own class. 1'541. that system upon which the liberties of IVunce. are inferior to those which result from the effoi-t« of the people in England and Americu. By the ancient law of the country. but the laws as well as the orders of the central boards were enforced by the Comitats or their officers.'hcr civilization than that in which they were first devised.. and still more in Germany and Italy. and conducted the executive through the central boards. and even the material advantages enjoyed in France. 221 Englaud. Yet to it was the pride of Szechen}-i to be considered the only practical statesman in Hungary : it is for posterity pronounce wlietlier tliat man was really worthy of the an idea of name who endeavoured his to shake the basis of the political institutions of his country. a friend to centralization. He was.] szrcHKMi. " They were. he forgot that municipal institutions. which he despised and underrated at home." and most of them landed proprietors.* The central boards. the King shared the legislative power with the Diet. as well as those of other couutriea of Europe. and inclinations of Hungar}'. • The salaries were paid by the unprivileged claaa. desired rather to reform and improve existing institutions and adapt them to an age of hijL. Kossuth was only ambitious of the honour to be a faithful exponent of the genius. These officers were " Nobiles.a. in order to substitute own. While Szechenyi claimed to be considered as the prophet and dictator of the people in all political and social matters. and selfgovernment. or he. have long since been wrecked.

by the act. all [a. and were conIf Auhtria. . has been at all times slow. whose members were for the most part. and the citizens served for the excit«ment or the fame. his career. the official communication between the counties was confined to local business. by these institu." possible places of honour. iniiiibi-r of her partisans there. 258. and the self re-organization of a political body The sole guarantee. therefore. for constitutional freedom in Hungary. the by Austrian dependants. tions alone that the liberties of llungar)' had been main- tained throuj^h eipht centuries. Any reform of the Diet was next to impossible. 1841.D. but through him they had learned that the great interest of the nation was their principal concern. in spite of every attempt to overthrow them by the sword or by the sceptre of despotism. in remarks Brace. in his Travels in Hungary. " hardly larger than a workman's wages in America the ofl&ces were made aa much as . lay in the Comitats. issued an illegal Comitate refused to execute it. Corruption and faction were circumscribed within the limits of the Diet and were chiefly successful in the upper chamber. centralization and the steadiness with which he adhered to it A^"hen he first entered upon political life. and where bo large a body of people were concerned. and received only what woiild pay their extra expenfies. therefore. »erun3 of a majority in the Bcquently corrupt. throughout. genius of Kossuth was no where more apparent than in his clear comprehension of this truth in the commencement of the people. aud the ino«t important ofTiccs of the State were.scence it wiw. Like Szechenyi. on the filled other hand. it was impossible to bribe them to jicquie. p. Diet. since it must have proceeded from within itself. the willing instruments of Austrian tyranny. the pure uncontttminated source of the self-government oi Combined action there could alone oppose the The sagacious and practical of Austria.222 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. he thought it vain to eihaust the strength of the country in struggles against the might of Austria.

of the liberties of the countn-. while the way which led to the castle of a favourite Vice Ispany was rejjaired at a la^^8h expenditure. he endeavoured to make them fulfil their and begin by reforming themselves. terms in Kossuth censured such misdemeanors in unqualified he reprimanded the turbulant conduct of the youths public assemblies. 223 tne hope of obtaining further concessions at the present hour. by the use of unholy . 1S41. He was as jealous as AVesselenyi had been. and upon the high aristocracy to lead their fellow good work. The man'ellous success of Kossuth must be chiefly attributed to this line of policy. and waste time and strength by fighting the ground inch by inch he rather acted upon the principle on which the constitution was founded. but he did not cling to the dead letter of the constitution. and denounced the practice of bribery . and the use of intimidation at elections as an iniquity. esteeming the municipal institutions as the true safeguards of freedom. must be here reminded that his reforms were in their commencement purely aristocratic. he considered the resignation of a single remaining right. too dear a price to pay for all the material advantages upon which the latter built such high expectations. but unlike him. and . that he called upon the " Nobiles" to regenerate themoriginal purpose. The Pesti Hirlap comnience<l by an exposition of the abuses which disgraced the annals of the Hungarian Municipalities. jealousy of a neigh- bouring County would cause roads to be neglected.A. Accused persons were someselves.] THE PESTI HinLAP. which he affirmed to be a national peril. a few great " Nobiles" in a fix County were often suftered to the taxation of the unprivileged order according to their arbitrary wills.D. " Mobiles" in the times allowed to remain three or four years in prison before being brought to trial . even when successful. and those who reproach him with too democratic tendencies. and the means of traffic cut oft'. disgraceful to the most eacred cause.

" he continued. which amidst errors and darkness. that was nation on in the pathway of reform. while he at the same time admonished those to whom a nation turned with confidence at the very sound of their names. Let them but re- nounce their narrow-hearted. He bade the people follow leaders whose names were associated with the most glorious recollections. ia worue than tiou. the live* and interests rest. en- which other men it only attained through a their duty to lead the " series of long struggles. to cherish the remembrance of the past. in their real for reform. of millions w ho have a« stning claims on our considera"With these views tion Hiul forbearaiK-e as on our justice. unpatriotic views. He further eihorted those who. '* which do not proceed from law. let them but fice. sinct^ it conductB nation to a n>oral death. along the road of peaceful n»* .224 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTQ. meauH for its attaiuiiu*nt. and we mav not it forj^et that under tlie shadow of a constitution which ha« taken centuries to erect. were inclined towards extreme measures. contained much that was truly great and good. from wlience there in no resurree- *' KosHUth wan alwayii averse Ui revolutionary habU-. feel that to grant to others their rights is but the best security for their own rights . to whom first a sphere of active usefulness was opened from their trance into life.of their country. " A by ignoble acta." victory. " won tlie a tlcfi*at. 1H4I. selfish. Those Bchenies of wisdom are futile. which had hitherto plaved the chief part in the historj.D. [a. let no sacrithem but carry the white banner of rational progress crowned with the green garland of Hope. and therefore to respect the order of the aristocracy. we nuiHt listen to the iiihpirations of sound reai*on." he was desirous that while claiming a more just construction of the laws respecting the tenure of land." he wrote. the interests of the pn-seiit proprietors of the soil should not be overlo<jkcd. but within the boundariea of law.

and of the national connnonweal ." 225 tioiml prosperity will hail thi'ir and constitutional progress. you who think that the splendid tors is name you have capital. the nation unaided by you." Kossuth added. inherited from your ances- an inexhaustible your right to spend lives in inaction. lS:tl. cried and public places. even ayaitiat you. class prejudices were deeply ofl'ended by Kossuth having tlie endeavoured to awaken sciousness of their mass of the j)eople to a con- own existence as a part of the nation. and by tice . addressing the aristocracy in persons. "that there were many in Hungary. private societies. by you. His .] THE "PESTI UIBLAP. who feel injured by an age and demands their freedom as an act the indignation of a of right and justice: the aristocratic reformer turns from demand with all proud mag' . or of that rational progress which should guide the counsels of a wise govi-rnment. if must of be. lie dehim everywhere as dangerous and noxious and when he found declamations unavailing he took up the pen. " if «hich they once followed their ancestors into the Held of buttle . or which conlers on you the even to set up your personal privileges and your private interests in the right way of if and justice. his energetic appeal to the high aristocracy for jusfelt he even himself personally aggrieved in the words of Kossuth.'' '* From the appeanince the Pesti Hirlap. hindrring that which the general need and tlie instinct of the nation demands. and follow traditional names with twice the enthusiasm with but.D. clubs. with you. who were friends to liberal views as long as freedom could be bestowed as a gift from themselves. but which rejects the this gil\. such men are to be found.A. wlio by their blind egotism clog the wheel of the world's advance. if you will it own first destiny vrithout you. and the nation them with confidence as their leaders. then will fulfil its — now. their own there are men amouj." iSzechenyi had never ceased to agitate against the editor in casinos.

220 uate. and Szechenyi's star waxed pale beside one of so much greater brilliancy. [a.. He concluded his work by declaring the freedom of the press (a freedom at that time cui'tailed by a strict censorship) to be a dangeroiis benefit. party in the nation. that he alone had the right to conduct that life. . and a now tlie and the second. that he himself had awakened the nation from death into a new life. draw piiblie attention more than ever upon him. if might have convinced him of Kossuth. the first. who would perhaps throw a bof^fjiir. . his error. The Count ecmld not divest himself of two fixed ideas." cauldron to bursting the Count hastily concluded that he had completed the work. and heats the . MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. liandful of gold to a whining on tlie same monient would set hia dog poor labourer who rciuiuds him of a juHt debt. / awakened the ders to those sleepers. Kossuth might he an upright man and true patriot. as he wrote. rather helped. far from havhig the intended effect of injuring Kossuth in the eyes of the nation. that the necessity* for reform was universally acknowledged. that nevertheless. and the fixed the fuel beneath ' cauldron of the frozen land Pesti Hirlap' than- who are already on the wat-ch.idea which originated from In the " Kelet Xepe" his jealousy of him as a rival broke Kossuth had taken his place as leader of the Liberal forth. and therefore. to be the sole physician to prescribe medicine . fiiilure The of his own appeal to his country a few weeks later. by the violence of its The abuse. that there was no further occa- sion for incitement to action." but at tl»e " Kelet Nepe" (People of the East) of Szechenyi. Yet to every accusation he appended the words. and the spirit of bitterness in which to it was written. that agitation was superlluous since.D. " I agitated with word diet to the people and pen. 18-*^. he had not been pre-determined to oppose even. but only for consultation as to the means by which the reform might be effected.

it had withstood every extension of the limits of speech aud writing. and expressed his willingness to sink past ditl'erences. edited bv Count Aurel Dessweffy. by and sometimes by insinuating suspicions against He was. which. entitled the " Vilag " (Light). enabled him to compete with Kossuth. was not then so inanimate as the Coimt imagined. in the preceding Diet. in whatever direction they happened to lead. the " Pesti first Hirlap" remained political from that time undisputed the joiunal of Hungary. however. A second opposition paper was now started by the Government party.A. and his brother and successor. qS . while he at the same time made an ample and frank acknowledgment of the services the Count had already rendered to the country'. fever in 1842. the leader and orator of his party in He was the only man whose talents the Diet of 1839-10.D. being a man of very inferior capacity. and listen to his advice and opinion on public matters." Accordingly he published his vindication in the form of a separate pamphlet. though not so ponderous as that of Szechenyi. Count Emil Desswefiy.] THE " TILAG. In reply to some of his assertions. Kossuth considered it would be unfair to take advantage of his position to reply to these attacks in so popular a journal as the " Pesri Hirlap. 1841. he argued that a ])eople on whom the words and acts of Szechenyi in 1825 liatl produced so surprising an effect. carried oft' by a nervous its character." 227 aud that the government would have done well." sometimes ridicule. He endeavoured to destroy the influence of the " Pesti Hirlap. if. and that great as was the debt of gratitude they owed to individuals. refuted the principal charges with dignity. one of the most distinguished statesmen of the day. it did not render it imperative on them blindly to follow their benefactors.

228 MEMOIB OF EOSSUTH. whose large estates included land in several Counties. that each nobleman should command a certain number of votes. in proportion to the amount of taxes he should be obliged to pay. His scheme was. and varj-ing according to the extent of his property. to conciliate the men of the country. and had written various articles to prove the injustice of the " Xobiles " being exempted from taxation. leader of Diet — Deak — Kossuih proposes a separation from Croatia — Introduction of Magyar language matters — Hie Sclavic — Kossuth opposes views of the Ultra Magyars — Szechenyi — Count George Apponyi. since The Government had good will of tlie })rincipal 1840. had once belonged to the Liberals. [a. •who now acted as the organ of the Austrian party. Count Emil Dessweffy. in the q/* to Jjjuis lllyrisin the the the in oj^cial dialect the cellor the the " Pesti Uirlupr tried. CHAPTER VL 18il— ISii.U. This would have enabled those wealthy Magnates. Chan— Kossuth deprived of Editorship of Drssicejftf of Hungary Iti in the i tilt Jlonoratiores. 1841. Count Einil — Count Albert Sztdray— Taxation — Kossuth opposed by Szechenyi — Fund supported by Kossuth Com of Sztchenyi — — — The The Pesth or Middle Class of JJorder Duties of Hungary — Kossuth proposes a reform 1843—H — Austria returns Tariff — Diet — her fanner policy — Croatia — Gay — Klauzal. iSztaray. by the dona- tion of offices and benefices. to out^vote . His example was followed by Count Albert though solely with the intention of increasing the power of the wealthy aristocracy.

might have been expected that he would at once have taxation. with some plausibility. 229 the remaining " Nobilcs.'. refuse to participate in the former. by proposing a middle course in the commencement.500. than to the readiness with which their ancestors had accepted the task of bearing the heaviest burdens of the State. The direct taxation of : Hungary was voted for two dis- tinct purposes first. to Muiiieij)al Taxes. and at the Government which also derived a revenue from the monopoly of the salt mines. Ac. tlio payment of the latter. to tr\' if it Koesutli therefore determined were possible to persuade the " Nobiles" themselves to propose taking their share in the ^lunieipal Taxes. &(. which was paid into thu the . amounting to an annual grant of 4.A. It had been their duty to repel foreign invasion. aod they had only claimed the assistance of the peasantry in . Exchequer. and produced legal and logical rea-sons why they should submit for their position in to taxation .. instead of a fair share in the Legislature. amounting annually florins. and out of which the salaries of their officers were paid.2 disposal of." and thus. or making any sudden change. since no account was rendered to them of the manner in which it was expended but there ." it whole power would have fallen into The question was discussed in the "Pesti and though from Kossuth's well-known opinions. could be no reason why they should be excepted from which they themselves levied. the Cas^a Domestica.000 The '"Nobiles" might. they were indebted Huiigarv less to their high birth.D. the domains of the Crown. Secondly. he avoided rousing the hostility demanded equal of an oligarchical faction. 1-1 florins levied by. and disposed of in every C'omitiit. llirlap.470. that for the support of the army conceded for three years by every Diet. 1842. He argued upon historical facts. the Post Office. about 3.] all TAXATION. those destined to defray the expenses of the internal administnUion. the their hands.

the acquisition of which freed them from the obligation. [a. JState Now. that a few mouths later he was secure of a majority in the ensuing Diet to defeat the . and being empowered to levy and dijipose of taxes jiaid by the rest of the uity. the demanded from them. tliat He pointed out the absurdity of denuuiding the commonwealth should be supporti-d by men who were without property. was raised and although the question was not one only of money. So rapid were his conversions. in six months. They were indebted for their success. in a great measure. The taxes paid by Hungary into the Excbequer had never varied in taxation." a hatred which he has since expiated by bitter repentance.d. had gained over eighteen Comitiits to his opinion. he dwelt with peculiar emphoiiis on the obvious injustice of the " Nobiles " alone .nerve movement. to act for the good of their country. Kossuth. whose personal jealousy or patriotic fears increased the liatred he nourished against the editor of the " Pesti Hirlap. than he opposed with all his well- known rancour and violence. 1842. precisely when tliey were best able to fultil it but al)ove all. Instead of a system of equal scheme of his own. but one which involved the very existence of a privileged class. He had never objected to equal taxation when brought it it forward by Dessweffy and Sztaray. by uhowing themselves as willing as their forefathers had beeu.230 MKMoin OF KOBsuTii. but no sooner was taken up by Kossuth. but of gold and they could only expect to preserve their intiuence and dignity. he laid before the public a . a Baerilice of a peaceful nature. and by the aid of the Government were finally successful. to the efforts of Count Szechenyi.swer ready to meet every objection which . possessing all the ollices of the State. commu- He had an un. . but the Conservatives strained everj. by which he proposed the formation of a separate fund to defray the expenses of internal improvements. in an hour of |K*aoe. fascs of extreme danger. u sacrifice not of hlood.

These comintelligence of the countrj' those who not . one way was oj>en .D. but it while owning his disappointment. promised him his most active support. and the people for and seek support among men of the unprivileged whom they were labouring must no It longer remain passive spectators. . He was now persuaded that the privileged orders possessed neither the moral force nor the ability to regenerate the nation still .] TAXATION. the most highly educated of Hungary. but rouse themselves to co-operate with their friends. bestowing such sincere commendation on his patriotism and spirit. even though an appeal were made to their justice and generosity. But even the united eflbrts of the patriots could not prevail upon the "Nobiles" to submit to taxation in any form. he urged the cause of his rival in so chivalrous a manner. Kossuth was deeply mortified. the more liberally disposed. he acknowledged that was almost hoping too much from human nature.A. 231 amount from 1764. which could not be carried out without their acquiescence. tliey might be reg^ded more aa a tribute paid to Austria. aud as not a fraction had been expended out of them for the beuetit of Hungary. must quit the circle of their own caste. was to the Honnratiores. instead of cherishing de\'ised ill-will Kossuth. 18^. lie demanded from the Opposition a dechiration in favour of his >iew8. The scheme of Count Szechenyi therefore was intended to supply this deficiency. that Szechenyi was himst-lf shamed into silence. He redeemed word when in the Comitiit of IVsth. order. those who were sincerely desirous of progress. by a kind of second treasury or subsidy k^vied on the " Nobiles " by their own consent. thau taxes for the administration of the country. to expect any body of men to make so large a sacrifice of money as well as of their personal rights. towards the author of schemes his purposely to frustrate his own. to prised the chief men belonging to the middle class whom Kossuth now turned.

Pesth and a belonged by their oihce to the Hon<tnitiore». they were never admitti'd.d. . where the sen at ives. tion of the midtlle class in the estimation of the by promoting the interests of trade. are looked upon both individually and as a class. or olluvrH cler^)' iu tlie if army. as inferiort by the lay members and clergy of the Established Church." the ProtcBtant even when noble by birth. which waa to raise the occupa[K*<ipl«'. the Tariff" was. in impossibility of <d)taining their support thrtjugh the political institutions of the countn'. and even to have a voice iiuijority in their mtvtinf^. to invito. hiwyern.* few other Count ietJ had the power. The by the oppressive Tariffs c»f Austria had been wrested by the Austrian Government from the control of the Diet. conuiierce. [a. another means however suggested itself to Kossuth. not "NobilcH." thoupjh ()cvu[)vii»f^ the ]K>Kitioii of j>ro- fes. physicians. as well as on former occtujiona. all.232 MEMOIR OF K0S81 ni. or Church paid by the any bi-longing to the privileged order. The Dissenting of England. the For thirt rejuion a diHieulty waa com|)0«ed of Conwas preiM'nt<'d. however superior in iutellectuiil or moral though not now subject to disabilities on account of their profession. and manufactures. the llonoratiores to take a part in the proceedings of their ComitatH. wcrt' excliultMl from the privilcp^es of the " NubilcH. 1842 bfiiipj of noble dcBccnt. AVhile the Catholic hii-nirchy Mere mo«t of them. on certain occiwionij.sional men. the duties iipon Hungarian prf>duce bv the Border TarilV betAveen Austria indirect taxation •would have been little * This is not peculiar to more than nominal . Ministers qualities. but as they ^i-nerally vot<'d with the Liberal party. As Free Trade principles had always been prevalent in Hungar}. but iuaeparable from the ence of a hierarchy. which had been hitherto regjirded as dcrogator}. The nation had in the Diet of lH:i2-30. vainly urged upon the Government the necessity of remoWng the duties imposed u|>on comraercc and Hungary*. exiet- Hungary.

which now gave a stimulus Kossuth demaiuh'd in home manupeople.stria. under the fonn of heftvy Austrian exports. for Austrian goods. occasioned by the duty Upon them. in her present condition. and was only the high price the people to had to pay factures. 233 therefore. instead of an abolition of the Border a n)ore equitable system both as regarded foreign goods. hand. and further. structed aa solely to favour the latter country that the tlie Hungarian merchant should not be seroe of all forced. at the caprice or will of it Austrian traders. tliis that the abolition of the Tariff would open a freer market for her produce. a The Austrian article being attainable at industry springing into lower price would But. by prohibiting all trade between Hungary' and any other country but Austria. on the other only sen'e in this case to destroy the germ of commercial life in Hungary. and the interest of the Austrian manufacturer had already been secured by laws which repressed Hungarian : industr}'.D. Therefore since entire Free Trade was denied. whereas the products of Austria imj)orted into Huiigan»' were burdened with a heavy duty as these consisted chiefly of manufactured goods. levied transit. and would all countries both and cheaper than the monopolized nuuuifactures of Au. it and import duties. the name of the Hungarian Taritl'. from ab- competition from abroad. aud was supposed in Hungary. that they nught be said to enter Austria free. that the Tariff should not be so con. if entire Free Trade were conceded. AVith or without the Border Tiu-itl'. even though the Tarift' were abolished. 1842.A. Kossuth undertook to demonstrate that illusorj: expectation was the exports of the natural prtv ducts of Hungary were already so lightly taxed.] THE BOBDEE tahiff. and Austrian manufactures . Hungary would then find a greater market for her raw products. Hun- receive the produce of the industry of perfect more garj' was. the market would be no greater than before. to dispose of the raw .

becauHC other foreign manufactures were excluded from the liuugariau in the " Pesti market." As the most important aid to his projects. while the Hun- garian purchaser waa at the same time obliged to pay an exorbitant price for Austrian manufactures. " Our situation. that they might learn how to make better stuffs so must the Hungarian patriots voluntarily determine for a period to use nothing but the inferior manufactures of Hungary. the walls of our prison. but Austria will neither give us Free Trade. he insisted on an improved system of education. on encouraging science . Free Trade no monopoly for the blood-suckers. who at one time time rejected inferior the silk and woollen manutacuires of the East Indies. to secure that is protection for her germinating induatrj' which refused to her by law. and was contented with her own at first goods for the sake of promoting her domestic industry- — like America. Hungary must endeavour.234 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH [a. but later prided themselves on being worse clothed. Like England. The abolition of the border duties. assist to reWve the national the compulsion to which . whose sons — depended on English wares to supply the want of home manufactures. since the nation can only thus be indemnified for it must neld and by forcing the Austriaus out of the market. nor regulate the Tariff by the laws of justice and equulity. But you will. industry. and enable our neighbours to drain our veiua without resistance. 1842. while retaiuLug the Tariff rivet us to in our intercourse with foreign countries. products an well aa the manufactured goods of hia country to Austria.d. by the free will of her sons." " at present resembles a prison in which we are t<j only pennitted as much freedom aa will enable us open or close our doors against those who suck our would if if lil'e-blood. at a price below liu-ir real value." Kossuth justly remarked Hinap. by social means.

When. these social reforms. while equally desirous for the rege- neration of his country. perceived the most salient points. by which to compass Croatia. its purposes. that he could see but one path. Not only were they represented in the General Diet. by end he had in witli view which to while Kossuth. Szechenyi. but they retained a provincial Diet of their own to transact the busi- ness peculiarly appertaining to the Province.D. 235 and native and on the cultivation of the Hun- garian language.A. and the former Kossuth and Szechenyi were agreed on the necessity of waa ever ready to tlie ackno*vledge meritorious exertions of the latter . 1843.] DIET OF literature. veying the whole prospect an unclouded and a comprehensive aa well as calm mind. its . but with Kossuth. the Croatians were admitted to the rights and privileges of the Hungarian Constitution. and create another ally. 18i3—i4. The Court thought It it itself strong enough to pursue this retrograde course. and that a tortuous one. in the seven- . to which their several Counties also sent delegates. Such an instrument was This province had been conquered by Hungary all in the eleventh century. The Diet of Ib43-H had commenced its sittings. uncertain in direction. and marked the high roads which the people must traverse to secure constitutional freedom. or rather instrument. survisiun. but instead of being treated like a con- quered people. had besides discovered liberties other expedients by which might undennine the of Hungary. material improvements were subservient to higher aims . was so blinded by class prtjudicea and personal arrive at the vanity. and every measure brought forward by the Liberal party was as steadily op- posed as formerly. Tho conciliatory policy which the Austrian Government had thought 18-iO it advisable to follow after the close of the Diet of had been once again changed.

. the Deputies for the Hungarian Diet in the reign of Leopold filment of the article in the Golden Bull of de- the abrogation of the Pragmatic Sanction. which furnished him ^^-ith a printing-press.d. that was impossib?"i to attribute the movement to . forcibly Hungary and annexed Croatia to were re-united to Hungary. but the House of Magnates rejected the bill as it was however probable that it would pass in the ensuing Diet. + lUyrism. 184yB. when its delegates Croatian di\-ided The abolition was proposed. rose so opportunely on the Bide of the king..f The Hungary and Croatia in the Diet of 1832 — ." as they were called. Styria. [a. Croatia again protested and endeavoured to recover her Hungarian rights. took the lead in a movement which obtained the name of Ulyrism. and from that time it was governed as an Austrian By Campo Formio* province. which was restored at the treaty of Vienna. by which Hungary might withstand the illegal measures of it the king. A. with the minority. and finally obtained the consent of Austria to the desire of both countries. resting its claims on the Pragmatic Sanction by which Croatia was inseparably united to Hungary. The Croatians are a Sclavonic race. King Joseph II. insisted upon its restitution. or at least. Petersburg. and all followers either of the Greek church or the Roman Catholic. This name was not now used manded for the first time. and in 1823 the Hungarian Diet. Louis Gay. When II. the ful- every free man in Andrew II. the " Illyiians.236 MEMOIE OF KOSSUTH. teenth century. they are so bigoted to their peculiar forms of religion that they forbid all Protestants to hold property or to reside in the province : this law produced the first dissension between 36. the separated them from Emperor. a young man of literary attainments. and never rested until they a part of Croatia was the peace of ceded to France.D 1797. they protested loudly against this act of tjTanny. openly patronized by the Cabinet of St.

Bosnia. 237 project in a great Sclavonic was to unite Croatia. Sen'ia. ou republicain. and their watchword. " The National Independence of Croatia. and therefore retired from public life untn the Diet of 1847. made a great effort to defeat his election for this ." May not we here trace the intrigues of Russia in a country where her influence through the Greek church was predominant. The Austrian Government. he refused to take his seat. — — 44. . In the meantime the majority of the Croatian people were BtiU inclined to preserve the union -with Hungary.D." The excitement occasioned by these proceedings. and it was in vain his friends used all the sophistical arguments by which the conscience is often appeased on such occasions: he would not in any way sanction conduct which he could not honestly approve. .A." at Vienna. At that time. against the only two nations which could oflfer any impediment to the fulfilment of a part of Napoleon's prophecy — "En cinquante ans r Europe sera ou Cosaque. only the serfs called themselves lllyrians. but unhappily they were inert in their movements. the Consenatives. when it was dissolved. and the cause of Illyrism forgotten. occupied the Diet of 1843 was now the leader of the Opposition Deak had ever been one of the most strenuous advocates for the "NobUes" taking their share in the Cassa Domestica (Muni1832 36.^'1 They then demanded a separation from Hungary. therefore. Diet . alarmed by the conspiracy mere chance. however. and the measures proposed to put a stop to them. and they were granted an "Illyric Chancery. and Dalmatia kingdom by the dismemberment of Hungary and Turkey.] ILLTEISil. the supporter of Deak in cipal Taxes) . Gabriel Klauzal. 1843. the Liberals were however successful but when Deak learnt that direct bribery had been used to retvun him. and were soon overpowered by the fanatic \iolence of the party led by Louis Gay. which lasted until the king had obtained all he wanted from the Hungarian Diet. in 17..

" In the small cloud on the horizon Kossuth perceived the approaching storm. the King forbade the law extending to Croatia whose deputies maintained that — " Infolerancc teat the most precious of their municipal rii/hfg. proved its wisdom to all parties. The disadvantage of if at all carrying on the legislation in a dead language with which the mass of the people were only partially acquainted. it ensuing years iu their correspondence with the Hungarian Comitats. The breach which intolerance had begun was still further widened by an enactment of the Hungarian Diet which proposed that in all oflBcial matters the Magyar language should be substituted for the Latiu hitherto in use. but when they liad afjaiu plaeed them8elve8 in a hostile attitude Liberals. was determined that all documents addressed by them to the General Diet. distinguished by tokrns of imperial favour. and the choice made of the . or to the Central Government. they changed their policy. and proposed in the Comitat of Pesth that a legal separation should take place between the two countries he was met by signs of universal disapprobation.MEMOIR OF of " Illyrism. towanb the Hungarian Government oflSees and he himself was were bestowed on Gay and his awHociates. Hungary in Croatia felt themand even the party of Hlyrisra Later eveuts represented the proposition as an insult. first [a. was generally acknowledged. the friends of Belves personally aggrieved. experience. Hunwhen the Hungarian Diet of ISl-i insisted on proclaiming religious freedom as a fundamental law of the kingdom.d. after that time. it at the close of the Diet of lKi3 — to put i-4. and the indignant outcry at such a proposal was not confined . should be in Magyar." attempted at KOfiSUTir. down. though too late to profit by to Hungar}'.the garian party in the Croatian Diet waa excluded . The Croats sis were however permitted the use of Latin for the but. whih. 1844.

when the Germana. many Kussian idioms this similarity in language as well as in remained religitm.* The Croatian was only a . throughout Hungary. the nations inhabiting Pennsylvania might put in a claim people from Cor ail thein . He expected .. as well as in who agitated in the coutemporary newspapers. IS-l-i. when the speaker. and the language was not only the most generally spoken but also had received the highest cultivation. sylvania. Hiihleudi rf.lay principally in the amalgamation of her different nationalities into one undivided strong nation. 239 spoken in Hun- Magyar in preference to all other languages gary or her depeudeucies was. in Genuan and English. For this reason. by which all might be enabled to share in their benefits. English aU/M. he was fully aware that the hopes of the countr}. them out of Austria. ces. in the " Pesti Hirlap" he opposed the claims of the Ultra-Magyar patriots. latterly.] TflE MAGYAR LANGUAGE. than in the exclusive use of any particular idiom. who formed claimed to have the laws and messages of the President published both The votes were equal.D. and the prayer books used by those of the Greek persuasion were for a long j)eriod printed in hibited to print Though. and from Russia exercised a greater influence in Croatia than in any other country wliere the Greek religion pre- vailed. it was proKussia. gave his casting vote in favour of if two languages were made use of. halls of the Comitats. Scla\-ic dialect and had been totally neglected there were not above three or four books existing in the language. because the Magyar race was by far the most numerous.•*ucli an amalgamation could more readily be pro- duced by improvements in the political institutions of the countr}'.sity Though Kossuth was strongly impressed with the neof the Magyar becoming the official language al. • A siiiiilar question waa once brought before the State of Penntwo-fifths of the inhabitiinta. as he alleged that himself a German.

and not merely " Hate. and shortly after having contended for this end in the Comitiit of Pesth.'ariuii upon the people. [x. let ua not Hcare those neare»t to um alike . he remarked in the " IVuti Hirlap. The Diet had been dissolved." condemn uuch a proceed- bond of foreiji. of violence in forcing the Hungarian language upon the people. that." He had talent enough to discern where the real strength of the Liberal partv lav. it iit due to our dignity ait a nation whoite independent exifltence we an* called up«tn by word aiad deed to assert. «S:c. " wrote. well as the oflicial returns made to the Hungarian Government and Hungarian localities. shall be carried on in the To enact lest than this tcoulJ be Hungarian language weakness. Hound policy ing and Christian charily Let xxa bind all svMipatliy. Thiii boundary line can be no other than that which determines that nil jis the bnindu's of public administration without exception. was replaced by Count George Apponyi." he to reHtrict its uhc to oHieial cotniuuiuoitioiui.D." " With regard to tlie queiitiou of language. and the Chancellor.^ elementu by the kindly Again. can never produce love . to draw a boundary line within which we are justly entitled to govern.2iO (such a. and imbued with the prevailing French theories of vhat was termed '' a strong Government.s MEMUIU UK K088L-T1I. he accused Kossuth from the Chair of the Academy of Sciences. if we would spread our nationality.'' Such was the unguarded enuiity of Szechenyi towards Kossuth. not confining it alone to official communications. a young man of decidedly oligarchical tendencies. to demand nwre tyranny. tho " Ji-IuKt. and beyond which our power does not extend. 1B44. at the very time when the Count himself was strenuously advocating an immediate and general introduction of the Magyar tongue." the paper of Szechenyi) to forco languafje the Jluiif. Count Antony Mailath. and to be opposed to the County institutions His first .

if he abandoned the " Pesti Ilirliip. immediately subscribed to purit chase a large estate with the intention cf presenting to They were desirous of increasing his influence in the country. 211 attack was directed against the cient free spirit. and Kussuth at the same time received a proposal from high quarters. since it woidd The scheme appeared extremely did not only hold out a pro8i)ect of greater profit. Several of the Liberal Magnates. advaiitjigeous. But no sooner had he JlirMp.A. 1S44. while the Diet was still sittins^. but of more freedom of action.D.Hed favour of the " Pesti was withdrawn. of the editorship of the " Pesti Hirlap. he had succeeded. and by rendering him independent of his professional labours. and among others Count him. enjoyed a Buftlcient competence to satisfy the unambitious desires of himself and of his family. which to him waa of far higher importance.] BZSIOyS ZDITOUSHIP OF PESTI llinLAP. in depriving Kossuth." than the resigned the editorship pruini. though !Jot a wealthy man. Ix>uirt Batthyanyi. and before he had attained to the oflice of Chancellor. whole time to But Kossuth who." to edit a newspaper of which ho be the sole proprietor. retire with the satisfaction that hia work had not been vain." The publisher (Ludwig Landerer) was induced to break with him. man who had revived their an- In the summer of 1844. He could. steadily refused the generous oiler. and he found himself unexpectedly precluded from the employment of a journalist. however. by an intrigue. upon some sligljt pretence. . and who had never allowed himself to be bound to any party by the ties of interest. to enable iiim to devote his politics.

an answer was received in the well-known courtly language of Austria. and as a change can no longer be postponed the Diet demands that the Austrorelations be immediately taken into Hungarian commercial consideration. 1841. 184-li. ciiai'ti:h MT. Ox the 15th September. renders it impossible that internal trade shall flourish. and stafjnatt^ all fonM<rn . prevents improvement in aj^culture. with the view of a complete transformation. 12—1 1. On the 7th Xovember following. to the effect " that as the eiisiting pygtem of tariff stifles the in- dustry of our native land. \ 1 1. [a^d. 18^«J." commerce. 181-1— Vote of the Diet upon the eommrreial quettion rietcB irith JV</r(fi/ht. regard to Protection and Free Trade or Sticirttf political associtition Soeietj/ fur Protection — Gnint Canmir — Konnrnth trritm upon Taxation — Hit tchemrt for the material of the country — The Jfonoratiores — Orijanizrg assoriationM or compantrt for trade and manuficturr — The JVdrgylrt rryardrd at a — Kottuth Saeinga' Hank* — Commereial for encowraying indiutry — Company — Gorrrnmrnt attrmptx put a ttop thete concert Piume otsociations — Kosxuth proponen a Jidtthyantfi xcelfare iimti/utet Tlie to — KoarutVi — T%t to Iliingnritm Port to — Jiailruad — EJTcct to into Fiume — Kossuth comet into closer commenced from Vukorara connexion with the Liberal Magnates of the Reformt of Kossuth on the country and on the character of ^he people. containing a promise that the matter shoulJ at some future period be .212 MEMuiB or KOdsurn. a majority in the Diet voted that a remonstrance be laid before the King.

" while was with Kossuth. Proit-ction. chUlmI the Vrde- gAlet. than In. hainpend and oppressed by chanjje is restrictive laws. becomes a necessity: Austria could only be forced therefort. was not to and finding it vain to look for a redress of grievances from Audtria. but where manufac- turing industry is still in its infancy.sed. had aln-ady bt-en instituted.are allowed I'ree tlu-ir full development.* * Magnate descended from one of the oldest f:uiiili<s in At this meeting a resolution was pas.D. in their own homes. a question rather of expediency than of right. that The family of Battbyanyi trace« ita genealogy a« far back um th« B 2 .nburg. had contributed to strengthen the feeling he had first awakened in favour of Protection. 1S41. Kossuth was practically a Protectionist by Protection alone he could hope to obtain Free Trade. because to the world. by declining her manufactured goods. Trade should be permitted. 243 The Diet. however. into a sounder line of policy. under the editorship of Kossuth. He was of opinion that where a nation is independent. in the Chamber of Deputies at Pre. they issued a declaration on the 9th November. where. the inter- only permitted with one foreign country. It was presided over by Count Casimir liattln unyi. as with every practical statesman. for a time.] PBOTECTIOy. and held its first .A. and that the result would prove a mutual benefit to all nations. and where the resources of the countr}. stating that they perceived no other means by which their object could be accomplished considered and amended. but no sooiur had Hungary sliakt-n off the trammels of Austria. in short. A s<K-iet\' for the purpose ot" Protection. but by a voluntary sacrifice on the part of every and a resolution to establish a system of protection citizen. a Jlungarv. Free Trade or Protection The " Pesti Hirlap. be thus easily satiafied. coimnerce.><ittii»g on the previous Gth October.tlinw Ikt coimuirce open in 1844.

and his sons. were the fovinders of the thvanyi belongs to the elder branch. Count Casimir Batraised to the dignity of Count. middle class must. . scattered the Deputies to tliiir renpeetive homes. to in- fluenee the public throuf. Christopher was two Paul. if ever. Tlic dituiolutiun for the purposes of drvHH." aa a body. Ac. (J eneral Ai»»cmbly wa« held. The was permitted to be inserted." KosHuth only twice again attempted^ at thia period. Kossuth now turned hia whole attention to the material condition of the country. themselves carry out the principle of equal taxation. which he hoped to refonn by means of associations for the benefit of Hungarian trade and manufactures. as he expressed Eettlement of the Magyars in the country. clusion that the effect those general reforms which be foresaw were indispensable for the He had now arrived at the conit. [a. They hare always been supporters of the Hapsburg dynasty.should only make u»c of home mnnufactures. to well-being of the country. for which he was very nearly deprived of w as abridged before it hia licence. furniturt*. of the Diet on the 10th November. to Auguut.211 the MEMOIB OF KOBSUTn.'hout the eountr}'. AAer he had been dejirived of the HirUp. 1844. Ac.D.S<K-ietieB and from the 17th Norember. «uid Hpread information coneeniing the movement tlirou{. He had hitherto been disappointed in his expectation that the " Nobiles. In 1630 Ad&m Batthyasyi imd two branches of the family. 1H15. 18^10. but it was a touchstone on which Kossuth wished to test whether it would be possible through the agency of this one class alone. immberi . and the bfcond only appeared in its original form by an artifiee of the editor. were nipidly wlien the firut fi)rmed. been found in anj community of men. in two articlcH upon tin«t taxation which he contributed to a weekly paper. " Pe«ti the numberH hud increa»*'d from 138 to 154.h the prewK. would Such au achievement would pre-suppose a higher standard of morality than has perhaps rarely. Branch .

was.Hequence of this prevailing opinion. 1844. however. though he himself attention undertook the whole labour of their management." who n'pre- sented the agricultural interest of the country.D.s. and in no way connected with In con. repented their ccvoju-ration. but includ«d many of the adheri'iits The movement of the Government or Consenative party. made to destroy more serious . in the first instance. he invited the chief men of tho country to phu-e themselves at their head. wIjo voted in favour of the resolutions of the 1. 245 It "be introduced within the precincts of the Constitution. and several.3th September and of the 9th November. by raising the social position of professional men (llonoratiores) as well as of mer- chants and manufacturers. lie hoped to create a powerfid middle class. as a society fonncd solely to advance the material interests of the country. His was. and petitioned in the most abject manner to have their names erased from the signatures. He be^n factures by organizing \'arious associations or com- panies for the support and promoti«m of jruiigarian manu- and commerce. waa not only composed of Liberal. in consequence.'* waa for thia end. dechired by Government to be a demonstration of the Opposition. As the Government was more alanned at tho possible effect of the Vedegylet than wjis thought expedient to acknowledge. directed towards tho Vt-dfg_\h't. the majority in tho Diet of 1841. and in order to prevent these tuterprijioa falling under the centralizing influence of the (ieneral Ooveniment. an endeavour was at its first influence bv ridicule . and of the conunercial and manufacturing population.] THE -VEDEOTLET. and by giving them political rights e«|u:U with those of the leaser " Nobiles.l. when that failed. The Vedegvlet had in its commencement been regarded politics. that he at aimed the elevation of the llonoratiores. as has already been stated.

wa. that no and passj)orts ottu-ial in were sent both to Hunijary the senice of the King should be permitted to continue a member of the Soi. by which they were enabled to on mathematics.s of seeking employment in the manufactories of Hungary.D. tliifl in- and that of the Tedegylet. ns in order. By rendering Savings' I^anks general throughout the countrj'. Ac. to. Bank was established at Pesth with nearly equal success. sort of Bazaar." or Association for encouraging InThis society enabled lectures to be given gratis dustry." continue their occupations. to obtain money and materiids in advance.><irou." was the " Ipar-egyesiilet. that within two years Another the shareholders had quadrujiled their c-apital.21G MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH." afTaini of the various aHsoeiiiti(»n» he had started. drawing. market opened for home manufactures. while yet editor IVi^ti The first in imjKJrtaiice.. by an aHwiTtion the Vedef^ylet aimed at aecompliHhinj? a i*eparation of Hun^jary from . it would be almost . mechanical science. [a.-iety. strict injunctions and Transylvania. Kossuth proponed gradually to emancipate Hungary from the monopoly of the Vienna Bank. Fully to appreciate the benefits conferred by stitution. and a was connected with it. which was opened at Presburg. a« well was the Savings' Hank. and succeeded so well.\ustritt. but an opportunity provided for those mechanics who had been stopped in the pursuit of their trades fix)m want of means. the " Ipar-mutar.s and the example followed in most of the important cities of llungar}'. 1841 measures were resorU'd An attempt was made to rouMO tliat the loyal feelings of the people. were refuiwxl to Austrian workmen. where the productions of Hungarian artists and manufacThus not only was a turers were exhibited and sold. coeval with the " Vedegylet. Kossuth was engaged with the of the " llirliip. His next work. Ac. who were de. In the mean time.

ssefi.'apital. involvt<d tlir comjainy in serious diflieultiea. but like\Nise that of iiidu. when the in egye«ulet " opened it.-* first all exhibition. was fomu'd for the purpose of extending the conimen'ial relations of Huiis?ar>' with fon'ign tions. to be discouraged.sMX'iation. and at the close of the first year the director of the company presented a BatLsfactorj' balance to the nieinlu-rs in a genend mivting. It luv- commenced with a lar. for could hardly comprehend the amount of prejudice which eiisU-'d iu the upper cla.'* tliat it wa." or Commercial Company. and instigated by him. but. the " Kercskedehni Tarsa-sag. and thus touxx'cdx-'d iu restoring tlu-ir honour and . enterprises which owed their He was not. and ab- sconded. and could not believe anythin!» good which wa^* not from tlie AustriiUi (.. unfortuimt<'lv. they discharged the obligations they had taken upon themselves towanls the merchants and com|»anie9 abruud. a native 247 a foreif»ner necessan' to be of Hungary. ISW. alTei'ted The the blo»' miui serious to Kossuth . They were imj)oite<i in the habit of purcliasiug everj' trifle from Vienna.liiig talent. even at a large pecuniar\' sacrifice. thoutjh a young man of entaiii. or rather created.^.A.] THE COMMERCIAL COMPANY.>*trial the commen-ial and origin to him. and with this' confidence eprang up a desire among the artificers to produce that which was rciUly gnoi Confidence iu the Another . had a turn for sptvulation. howevcT. witli re^^ird to home manu- factures. and inventive powers of the country was restored. and after himself in debt. ui' The busincHA of the compuiy and the number the share- holders increased in the course of the aecond year.e capital. he persuaded the members of the " Kereskedelmi Tarsasag. to find the excellence of articleij which had skill been manufactured H unitary.s a duty they owed their country to maintain their |>osition. the dinvtor.D. it not only all cretlit of this company. Nothing " Ipar- therefore could exceed their astonishment.

aitd wa« only duwulYed in wlu-n the n<jt Auiitriau Hufl'iT niinitftcre. fntin the Although. since that profrom the chief trade of Hujigary passing through her territory'. Austria could regtdate the priiv of iluity she could not consume the whole bujktConMeqiniilly tlie of llunpiry. it would ha\t? derived considerable benefit w ould have propitiated Croatia. a:i the Govenimeut there would always find some it pretext for stopping. and an outlet would have been affbrdi-d for the agricultural pro- ducts of the rich plain of Hungary-. MEMOIB or ulier K088UTII. Schnarwuberg and would itH an institution to cuutinue which uwfd hud exiHteni-e to KoxKUth. into competitiou with Hungarian grain would thus have been brought that of Odeasa in the London market. of oonipetition. For this obji-ct he laboured to induce the people to construct a railroad from Vukovars to Fiume. hrhidrH that of Austria. Biu-h. for lluiigunon pnxiuctB. waa therefore necessary. by Uk* way. and extniordinary Imr^estH.2iS credit . l^i plact-d which he re-orpuiired the company. IjoufT before the or^aiiiuition of the Vedejjjlet. Hun- and that her produce should not be conveyed through Austria. it fruitful land did not in years of bear one half was capable of producing. for the Banat and S>t- mium. [a. which would hare answered two purjx>se8 >-inc!e . . many tlxiiuumd nK*aMun*» of the best It gniin wen* lout from a want of cihibuiimth. uniting her at the same time more closely to the sister country. and from whence their merdiandii+e could tind its way to the world's market. It flouriiihcd tn'en duriug the truubleH of the lievulutiuu. abiieuee j.D. hi-ad. as present uig the rooet commodious harbour for an Ilunjr-irian port. KftKsuth had for many years endcavoun'd to direct the atti*ution of the nation to- wards Fiume. that a wider market should be found for gary.t»od». the necfu^ity fif KoMuth ftirertivn providing a forvi^i murket. and at itH two ahlo dirtTtont 1851.

1H4(5. Upon this answer being received.Hungarian commerce was at fourttM-n million florins. 1S45.s were admonished that wherever such were found.D. although the Comitats knew well that the W'degjlet was int<'nded. however. ujwn their own private fortunes. which the annual n-venue derived by set Hungary from A ustro. Austrian Government to the that in order to put an in con. an edict was passed by the effect. An official statement was published.* permitted to exist. did not venture to give name therefore. and progress. aim. the tical. delivered a masterly oration upon the subject before the General Assembly of the Vedegjlet. unless their statutes were revised and sanctioned by the The C'omitiit. 249 While Kossuth was still urfjiwfj the subject upon the pubhc in the " Pesti Hirlap. 18-15.>*equence of end to the abuses which had taken place the said societies would no longer gracious approval of his Majesty. and in August. either prompted by fears for the in- road as far as terests of Trieste. b».A. On the 7th January. down Kossuth entered into a strict examination of the accuracy of this statement. they should give information as to their origin. or acting by the couuivauce of fiussia. on the capitjil. grounds." a company was fornu-d bv his iudefatigable zeal. most of them replifd. that no society answering the d«*hcription and these societies their real .] THE T^DKOTLET. tion. The Oovenimmt. wanting the Koyal sanction existed within their jurisdicbut only a few branch societies of the Vedegjlet which had emanated from the Diet. Government in t<x>k up the qurstion on statis- instead of political. refused to sanction the bill. In the Diet of lS43-4-t. and should order their discontinuance until they had received the Koyal ass(>nt. the "Mobiles" offered to guarantee an mterest of five per cent. the societies lately organized in liuntjary and Tnmsylvauia. however. and works conunenced for a railCarlstadt. which lasted . The Government.

fiu'U.V. not. some of the Aui<trian manufaeturera who had left Vienna to settle in Ilungari-. hvhUmu of the Amitru-Iiuii^pinAii he dcniutiHtnit^'d by the nuMt authentic Htutihtical returns. [x. All this he like Szechenyi.' to participate in their privilege* aa free citizens. 1^4<}. KoMuth hail been brou|. their views had effected. and failed. by a majority of the whole nation. that the Liberals were supported in . and refund to abate one it**m of their exclunivo pretenaious. and called into active exertion the faculties of the intelligent middle clasa he had showTi the people in what their real interest* consisted and above all. and afU*r f^ivijig an exact atialvHiM of the into closer conjiirty. had gained advantages of the utmost importance to the countri. . KOHSI'TII. they still shrank from the ehawtisenient their »elfi»hneH» and injustice received from his pen. speculations* had in some instances but Koasuth. nexion with the leading Maijnaten of the Oppo«ition Yet while rea*lily eoneurring in projt-ctij which did n«-'i iiterfert* w ith their claiw prvjudicea. and that this intention had already been fulfilled to an alarming extent. lit* MEMOIB OF provi-d. had been dis- appointed. thnt it and gary coiiiinerriHl wom fnuiied so as tu enable the llerediUiry StaU'n of Austria to derive profit from ait Hun> fnitn a colony. he had proved to the opponents of eonstitutiouiil freedom.260 three hours. even to admit the best educat^nl and most intellij»ent men of the countn.he had given an enormous impulse to Hungarian trade and manufacture he . had bepfim to subside. by directing the people . in the hope of receiving a Ttksh larger profit. thiit by a deUil of a fidjie balance hat) htu'ii hiid bcfort' v^holt* the public. nevertheless. The enthusiasm with which the VedegAlet had at first been hailed. In tluKe varioun nehenieH for the material improrement of his country. had obliged the upper classes to see and confess the skill and ingenuity of their owti countrymen.

and by guiding them steadily towards the point he had He steered the vessel with its unruly crew. TlloroH deprived of the use of the still Kossuth could discuss the political questions of the day in the Cham- ber of the Comitat of Pesth.HW»*l!y. to act. and the Consenative policy of Count Emil DeK. safely and ftarlessly through the billows which threatened every hour to devour in view. feelings. 251 ries of his how they were own upon them novel theo- but by a clear comprehension of the minds. of all As this Comitat took the lead the Provincial Parliaments of Hungarj-. — Ssechenyi apjntinted Quasiof in at irrM in ilinittt-r Public Jf'ork* — Hit Programme. The contest increa-Hcd in vehemence when Coimt Apponyi. his speeehes listt-ned to were read and throughout the whole country. He had proved himself by his late conduct so entirely the crea- . or by forcing . — 1SJ7. her. the leader of the Keactionists.] THE COMITAT OF PESTH.A. 1846. he had now for years combated the aristocratic views of Szechenyi. 42—45. and temper of the nation. CIIAPTEK XT. 184-i VIII. Supported by the party of the Opposition in Pesth. by a just estimate of what the in-ople were or were not prepared to receive.D. to which he was the stlf-constituted pilot. was appointed Chancvllor. Ko99uth in the Comitat of Prath — Royal AdminUtratort appointed placr of the Fii-hpanya — Sprech of Kostuth -Resolution of the Comitat — Jlonopalt/ of To— Meeting liudc bacco — Conduct of the ConMcrr — Declaration. j)en.

The Eoyal Administrators. Majthenyi." &c. &c. The same attempt was made in 1827. * Fo-Ispany. ture of the Austrian Ministers." "was an officer nominated by the Crown as Governor of the County. Independent alike of the Sovereign and of the Comitats. [a. even . families of the Batthyaup's. and it belonged to him to summon all the electors in the County everj' three years to nominate their officers. whose appointment was for life and although by law it was at the disposal of the Crown. Esterhazy's. and when he acted with fairness and impartiality. presided over the Courts of Law and Police the execution of the Acts of the Legislature and the orders of the Government were confided to him. but failed. He had the approval of the candidates for County offices.252 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. Illehazy's. and as chief magistrate. he formed a link between the despotic tendencies of the one and the democratic tendencies of the other. Avho were to occupy the position Avhich had The always been held by the Hungarian To-Ispany. his friendship. . as described by Brace in his " Travels in Hungary. 181G.D. The Fo-Ispany was generally nominated from among the ancient and wealthy aristocracy. who were destined to supersede them. were chosen from among the courtiers. and received ample remuneration from Government they were therefore bound to execute without hesitation whatever they were commanded. it had in many instances become a hereditary dignity. as in the rate in men the Diet. by the privilege conceded to him of the nomination and payment of certain administrators in each County. publicly Ilia appointment was rendered renounced stiU more obnoxious. that one of the most mode- Baron Ant. . the Fo-Ispany acquired the esteem and veneration of the people. and only received a trifling salary from the funds of the Comitat. Various other duties of high trust devolved upon the Fo-Ispany. .

instead of it to be wholly dependent. one from the State of Lords. 1846. who Red' Encyclopcsdia. dividual might " to have the entire disposal of the military. and become a mere shadow ?. : — • Bohemia. appointed annually for the administration of the Governmeiit." proceeded Kossuth. has been divided into twelve circles (or districts) besides Prague.. The Administrators were besides and were to nominate the candidates at an election.. or be compared to a P6-Ispany ? Is he not rather a Bohemian Captain* (Kreis-hauptman). when addressing the Comitiit of Pesth on this subject) proposed to convert the office of the Fo-Ispany into a species of French Prefecture. and they were the blind instruments of the reactionary party in the State. of the Hapsburg Dynasty. . and as Presidents over all the Courts of Justice in the Counties over which they ruled. The Government (as Kossuth stated. Each circtle has two Headmen or Captaias. 253 thougt contrary to law.A. to whixjh secret reports were to be delivered.. It is said. and upon which it was that. Means for intimidation and bribery were placed in their hands. . the life and prosperity of every independ upon their verdict. the palladium of a thou- sand years of political existence will be endangered. being nominated by a responsible Ministry.] EOTAL ADMIKISTEAT0E8. Bohemia. " be called an Hungarian dignitary. and under the absolute sway of Austria. was to be bestowed by an invisible and inaccessible Chancery. from which instructions were to be received. constitution of the country destroyed Protestantism and the free by the sword. has been declared hereditary. under whom our ^Municipalities. that the appointment of the Fo-lspany belongs to the King undoubtedly but he was a Fo-Ispany and no Bohemian Captain finally it has been said and what lias not been — . Can such a magistrate. of which these Heademen are the tools. ever since the reign of Ferdinand II.D. since the reign of Charles IV. and the other from that of knights. with this important difference.

for illegality. and ord^^ makes a change in the administration necessary. and the the name of or</<rr. llunf. is not a measure consent. and to exhort the Vice Ispany of each County to exert all hia authority in defence of the independence of the Comitats. and a blow was next levelled at her material prosperity. both in their political and administrative capacities . But the Austrian govern- ment now claimed the monopoly of all the tobacco grown in Hungary.254 said to jusiify nica.sure tlie MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. Tliirty-two Counties in Hungary had already been placed under the superintendence of administrators the political existence of the nation had thus been attacked. and commanded the royal administrators to discontinue their functions. —that I this ille^^al Imd been resorted for the purpose of main- taining order God my witness. and will not. Pliilip II. been long and successfully cultivated. hats been ho Hhimielessly abused by deBpotism as Nichohis enujed the highin the In the name of order. but fur despotism. name of order. and should be their called disorder." The Comitats resolved forthwith to declared form apprehensions concerning the policy of Austria. convertt'd Netherlands into a gniveyard. Tobacco had . know of no word which this. in con- clusion. is [a. if God be Hun- gary will be ruled by her hiws alone. for order. recognize. conduct of (lovermnent? to.!iry does not. praised. 1846. and nearly as great a sensation was occasioned by this measure as by the attempt to put Austrian hirelings in the place of the ancient and traditional oflBce of the Fd» . This order. Poles from the list spirited of nations. they expressed their distrust of the government. let the its nation give measure is assembled Every other means by which a attempted to be forced upon us. and its production and sale had always been free. Ernest Augustus annihilated the constitution of in Hanover.d.

advanced in the path of reform. from the interests ficing tion. wus dangerous to constitufreedom. and. so long as the_\ maintained their present line of and by their numbers to support the Government continued in the present hands:" in return. it would derive from The Government was supported in this project by some of those yery men who had for twenty years been contending against every attempt which might prove detrimental to the materiid prosperit)' of Hungary'. "to out-vote the Opposition in all questions. and. establishments for possible price. To smooth the way for the introduction of the erectt-d in the the sale of tobacco were most considerable towns of Hungary. 1846. were sold at the lowest monopoly.-. so much the more did the Conser. the King and his Ministers ahould carr}. it being cal- culated that the royal exchequer would be amply recom- pensed for the eventually loss of a few millions by the profits the monopoly. vatives tremble for their privileges fears. they expected their party should be looked upon as the natural ally of Government. instead of denying or pleading ignorance of necessary reforms. Cigars. that to advocate the national of Hungan. The policy. to declare their determination.A. 255 Ispany.D.them on through their instrumentality. while neglecting and even sacri- her political existence. while it . if proof were wantthat Kossuth had funned a correct judgment.] DECLABATI05 OF THE C0KSEHTATITE8. in November. The conduct of the Conscn'ative " Nobiles " on this would have sufficed to prove. when first.ll he pronounced. The further the Opposition party and the more decisively public opinion pronounced in favour of an immediate re- medy of by their ancient abuses. both of foreign and home mauulacture. finally. with the intention of ruining the existing manufactories belonging to private indi\-iduals. impelled they threw themselves into the arms of a all government adverse to occa*<ion ing. 184G. They met in Buda. progress.

the moderating influence of property. which emanated from the fur- To provide against this contingency. the Constitution and the material prosperity of the countrv' should be laid at the feet of the Cabinet of Vienna. . in a few short months.project for effectual reform proposed alteration in the Urbarium. ations. and their also cast off. " that no legislative enactment should deserve the name of progress and reform. in the Commonwealth. or Government again uniting with the OppoHition consenting to any Liberals. but not their redemption from dues unjustly iiaposed. rivals preferred. and in the reform of the system af taxation only a means to proNnde for the expenses incurred by their own schemes for public utility. parties. and in return. and the security of the ened and maintained. Convinced of the strength and uprightness of the Austrian Cabinet." since. the Con- servatives only demanded an alleviation of the eviLi which oppressed the peasant rj'. Conservatives did not by any mcaiiH allow that they were adverse to n-funn. He had been appointed by the Government a Counsellor. but were nieiwurea oiiJy eager to prevent the party. they implied that no concession was to be made to the Opposition. they ther insisted. By their declaration. to be in their turn who stood almost alone between the two was regarded unfavourably by both. they themselves would for the favour of being pem\itted to tive offices in the gift of be rejected.25G MEMOIR OF KossrTn. they could dispute ever). and QuasiSzeehenyi.d. they relied on its support. and little dreamed that. [a. 1S40. where the coastitutional and executive power of the Government. and not a general and equal taxation of all classes. the siu-red right of possession. by which the private interests orthe privileges of the"Xobiles" might suffer. were not thereby strengthUnder the shelter of these resen. the Conservatives only humbly petitioning fidl some of the lucraGovernment by men of their own party.

owing to the censorship to which he was subjected.A. and that even the present Government. and therefore maintained a dignified duct of the '' After the con- Nobiles.] PEOGEAMilE OF SZKClIEXYf." waa a strange time Opposition. 257 Pro- Minister of Public AVorks. 1846. that not one among the Governors appointed by Austria had fulfilled his duty towards Hungar}'." waa far from " having done what ought to have been done . and to choose for such an assertion. ." when both he and Szechenyi had it united in an endeavour to gain their consent to a partial taxation of the priuleged class. in spite of its " noble intentions. rival towards tlie and denounced the conGovernment. was impossible for the latter not to be convinced that one of the grounds on which he had formerly rested his arguments against Kossuth in the Kelet Xepe could no longer be maintained he therefore . \\ith any freedom. or sketch of ness of feeling. though exceeding Its in bitter- articles wad directed against published by Kossuth on taxation. and acknowledged his purely patriotic views. he aflirmed. which he asserted It " had the beat and most constitutional intentions. when nearly the whole nation had been driven into the camp of the when facts obliged even him to confess. could not be sufficiently admired ceptions.'k a weekly paper. " the grandeur of his con- and the brilliant arrangement of his materiala a . that this failure was occasioned by "the nation always in the end deciding for in itself. however. and had even now taken the lead in the movement for Keform. now changed duct of his his point of attack." he added. This was a sort of it appendix to the Kelet Xepe. Szechenyi expressed his acquiescence in aU he de- what Kossuth spirit it should be ruled. and the remarkable powers of his genius which.D. for his late denunciations of the conduct of Government." Yet while blaming manded. Kossuth could not reply silence. chief atta<. as an apology. the two last in his political views. and now publijihed his ^ramme.

stimulated the Opposition to a continuance of aotive measures. [a. altoirether A cousin of Count Casimir Batthyanji. the Declaration of the Consenatives. and which were which took place at attended by all numbers of the greater aa well parties in the State. a general Assembly of the " Ellenzekikor" (Opposition Club) was held. as lesser ''Nobiles. . on the 15th of March.* The most di3tinp:uished Macrnat<.d. 1817. and the monopoly of t-obaoeo. belonging to the younger branch of the family. 184^1—1847. the distinguiHlxd clwinK-tir of which « H« iindcuiuble. and the Progjamme of Srcchenyi. as well as the leaders of the liberal party in the * Comitiits of Hungani-. TiiE cncrfjetic demonstrations of the Government in thn case of the Administrators. presided over by Count Louis BatthNanyi. Meeling of the Librrah tine tion — 7'AWr Programme— Estractg of a Sprrch of KotKuth — iJrath of thf Archduke Joseph — The Archduke Stephen — Elecat Prsth Pal/i- for the Diet of lSt7 The Liberal Party this desire that Ko«»uth should stand — /* Life — t^orts of defeat the Election of Kossuth— His of Bntthyanyi persuaded by for Count Louis Diet — He hesitates Jiatthyanyi — Early the Government to success." presented an opportunity for conferences between the members of During the fair of 1H47.'8 and Deputies belontjing to the Opposition. stated inten-als even' year." cil\iti:h IX. The fairs at Pesth.iS% niSTonT OF IIUNOART. political riuihterpicccs.

and to ct>-operate for countn. that although the Liberals could in tlie never expt-ct to have a share Government they were not influenced by any personal feelings.A. from cUiiming the initiative as their exclusive right. which.] PBOGRAMME OF THE REFORM PAUTT. and from the iut«r- fereoce of the UoTi-ruiueut in the niunicipalitiea of the towne. not only to have been neglectful in various matters of law and jurisdiction." For this end they were not. since the last Diet. and with which the Keform party has bei-n long identified. Kossuth 259 laid the about six hundred persous. 8 2 ." since Hungary. to support every good and lawful measure proposed by Government . and receiving some finishing touches from the pen of Francis Deak. "as far as possible. under the title of the " Programme." themselves called upon to be vigilant. but a victory of the good cause. after undergoing a few slight alterations in the course of the debate." their object being not to obtain high places in the State. "that to which history has given the name of Op|X)sition.had been hitherto deprived of a j)urely tional and Na- and Parliamentary' Government. 1847. was adopted and published.D. • Fr«>in the miffrage being rnnit«d to one claM. and endangered the interests of the Further." Far. and where nctvs«an' to oppose the Government but must further consider it imperative upon tliem to endeavour to bring about moderate refonns. resolved to persevere st<»adily in mainUiining their too frequent attitude. sketch of a " Declaration" before the Assembly. and therefore did not intend to direct their opposition against indinduals but against acts : " that they considered the Government. but in many respects to have broken the laws. they declared themselves alw ays ready. however. " they felt mid of the Constitution.* the Opposition had and could not limit their 0]H>ration8 simply to " control. were present." It commenced by stating.- the purpose of guarding the rights of the nation .

— I . the welikre and and the most For this purpose they demanded that " the TnuiMvlvanian Counties should be united to liungar}'. VoL I.. 4C4." They [•rocecdfd to express thi-ir the intercuts of tbe citizens of luitional ull chuuH>ii in the Statu were once united. and disposal was strictly cared for. that the Avitizitatt should be abolished.'iid U{>on may. experience had now taught Kossuth that his project of a partial taxation instead of gradually leading towards the desired measure." The OpjMisition. the estate was equally divided among them all See Pagit't Hungarj. might demand a certain portion a« alimony and at the death of the father. p. demanded one com- mon tirst taxation of all classes without distinction of the two kinds of taxes. it will be observed. may dt'|M. Si'ns.* that the Nobile** and pleb<>innti should shore one common taxation^ that all men niatcriid pntspcrity of tlu-ir luitive land. powerful 8up|>ort to the llirone would be aocured. that the fairly citii*ii ikhould be represented in the Municipalitii^n and in the Diet. xL p 277Cumlj." * sliould be equal In-fore the lawn. The . only served as an impediment. that the im{H>sition8 of the Urbarium should be wholly removed. It its + The Avitizitat related to tLe teniire of property in a could not be legally sold. while n-solved to uae all legitimate means in the approaching Diet to obtain these ends. and that we »hall do our be»t U) further conviction. it Ijct that wliicli in good come from what quarter it \s hoiimot'vrr brought forward.2G0 *' iiisToni Of HcxoABT. by our Hup* port. declared their intention '• never to give their consent to a single step which resacritice the interests of liungart-. or by unjustly surrendering the above mentioned lawful ijuests I would render liem subordinate to those of the hereditary dominions of Austria." The Programme. tluit " if it. 1817. and that then* should be a national system of education. [a.d. • See Chaj'ter. and constitutional development. on coming of age.

I venture to pnuiounce without affectinj. we must not in our answer omit the nobles. in the first instance. but the time for nei^otiation was now pjist the Nobiles" must either con!«ent to their own immediate Political it taxation^ or wait others." said Kos. " rt*«}uin»« is nut . the true from the hearted first-born family. to be a pn»phet.i. an enifjma which found its the yift i>f prophecy to discover it rather a mathematical problem whose solution can be best in a ri^ht compri'hen.D. have if estot- med themselves fortunate a they could have conciliated their opponents by what must have been acknowled^^l to be only fair partition '* . S4'lf-r»'linnce infusing couratre and in them by still his strength. although capable. and invincible. than to be overtaken by and since taxes were ueeesjiary one of thrir chief for the support of a state. they would.. strong. but only by a ^fiance at to be secured. whose political power has been steeled by the battles of a thousand years. list of labourers in the cause. probably. that when we ask ourselves by whose agency the existence of Hungary' is whom the Hungarian people will become a truly constitu- and haj)py. those who. refused to contribute thfir dutien. and by the given numbers. free.sion of the national history and various relations. Thi-n-fore.] SPEECH OP KOSSUTH. among his brethren. in the van of all their struggles. waminpthat evil the tax was imposed upon them by wisdom and past experience held out a was more prudent to anticip. keejiiiig . "The is future exint«-noe of natimi!*. the leader of the who meet him everj-where with love and confidence.ite an inevitable till it.rii^hts of citizens. failed in and thert-fore wt-n* unworthy to enjoy thi. the Conson^atives would hardly have ventured to return an unqualified nei»ative . 1847. or erase them tional nation. united by freedom. demanded instead of part.xutli. 2GI all Had he. shnr*-. It is because I do not forget them that I behold in the future of my nation the Noble one with the people.

The tilled I'ahitnie presided over the Central litmrda. which waa looked upon with much jealousy at Vienna. and the guardiun of the Coijj-tituti^in a^uin^t the encroachments of the Uovernment. when this obligation was lu'glected by the Crown tinally. charitable. the mediator between the Soverei^i and the country. and levy of the " commander of the insurrection. Joseph. moment. or general Xobiles. and sincerely desirous to promote the welfare of the people. Diet. with the nomiuevH of the King. not by injuriouM privilegen but by moral and luslorieul importance.* who covetuig the crown of St. and waa a prehlren{i[tli lo^'iitive of the Diet. watch at every before poiiit [a. had been much respected." The prospect of the election of the Aich-Dukr Stephen. . the son of Joseph. Strphen. lio of danger which thrcateiui the loiimiun home. Arcli-Duke JoM'ph. ittiilf In a word. Long before the death of the old Palatine. was regarded with dread by the Court of Vienna. • The Arch-Dtike Stephen belonged to the younger branch of the House of Hapsburg. and an the wed from whence the fruit of unixerHul freedoui hhall be develojH'd. The appointment waa for life. suspected him of and even the nation were disinclined towards hint. he was I'rebident of the Diet.2G2 1 MEMOIU OF K088UTU. and hud the j)o\ver of convoking tin* . 18-17. aa they feared again to trust the guardianship of their Constitution to an Austrian Arch- Duke." About thid ])eriod tlie old I'ulutine. the higher aristocracy had begun to entertain thoughts of electing a Hungarian ^Magnate to fill his place. The choice of a HUcccHMjr wuh a mutter of no HUiall died. however. of the hij. The Palatine and the Arch- Duchess was attached to Hungary. the future of in u my nation preseuta me form w here the powerful inlluenee of the " Nohileh" appeur». in which the Crown could not iiiterfere.'her He which were wan the chair- man courts of justice.D. kind.

and neither bribery nor intimidation was sparetl. resolved to endeavour to enlist the greatest amount of talent Kossuth had become so important a man in Hungarv.A D. employed means in their power to obtain a majority. the Court and high aristocracy saw they had no chance of that he success for any other eandiilate. The motion wjis therefore carried. and it might be doubtful into what scale he would throw his influence. Bezeredy. the Liberals had a large majority in th« country . The Diet of 1847 was approaching. The Opposition. that their dele- gates. and Vukovics. The proposition to would have been dangerous to the peace as well as freedom of Hungarv though the Areh-Duke was yet untried. lost tlxir elections. but the * Numbers In the Diet . and as all the other Comitats followed the example of Pesth. The Koyal Administrators exert^'d themselves to their utmost. strongly The Government. would lean towards the measuri'S advocated by the party of the Opposition. many men of emiiieiiee belonging to the and Heiithy. Kossuth proposed. therefore. who feared it was vain to attempt to f»j)pose numbers* to tlie Conservatives. and soon after the death of the Arch-Duke.sable. 263 their son had.] ELECTIOK FOH THE DIET OF 1847. to secure his election for It would not have been difficult some unimportant County. and the inhabitants of Pesth were desirous that he should on their side. that his presence was considered indispen. in the Comitat of Pesth. They every Bucceetled in defeating oppj8it<? party. represent their Comitat. yet it was the least hazardous experiment of the two and it was hoped place a in the vacant office : Magnate . early imbibed an affection for hia native land. at the approaching Diet. Klau/al. supported by the t'oiisrrvative party. should receive instructions to vote for the election of Stephen. 18-47. and accordingly agreed to sanction the choice.

he threw the whole weight of his influence into the balance. while »on>e dreaded hi* i»cheme» for the euuuK-ipation of the jK'a»antry.objection which present<. 1847. and bringing them up to the polL . and iutluential iu from their j>oiiitiun.siti«)n di-tiTiiiincd to givi. and he was uncertain if bin succeas iu the Diet mi^ht equal that he had met with in the pretis. Orideaii. waa sure to use all its He doubted lest his sphere of usefuliu the Comitat. obhtach'rt hiul prfKfutni tlHiiiwlvi-H u> thi« prujcct.d.204 ( MEMOIR or K08BLTH. rftunifd an nii-mUT would. while the timid feared his jKipularity with the maiw of the people.-d itself. he mi^ht not injure tbe cause for w hieh he had laboured during so many years.ury. dinary niindit eould not embrace the va^tnemt of hi« or comprehend how ever}' project tended toward« one aim. • Direct bribery was not used in this InBt&nce by tbe Liberal party. Austrian Government . llf had BfVi-ral coinpftilum. neither . hif. Count Louis Batthyanyi overcmme all these scruples and set aside everv. envied bi^ rapid ri»o popuhir favour. be S<iine unpre- fodi'iitod.u hi^juul jinxjf that their the* iiio»t coiii-ulirablf viuwa were BUjUHirtt-d by uud lur^jeut County MiiMV in lluut. wvrv [a. no strong bond of sympathy betweeu these two men. ttt-quirt'd had Hiii rt'cintly a umall property thero. thcn'fon*. He did not aim at election. )|»j)u. sparing money* nor exertions to secure the victory to Kossuth yet there was. and therefore by nuch he wa» accuM-d of versatility. personal distinction. the Govcnunent itself power and influence to pnvent his Kossuth himself hesitated. aiid KoMHuth ouly bt'Liifj no coitiu-xion by birth with Pcsth. at that time. and that by incurring the and jealous rivalry of his own friend>.h in oflicr. but the money was expended (as has hitherto i-een customary in all elections) in treating the electors. and for other n-forni*. or were alarmed at the bold attitude he had assumed towards the more than all. ness mij^ht not be curtailed.

iii 2G3 Count Louis Batthyam-i was boru father in IsOO. and that want of an enlarged comprehension of human nature.i5 he becuino almost exclusively engaged in politics. After ls. he was not exempt from that laxitv of privut«* monils. Batthyanyi treated with scorn he lamented to what he called compatriot's weak concessions the people. 1847 ] COU>'T LOUIS BATTllTAXTI. be eutert'd the Austrian semce at sixteen years of age. and continued to receive visita from the old Palatine Jos«'pli up to the time of his death. and whik* utationed hi Jtalj devoted himself to literature and the line arts .A. and lost his childhood. and endeavoured to follow in the steps of Szt'-ehenyi. he applied himself especially to the study of the Hungarian Uuiguage. he was constant in hia endeavours to presene her independence but though gifted with a generous and noble mind. opinion with deference. study of polities and from that time devoted liimand became a constant attendant on the Comitiits. Ardent by nature and devotedly attached to Hungary. his return he divided his time bi'tween Vienna and hia estates in Hungar}'. and was the first Magmito who removed his winter residi'nce from Vieniui to Pesth at the same time he did not Umh' favour with the more libenil members of the n»ynl family. great wealth.D. and he travelled through the Eiu»t and a great part of Europe on . he quitted the anny on attaining self to the his nnijority. . and fnim the Arch-Duke lSt«*phen. while Kossuth regretted the pn-iudices of birtli and . which is almost inevitable in one belonging to any body of men set apart from their . and by making large plantations of mulb«'rry -trees. where he commenced his patriotic ex- ertions by establishing a sugar manufactory. He was artificial circumstance of by birth and sympathies a thorough aristocrat where Kossuth his treated it public . lUn marriage with the Countess Antonia Zichy added a considerable fortune to his own. or the hen-ditar}' rank. though clos«ly allied with the Liberal party. ft'llow men by .

he waa not aware that he not was to be opposed to Kossuth. pennitted. than he offered to withdraw from timidity. and a former contributor to the Pesti member Hirlap. equally Hincere in their patriotism both had the same end in view. the Htubborn dettnni nation of which characterized the Count. as well In the uHHociutions where they had been coUcaguea. as their other his rival. It was to the honour of Louis iiatthyanyi. The liberal ISIaguates. the electors poured forth in crowds all places. by nominating Bulla. an endeavour was made to cause division in the party of the Opposition. jus they ha<l diflered on many points.s in public all'airH. In the meantime every effort waa making on the other the government organ of the press. This was not. some in theii . Glatz. however. guided by Count Emil Desswetfy and E. spared neither accusation nor aide . [x.d. On from the 17th October. Kossuth. while Kossuth led the majority of the nation. or that the connexion . the long forgotten revived. the true state of the case. will. AVith Kossuth. that. the first Vice Ispany of the County. over a space of two hundred square miles. Hatthyan^a brought along with him a part of the high aristocracy.368 lUMoin OP kobbuth. consented to stand. laying aside all private difference of opinion minor ])oints. but no sooner did he learn . thereon he lent his eflicient aid to the election of fore. a A\'Tien Balla moderate Liberal as the Conservative candidate. but from respect to however. a. to the Comitat of Pesth. As no man with the slightest stigma on his honour could have a seat in the Diet. both were Icaderu of the Bame party. invective against Kossuth. 1847. the Liberals proposed for Pesth. which existed between them could be called friendship they were both. storj' of his youthful propensity for gambling waa tliis AVhen failed. Szentkiraldy. it Bo that hif^hlv thev «'Hte<Mned one another could ncarcelv be said their political view« were alike.

and Szentkinildy (the other successful candidate).] ELECTION OF KOSSUTH. and words composed in his praise to the The opposite party. also advanced to the Hall of the Comitat. IIAPTER 1847—iH. which stood table at the door. who waved the banner of Hungary over their heads. to March. X. mounted upon majTniticf nt horses.D. paraded the streets of Pesth arm in arm. and shouted patriotic songs. 45 —4G. lifTt^p of the State of Pariien in Eotvot Diet — Interval of Hungary — Baron Joseph between the Election and the Diet — — Intrigues Stephen the of 1847-48 Ko«suth leader Szrchengi by Szt'chenyi— Kossuth succeeds " yobiles^' Palatine— The — of the Opposition Szentkirahly Arch-Diike — question of Tajcation in a — Opposed motion for obliging Taxes — Further to take their share in the Municipal Ptfom of the Vrharium — Kossuth carries the measure through the Cliamher of Deputies — The Abolition of ment — Austria foments dissensions the Avitizitdt — Seglect of the in Croatia Govern' and Tran* . Tlie election l. the electors continued to stream through the HjUI.A. rival. national air of the Rakoczy march. From that morning until the evening of the fol- lowing day. Kossuth by 2. 1847. 267 Bplendid national costume. weak in numbers. marched in front of the endless troops of Kossuth's adherents.9t8 against applaud the success of his ]ialla.^ill. on a was carried in favour of Balla was the tii-«t to and that night Kossuth. while others had assHmed the dress of pea:<aiits. November JET. dropping their votes into the urn. and their songs dro\\'ned by the multitude of voices on the Liberal side.

Eotvos advocated parliamentary government. and obtained a seat in the Lower Clmmber). . and while some were alarmed lest Kossuth should not possess suflicicnt practical wisdom to assume the position of leader thus ruin the cause. an interesting. upon the history of the important events it i« of the Diet of 18i7. they were adverse to the County institutions. for had sued in ()nl«'r to encounter Ko»Huth in the Diet. a romance. .d. while gi^ing an exaggerated. necesHarj' to take a general survey Htate of parties in llun(. Szentkinildy was mortified to find himself eclipsed by the new member. formed the centre. which. for tlie mo. favoured his views. or rather partial view of Hungarian the people it is intended to represent. — Kossuth Magyar opposed to forciiKj the lanyuacfe — Extracts from his speech lltra measures in en- on the Commercial interests qf Hungary. others equally feared that he might advocate too extreme measures. 1847. some allowance must always be made for the peculiar bias of the author's mind. and Szechenp at once perceived and Another party which had grown up in the country. Szi'chi'nyi (who. but instead or the paternal despotism aimed at by Austria. faithful picture of Its object being to throw ob- loquy on the old political institutions of the country. derived from French theorists like the Vienna party. factions into The which the Liberals had begun to divide. uith his small body of adht-rents. of the government. is ia the author of the Village Notary. step beyond Szechenyi .* was thoroughly imbued with the idea of centralization. advantage presented to him.208 »ylrania MEMOin OF KOSSUTH. He and his party efface the and proposed to went a whole Constitution of Hungar}'.st part."* The Cont servativi's were. because they looked upon them as the remains of feudalism. led by Baron Joseph Eotvos. seized the in the Diet. and to substitute a * new political Baron Joseph Eotvos life.'nrv at that period. [a. and on the whole. Before of tl)e entcrinp. allic.

election In the inten'al of a few weeks which elapsed between the and the meeting of the Ditt. and in his attempt to impose Royal Adminithey must j-ield their place to a parliament. or whether she was to maintain a free and independent existence. the new Editor was under the entire guidaiice of Eotvos war was therefore fiercely waged against the County institutions by tht^se young men. and aeted of the . her laws and her Constitution abolished. Kossuth had so earnestly contended for them.paper through which Pesti Hirlap.D. but only too prone to discover the weak and faulty side of the proWncial governments. now to be the interest of and the question whether Hungary was to be for ever subjected to the despotic will of Austria. They pro- tested that the spirit of the nini'teenth century could no longer bear with these remains of the dark ages. and Count Apponvi found himself supported by them in his attacks on the Comitiits. Kor^sul'. and their salutary influence. strators in the place of the Fo-Ispany. The party was chiefly full composed of young men of letters.* they withdrew from parliamentary solely S<j utter was their contempt of electioneering contests. 18-47. Szalay.. his countrj". through the press. engaged. in the verj. and tliat whose members should be representatives not delegates of the people. high-spirited and of talent. • See the Introduction to the Village Notary. decided by their failure or success. .A. both in private society and their interest. would be cancelled. that life altogether. but on the so-called law of nature. was actively in public nu-etings. BABON JOSEPH EOTTOS. The writings of this party met the news of the Keactionists. 269 not founded on written laws. while they were unable to appreciate their soundness in practice. and to a strong central government which should be empowered to regulate the whole aflairs of the nation. gaining proselytes to the Opposition .] fabric. he believed by persuasion and by argument.

and indefatigable zeal soon cast into shade even the brilliant qualities of his predecessors was moderate and conciliatory. Here among which the Diet was recommended to take into consideration " the Alimenthe Eoyal propositions were read. the co-ordina." the laws relating to the while mortgages of manorial estates. liberty of the press. and in the galleries were seated the Empress. All wore their splendid national costumes. tation of the troops stationed in tion of the Eoyal free towns . before him. the The Diet met on the 11th November. [a. and where he could advance great general principles with more freedom. and Kossuth assumed the place of leader. 1847. while he took a firm and determined stand in defence of the ancient laws and A wider field was now opened Constitution of the land. eloquence. general and those relating to the were omitted. It his tone .270 j1j-^uiU of KOSSUTH. but had arranged the plan of operations. the Opposition was in a decided majority. Hungary . where INIaria Theresa once appealed for aid to her faithful Hungarian subjects. the more important subjects of the Croatian taxation.d. the Arch-Dukes and Arch-Duchesses. and on the 12th the Magnates and Deputies assembled in the great hall of the palace of the Archbishop of Gran. and the urbanal laws affairs. Hungarian language and nationality. and such measures as tended to establish them on a surer basis. On their return to their own Chamber. Palatine. His courage. Szentkira'ldy had not only joined Szechenyi. by general acclamation. glittering with jewels. on which to p\irsue the course he had followed from the commencement of his career. and the day on which it was proposed to commence their attack upon Kossuth. the Arch-Duke Stephen. and waa opened by King in person. In spite of the exertions of the Administrators in the thirtytwo Comitats where they had been forcibly inducted. formerly occupied by Deak and Klauzal. besides a brilliant assemblageof ladies. the Diet elected.

and embraced all those subjects which elicited feelings of sympathy. it Although it had been omitted in the Eoyal had been so warmly agitated both by the still press and in the Comitjits. Szentkiraldy at last summoned coiirage to throw olF the mask . adverse to did not now openly express their opinion. among the various races of Hungary. could execute their design Kossuth had been warned he threatened to lay their intrigues open to the public. or the relations between the Government and the nation questions related to the use of the . Propositions. that the " Nobiles" would be less likely to consent to his measure. or estrangement. had he succeeded. and a settlement of the relations beclasses tween the different of the people . the whole direction of the policy of the Diet of 1847-48 might have been changed : but before they . as they and national welfare of Hungary. upon which Szentkiraldy withdrew. internal grievances. who continued to insist on his fund for internal improvements. 271 was some time before the renegades could resolve who should take upon himself the obnoxious task of being the first to turn against their chosen leader. and the coalition having lost courage. be moved . dissolved itself.D. The demand for equal taxation was among the most important of the social questions which engaged the attention of the Diet. and suddenly quitted Presburg. that even those it. He demanded three million florins for extraordinary expenses. but took refuge behind Count Stephen Szechenyi. The Palatine was duly installed on the 15th of Xovember. 1847. the political. and fearing if equal taxation were likewise proposed. political. the national Magjar language.] TAXATION. and the Diet proceeded to discuss the great questions of the which may be divided into three sections. The social questions demanded a remedy for day. treated the whole system of administration. severally related to the social.A.

'Hst of January it was rejected and returned to the Lower Chamber. that the queation should be postponed to a more convenient J lis object was Bimply to increaue the revenue.d. Gabriel proposed the further . but on the . as bv it the " Nobiles" were oblig»'d to contribute their share to the Municipal Taxes (Cassa Domestica). the peasantry were permitted to property and in December. The bill was sent up to the Chamber of Magnates. The reform of the Urbarium had made some progress the Diet of 1843-44. Lonvav (a large proprietor himself) abolition of forced labour. time. 1847. they could have the power of refuning to repeat the grant for at least two suc- ceeding Diets. acqiiire freehold in when . could not silently aUow this subterfuge to pass. that Kossuth took advantage of meaning to represent the rejection of the measure (which had been received with some strong tokens of disapprobation by the Deputies) as possibly implying that the Magnates desired to have a bill presented to them of a their doubtful more comprehensive character. It was. besides acquiring some credit for gencnjMity. wheremi a system of equal taxation would have been a permanent bnrdin from which they could never again hope to escape. in which the principle accepted in the Diet. the ConHcnatives would now liave been happy to escape equal taxation by a voluntary hubwidy. and dues by the zeal and perseverance of Kossuth it passed the Lower Chamber by . accompanied with a message couched in such ambiguous terms. A d«-bate on the subject followed between the two leaders. from which. by which the Liberals mlvanced at least one step. as he considered that to estiiblish a principle was greatiT gain than to obtain an immediate increase of revenue. [a. should be carried out in its full meaning. however. however. Kossuth. rents. He therefore proposed that a mixed Conimittee from both Chambers should be ap- pointed to draw up one. 1847.272 MEMOIR OK K088UTn. and a motion of Kossuth was carried.

18i7. could be silenced by acquiescence in their Bchemes for material improvements. in keeping alive the jealousy between the privileged and unprivileged orders. however. taking advantage of every weak point to widen the breach.l. and the liberal Magnates. Szechenyi. and could not be passed into laws. a law which aflected the tenure of property . but reserved the consideration of details for some future opportunity. and to undermine by stratagem what he could not annihilate by open force. but one had now ap- T .D. . The attention of the Diet was. especially directed towards those questions which related to the conduct of the Government the neglect in the execution of the laws. sum when offered by the peasant for Kossuth also moved and carried the aboli- tion of the Avitizitat. to convert an independent kingdom into an Austrian province by indirect means. and placed the interests of the cities in his rivalrj- with those of the agricultural districts. The Magnates aiisented to these bills in their general signification. Nothing could be more prejudicial to the success of these intrigues than the influence of a man like Kossuth. he had done every thing in paper power by instituting the censorship.] POLICY OF METTEnyiCU. They were therefore held in suspense. lie had found ready co-operators iu the selfish and luxurious stagnates and he followed the example of Maria Theresa and her successors. and sow dissension between Hungary and her policy of Mettemich hiboured to destroy the Constitution. Dreadthe intrigues to provinces. and the new law accept a certain fixed his redemption. ing the influence of a free country like Hungary on the hereditary dominions of Austria. obli<. The .ed the 273 kndlord to 37 votes against 13. and by paid news\^Titers to prevent any mutual understanding between the two classes. while he carefully fostered the enmities of race and of religion. tion of the and he introduced a measure for the re-organizatown Municipalities.

[a. the unprivileged classes would gradually adopt the same language in common life. But he most strenuously urged that the act which had been already passed in the preceding Diet. he was still opposed to its general use being forced upon the people. 1847. when they had once received the rights and privileges The question appeared of the Hungarian Constitution.-*elf had been placed in arrest for four ajid twenty hours. on this occasion. except during the time of the cholera. the in the Penti Hirlap. hoped to obtain her ends by means of Croatia and IVansylvania. who could neither be intimidated by persecution.27t MEMOIR or KosHLxn. uor blinded by Austria still flattery. and the Comitat at employment of the Magjar language in all ollicial intercourse. he always spoke in favour of the mea*<ure. and he therefore seldom ' brought it forward. in which provinces she had sown and fomented discontent. obtain permission to travel in the country. He obsened. it was for a time made necessary to . because his Grovernment passport was in the Hungarian language.* Complaints of a similar nature * Kossuth bad. as he had formerly done Pesth. and had received the sanction of the King. experience.d. Soon after this precaution bad ceased. as he him. The (juestion of language was the apple of discord between Hungary and Croatia. when. should be duly executed Military.Borders. " That as most of tlie ^lobiles' were Magyars by birth. as a sauitary precaution. Though Kossuth continued to advocate in the Diet." to him one of minor importance. a fact been evaded on the it had which he had learned from actual . peand. to pass the frontiere no passports were ever required in Hungary. when travelling on some business con- nected with the projected railroad to Fiume. and was not understood by the officials belonging to the Hungarian Border Guard. when the official use of the H\ingarian language was discussed in the Diet. although. a gentleman was stopped in a district or community of .

" All puMie instruction shall be exclusively in the Hungarian tongue. carried . should be understood solely to apply to the higher schools or colleges. in cotton alone Horins. by which instruction should be given. vainly contended that presented to Kossuth more advantageous tenns should be those engaged in commerce " The demands . Joseph Vidos. The consumption of Hungary equals twenty-four million of and yet we pay for the hundred weight one hundred peanant^. :ia they would be contented to take up their abode t>aliara. if among the cannibals. ami aaked for hie p««Hport.] nUXGABlAX LAKOUAOE.D. 1847. He produced hiii it immediiitely. that one Comitiit the Hungarian language had been expressly for- AVhile adhering to the spirit of the law. but WM« 8uri>riM«?d bj being told. for having one in t2 . that they were carried against Kossuth. it 275 iu were made by others. or in the desert of live they could only under the protection of a consul. to Vidos demanded that the obligation which pa». was assi-rted.A.sed. "are a chief requisite in Hu:igarj*." Desirable as he considered this to be. of iudustr}'. aud bidden. found such general favour. to l»w he could not proceed. and that in the elementary schools the garian language should be taught. The Legislature must not lose sight of this cireum- stance. he thought and he therefore proposed that the clause if possible. it impracticable . but not made a Hunmedium party. no particular inducement would be required to persuade manufacturers to settle here. some modifications One in the manner of its execuof the clauses contained the words. This motion was but the other proposals of the ultra Magyar advanced by the deputy. If the country were iu a condition to allow foreign powers to establish consulates. long debate on the subject. after a uiake use of the Hun- garian language should also apply to naturalized foreigners." he maintained. Kossuth for moved tion. that oa pa88}>orts were now contrary poBsessiou.

he contive laws should be made in favour of a maritime city whose vocation was to welcome all nationa sidered an exception *' led thither by commerce. 1847—1848. of settlement ia not suftjcient a iihorter time muat aLto be markets are unviHited. flag waves here. where was the language of the p«'Ople.. Even though the Magyar tongue Hhould l)e enforced elsewhere aa the medium of oUicial communication. He pleaded cHpecially for Fiume. granted to Xransyltama — Counties of Hungary of Transylvania —Restored the IHet—Xeglect of Speech Hungary Acts of the Gocemment Speech of Kossuth to — — the Princes upon the conduct of the Government of Kossuth on the Representation Amendment of Kossuth carried Rejected by the Magnates Kossuth urges the Nation should come to a distinct understanding with the Govern- — The Representation — — Speech — £fect of his — — ment —Sis new motion carried — Ihrm of the Bej^e- . and where restricwould act to the disadvantage of Hungar). by an otJer of advautugeuuii tennH.D. more tliun il' [a. the proposed law mentionn But an long mm industry' does not receive the attention tories is it dcHen'es. as K)ng aa the increase of manufac- not looked u|)on as a benefit to the country.27G ami tin English. 18t7. fixed to obtain political rights five years. March. We .d from the who are carrying on a war with China. wliile our And why? Because no Engliiih must endeavour to remedy this aa far The right as poHHibk"..herself." CHAPTER November to XIII." Italian . it we jjur(hatM.. florins MEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. . foreign will capital and foreign resources not flow towardii Hun- gary.

The question of Transylvania was analoflfous to that of Croatia. and subftiiiUly sequent Diets Theresa.* At the death of every Prince. Charles III. granted these four Counties again to The ensuing Diet.D.. and Kovar. with the understanding that they still formed a part of the kingdom of Hungary. 277 suiject to he sentatioH — Royal Administrators — The — Opposed by Kossuth — Hi* original proposition accepted — Carried in the House avoided in the Sepresentation of Magnai-es. Szohiok. had belonged to her. with the sister countrv. In 1733. the border Counties were re- signed to the Princes of Transylvania. these compacts ceased . As the executive. and whose amalgamation in language.A. See p. protested against the act as ilk-gal. 1741. Transylvania. succeeded in obtaining from Maria Leopold II. but when the Hungarians elected the Austrian Hapsburg D^Tiasty.t Transylvania became subject to Austria. the Counties returned permanently to Hungary-. 18-47. but onlv for the life- time of each Prince. When Hungary was ruled by the Kings of the House of Dynasties. without consulting the Diet. and an act to that effect wiis passed into a law.] THE BOBDEB COr>TIES. was necessary form one united and powerful nation. as both were separate provinces annexed for many to centuries to Hungary. a consent to the restitution of the disputed Counties. while Transylvania continued to be ruled by her native Princes. and Francis I. lay in the Government. . But when. Zarand.. and in 18. until after Bome new war they were restored. as a condition of peace. and those of succeeding the border Counties of Krasua. in 1695 . the Counties revertfd to Hungarv. Arpdd.36. and rights. a which it new law passed the Diet. by was not only declared that the Counties were to be lOi t • See p. At the pMce of Carlowicr. laws. 138. the act was never carried into effect. however.

and he laid anide the flowers of oratorj". "As good works are God. "A simple statement of facta is tlie most conrincing ot iiion- rhetoric. I shall be ready to adopt the most 1 extreme mcasurt^s permitted by law. hop«'d to on the Coii!*erv»- off the Hlonn. come what will. but that tlu-y ahould from that time lorth be couHidert-d to I'onn a part of the dilt ^iitrH to tin" kingdom. Htill Ac: law wjui however 1817. so do the remnants of the mangled law speak more coniplaijit.iots. f.27A ri'stori'd to mi:mi)1u or kohhltu. to aildreiw the understanding. It wiu» KtMHUth made lliji hirt nioHt brilliant »|Ktch prior to Man-h. and a new law was required to give apparent secu- rity for its perlbrmance —but only apparent is . gia- and the just exercise of the judicial power to be trodden under foot amidst cowardly lamentations.««un'» it and wl>ieh had Ix-en taken pn*pamt<<rv to enforcing the long nogl(>cted law. waji Ill Government ward prvpared to encounter the tltin i»ubjii"t . M'udiuK the e&ecutioii of the lluiif^anaii Ditt. than the best turned phrase in prayer. IhIH. Ac. ninety-five years elapsed. In the year 1741 the grandfathers of our fathers ordered the re-annexation of the separated provinces." avail before he commenced. but to convince. have since passed away and the law not yet executed the . n'proiu-hert of tlie (^pjMmition tives. fkiied in desired eflect. it:! The Ktatement however upon thin o<H-ai«ion. of his audience.d. rather than suffer the lluugariau laws. rather tlian the iinai.inution. [x. Hunynrv. in certain negotiation iiiea. distinctly than I will simply lay before any utterance of you true and unadorned if but with the filed detennination that my hopes are bot rayed. object all \va» not to )K>r8iuide. 1^7. the deferred. and by informing the Diet of the tuccfM the (iovernineiit hud met with. bv brinj^ng the queiition forw jird thcmi»clve«.u-y noise of curses. as the bliK>d which is shed cries louder to Heaven than the tumultu. the dignity of the Hungarian lature. eleven years .

the solemn promi. the judicial jxiwcr acting by the authority of the Diet.] tactics of the THE UOUDKU COl'NTIES. has committi-d nine offenc»'S agiiinst the State first. fourthly. have .^ 1847. Government would have been namely. to attain the sxiine of the King. and yet three Diets have passed. and the ordinance of law has been degraded into an object of mocker. into such a depth of weak- ness. that her laws will become a dead letter. ninely-five more years may be recorded our history. the administrative. been overloaded with favours * in the name of our common To Bcod delegates to the Diet. The act of 18. has been comi)romised have agitated against the law and the royal ordinance. and Kov. so fifthly. and which without the int^-rference of execut«-<l. to hold up to our shame iuto what a deptli not prevent lluiijijan' of weakness has sunk. dt-puties in part having been sent by the Counties to the Diet. that that jK)rtion of the act rt*Uiting to the restoration of the Counties.L. . thirdly. we shall that we take a just view the Government .ir n'mains unsummoned .• and though the remaining Counties have been summoned. relates to the representation of the Counties in the Diet. left unfulfilled it becondly. the remainder of the directly which. they have sent no repre. relates to their re-incorporation into the Administration. 279 we do in Goverument have taken a new direction. because they justly doubt the real intention of the Government to exivute the law The second stvtion of the act."JG is divided into two sections the first.-. was prevented. which the Government has not only neglected. sentatives. her commands an empty sound. had not been hinden-d. the extvution of which was assigned to the (t oveniment. those who often reiterated. but now h«lf excuses on the plea of resistance on If find the part of Transylvania of this transaction. and if it. and in part complicated. has been act.

an endeavour has been made bj new bj it« i'uaotment«i.\. 1830. of five royal oatha. even protected the incwt ille^ deerfes aixthly. UEMOiii or KOSMi'Tn. iu defiance undoubted n^ht. ' ' of innuinerahle royal rcAolutiona. in 17'2. hia Majesty haa on hia or as it is expressed in the myal edict. which was almost a violation of the right* of Hungary. that since herself Transylvania had not availed of the grackma . luwit. uhorduuite to att<'ni|it of Tran* Hvlvanitt. itfvc-nthly. 1751. \T27. \frotM hit legal right to interfere solution of thid question. desired paternal kinjne*». in a message on the 20th Tbereupwn. "Al- though Trauitylvauia can claim no the o\%n authority. the ' the Goremnimt dam to plead a* an excuae fur not executing the law of re-annexation. 1741. the faithful adhereBta tliu of luw uiid uf n^iiin. ha« been in made artfully to weuken the itympathy while every facility ihiiB . alao antipa- rii. the rwirtanoe of Transylvauia .hthly in defiance of tin? Act* of 1715. ii{)n*ad haa been afforded to lb3C. ninthly. while on the othi-r hand. and tlu. with the Hungarian Commi^aionera. a proceedinK which haa for object to yet extant sympathy of the L'ountieu. defiance of mm en iry'a i pnwtod iu course of 120 years. [a. in conjunction lato who should. 17U2. to depute members.d." After demoutftratin^ bv certain incontrovertible data that the Counties had never belonged to Transylvania. the right of the indi'pcndfnt fxiHtcni*e of the Hunfforian bi'eu vit-ldt-d Gtn-cmmfnt haa that and nmd an fo. but only been in temporarily auncx«'d. the orator coutinued. was disregarded. and the clear diplomatic tranitaction.^ the Traneylvanian Diet in the year 1S37. in itself the alT:iirs This sum* mons. his Majesty declared February. and no CommissioDers were sent irom Transylvania. to evade the execution of a law sanctioned the nival oath stille ll»e .st royal drdiiiaiice are not .280 SuT(Tt-i({n. 1047. Hungary the »aid Cuuntiefl. regn* relating to the ri'-annciation.

the mes«af(e the Comitat upon ciprea^ed their desire to aend a deputy to tha approaching Hungarian Diet." . what do vre hear? that in the name of that ver>' Sovereifjn nho lias iqMjken bo deciuively hi« irpevoaible will ooncemini^ the n>-aiineiation of the Count ien. which had always he cittxl and eupecially the caM* of the County of Kovar. 1847. And yet. ." . Alexander Nopcsa. the " Nobiles " apjM-alcd to the Diet. . "W.AD. and the Diet referred the matter to the nieiit.Hpauy waa exhorted so to act that no Deputy uiight be sent from his Comitat to the Hungarian Diet. the irrerocaUe vill of hie Majesty is that the Diet of Transylvania shall have no power to interfere. aa a sulliciiMit ob8tui*le to claim the attention of the ilouae. until afU*r the Act of re-annexation had poased one instance amonf^ other*. by virtue of the royal privilege^ no more to summon Transylvania to icork. an appeal i» made to the re»i»tanoe of Traniiylrania. . eo-operaie and aftrr the r^anncxation hcd he«H completed. had a aeat and Toto in the Hun- gtihan Diet. 281 compelled in this Kinp. but the only resiUt of their reuu>nstrauce was that the transgressor was rewarded <luct p<»sr*ihility for his illegal cou- by being made a Privy Counsellor.Huth quoted from a document of the Transylvanian iH^Ji).] iximinons of the he teat THE BORDEB COr5TTI». their lawful ri^htH . notwitlixtaiuling this decree. Kos. of the year which the Ko-I. Goven^ demandinfi^ that the Fi>-lspany should be forced to resjHct the laws. of the direct violation jwirt of the (invenunent. in Chancellor." Kovsuth pasaed from thia topic to that which n'lated to theae Counties beinp uurepre8ent<. but he abittuiix-d thi(« frvim delivering. but the Ko-Ii»p!iny uned measures of coercion to prevent them exenM»in>. in the conduct and Mubitc'quent fiite of the Fi>Ispany of £>xolnok the King of the law on the : M>nt tlicir by him the royal summons to the Comilat to elect menibi'n«.'d in the Diet. To remove all of apology fur the conduct of the Govennnent.

282 MEMOItt OF K0S8DTU.e to obsen'e. although one energetic protest might have are not the Transylvaiiian Counties ended the affair justitied in their doubt of the real intention of if so. and like the torments of conscience cannot be cured even by the wonder working balsam of time. wounda which which will heal the wounds of a century. " could in future trust in the laws of the Z^Iagyars. that they should abstain from sending Deputies to the Diet. " Tniiisylvaiiia [a. and not of the mere populace. only to expose themselves to the persecutions to which every one is subject who pays respect to the laws ? And after all this. have not ceased to bleed in fortune and miisfortune. and those who support thiu conduct do not only escape punishment. that a general antipathy against the re-auneiation exists in the Counties themselves. "Who. to be the objects of persecutioiL: . and han done nothing to prevent it. tliL' piTceivcH that although ol" Kiiif^ ui' lliwif^ary and the I'riuee TranHvlvauia are one and the uame person. neither terrified by the ang^' looks of those in power." had the Kossuth particularly called the attention of the Diet to the fact that this petition signatvu^es of people of the highest respectability in Transylvania.d. but are rewarded. I ai$k if it exists. we are desired in the royal nu>*tsa. who called it forth ? But it does not exist aa a clear proof of which. continued KosHuth. yet the TranHvlvanian Government agitaU'H against the Hungarian. anxiously stretch forth their hands towards that law of their sister nation which has been sanctioned by their common sovereign.. I joyfully hail the petition of those Transylvanian patriots who." be asked. ia Government for their re-anuexation P And it not natural. and they returned to their homes. . whilst the Jlun^^arijin (jovernnu-nt for eleven years haa allowed her laws to be trampled upon. 1847. if they could betray these men ? "Who could place his hopes in the sanctity of law if their hopes were rendered vain. of their nor by the fanaticism countni'men.

and which had been entrusted to the delegates from their several Comitats. it is a crime to upon Hungary But with them indeed the has come to nation must despair lest right should no longer be protected or law held sacred. on the Representation to be laid before views. a plaything. waa . to discuss the speech from the Tliroue. or grievances complained of. nation.] THE BEPBESEXTATIOX. But no. I confide in my . I confide in our King's attach- ment to the laws for I am convinced if he were infonned of the real state of the case. the King commenced on the 22nd November. let if it this.A. his lawful command would at once break the thread of court intrigues as of a spider's web. the leader of the party. each to maintain their own particular The debate. "When Government it ended. but a list of the gravamina. by which we propose to establish the happiness and fame of our nation. . that respect for the laws of the Hungarian is there a crime. and that the Diet should only demand satis- and security for the future. Having thus given a sketch of several of the principal we must proceed to that in which the Liberal and Conservative party struggled with most determination. It had never been a necessary form in the Hungarian Parliament topics which occupied the Diet. then us rather close the doors of this chamber. for our legis- lative power. 18t7. look with aflection Transylvania. Anton Barbaczy. is 283 the couditiou of Yes.D. The instantaneous impression made by this speech was at that time unexampled in the records of the Chamber of Deputies. indeed. is become a breath. rose. and the proposition was accordingly carried unanimously. of persecutiou! for such nation and for the King. and in a few words expressed the concurrence of himself and of his friends in the statements of Kossuth." Kossuth concluded by proposing that past faction for the present injuries should be forgotten.

[a.o." he ob- Borved. eiprewon of empty thanks. greater and more reforms Were needed. place of the Latin. aa well as for other liberal mea«ure«.284 nt once Rcnt utyoiR or KosBrrn." it had bi*come fa«hioDablo to Tlie In the H»'pmM'ntAtion f>n»t now reed to the Lower ChnnibtT. " past preceding Diets have already done that. •. thf i)f |>nnipm]>h« contnini'd miTely expreiMiion* : thnnkn. il of the and further nt Diet was willing to paas auch measurea as would conduce to Hungary. Hutiunon an annual Pirt to nn"*^ at Tenth. so directed as to obtain I represent a Comitat which demands reforms. reooneile the c(»nflirtin(» i>jt4'n*«l(i of Iluntjarr ant! r j The j»even conrludinjj para^^raphii n-lnted to the grievanres of whieh the nation complained. to the form of the B^reand pn. in the up to the Kinj^. . by such statements as would plainly evince that the Boyal concessions were considered insufficient. and Addrt'Bii. and paiMu-d without a diiuM-ntirnt Toice the Bix> t4H'nth and M*vent4H>nth demanded that inBt«'ad of I*rfnburf» hia Majeety ahouJd t. he maintained that the thanks should be qualified . " The time is for the . esitocially that of the Itoyal Adminintratom. while returning thanks to the King. and insists upon our conduct being A single glance at the relations of them Europe proves that the is future of the other States of Austria connected with . To thin K4*pr««enUtioo had two or tljrf«» Dirt* which preceded UuU thaiikfl of 1847. nation was satisfied with what \-ital had ftlready been done whereas. which the whole system of the present GoTemnient was opposed to therefore. on the other hand. a voto of for thf conceiMiiona promi*ed in call it ** the Mpwch.)jKmed that it should be confined to a simple expression of thauk» for the King's consent to that act whii-h (leertH-d the Hungarian language should be used in The ronsenativrs ohjeeted si*ntatit>n. Kossuth. obscrred this might be accepted as a sign that the . 1847 btvii iwltltd.

but according to own right* II. point out how impossible it is to satisfy the nation by such half measures. !«tituti<>ii:d any thing but independent and This arises from the OoTemmeut of Con- Huii^nn. and moved again for a simple address of thanks."* Hunguni' for that of the Ilereditar}- Dominions. the case of the Administrators may bi« adduced. tLA well as those of the Monareh. * Art. aiid not alone a policy of Constitution of . not according to the cuatouia of the «tiicr ita bcraditarj domiuiona. a general desire for reform might bo expressed. in was HuDg^ry U a <^>th<T fr«e and indrpcndrat klni^oni." Barbaczy and on the Consen'ative side.kJ>. 10. was there sup- ported by Nicolas Esterhary. Karolyi.] TUE BEJaESENTATIOS. and the Government of Hungar)constitutional. wIikIi ^:\n hv as little for the well-being of a. ia no way \>y 0ubordinat« to any people or kingdom. would be promoted by a eliange from a despotie to a eunstitutional form. abolition of the whole system. temporary officers measure. whoso interests^ Therefore. 2S5 the free Constitutional prosperity of llungan'. while Siu-ehenyi suggested that. let the Address contain the opinion of the Diet upon their insufficiency let it . but.s . 1848. nevertheless. for But under is iuipus- the Act of 171H)« is is still a dt-ad K-tter. but an entire Sotiisich." being counectt*d}w ith that of Absolutislie Au. as long as the whole tendency of the Government continues adverse to the rights and Hungary as an exaniple of which. Zichy. and cuatom^ Act of 1790 c«nfinned by the Emjieror King Leopold . besides thanks for the Royal concessions. protested against the proposed amendment. at the end of which time Kossuth's anieiidtnent was carried. and many it bearing names of distinction. such as the displacement of these be urged upon the Gorenunent. and sent up to the Magimte. the pn*aent system thia Constitutional prosperity sible. without entering into any detail of grievances.itria. and to l>« gorcruetl ha InwfuUy crowned king. The debate it lasted fivo days.

liun of the Diet itself. and advised that we they force in ita should renew the subject of ancient grievanoee over which we were willing to throw a veil of oblivion it . us to open old wounds. must for the present confine ourselves to those grievancea indicated by the Magnates. ur alludt> to their grievances in general term«. present form cannot be sent up.thiit till* Chanihtr.. " " continued. aitd omit that of the lioyal Adrainivtratoni. tin. and for the few liberal a Pala> measures granted to us we . It was the more necessary to be on thir alert in an hi»ur when the Goveniment was in the ver}' act endi'uvoun*. for tis confirmation of our choice of tine.. the of violating the coiiMtitutional rights of the itation by the appointment of Uoyal Administrators throughout the coun" Tlie repH'sentation pnipowd by the Dej try. 1816.I^»\»«-r I'oiitiiiL' [a. "was c*)uched in loyal term!*.n-achiiig the thn»ne. ClianibiT lie {xiinted out the fallacy in the liberal : when there existed a |MUiy of Magnates. their same end was effected by the .. in which KoHMUth urged the nfc<*»jiity of coming to a dij<tinct undt-r* standing with the (toveniment. or only mention grievance* of long Htonding. tiimJlvnjtvtrd. with th« a vut4* Dcputii-H should tlu'iniM-lvcK to of tlmiikM.d. nu'iu^un. at we for the Latin. and as soon as we can agree .nnd Bout bru-k to mlvici. The address it . and ' < i that certain reforms were necessar)" which could not be carried thnnigh without the removal of ' 'i they petitioned should be done by the " But the < Magnates have rejected this. be so. since has undergone a complete transformation in their hands let it be laid aside. who stood in the way of fxvry and vihen thr. and pOHt]><)iH' the qiirHtion of the annual nieetingM of the DiH to a h«-|>arnt^' luldn-M. A utonny dfbate folhiwed in the Lower lloime. some future opportunity express our thanks to the King for the substitution of the HuugariaQ language will. of truating to pronuM's.280 \ivifnin or kohbi'th.

the just pain of the sion Government ' and 1 • ' ' is increaiM>d by the apprehenwhich app4*ar to exercise an injurious isent Diet. and as nnm to as the un- circumstances which make the ai){Hiintment of Koyal necessary full Administrators shall disajipear. as well as the dignity of the Ujfual Fi>-I»pnny . . shall move in relation to the Act of in 1790. and to maintain full vigour the ancient Comitital administrative system. 1S18. entitled.D. its The debate again tiine the lanted three days.H^^n'atives too great a con- nor the Liberals the former thought •ftsion to public opinion. at the original forni Kcpresentatiun in was and directions were given that another should be drawn up in its stead On the liOth of January" the Palatine read to the Diet a '* dLHTument he had received from Vieniui.A. restore the Fo-Ispanys to the tions." ex-r-i-. Power not car- &c" end of which laid a^ide.] THE BOTAL RE8CBIPT. sati. of the negligence of the Executive ing out the Act of liCiO." to remove which. ** It ran thus.iioned Deeply moved by the anxiety and excitement in the C'omit«t« by the ap|>ointment of AdminiiitratorM. I 287 for a special rfpre»t*ntatiou to be Upon the form of the Address. drawn up n.of their legitimate func- The Ktiyal Rescript neither . yet there were some who argued the . although ronrniced of the legality of the act resolved " we in are that the nomination of Adminiittrators shall bo for resenred exe»'plional cases. ttie : it ' and the latter doubted whether contained would be fulfilled the party : of iii tip _ _ 'ion had long ceased to place any confidence tho Government. oee!i." Keseript the (iovernineiit ap|H'ared to doubt the wisdom of the appointment of the Koyal Administrators.sfied it the Con. iieseript last Koyal In this on those measures adopted since the sitting of the Diet in relation to Coinitjital Adinini!«tration.

Tlpt tliroiu'. Ib48. did Dot prevent a motion in ita favour being carried by a majoritj of twenty-four a^^nat twenty-three. On the 10th February-. upon which Sremere. eiuce thirty Comitata had tent inatructiona to their dele* gatcH. . that »i«venii . contained in the Kovnl li**»cript where it lUiMerted thu Adnuuijttrutuni were uuiy appointed officiala in excep« tiunal CAMCH. tlxat oAer thia victor)' strife and not peace will be the watchword of the Diet. one of the leaders of the Liberal party. met AJi a conciliatory step frotn Uie all and Mhuuld iftnuve tlu- apprfhetijiioiu uf further UMur|>aXi()i)rt part uf the Sovervif^n. that the KcMisuth rainlj in)int4d to fiu-t new appuintmentA were t . " You hsTe reconcile their vote's with their consciences. and dn'w up a Representation which waa the next day read and printedOn the 12th it was carried by a majority of thirteen in the Lower Chamber. but be a<i8ureii. by which he proved that definite promise of Chamber of Magnates. Some now acknowledged their error. "and you rejoice in your Tietory. and on the 29th it was finally accepted in the the Kescript." he privtvded. imtioiial ^ievoiicc." Ac. MLMoia ur kusbltu. ft)ll()we<l in The utmost oonfuaiua wait4*d until it the Houm*.d. that they considered the - f n* Adminiatrmtora delegates oould a nationiU grievance.288 Uc'M. Du^ht to on the be* [a. Kossuth and several of the dde> gates met at the house of Szemere. l'. lie then inquired how«eh«>(Ki and anti-eonBtitutioiial rvrn the mamfeat itaeLf.ajn. conquered.. entered into an analvsia of it contained no amendment. aud KoMuth had Hub« it Hided before he «{)oke a|. whervaa thoao fifty had been imposed oa thirty-two out of the Coniitata of Mun^try.

1848. ISl*? ] THE rREXCII REVoLCTIOy. y. and cau»t*d a general Tlio statt. 2S9 CHAPTER XII. independent of foreign infuence. roa*.1 on the wTf^e of bankruptcy.^ect of the Trench Jicpolution of February on Hungary — Austrian Sotet of Kosruth on the State of the Finances On the Secessity of Constitutional forms of Oovernment being established throughout the Austrian — Sj>cccA — Dominions On a Reitponsihle Ministry being jtroriJed for Ifungary— -and on an entire change of the policy of Kossuth moves that a Austria throughout the Empire yational form of Government shall be apjHtinted in Hungary. Should the rule of Metteniieh be brought to a sudden tenninatioD. March.A.D."hi-(l The nt'wn of the Frcnrh Kt'volution of Februnrv in thf Presburg panic.of the An^trian tinancfM bo«>n had for many Vfam wa. and Consti- — — tutional Governments be granted to all the Austrian JJominions — The motion Chamber of Drputir* lutioit — The Magnates unanimously carried in the the return of the Palatine from f'ienna — Arrival ofthe Hungarian Jtrputation 1'ienna — Their rrcrption King — — Kossuth addresses the Viennese people lirturn of Deputation Prrsburg — Enthusiastic reception by the people— Kossuth proclaims Count I^uis Jiatthyanyi tution granted to the llennese at /»•/ — Kossuth's speech — Jlmnrte lievo— Constithe determine to trait circulated in Vienna the to tlie first resjKtnsible Hungarian Minister. the swon* could alone enable Austria to with- . and it fean'd that affaim might be hurried to a crisis by the a. bfpnniiig of to be Mnnh.«|>ect known iitormy of the ix)1iti<-ul worKl.

the Opponotice. dwelt.0. sent. aa the which had visitetl Hungary dur. the King should be petitioned to afford informa- tion on the state of the bank. the Conaen'ative Deputy for Baab gave meant to bring forward a motion to inquire of the Austrian notes. An ininu-dintf of Auntrinn bank i\oU'» waa the con> . . in the : . and which itself being an effect and not a cause. and futuri*. it extended throughout Austria. and fanned into a blaxe the spark of liberty. as was his custom.1*00 MCMOin till" oi k«* V .ih Btaiul fotivulMion winch tito it wan hljakiiiLr Kurope. 1^18. " I hail with gratitude. tion in Paris. and paper money wa« refuaed.e minda of the people. that in is for the order to satisfy and Iran . that lie into the real value sition readily eonjk'nted to defer ever)' other question for the a>nsideration of one of such immediate importance. thi' jtn-hent in the villngeH. rather than on the particular grievance which was then before the security of the public. and while expressing his full conviction of its importance." he commenced.K-cai<ioned financial cala' licvolution. accordingly mities He h •. could only be averted or substantially remedied. moved on the 3rd March. and although Bcveral very weighty matters were still pending. Hoqui'Mof of baaku even in tla* nlnnn a (^i'IrtuI run upon the town* lollowfd. Kossuth rose to replv to this motion. on the root from which the evil proceeded. I [a. and tiuaiK-Ul rivil wiir inuHt plun^'t' liitUoultiott oiuntry iiitu the miiiic frum which ilitttruttt hnU KufTfrt'd in Ibll and 181G. by a radical made on The influence of the speech he was not confined to Hungary. and as recent events France had already affected just n]': ^ the currtMicy. this occasion. nugnt yet be fn-sh in <. wbicb had been first kindled by the revolureform of the whole system. or rather with regard to the bank notes now in circulation. " tlie motion of . In the Diet.

be not immediately restored in an institution like that of the bank. as it is undoubted duty. that not«'s. know that in so far u the state of the stocks senes as a thermometer to tho u 2 . I in the feela am willing to believe that the Oovenimeut their the necessity for their own interest. to exhort the honourable members. 201 the Deputy for Raab but. I will only u»e the opj)ortunity presented me. to allow their j)olicy to with the a^e in which tiie atfairs we live. aa I am fully eouvincetl that the preseut extraordinary cireuinstaneea muke it necessary that we should not confine our remarks to gpeciil grievances. it that the . to there is a security for its condition. that the evil consequences if confidence will be incalrulable. as am will of opinion.D. who respousibility imposed rine to a level are aware of the enormous I will I upon them. where the interests of private individuals are bo deeply involved.A. which demonstrate 211 million of bank m)tes. officially to publi-sh this satisfactory demonstration. But it can neither he restored by denying the fact. but only by laying the whole state of affairs unreser\'edly before the public. nor by conceahnent. and would be a great error to post|)one it on pretence bank is a private undertaking for which the Government is not resjM)nsible the public is well aware of the n-lations in which the Government stands with the bank. 1S48. tl»e apprehension about the value of the followed by the motion of the Deputy for Kaab Huftice to infonn the Koveniment. projK'rty to the amount of thirty million RtiK-ks. and over and above. not enter into details concerning of the bank. that this very iicial morning several Deputies noticea t'rom the directom of the bank relating. ** An«)ther n-a-son why I is do not enter further into an because I analysis of these relations. and that the (Mjwer to issue notes is nothing less than an inte'^^ral part of the financial system of the monarchy. .] SPEECH OF KUSSCTH. I conaider • it a pledge that the Goveru- mrnt ha* atlojited rc' view.

tin* i-unilitiun hank wqm. the public have been officially enlightened with regard to the relations all of the bank. we and muiit demand the budget of the Jluntntrian receipts expenditures.iK<- p:.. I am ' desirous to direct the attention of the honourable mer li. Hhouhl wliich imi«t in Ix* a nonnal condition lia<l ]irt*»ent forced to (Uily nu^'to anotlu r inontiiiij sacrififc*. on the subject of the bank. we can duties. but that the danijer can only exiMt the Viennese liu\i nately adlnTe to the courw? of policy hithert' if the State whose Hnance« even a continued deficit. I will therefore it only add. btatc of the bank. m a much wori»e i» than now . 1 [ad. on the other hand. by which the (jrxjwth of the public may be arrested . to those relations.292 MKMoiu or kossitii. we cannot re»t contented with a mere communication of the itself htate of the bank. all luressities of our countrk'. we have a resjwnsible Ministry. for thia rvaaon. will pluni^e us into endless embarrai'sment. that aware aa financi>8 we are of the influence the Austrian exercise over our incomes and property. a sequence of a whole. for the fulfilment of our " " fluctuations which and secure the pn>jH?rty of our fellow citizens aj: may threaten them. the no anxiety bank . for I am convinced. since. 1B48. " It'. an inde|K>ndent liuu^arian lk>ard of Finance. which i« in only a matter of detail. and the Const itutioTial administration of the finances. for the 1. we need be under re8]M*cttnf.'JO. the foreign power which rules over us. " If an entire cnaniji' wt re to t. in a word.K<' in tin* jirie of jM)licy adopted by the (Joverninent. im-vitablv bankruptcy. is my belief that the necessary means to tranquillize the public mind have already been taken. aud that in parts of the couutrj' measures . and if bcrau-M- Wlicve there no ground for appreheniiion of iniinediate dan^-r. a^ a preliminary step. without which. in IH.. provide for the splendour of the throne.

which. dency. " Further. 1 would never Ix* si'cun' of ob- l . as well as of those which have aris<Mi between us and the Imperial House of Austria. When in the very cotnmencenieut of I thi. can only be secure upon the basis of one common constituencv. its besides administering the internal of our country. tho?M« anti- constitutional in its elements.] spEFxn of Kossriii. considered my duty to enter into an analysis of the relations of our internal affairs. that the tendency of the policy of the Ooveniment could never bo constitutional. . and our well-being . our ind- our freedom. i-onfidenee is which not only necessary for our interest. the n*8ult of its acts could never be favourable to the freetiom of the nation.J Diet.• reforms desin-d by the nation. it the Address to the Throne was moved. j)eople8 of the where our interests and Kmpire meet each other. stands in direct opposition to moilerate m. I t«M)k a general survey of the lamentable origin and development of the bureaucratic system of go eminent . to redeem the Should the Goverumeiit wi»eh' ehan^e the teudeuey its poliey. 203 iintes. 1 must go back " to the twuroe of the evil. But iu ordt r to jM>int out the reuiedy. Pragmatic Sanction. C and so long as that Council of affairs if wliifli guides the affairs of the general Kmpire. is whose Soveieign Stat<> the same as ours. composition. where retjuired. IStS. possesses is an undue influence. but for that u( the reissuing dynasty.A. ot" h:ive b^Mi aoopted. 1 trust that eoiitidence will return.n. not contrary to law. s«'cured 1 in conse«juence of the expressed my opinion that the fu- ture constitutional existence of our country could only bo by our King surrounding himself with constituthat our country tional forms of II 1 government throughout his dominions. and its ten- I maintain«d that 1 of the C" . m^t long as the By!»tem of athni- nistration throughout the whole Empire.Htitutionalism .

Sinyphus. biliold we With a bleeding heart I how nuu'h noble power. which benumbs our nerves. would be the »ec()nd loundrr of the 11oum> of llapfbur^. thrtinea Bustained by Ftato-craft have fallen. and an recountt-d the fatal iiuu-hitu-ry of life ill (iovrrmnent. and because. to . you how the fabric of wiirt n-ari-«l u|)<»n 1 the Hubjiif^nt^d e<»ii liberties iU enervatt'd of our •» of thin •. But if hitherto. I pro- nouiKi'd. I grieve think that the stagnant bureaucratic policy. could not have dn'ame<l of so near a future. and fidelity ri-if^ninj^ that he who Mhotild reform the syntein of the (Government on a conxtitutional bnKiM. have unintcrrupteilly rolled the stone of . aud h(nil 18 my clouded with consuming care. of the future. because I i)erceived the influence of the r-ystom Viennese had caused an irreparable injurr to our countrv. in thankless labour. and ivj^resses our spirits' flight. and out of the leaden chambers of the Cabinet of Vienna a eonsuming wind sweeps by. in the earncBtncM of tnith. which is incorporated into the State Councils of Vienna. leading the principle. and never can be adjusted without the resignation of one or the other my fears are not noir for this alone. the contrast between the Absolutislic Government of the Empire and the constitutional existence of Hungary. "Since j)n»nounced those word*.has never been adjusted. how much peal talent is reminding wasted me of the torments of t!»f tnjKlinill.lil)MiirH. for the space of three months.- liii<. and nations who. progress is because constitutional insecure. I have only Itan'd. nMiiiiulod [a.. and Iook< historj' book of to the which events reveal the family. '* The surt'oenting vapour of a heavy curse hangs over us. during three centuries. |)()\vi'r I MKMOIB or KOBSrTH.d. have ivcoven-d tlu-ir frt'edom. and eMtabliah tlie Thnme I UjMin the lib«'rty of the jMHiple. but a few Il'r. 1S18. lamenting that >h(>uld remain thus immoveable. tnonthii back.20 at ViiMuiii.

but our ancestors did not interist thems«'lves in any thing and what was the result ? Tliat our jKX)r countrv had fjr five and twenty years to bear the punishment for an error committed without our sanction. tht-n will repentaneicome too late. . bled in the year 1790. Such to me consider it is the present aspect of aflairs . " I. 29o Empire on compromise the future and that our count rv. resources for its existence of our beloved D^niasty which requires all its powers and all its own prosjK'rity. away. should also . and we have nr^hvteil neud forth the free and loyal voicv of the repnscntatives of when matters have btvome so entangled.A. whose end God alone can fon>see. t<i and the time for a peaceable adjustment h. at least. to the nation has confided the task to pro. to the world. me remind the honourable members of the period of the French war. and as such. 1 my bounden whom duty to evils call the attention of the honourable members to the try. should be led to make sacrifii-es which oppress the iH'ople and to endure an endless series of calamities. ternal atfairs of the French people ? What had Hungjiry to do with the inOur Diet waa assembeyond our international politics.Ht share in this tanlv reiH'utance. we responsible to God. although at our pass*'d when the die is irrevocably cast.] SPEECH OF KOSSUTH. which threaten our coun- We.D 1848. if ai« a patriot fuil in I al.-»t) inu. that we haTe only to choose between repudiation and a sacrifice the |HH)ple. to destruction. our task is to f. and to for the misfortune our own com»ciences. and the Omnip"'' "t TliMist-lf c. AVhen political changes occur. which will be the consequence of our delay. will not lA*t my responsibility as a Delegate. .o forth to and should we hesitate shall bi- in the performance of this duty.innot restore moments wasted in inaction. tect her present and secure her future existence is we may meet not wait with closed eyes until our country inundated with an ocean of calamities the evil.

[a. but 1 express my decided conviction. the UHUal Beat of ainidflt our the haudij of the conqueror. of fitting our resolution to the greatness of the occasion. that . that we oft* tihould reproach ournelves with havl:. under thin great cala- mity that vfc could not eonnole ourwelvea with the reflection^ in we had done pa^sa our j>ower to avert the coming danger while there wan yet time. Artificially contrived political systems can maintain themselves for a considerable period. and of the evil consequences which ensue from it. In fly »pite of theue enurniouH wurrificeB. lies iu the Viennese system of Government . our fathers aaw the Uoyal liouiio "\V'e«t : doonu'd to before the vict4)riouji arma of the lejjiulatun*. as they are universally known. that the blood of our people flowt-d in Htreams. is I assert my that the continuance of this perverse policy. liberty. opposed to the and to the just claims of rational as much as to corapromisse the future existence of the D^-uasty. hhould God forbid.d. ted to ward we saw menacing the our King. that the true cause of the interruption of the tranquillity of the Empire. the lamentable financial embarnutsmeuts cauiied by the xtate bankruptcicn involved our unhappy thoufjh innocent country. and it is with the belief. I upon the honourable members to raise their policy to a level w ith passing events let us derive strength from our responsibility as citizens. as there is a long road between the patient endurance of a people and . our consciences the remembrance of a duty call unfulfilleii. lt»18. which imposes upon us the duty . tluit we should have on the danger i . I do not dwell upon circumstances which have occurred within the Empire and abroad. in this city itnelf. apprehension of worse consequences that interests of the people. menacing our couutr>' God forbid.29G iiEMOiB or KOBSUTn. and that our pOHsesHioiiH and our projHTty wtTC cawt into the whirlpool. and maintain. and the destruction of the empire. While all HulTerinj. History a like sentenoc on this Diet God ' forbid.

uephcw of the Emperor He h*d » Hungnrian tutor. eternal the splendour of that Dynanty Mhich reigns over us. wnuh lor reason that they have been long maintained have last not gained but rather lost power. meeting of the Academj of Science. grave. Francis Joseph.* a nation which will its strength from freedom.] SPEECH OF KOSSUTH. K'pliiuiml.A. tlie ver}' But there are political systems. its fate of a nation is ness. I is hard for an tlje old system as well as for an old a hjng is man to part with idea of it life 1 know that it is painful to see that by whicli constituted falling away piecemeal. has who already. . and Kj. and we. from which circuiu•Unce. llie tween their sy!*te!n 1 own if prosperity Dynasty must therefore choose beand the maintenance of a witli of (Jo\eniment coveri'd the rust of ages . but the inheritance of a splendid throne awaits tho hojH'ful heir of the lions*' of I^:lp^burg. and at arrives the . Tho i. IS-tS. the people augured better day* for Hung?-ry he rwitciJ I'enth. «n<l in a during bia rvign. 207 their despair. We know may it share in death.youug. but whose ancient splendour cannot be sustained by the unhappy machinery of derive N'iennese jH>licy.D. confided. in praiae of Hungary. Tho men of the pa«t w ill in a few short days descend into the the Arch-Duko life.oke the Hungarian lanp'iage with e*Ae. at the expense of the Dynasty. moment for their its when it is dangerous to continue them long life haa ripened them for death. but we cannot ward . When about fourieen yearn of ngf. aildresM^Mi the membera in a ({icvch. but fall is when the founda* tions are weak. that the loyal declaration of the jK'ople does not step between. fatherland of this people should also be eternal . and fear. at his first entrance into Mon the affections of the nation. when verj. the Viennese policy will seek a short respite for its own existence. an«l h'lM youth. and we desire that the inevitable. in a new • edition of the deivased Holy Alliance. it off.rwwnt Emperor Krancit Jojtcph. to whom tho must not yield to human weakThe people are eternal.

honourable members. becauHe he cannot He who is oppressed will do otherwise. let him remember there are powers which are more dangerous as friends than as enemies. Bureaucracies can excite their no enlhu-iiiwrn . an enthu^-ianin of freeilnni. devotion of the people. a promise which has j)roiniMe but the I'lithii. who ! then would venture to take upon himself the responsibility of all the consequences which might ensue! who would Tenture to maintain ttat the enthusiastic expressions cf . "ics.D. for the sake of retaining power a few days longer. Finally. future existence of the it is my is connction that the Dynasty bound up with the brotherhood of the dilFerent peoples belonging to the empire. and this brotherhood between nationalities can only be cemented by constitutional forms of government which will awaken the feeling of one family. [a. there is a man in Vienna who. and the people do not receive what they may with justice expect from this legislative assembly. In the motion which I bring forward I have the interests of the Dynasty at heart and God be thanked . 1818. a people will give their blood and lift for a beloved Dynasty. AVho can think without indignation of the sacrifice made by the people who yet suffer a moral and material injury if the Diet be dissolved.20H " lilt V MKMOIR OF KOSSl'TH. A Dynasty which is founded upon the freedom of the people will always excite enthupiaj«m.siftstic founded on the " uot been redeemed. but not a sparrow will fall to support the p«)licy of an oppressive if Government. for a faithful heart can only belong to a free man. that tliey are consistent with those of my country. yet too gUdly waa not the Holy Alliance which Haved the throne. forget it who were wont to furgt't nothing. desires an alliance with the de^»potic powers of Europe at the expense of the Dynasty. serve. The bureau and the bayonet is a wretched medium by which to unite the parta of the empire.

as a fuiulamental condition and substantial guarantee for all refonns. besides cementing the various provinces of the tration ministn'.Hty and by people. by my fidelity to my duty and responsibility to tlu> must observe that. although 1 shall allude to several questions which have come before this Diet. the total change of the present system of adminis- and the substitution of a responsible Hungarian Further it asserted. and to place his faithful subjects on a friendly footing with one another. I do not mention such grievances aa the nou-anne\ation of the Counties. within the walls of this ? 299 rtady pelf-sacrifice an echo without among the people biTs House would find The honourable nieniptujs at must feel the force of present circumstances.] SPEECH OF KOSSUTD. Kossuth read the sketch of a Representation to be laid by the Diet before the King. I such for a vital importance that if (as I with reason expect) they are granted. such alone being the responsible expression of the principles of the Constitutional majority. religious inequality.npire L'onstitutional neces«iti(." . they will bring along with them the guarantee remedy of all other grievances. "that his Majesty would also find the surest means to avoid all possible disasters. At the conclusion of this B|H'ech.D. independent of all foreign influence. was here asserted that "the development of constitutional and of such laws as were essential to the moral and material welfare of the nation could only attain to existenre and reality when their execution was mtrusti-d to a national Government.>a most securely by surrounding the throne with those forms in all parts of his dominions which the of the age now rendered indispensable. because I purpose only to speak on subjects of the Dyna. Hut first. and the important relations of Croatia. therefore* I will not any longer dwell upon them but is once to the motion which suggested to my lips. conceived in the same spirit as the words he had just spoken." Ac.A. 1S48. it life. therefore the Diet dc-mandi-d." p.

could reach Ferdinand. eheers. urging the Magnates to reconsider the Representation. which. the Imperial family met in council to deliberate on their own course of procedure. sence of the Palatine and of a considerable nates.- many of the MuirnuteB had accom|)anied him. the motion of Mailath was carried. Vienua. "When the first news of the Revolution of Paris reached . ajid remained approved of Count Mailath'ii ingenious device to evade giving a decided answer to the Deputies. BideM of the the return of the Palatine. if they had accepted. Even the Coiwervativea were moved to enthiuuLHtn by KoHsuth's oration. which gave the Deputies an assurance that their just demands would no longer meet with opposition. the funds fell thirty per cent. but there Count Mailuth rt*que0ted them to wait for a . The Vien- . would obtain adviuitages to their party prejudicial to the liberties of Ilungan. took place on the 13th of March at Vienna. 1848. and another resolved upon. however. [a. but sent up to King from the Deputies alone: he feared lest before the ^racaniitia. thoiM. and while the people assembled in the streets and cafes to discuss the political events of the day. and the Hurcantic veiu of Szecbeuyi wa« acchuimtions resounded from all and the motion wa« carried amidiit dtafi'iiini.300 MKMOIU or Ku^hL•IH. the ordinary sittings of the number of MagUpper Chamber were the interrupted. In spite of C»mnt Ix)uis Batthyanyi's that oa in the ab- remon. the Kepresentation should no longer be de- layed on that account. they might have incurred the dinpleaiiure of their absent colleagucM.stnmces. who had left Prenburg for Viemm who Boon after tlie arrival of the newu of the French Revolution. The next morning it van »ent up to the ^Iugnate8. His proposition was however rejected. or list of grievances.-.d. they feared to offend them by rejecting the addreiw. Events. the Conservative ^lagnates then at Vienna. moment utopped IIuuHc. On the Sth of March Kossuth moved. by which a remonstrance was to be sent to the Upper Chamber.

refused to grant the Jint the smallest conces. demanding fn-edom of the press and constitutional guarantees. the medical students of the University refused to accept appointments as sur- geons in the Austrian army.D.etition but they refu-sed to return home until their had been presented to the Emperor. A majority of the Koyal family. Members of the Diet to On the 12th a petition was read in the Uni- which had been drawn up by one of the Professors. and petitions were preparing to be presented by the the Emperor. 1848.sion. and they had learned the result. ^^'llen they reached the residence of Metteniich. who had promised his brother the Emperor Francis. j. versity. pro{K»»cd to conciliate tlifir desires. Many thou- sand copies of KosKuth's siKi>ch had bivn circulated in the city. to conduct the government of the Empire on desj)«»tic principles. taking alarm at the threatening aspect of ntluirs. • Sc« page 158 . and the State Chancery. and while.A. an extension of |>olitical soliciting freedom. a petition was sent up to the (ioveninient hy authors and publishers entreating that the censorship of the press should be modified. which was responded to with of applau. one of the students read aloud the speech of Kossuth under tliuiid«'rs his windows. tla* Viennese by yielding to Arch-Duke Louis. and he wiw supported in his views by Metternich.] TIEXXA. The Arch-Duke and advised them Albert now n>de disi>en«e. into the midst of them. 801 nese did not hesitate to express their sympathy with the Freuch |>eople. which was thus n»ady to receive it with enthusiasm.* The meeting of the Diet of Lower Austria had bi^en fixed for the IMth of March.'Jth a large body of the students of the Uniin procession jmst the man-hed House of Assembly. followed by nearly the whole population of Vienna. as a testimony of their animosity to the present system of government. and on the ven<itv from the peojjle.

self and nearly Huctvedcd killed in dra^(. partially oln-yed n»o»t of the HoldierM fired in the and only one student fell dead and about a do£en of the Hut the mob was now routed to people were woumled. " [a.302 MKMOlIt or the Arch-Duke him- from luH horse. ininiediately fire niithed to their rescue. how- tation of thu HtudentM into thu " I^ud ever. and the militia joining people and the students. Windi. and at length himaelf orders that the firing should cea^." who. npjietired iiij» lit the wiitduWM of the build- and called to their comrodeM. and aevenl men were law. The Land MarMhal" Huon iifu-rwardii ndmitU'd a depuHaiui. and that the soldiers should be withdrawn. In the atl<Tnoon of the next day. n(»t hriiitj received on they exj>ected. which was as immediately accepted by the Em{)eror who expressed his displeasure at troops having been employed ajjainst the people. and wounded. inmiediately tendered his resignation. the Eector of the University took up a petition to the petition that he Emperor from the students. The younj^ men without.'. more troopa were called out. 1S48. and u|>on the .d. troopii. Mettt-rnich.Hch^jratJt. unarmed orders were only nir. 11 Lit The Arch-Duke ordered tlu'm to called out the people. who was present. aud ahimied for their perrtumil Hufety. to repn^sent the state of the city. that they had been be- trayed. Prince Metteniich proposed to put the city under martial and pive the command to Prince but gave the Emperor would not consent. niui the Btret't beeaine a j*eene of diw>rder and confusion. though ordered to positions where they could conunand the city. he was requested at once to dismiss Prince Mettemich aud the Chief of the Police. furnished them with the arms they HNjuired. . In the night an attack was made upon the hated tlie secret police. Tliat night the city was illuminat*^ aud though some acts of violence were committed bv the bloodshed. fury. and to would exert his power to stop further As a preliminan.

303 mob in the suburbs. together with Liberty of the Press. praying him to insist upon the Magnates taking the Kepresentatiun into immediate consideration. . The Representation. was that day carried by acclamation in both Chambers. and soon returned with a favourable answer. the zens were enlisted into a Natit)nal Guard for the preservation and a proclamation from the Emperor appeared. The censorsliip of the press was next abolished. and was received with loud acclamations by tho people. the citizens prevented their occurreneo itself. though two of their demands one for a budget.A U. by which Deputies were the Empire.Venetian subjects on the 3rd of Ji'ly following. and Kossuth proposed a deputation should be sent to him frmii the Lower Chamber. another prtK'lamation. and Annual Diets. arm for their own protection and tliat of the city.VUAUIAN Dli'lTATiO. He was hims^-lf immed to lead the deputation. within the town by fonning all tlieiuselves bands who patrolled the streets all night. Sclavonic. or that the disf peace. and Lombardo. Tlie people were still dissatisfied.] UI. The Emperor drove through Iho on the afternoon of the 15th of streets in an ojH-n carriage March. summoned from every province of Austria to frame a Constitution for In the mean time the Palatine had returned to Presburg. In the cvcuiug the youths of Prceburg walked in a procession. and tho but the ither for a responsible Ministr}- — were gnuited Constitution. the ultimate object of their wishes. who took the horses from his carriage and drew on his return Ferdinand issueu it themselves to the Palace . . 18i8. giving the students and the people pennission to — burseuK-nts of the revenue should be • made public. Trial l)y Jury. to be held at Pesth. and the Emperor promised to convene an assembly of the representatives of his German. into armed The next morning eiti- the regular troops were ordered to leave Vienna. therefore. was not >et even alluded to.V.

place first by thousands. for Diet. Ferdinand received them graciously.301 boarinK llii'in MKMOIB OF KOSSUTH.' the K<'j)rf»cntation through the a Deputa- Hungarian Chancvry tion set (jw had btn-n cuntoniar)'). in licmour of KuHMuth.. the procession to the hotel . and replied to their petition in the Hungarian language. and n'peated cheers welcomed the " Deliverer. After half an hour's audience. and returned the whole way thither was lined with the National Guards. Instt-ad of tnuinnuttin. [a.shing of march was played before the swords beat time to the music. left the Castle. waited on the King. who pn'»ent»*d to Count Louis IJuttliyunyi an the probabk* future Prime ]\IiiiiMtor of iluntjary. and borne in triumph amidst loud cheers." the name by which the Hungarian patriot waa greeted. led Vienna. him by the enthutheir leader. with Palatine. and flowers and pjarlands were thrown to siastic populace. Arrived at their hotel. The IIunjipirianH were received at the landint. wliich they reached that afterooon. The numbers iucrea»ed every instant. 18 IS. to the eflect that he had at heart the interests of under hia aceptre.d. and that hia the desires of the Hungarian nation. who came out to meet them on the new* of their arrival. in which their requests the peoples lived who fondest wish was to fulfil were granted. Two Hteain boata conveyed t'uin to Vienna. and with one voice the mul- . out on the inornint. and accompanied them to the hotel where Kossuth took up his residence. when the VienneHC were rejoicing o%'er their promiaed Consti- tution. while the cla. torclirs. It comiisti'd of eij^hty uteniberA of the bv the Palatine Arch-Duke Stephen. the Rakoczy door. of the 15th of March. and followed by about two hundred and fifty permms. the The next morninfjtlie Deputation. Handkerehiefs waved from the windows. and Kossuth and Prince Esterhazy were raised in the arms of the populace.

in the short space of a had gained that whicli had once appeared hopeless. to He advanced the window. afteni'arda in the German language. and on his nation. and how they would also rejoice in the Constitution which had been promised to the Hcn'ditary States of Austria. the King. on the 3rd of March. and that their demands had bet^u granted Palatine had been the named Viceroy and Plenipotentiary of tlie Hungarian kingdom. He relied on th«" power of ciently right.Hfrt own independence.sdom to a less modenile use of power. His almo^jt unexampled influence over the Viennese. and speaking first in the Hungarian. and Count Louis Batthvanvi had been ordered to form a responsible Minifitrv for Hungary. might have tempted a man of inferior virtue or wi.] HCNOA-RIAN DEPUTATIOH. who. but to a tninquillity joined with pi)wer " for it was not enough . He eiprcsued the joy which this intelligence his fellow citizens.Hc of Hapsburg. when nothing he chose to ask could have been denied. and such was his popularity and influence with this careless and that the fate of the pleasure-seeking people." Kossuth.H. to liuve gained a jewel. he waB contented with claiming no more than that for which X . its which he believed suffi- strong to a. it must also be presened. Hapsburg Dyna-nty aiul of the Austrian Empire was at that hour in his hands. excited and new to liberty. acquainted the people eatit*lied that the Deputation was with the answer of . 1S48. but neither Kossuth nor the Hungarian |MM»ple were adverse to the Monarchy. would give few ilays. His count rv had been (tj)pressed for three centuries under the Kings of the Hou. but onlv opposed to the vicious system of administration of those bv whom the Sovereign was surrounded. had roused the latent aspirations of the Viennese after political and spei'ch of The Constitutional liberty .A. 305 titude called on Kossuth to address them.D. He concluded by exhorting his audience to remain tranquil. and at a time.

If Hangary was not to be incorporated vrith . llie new National Guanl lined the Htn'ctH along which the prooesHiou waa to pa«a and guns were fired from the caatlc. arrayed in the first green of seemed to welcome the arrival of the Patriots. in fi-«tal nttin*. a ^c^<l)()n8iblc thi' aufu'iit Huii^uriuii Ministry. providing such a ministry.the arrival of the Mteaniem. uo many yi*arn . it was neceasary that ah* should have a separate ministry. surrounded by the noblest of the land. Batthyanyi and Kossuth presented themsielves on the balcony of the hotel. full — From Blackvoods Magazine^ Mayi 1C49. plare wau nnered by a deni«e niaMs and old men.ujsed fulfilled. shouts of the multitude ii» the vestM-ln aiipniaehed. rt-tunu'd On Many ground of tlu< 17th till- Dtputation to Preaburg. A ministry reaponiuble to the Parliament of Austri)!. was passed unanimously in both houses of the Diet. and thu coiitimuitiun of Constitutional lilu-rty of Hungary. in the ])eople. Loud cheers from below proclaimed the sympathy of the people. 18i8. no longer to be and Hungar}- governed from Vienna. Hclbrmcnj Inul [a.d. for The wish of the nation was the future. went where the very trees which grew public walkn. responsible only to her own DieC An act. No act of the Goremment of Hungary. Hatthyanyi and KoH»uth. no foreigner could hold offic* in the Hungarian admiuisiration. liourM bflort. had erer been countersigned by an Austrian ministry.* • By the laws of Hungary. and followed by the with the national colount. all bounds.Austria. «)n led by Louia foot to a hotel in the city. concurrence of the Arch-Duke Palar .*.31J6 WKWOIB of KOasllU. with the tiue. but from her own capital. and when Kossuth announced to them that Count Ivouis Battliyanyi waa appointed the first Hungarian Minister. adorned The l)i-{)Utation. lilt' Htrivi-n ilurinj. wa. spring. ehildren. uf all cIamm^ and conditionH. and not responsible to the Parliament of Hungvy : could not administer the Government of the latter country acd the same ministry could not be responsible to both Parliaments. do communication from the Ring to the Diet. which were an)«wered by the men and women. their joy surp. the ruling ni-ur tin* landing.

AD. Kottulh uphohU the came of ritie* late. when Kossuth waa worshipped l(X)k«'d up to by the first men in the countn-. Ilarch. he called upon acknowledge the debt of gratitude they owed the Palatine for his courageous and patriotic conduct. the hour of triumph. and ex- liorted them to receive him on the following day when he WM expected from Vienna. and moderation whieh he had marked out fur himself |)eople to From tlje the balcony of the hotel at Preaburp. 1848. in a manner worthy of Lib dis- x2 . 307 CHAPTER XIII. — Ife and of the ejrittiny nutho- detirtM the pretent Diet should dUsolce itjitlf^Latrs parsed before the di»Kolution of (he Ditt Entire lie form of the Vrbarium liuUmnification of the " Xobilet" Kottuth opposes the admission of Proleta- — — — rians rights the National Guard of the Croirn Endeavours into — — lie maintains the to protect indtviduals from towns suffering public benefit of the poicer of tke Ministry The Cabinet of Batthi/ani/i Kossuth Minister of Finance The Italian licrulution liepubltcan Demonstration in — Limit — Improved system of representation — — in the enactment of new laicn for the in the — — Festh Commission appointed by the Palatine The Hungarian Dirt demands the linyal sanction to the neto laics liatthyanyi and Deak at J'irnna lirport that the Royal concessions would be withdrawn Excitement in — — — — Hungary — Kossuth — endeavours to appease the people letter to Conduct of the Palatine— His private King.] BETUBS Of THE PALATIXE. 1848. he never dr\ iated from the even path of juHtiee and Is this by the people.

1848. ruther thun endanger the eauito of true order and liberty. The Cabinet of Vienna also dreaded the result of a new election. all Kocj-utli wu-t rvMiUvd to exert hiH iiirtueiice at this critieal jH-riiMl. on the 20th Mareh. which only represented the class of Nobiles. [a. dissolve itself.d. they were now Yet even under these circumstances. he acquainted them that the right to pn^pom. and to rijtk his popularity. Kossuth proposed that the Diet should On itself the ISth of March he moved. would return a larger number of R. he would not luinetion their pretending to dictate to the Diet . which. oi Kohsnii.uislK-il UKMoiR merit. they Kent tain luuM nhould )h* u]) a deputation to demand that ceriu paniH-d. aud should yield to a new and real repre- sentation of the people. and that whoiM> ever ventured to usurp this right to himself. or to tl>e invalidate laws lay the Diet alone. and the Hungarian people not desire to displace the long tried theuiselres could champions of their cause. many of whom he had gained over to his own opinions. in all pr bability. had daily increased and it posed that he would have desired to continue to act with men. he replied to tbem with bo Bevority that lie much might idmoHt have been deemed iincourin teouM . was guilty of au illegal and arbitrary ft)ur act. and when. uiid he \\i%h even willing to lar open to the ehiirge of inoinHixtencv.80S tiii(. and sent down to all parts of the king- . to rei)n*iM violent aud un- riieaHun*K. The demaudii of the depuKossuth might hare been sup- tation wen^ therefore laid a^ide. During the past nionths the influence of in the Diet. A declaration to this effect was accordingly passed. uhieh had been approved of the Coniitat of PeHth.ulical members. Although he gave full eredit to the young men eoiihtitutioiml hiniHcIf of I'eKth for their eonduet and Hpirit. those to whom doubly indebted by their recent victories." should declare incompetent. '' that this Diet.

5thly. and The long desired reform of the Urbariura in One of real meaning wa-* at last carried. whose interests were at events to be temporarily sacrificed." ** When these subjects. Kossuth further moved. proposed that the question of the indemnilication of the landlords should be ])oi«tponed to some other this but Kossuth opjKjsed motion. " have been considered. 1S4*^ THE URBAKirM. That one common . The immediate organization of a NatiouiJ internal jx-ace Ciuiird to preserve and the freedom of the country." con- cluded Kossuth. Gthly. .U-tariAn*. our duty as legislators in the present Diet will have ended. which waa to be held at Pesth. 309 dom. its full tlie extent Deputies occasion. the followin{^ questions should be taken *' into consideration Ist. and we ought to resign our j)laces to a rfpres4.-utation bxHt-d on the will of these of the maji>rity of the people. by Jury. and. taiation should be levied 4thly. by sowing dissensions between the unprivileged and privileged classes. that before they separated. by which to secure a free and trial I'ress. one for rendering the National Guards more demixratic. The system of representation by whi»'h the next Diet. as unjust all towards the minority. lie also successfully opposed two schemes. 3rdly. and without delay.— all ihoti who are without a fixed capital or occu- pAtioo. with an indemnification to a*«siijnfd to be the pn-sent proprietors of the . The abolition of the Censorship. should be constituted. on all the inhabitants of the land The soil entire cessa- tion of the Urbarial relations. The limit of the powers." A.D. be counteracted.Tir)' . and the intrigues of Austria to weaken Hungary. 2ndly. and the form of Government of the responsible Ministry of Huu: f. by admitting the Proletarians* of small cities • I'r." By the enactment laws alone the union of the nation could be rendered complete.

and the other to curtail the prerogative of the Crown. in which the majority might be benefited serving the ends of justice.D.. that if thone who were then in authority were displaced. each a separate vote. they should at any rate be provided with pensions. . although he might have He alleged the common excuse of statesmen and bureaucrats. at his suggestion. and therefore when carrying through his long cherished scheme of the reform of the Urbarium. equal to the electors in the Comitiits. when the reform of the Borough Municipalities came before the Diet. [a. us the Deputies from the towns were reputed to entertain anti-national. The Deputies fnmi the towns.u to adjdurn. on a motion from Kossuth. best only semi-liberal sentiments yet. and dissolve the Diet. he provided that the distinctive appellations of " Xobiles " and plebeians shoxildonly cease with the present generation. or at the . and only permit the disnolution of the Diet on certain prescribed conditions when this last propoeition was niadi'. nor would he on this oix'asion alter his conduct. still the same rights were extended to a class of persons. at the exj^ense of the minority. ISiS. He was fully awaj-e that this act of justice would in all likelihood be pre- judicial to his jx>r8onal influence.:U0 ifEMOIR OF KOSRUTH. anthill tlitir ranks. had never yet stooped to expediency. more dangerous Deputies from the Chapters of Cathe- who had hitherto been hostile to all his measures. among the one hundred and four members being permitted a voice) who had almost been •without a vote (only sixteen were granted. and that even the members of the extinct Hungarian Chancer)' should be admitted into the state council at Pesth. el<»»e. Kossuth resolutely maintained the ancient right of tlie soverei. he proposed. the drals. : Fearing that individuals duction of the niif^ht suQer in the first intro- new laws and regulations which had just passed. when the claims of justice are evaded on the pretext of He was desirous to avoid all sudden change.

A. and though perliked. he was persever- ing and laborious. was considered by Battliyanyi a necesin sary adjunct in his Cabinet.'. the Chamber of Magnates. should be restrained within certain limits. . General Lazar Meszaros.CABINET. Prince Paul Esterhazy.strian ambassador to Great Britain. Louis men of the liberal Kossuth was appointed Minister of Finance.] THE nU>OAKlA>. had been for many years a leading man among the Liberals. Francis Deak. was selected. mere. Gabritl Klauzal. for his high family and position. and Prince Paul Esterha'zv. Baron Josef Eotvos. who were just entering into office." he asserted. Minister of AVar Minister of Foreign Aftairs. 1S48." On the the 23rd. Minister Count Stephen Szechenyi. and he knew that he differed on several points from Batthyanyi. 311 Kossuth likewise proposed that the powers of the ministry. Minister of Public Instruction.D. and was reputed to be a sonally little strict Calvinist . Minister of Justice of Coiiunerce . as the influential sect representative of an Hungary. Minister of Public Bertalan Sze- Works. General ]Meszaros was a and a better soldier than statesman. gallant . reserved yet ambitious. was with much difficulty that Batthyanyi persuaded to form one of the Ministn. Bertalan Szemere. one of the Deputies in the Diet. formerly Au. than too Nothing. "is more prejudicial to much interference on the part of a gobill vernment. and from those who composed the rest It Kossuth . Minister of the Interior. such as would render their authority compatible with the free exercise of self-government in the people: " freedom. he was not ambitious of office. and was entrusted with the management of the international concerns between Hungary and and party tlie Austrian provinces. to remain about the person of the King. and experienced olllcer. which confirmed the ministry passed The Cabinet fonned by Batthy- anyi consisted of the most moderate party.

aristocratic education.312 of to liid MEMOIIl OF KOSSLTH. he had adopted ultra-Eadical views. and Hungary from which hi' was cxcUidcd. and joined the insurgent Poles he tried and taken prisoner. and the interest of his friends. he could nevi-r comprehend the true character of the people who confided in him. he thought aggression . and urged that imme- he could not believe that a few weeks would jxilicy ehange the whole diate preparations should be made to put the country in a state of defence. Crowds assembled in the streets of Pesth to discuss political vras betrayed. and more generous than wise. but the Premier considered his presence tluit be indispensable. and he feared democracy more than the tyranny of despots.D. while earnestly chcrishinf^ the hope of peace. succeeded in commuting his punishment into dismissal from the army. [a. no Cabinet could exist in Kossuth was not as of the fair promises they liad received. Batthyanyi. and Count Zichy was forced render A'enice on the 23rd. it expedient to be prepared to resist external of Austria. had deserted. who had served in the Austrian army as a caih't while a boy. Honest though imprudent. 1848. had not consideration for his youth (as he was only eighteen years of age). could AVith views narrowed by an see no reason for distrust. headed by !Moritz Perczel. and therefore. and when the Polish revolution of 1830 broke out. Cabinet. a gentleman of good family. In the mean time a republican demonstration had taken place in Pesth. . General Eaditzky was eipellid from Milan on the 22nd. The Italian revolution had broken out in Lombardy on to sur- the 18th March . on the contrary. he was well aware that the Viennese Ministers would not regard with favourable eyes the eflbrts of the Liberal party to maintain ordiT and independence. and woiald have been by a court martial. and now became leader of a Eepublican faction. (•rcduh)us as many of hia coUfagut-H.

for the si>cu- The commission consisted of Klauzal. as well as the King's con- sent to the law^ which had just passed in the Diet. who was with Bat- . The excitement. A report in the mean time. On to the 23rd. Deak 17th of March would be withdrawTi. a proposal which was advocated by the Hungarian.A. though. Pulszky. and as the ministr)^ could not enter into office xintil tlie king had sanctioned the new laws.] THE HUyOABIAy CABtKET. the Vice Ispany of the County of Pesth. he hastened to Vienna demand the royal sanction. to be the bearer of a petition to Prcsburg. deputed Francis Pulszky. 313 questions. The principal inhabitants of the town. that they had met with unexpected difficulties. fore. civil and military authority. the Palatine. gained ground in Pesth. a gentleman who had already taken an active part in political life. especially that of the emancipation of the Jews. the Palatine took mesaures for the maintenance of order. and the more so as no in- formation arrived from Batthyanyi and Deak of the success of their mission. Palatine and The and were joined by Prince Esterhazy. and whether they should be admitted into the National Guard. there- continued to increase. informing Count Louis Batthyanyi of the state of affairs. Kossuth endeavoured to appease the populace. In consequence of his representation. On the 24th of March. he denounced with indignation the intrigues carried on by the court party at "S'ienna. in the Diet. which could only take place at the close of the Diet. and that there was even some idea that the concessions of the followed. by putting as favourable a construction as possible on the telegraphic despatches.D 18-i8. but opposed by the German population. alarmed by the excited state of the people. and Paul Nyary. Szemere. after Batthyanyi liad announced the new Ministr}' in the Chamber of Magnates. he instituted a committee of Public Safety with rity of the country.

the board of exchequer also. The account Palatine. is authority. Memoirs of a Hungarian lady.D. wiw found in the Viennese the contents fully justified the and published and anticipations of Kossuth. couraj^e. Batthyanyi. racter. which he did not even communicate tr> the MiuiiiterH. maintains. written at a time The letter of the Palatine. his lie knew the Court. 181& thynii}! nnd i)»*iik. wrote u private U-tUT to the Emperor. or rather of those by whom Ferdi- nand was surrounded. under the strong protection of its Count Zichy. feura . . the land of his birth. to be daily expected anarchy The authorities are displaced from their sphere of action by a committee of public safety . The </« Nobles have risen in masses to secure rights. every one looks to the immediate formation of a responsible ministry for their preservation. " In this anomalous and critical state of things. Though sincerely attached to llunijiiry. and of forfeiting the confidence of his sovereign. iu p.Hed their gratitude for his patriotic exertions. from the trans96. vol. and ran as follows:* their col- leagues had but just exj)re«. "Although we consider this to be a misfortune. but which.t and whilst the council of the lieutenancy. Home inonthn hiter. "Toua Majestv. the Arch-Duico Stephen wanted tiriiiness. though when Kossuth. almost null. " The state of Hungary is ia at this moment so critical. at least in appearance. facto. of the st-at* of Pesth was greatly exaggerated by the + Appointed by the Palatine himself. [a. and the jealousy with which conduct was regarded. that : the most violent outbreak reigns in Pesth. we must put * This letter lation in the is copied with a few verbal alterations.814 MLMUIU UK KOSSITH. and wavered between his feora of losing popularity in Hungary. and strength of chaarchivcH.

. and accompanied bv a large military who. at pre. for tlie present period. be appointed are able to exercise full influence over cannot be a-Hcertained beforo In a more favourable juncture nuieh of this niay bo .A. which hand. lie is j)ropos«'d. inve»te<l with extraordinary powers. are well disposed. to withdraw the whole armed force from the country. and it is perhaps unbecoming in a Government to desert those subjects of whom a part. hid star likewise might wane. lastly. The second measure. 315 ? the question in this form I shall "Which is the least niisfortuue now endeavour to lay before you in a few words. and leave it a prey to total di-vastation . The first would be.D. moment. as long as circumstances shall " I myself shrink from the first measure . it is the only measure by which this province can be presened. and send a Koyal force. as well as of the Btrugt^les between the Nobles and peasiints the second would be to enter into negotiations with Count Batthvanvi. shall proceed to Pesth. at least. on and although it has. a it . IS^S. three measures by which alone I hope to be able to obtain any result in llunj^iry.] LETTER OF THE PALATINE. and to save every thing hero of the and to allow them to an insurrection effect in . after dissolving the Diet. the appearance of a separation. the third measure Coiniiiis- would be to recall the I'alatine. iron hand. . in case he if should be dissatisfied and resign. and carry on the Govern- ment with an pennit. the contrary. supposing always that the gentlemen now to the internal defence. eary to Presburg. and attempts of incendiaries. liut we must know beforehand. it is immonil. what is to be done. nevertheless. fall rifice to all the barbarities of would have a most prejudicial the other provinces from the example given to the besides..>*ent tlie and we delay longer. to be a passive spectator of the dis- turbances. concerning the laws to be that can be saved. uncultivated masses. ungovemed. at the first is a good one .

everj'thing tliii*. to be prejMired to oppose the demonstration of the young men of Pref«burg and of a part of the Nobles. a commissary to be found who the office? is willing and able to undertake And. 1S48. With regard to attention to a circumstance which however. that for if is tho nt'gDliiition ran uuly niatteni tlinjuj^h thrni come to a di»ru«Mion at I*rf»burj». with an armed force along Pesth. such an event. expedition. without exaggerating the state of affairs. . " I do not know whether anything b«' Hiuv«*H!«ful mij^ht be gained by I nogotiatioiiH with IJatthyiuiyi and Dmik. to be apprehended. (a) Is there not a is it want money ? consequently. I have is nothing further to remark supposing that a compromise attempted with Count Batthyanyi. and supposing the means for " execution to be there. my position. is it not doubtful whether the measure would answer the proposed end ? Will not a greater force be required in Gallicia '• and Italy ? If a favourable reply can be given to these queries. and that moreover the * Batthyanyi and De&k being at Vienna at the time. lastly ((/). Danube and on the road between Presburg and this ciuse its In the third measure alone would remain. I take the liberty an a faithful sen'ant of the state to ejUl is your Majesty's of great ini|>ortance what will take place should the negotiation!! prove un» successful and Hatthyanyi be ready to risk everj'thing resiijn his oflice ? I and in consider it to be my duty to obsen'e that. we ought. it would have to be carried out with of sufficient all But here certain questions arise. and ready for immediate action ? Further.310 MEMOin OF KOSfiCTH. (6) Is this force hand. least forty or fifty by which understand at near at (c) is thousand men.xj. which the will probably take place. which I am myself unable to answer in .* but knuw . possible to send a I large military force to Hungar}-. cliaiim'd wliioli iKJW appears culculatcd U) occaniuu a »*'j>nratiou. [a.

however. the Palatine returned to Presburg. 317 who. I frankly confess that. 1S4S. your Majesty.D. . I pronounce in favour of higli second measure." CHAnEii ISIS." " 24th March. Arrival of the Royal Mrttaye in Preahurg—Batthyani appeal* to the Palatine. and 1 do not doubt that the officials (though 1 have not yet consulted them) would be 1 of the same opinion. in the present state of aH'airs.] LETTEE OF THE PALATINE. trho promises to intercede trith the King Jtepuhlican demonstrations at — — — yields King The Pesth — The Palatine returns urith a second Message from the to the Palatine— The King Kossuth Speech from the person in Diet the Kino dissohes Francis Pulszky. and me whether I am may for the present to remain at Vienna or whether 1 depart in any other direction. IS^S. taken of the great officers of the realm. Secretary Under of returns thanks Batlhyani as a Minister retires matters — Anecdote of into the country — Kossuth's — /* employed — — He health fails on Financial hi* domestic life. Majesty iufonn will doubtless issue your commands in conformity with the existing laws and the usage hitherto observed. May. must be summoned to Vienna . March. Pesth— to adjourn Ministry th rone— The His early life Vienna— in State. in opinion is any tlie caj*e. "Stepuex. have only ascertained the views of the Chief Justice Mailath. Ok the 2f>th ef March. "If. XIV. April. according to your »]>ould consider the tirst or third wisdom your measure more fitting.A.

but of the manner and style of the address sufficiently ennced the disinclination still the Court. also probably assi.sted the arguments of the Palatine. which was that day read in the Diet . he and in their favour. (tjuchfd iu the Iluitf^uriun Unguage of the to retttorv . bearin{» a royal nu'SBn^je. all was granted which had been demanded. but even Not only were the Deak could not . little. and hastened the measures of the Court party. request were n-fused. thim n-ndcring the Jiunof gariaji Miniritcni of Fiuaiici* aiid War mertdy nontiiml. The alarm occasioned by the continuation of the Kopublican Demonstration at Pesth.318 yEMoia or kossutu. nhould Bubji'ct to the Vienneiie authoritien Ik* fi- " timt thf military fon-i* of Hun^'ani.Mhould to the Vienneue Council of Huboi . [a. ij^norant of the Palatine. app«'alcd to oif f him to urge ujM>n his ctilleagues ^ if thia recall this obnoxious measure. while the real jK)wcr would n-inain with the Cabinet of i Vienna. iwcret i. Wduld resign. said expressed the determi- nation of the Liberals not to yield. The in Palatine not only promised to exert his iufluencc at Court but even to make his own continujince . old it CMiaiicory. who at length permitted the King to give a favourable answer to his demands. Hatthyanyi.d. uiid tariff. ofBce a condition of compliance Szt'-chenyi in the Lower Chamber spoke with energy and Kossuth. though he in condemnation of the Message. On the 31st of March the Arch-Duke returned with the repeal of the Koyal Message. Thin nu'Hsage cauiM'd the greatcBt the printed copiea which could 1" ' tion. and Kubjoined that. and com. and licly all pubthe burned. 18i8. which it proposed dirri'fd that the n'V«-nue of Hiiiigury nhould in fulurt* be paid into thi' AiiMtriaii cxi-hfqutT. tluit ail inattvnt appt-rUiiniiig ini'rer to hi' the lIutiKarian eoiuage. War. Ultra-Eadicals dissatbfied.

H. officers of the army. was as follows: That the executive power should be exercised through the nnnistry alone. that the nunjber of representatives •cut by Croatia to the Diet should be increased from throo . the high Harous of the Kingdom. (hat the sessions of the Diet be held at Pesth. found his happiness in theirs.sylvania. that he wished as he *' his faithful Hungarian \\\> them all h:ip[)iiiess from heart. and their Diets. who employed an apprentice both countrie.D. session by the a. in the absence of tlie King should be invested Willi ull royal jKJwer." The substance of the resolutions passed in this Diet. Hungary and should b<' that with the concurrence of Tran."*. and liable to impeachment l)y the the Chamber of Deputies. for the exertions he had to pre«er\'e the concessions of March. to which the nation must impart life. to ever)* one in dred florin. that the concession was only a itself verbal form. and in his speech from the thn)ne assured people. race.. that the Palatine. The King himself c:ime to Presburg on the llth of April to dissolve the Diet in jH'rson. without distinction of class.<« King that perfect equiUity of rights as well of public burdens should be established among all the people of Hungary.] BESOLlTIOyS OF THE DIET. 819 repress the obscnation. and the laws sanctioned during the . and denonunation ever}' .A. and ever)' artisan . excepting the appointments of the dig- nitaries of the church. and the disjK»!ial of the army when out of Hungary. On the Ist of April Kossuth returned thanks to the Pala- tine in the name of the Diet. that every member of the Cabinet should be res|H)nsible for his oiheiul acts. and conUnned by the King. that the franchise should be extended to man possessing property to the value of three hunor an income of one hundred. who had received a diploma a university. 1848. and to be tried by a committee from Chamber of Magnates. incorjwrated . days parsed apparently in I'f jx-rfect made The few remaining harmony with the Cabinet Vienna.

and eouinienced their lubourH in the capital of Ivitirhazy in IluiiKarv. he. btfitre . He returned to Hungary in 1837. . 1848. and England. which he presented to the National Library of Peath. and received an offer from the Austrian Ambassador there to be In 1831 he attended the sittings attached to the embassy. the Celebrated ct>lleet«jr of Hungarian documenta. ToL iL p. giving a very W. by t England. His niotlier was the daughter of Charles Fejevark'. wa* aiuiiiited by Francia to Pulszky. Here he formed the friendships of Kolcsey. for which J^jvassy paid so dearly. the poet. Und»r Seentary of State in for Foreign Aflaira. and possessed four years. He was the aon of a gentleman of an old Proteatant family. 55. he there was chosen a corresponding Member of the Archaeological Instituteof Kome. of the Diet at Pnsburg as a Juratis. and published a description of See Austria in 1848-49.820 to cigliti'cn. and was born in 1811. and resided age. establiEbed the Presburg Casino. with Vukovicsf and Lovassy..* On into the Hth of April the MinJHtrv having been confirmed in their oHiee. an independent fortune.'iirv. abilitiea who. and tla* [a. or Student of Law. who died in 1S39. and of Kossuth. early life wa. H. were n'eeive<l with fentivitieH and rejoieings IVnth. and thus escaped the arrests which took place at that time among the Though only eighteen years of youths of the Casino. France. being superior cluef. knowledge and hia waa entrunted with their principal management. in the County of Saros. of Deak. at Eperiea.s As Pulzky in led to the study of archa'ologj-. Vienna. Stiles. he visited Italy aa soon as he had completed his education. tlmt the niilitarv froutiers of or hordt-r tr»>«»j)». iiitenial inntitutions of that province ri'inain tht* suinc iw Hiuij. and in 1835. Afterwards Minister of Justice under Kossuth.d. hhould be placed under the uutliority of the llunf^ariaii Mininter of War. MEMuiB or KOSSUTH. or debating club. In 1S36 he travelled in Germany.

which obtained a wide circuthe reputation of Englan(i llti lation in Hungary.szKr.Ji. to gain a ever. Kossuth.. Sri-ntkiraldy. Ikx45re<iy. Kossuth. When appointed by the Palatine on the Comniittee of Public Safety at Pesth. Intimately acquainted with Stcehenyi. as his ances- In 1H41. Count Joseph GoTcmor of Traiwylvania. and wa^* pronounced by him to I'o the most compluto aad perfect code in exiatence. of HeidclU. and one of the fiot legal authorities of Ornnany.. he strongly supported the measure for the emancipation of "When a riot took place at Stuhlweisseuburg. * Tileky." and was engagt-d in the contn)ver8v carried on by Szcchenyi. their Deputy to the Diet of 1837. and on his return was again placed upon the committee. 321 favourable' picture of tlu' country. his views had. Qabricl Klauzol. and was also member of another committee for the Codification of the Criminal Law. About this time he bec*ame one of the principal writers in the " Pesti Hirlap. but the majority maintained it by a vote of '23 a^o^inst 18. &c. ISIS. but took a decided part against the Government for the condemnation of Wesselenyi.>n.* tors ha<l At the close of the Diet he n'turned home. latt«'rly assimilated with those of Kossuth. Fruncia De&k. tic. for whom he formed a wami and lasting friendship. and was appoint4'd Director of the Protestant College. as the type of a free constitutional monarchy. a the Jews. 'Lovassy. and DesswctVy. Subsequently.0. in his native Count of Sanjn. he went to Heidelberg more thorough acquaintance with the subject of Criminal Law. R|>eaker to the liadeii Diet. he wart upon a conunittee with Deak.] FRANCIS PL r. at a time when stood high. from whom he had received his first lessons in |)olitical life. The Criminal Code drawn up by thij Committee wan iiubmittcd to Prufeaaor Mitt^rmayi-r. T . The Cummitt«c conaUttxl of CLief Justice Blailitb. and Lapsansky. Klauzal. howbeen before him. kc It was propoitod to aboluh the puniiihrucut of death. Bereredy. appointed to examine into the state of the Commercial Code. was elected by the Consen'ative party. Stephen Francui I'uUzky.

that he could scarcely his position. . oomprelund <)>er all Europi'. he believed that men who had hitherto acted with selfishness and duplicity were now impelled by motives as pure and patriotic as his own . to Vicuna to act under an Unfortunnt« ly for Hungarj*. the Ministry thought to apply for assistance. had descrredlj him the confidence of the whole nation. wa.s alrejuly kuown in Hungary. Ho was advised to take the in dirtperHing II iH militarj' with him.322 few miles from tlic MEMOIB OF KOBSUTU. but refused. and as the number of regular troops in Hungary did not exceed it eighteen thousand men. and tljat Princes had suddenly been trans. The storm which had swept neemed to him to have cleared the atin poli- mosphere tical he trusted that the old system of diplomacy had been replaced by open and honourable conduct tonncd into friends of the people matters. Batthyanyi. which took place in various parta of the kingdom. Biots. did not genius a as possi-ss suflk-ient a KtatvHtnan. who. his countenance was radiant with joy each time when he returned from his frequent journeys to Vienna bearing some message favourable to Ilungajy. when ho was sent incapnhle chief. owing to the recent emancipation of a peasantT}' who had been too long kept in thraldom. 1S48. t<j ami Huccoedrtl viuU'iK'e. Pulnzky wujj st-nt to suppress it. made whole the presence of military necessary. conscientious but weak in intellect. to of niTuirs. caj)ital. whose merits and accornpliHhnients. the rioUTH without rvtmrUu^ well naiiK'.D. was as much the dupe of those around him as the Hungarian ^linister. and ever ready to give credence to the fair promises he received. advisable Eepeated applications were there- . [a. Ilis suspicions were the less easily aroused. therefore. guide the rictory of hi-lm in his so diflicult crisis The own party was so unexj)ect<d. as his chief intercourse was with Ferdinand himself. both of won for mind and person.

D. and preparing for renewed eiertiona on his return. which liowever proved Kojjsuth waited patiently. Vienna by Batthyanyi. he would not pi'rmit the coin in the public treasury of Hungary to be used in exchange. wholly at the disposition The war tax liad hitherto been of the war council at Vienna. Ilia unceoising labours had bejjun to affect his health. in the expectation that the eyes of his colleaj»ue8 would at leng^th be opt-nt-d to the truths which he alone at that time perceived. he was n-ady commence operations. He to found cvcrAthing in confusion.000 had been received into the Austrian exchequer. whicl) alone florins. He was anxious above all tilings that Hungarian money should not be expended on objects foreign to Hungnry. AVhile he assured the people in a proclamation on the 21th of May.'*8. of the security of* the Austrian bank notes. thus the revenue from the mines waa to be nceived by tho Minister of Finance. even there he allowed himst-lf no for his time But wad spent in examining into the state of the Gnances.A. 323 fore ina<L' to traitlt'Sd. that from the post-office by the Ministt-r of Commerce. &c. produced an annual income of nearly 200. Kossuth determined that the revenues derived from each particular tax should be rectivrd by the Minister of tho department to which ierived it specially belonged . but such was the suc- cess of his labours. and his physician for him a temporary' retirement from public left he accordingly Pesth. Ac. 1848. applied to the National Bank of Vienna to provide coin for the redemption of notes. but had already. hoping to derive benefit from the pure air of the neighbouring mountains.] STATE OF THE FiyAKCES. soon aftrr his return to Pesth. pri'scribed busine. rest. repeating what he had said in his speech of the 3rd of March. its own and demanded that before the 15th or 20th of April. T 2 . and the profits derived from the mines and from the post-ofllce. that before the Ist of ^lay.

The Viennese Bank offered a loan of twelve-and-a-half milliona of florina.0(H) rtorintt Jiaiik MKUoin or xossuth. lie Nummoiied the the a^^ents of direetora of the iiiininf. and that in six weeks' time they would be iu circulation. in order to take their advice on the Ix-nt him manner at to improve the nuHle of working the mines. as Minister of Fituinee.d. The capital which was destined to serve as : . hilver Hh«mld bt- wnt to the National of Huii. he had given orders for one and two florin notes to the amount of sixty millions of florins. to place it ^ .nd silver Udonging the 8th of under • responaible guarantee. lBi8. The chief Uboun Ko«Hutl>. with the consent of the Palatine. • ' into that part of the eountr>' to take ehnrp* of to the ExchtH)Uer. On the 15th of May.-^ury waa almost empty. [a. because ita acceptance would have obligi-d him to confirm the privilege by which tlie Viennese Bank had the sole power to iaaue note* in Ilun^rnry until the year 1S6G. as well n» private mining. lie wnt a etu! ti.624 1. Hungarian colna in and zwanKigi-ra. interestii.^arv fnnii wIm-ikt a [><irti(»n of thi* Buni vari-JUJi . and a Urge increase of exj)enditure was exjx'cted. The II unitarian tna. he WAM able to i»»\w the thalers. in .25<). July. they received the old Austrian • -- Hungarian dies were provided. and to secure the general intoreitts aa well aa thoae of prirate indiriduals eng:ii»«d in them. IJy fintt and tt) make nrmnfjenientu for it* ctiinage. On the 24th of May. and to hare them couTeved lV. he surjmsed the country with the information that. Koasuth waa equally diliijent in his pn-parations for the iMue of p*per money. wtre eion at fin<t till coined. eHtabliithinentit to a conference with Pi'i«th. florinit.-«th. and he had alresdj made arrangements for the issue of Huni^arian bank note*. were diret't«*d towartbi the milling. fnnn Kremnitr to From the h&ste in which iin] t • • . hhuuM of be distributed to the notc'H part* of the coutitn where the were re<juired to be rt'deenied. diBtrietn. without interest Kossuth n-fused the offer.

An anecdote* is told of • him at this period. notes excet'dinj. was derived from the ample doimins of the . an old senant of tho family. h'. Their fabrication and of the cir- culation waa confided to the Conmu-n-ial Bank of Pesth. so that if the bank ha*i issued fifty millions of florina in note's. Kossuth almost deniiV These Not<?a were called " (Jovcmment the him«<-lf necessary rest." a name which the llunj»arian people a<lopted from a ditT^'H-'nt motive.h. The notes wt-re thus jiiKirant4t'd by the State treaaurj'. that one day having sjx-nt the whol in writing. Kossuth bid the man not iii'«tre»8 himself. there should bo twenty millions of florins in silver and j^old in the coffers. aa he could write them over again. under the control of the authorities it whoae duty silver waa to watch that the bank should not issue fliirins. them to light the fires. in ^^as pn)vided that there should be twenty-four millions iu gold and silver the bank. uH4'd . 825 a baaia for these notes. but his placidity of tvm|K'r ani gentleness of dis|X)sition never forsook him in the relations of domestic life. or aa two to five . rt'st.A. Tn-asury. or Crown lauiL*. in proportion to the value of notes issued. sixty niilliona of ill and that the sum and gold coin kept in readiness should stand. On inquirj* l)eing made.State. as two-and-a-half to one. 1848. 8up{>osing them to be rubbish.vl acknowledged tluit. anil wlu-n the it whdle sixty millions wen* in circulation. in derision by the Austrian Kossuth NoU's. and sat down with an unrufBcd temper to recommence his work. ^S'hile thus occupied with his Ministerial labours.] Kossrin notes.D. of the previous night and liaviug n-tin-d to snatch a short intenal of tliat he found on his return the large pile of papers which had occupied him during so many hours had disap|x'an'd.

in the Ministers. in The Arch -Duke Louis had been who were denied access to the was only through a Lady of the Bedchamber they were on the 16th of May apprized that Ferdinand had been secretly conveyed to Inspriick. June. May. July. and those immediately about the person of Ferdinand (the Camarilla. or backstairs Cabinet as they were They placed no called) seized on the reins of Government.320 MEMOm OF KOSSUTU. The Court War— Return of — — Serbs — Insurrection of Croatia Kossuth Pesth — Baron Josef Necessity for military prepoi'ations — — The Emperor proclaims him a chich — His — Latour to Viennese Minister of the Jella- life rebel —Exchange of the Italian — Manifesto of Jellachich — He join his standard— invites the SclavacJcs of Hungary — They refuse Kossuth's Hirldpja (Kossuth's paper) — Pesth — The Diet opened in July— The King invited ammunition to Troops and fortresses placed at the disposal of the Latour sends artillery and Hungarian Ministers — Jellachich and Hungarian soldiers to to Speech from the throne The President of the Diet announces the intention of the Minister of Finance to hring forward a motion respecting the defences of the — country — Opposed by the Vltra-Padicals — The Italian question — Debate on the proposed motion of the Minister of Finance Ministers.d. 1&48. The ancient loyalty of the Hungarians induced the Diet to send confidence. it Sovereign. and a deputation to him immediately on hearing of his flight . CHAPTEE XV. [a. 1848. —Kossuth summoned to defend the cause of obliged to leave Vienna May.

seemed to produce any Mettemich. through the port of Fiume. came with a deputation to after the fall of When. Vienna. The Hungarian Minister of Commerce. Dobblhof. and entreat him to take up his residence in Buda Pesth. which had still in feeble health.] EOSSrTH EETITENS TO PESTH. and neither colleagues to confess the measiires he had advised. and a responsible Ministry for Croatia. he himself must grant the wish of the Hungarian people by opening their com- merce at once to all nations. the head of the Hlyric Confederation. 327 from Vienna. Louis Gay. In reply. He at the if same time renewed his offers to Kraus. being afforded to the rebels. while the country was yet unprovided with means of defence. Although this could not be granted consistently with the unity of Hungary. had obliged his wisdom of the precautionary Though the insurgents were Serbs and Wallacks. Baumgarten and Sommaruga. though Alarming insurrections. Klauzal raised the duty on Austrian sugar. and the rest of the Cabinet was composed of Wessenberg. to petition for a separation from Hungary. 1848. the Austrian Minister assured him they were engaged in a re\'ision of the Tariff. but added that he refused to take the matter into consideration. hoping thus to force the Minister to give a decided answer. and would consider the Hungarian propositions in September. sent that same month to Kraus proposing to enter with him into a negotiation to modify the Tariff between the two countries. the demands of the Hungarian people had been granted. Klauzal. broken out in the South of Hungary. Kraus. Kossuth returned to Pesth in the middle of June. Count Latour -was in May appointed Austrian Minister of "War. On receiving an evasive reply. ministerial nor royal proclamations forbidding assistance effect. the Hungarian people were surprised to find Austrian officers engaged on both sides. Pillersdorf. and .D.A.

But the Austrian Ministers had no sincere intention that they should be employed against the Croats. Every horror which the human imagination could devise. In the middle of ISfay the Serbian insurrection commenced. Eajacsics. with the oath the Sovereign had taken at his coronation.d. who considered it to be the commencement of a greater struggle.328 MEMOIR OF Kossuxn. Commissioners were accordingly sent down into the country with troops. 1818. as increased supplies were also required to suppress the insurrection in Lombardy. thing like to be the only danger which threatened Hungary. however. These views accorded with those of the Cabinet of Vienna. they raised the black and yellow standard of Austria. was perpetrated upon the unfortunate victims some were . [a. in the hope of weakening Hungary. who believed this insurrection nor sex. while Kossuth. and in their savage cruelty the rebels spared neither age Those who had hitherto been most adverse to anymilitary prepartions now began to see the necessity of resorting to active measures without delay. and called upon the peopk' to protect their Sovereign against the encroachments the petitioners were solely was of democracy. Batthyanyi. the eyes of others bored out. made to understand that the refusal and entirely owing to Magyar influence. who had rejected . active in stimulating the enmities of race against race. Both. roasted alive. and that a grant of money and of soldiers should be demanded at the meeting of the next Diet. AVlien therefore the Croats found they could gain nothing by this means. where necessary. and were invested wnth full powers to act. could not blind him- self to the double part playing at Vienna. the Greek Patriarch. were agreed on the necessity of immediate action. in place of the Hungarian colours. expected aid from Austria. some buried to their necks in the earth and left to be devoured by swine. whose rebellion had been fomented by their own agents.

as well as all the fortresses of the country. He rose to distinction. whether Hungarians or Austrians.] BAHON JOSEPH JJILLACllICU.A. without even requesting the counter-signature of the Premier. In and dignities. where he distinguished himself in several actions. and by them he was singled out as a fit tool by which to carry on their intrigues against Hungary. and had incited the fanaticism of the people. while all the troops stationed in Hungary. the mother of the young heir to the Throne. 329 the ofier of a synod jjroposed by Eotvos. the Ban of Croatia. and was the eldest son of an officer of rank. refused obedience. Francis the First. were willing instruments by designs of Austria. especially by tlie Arch-Uuchess Sophia. whom to execute the infamous Joseph Barou Jellachich was born in Croatia. and was highly favoured by the Royal Family. were placed at the disposal of the Hungarian Minister of "War.D. he was deprived of offices all his civil and military and proclaimed a rebel. that in consequence of the illegal conduct of the Ban. and under the jurisdiction of the Hungarian Cabinet. where he attracted the notice of the Emperor. ISIS. Batthyanyi had hardly been appointed Minister. Ban of it Croatia. declared the connection be- tween Hungary and Croatia changed. On the 10th the King publicly decreed. . and Jelhichich. who died leaving his widow and children in poverty. Jellachich was educated in the Theresien Academy. and thus emboldened. while Austrian officers assisted iu the rebellion of the Serbs and Wallacks. in 1801. the face of this decree. when Jellachich was named. when summoned the to put himself communication witli Hungarian Ministr}'. by a Koyal decree. and subsequently in Bosnia. and called a Diet at A gram on the 5th of June. who used to point him out to strangers as a prodigy. Latour supplied Jellachicli with artillery and ammunition. in Vienna. Although the proceeding was irregular in was over- looked. Jellachich. lie served first in the army in Italy.

" but upon the Danube." Drave. and a deputation from the Croatian Diet. the exchange of Austrian troops serving in Hungary. liament. Jellacliich. where he was received by the utmost enthusiasm. with the Greek patriarch Rajacsies. for Hungarian troops serving imder Eadetzky in promise had been made that possible delay. own adherents with The Arch-Duke John. On the 19tb of June. protlie ceeded to Inspriick. the Ban inquired. of his Majesty's resolution to maintain the unity of A gram was disHis cold reception by the Emperor was atoned for by the Arch-Duchess Sophia. the Imperial decree of the 10th of June was sent to him but aware of its insincerity. After presenting them to one another. But now that the Hungarian See Memoirs of an Hungarian Lady. who.* After he left Inspriick. ^Slinisters could • vol. where he had been appointed Eegent. " Perhaps upon the Drave." From their first appointment the Ministers had urged Italy. so as not to encounter a ver}^ heavy expense. and that the Diet at solved. he continued his journey to his Agram. and then bidding them farewell departed for the Frankfort Parmediator. in the presence of Esterhazy. where. 60. by her friendly and familiar conduct towards him. he advised them to come to an amicable understanding." answered Jellachich. made amends for the ungrathe Hungarian Cro\\'n. [a. 1848. having been requested to act as summoned Jellachich and Batthyanyi to a conference at Vienna. p. though it A should be done with the least gradually. cious treatment of Ferdinand. Jellachich made demands to which it was impossible for Batthyanyi to accede. " Shall we meet again?" To which Batthyanyi " Xot upon the replied. and at the termination of the conference. . or to render the Hungarian regiments inefficient.D.830 MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. ii. he was informed of Emperor's displeasure at his con- duct. .

mean When Kossuth opposed the ultraand urged that equality of rights and privileges would tend more to promote the nationality of Himgary than enforcing one general language. had satisGed their desires.D. certain death. and Kossuth wrote articles with his signature to assist in a rebellion against the attached to them. Magyar party. It consisted of two closely printed sheets. and they refused Hungarian Government. they demanded an imme- exchange. relating to the condition of the country. it is dangerous than weakness. in order to provide against treachery in time. equality of taxation. popularity. he could not have foreseen how soon his assertion would be practically borne out. the to join the insurrection.. But the ignorant AVallacks of Transylvania. JeUachich. A newspaper.A. and because I wish for peace. and became the organ of the Minister of Finance. and the duties imperative upon himself and his colleagues "I desire. peace . I maintain that it . "an honourable in case of war. secretly countenanced by Latour and by the members of the Eoyal Family. in which the Sclavacks were like- wise included.] Kossrxn hielApja. fact. and the Croats and Sclaves of the South. &c. was edited by a well-known author. and a Its title ensured its careful Chronicle of European events." he wrote. Kossuth once again endeavoured to influence the countiT' through the Press. is indispensably necessary one fears the sleeping we should be prepared for war no To be unprepared is more giant. J. and sent to the Sclavacks of the North. joined the standard of the Ban. 1848. inviting them own army. The laws which had been successfully carried in March and April. issued a Manifesto." . Paiza. for the relief of feudal burdens. entitled " Kossuth Hirla'pja" (Kossuth's paper). 331 that the Austrian no longer blind themselves to the diate their troops were not to be relied upon. containing a correspondence from all parts of Hungary.

and the Palatine and Batthyanj-i. The ministers came next escorted by a troop of the National Guards. were enabled to act as free agents. Deputations from botli Chambers received the Palatine at the House of Assembly. he continued pain. A projMjrty of thirty pounda' value in tlie countr}*. it thia must be bonie Hungary.D. eK-etcd by nearly. though not entindy. in June. country. and were not hampered any longer by On the 2nd July. and all who were dejK'ndent upon the Beechiii. 1&-18.' will of otherH. tchen at the request of the faithful Hungarian people he gave his royal sanction to the laics enacted . Alter calling the attention of the Diet to the state of the finances. uni* Torsal Kullrage. but to judge of the true meaning of qualitication.. mind that meat was. and wheat lifleen The Drj)UtieH. (It [jL. before for three years. commissioner of the Hungarian lowed by the burgoniaisters of Pesth and Buda. in the absence of the king. that.332 MEMOIR OF K0S8UTU. was led by police. As the first National Diet. qualifieation differed in kind in the countr}' but the prineipal ohjert attaim d wa^. thtuigh still eleeU-d as in specific instnictions. the Diet . fol- Moritz Perczel. entitled the sessor to a vote. where be took his place on the throne. A putation had bei-n s«-nt to the King. p<js- and an income of ten pounds in the towns. it fornied an era in Hungarian history. but no anBWLT was returned to thia request. was opened by the Palatine an immense crowd asscmbU d It to see the procession pass along the streets. he* him to coino in jHTrton to Pesth to oprn the Diet. supported on either hand by the lastly ministers. The property and the towns. that property and intelligence had been Hubntituttd for the privilege of mere birth. and directing attention to the defences of the " His Majesty has learned with : although he only foUoiced the dictate* of hit gracious inclination. apprentieen. were not permitted a vote. thn*eiH'nce shillingrf a quarter. in halfpenny a pound. Servants. and conducted him into the hall.

to maintain inviolate the laws which have received the royal sanction. at the same time. more- affirming that the above-mentioned laws are not the free expressions of His ^fajesty's royal will. in order that all the inhabitants of the king- dom.D. tliat f:ir some of these agitators have even proceeded so a. this I. and by mendaciously have stirred up the and. at well as all the members of the royal family. without distinction as to creed or language.] SPEECH FROM THK TUROXE. or any want of respect to constituted authorities. hereby declare. against every attack from without.A. strongly condemns the audacity of those who venture to affirm that any act whattoever. and every attempt at disruption and separation that may be made xrithin the kingdom . in conformity with the sovereign will of his Majesty our most gracious King.s in their iniquitous course to spread the report that armed resistance haa been made in the interests of the dyna. the unify and integrity of his royal Hungarian crown. may have their minds set at rest. with all his royal power and authority. over. and to the legally -constituted authorities . and the Hungarian false reports districts of the Lower Danube. especially iu the annexed territories.>»ty. his Majesty. or in any way compatible with the interests of the roval dvna-^tv. a iiumbtT of si'ditious ai^itators. 333 by the last Diet timet — laics which the exigencies of the present welfare render indispensable for the general — there are. therefore. in hit royal and name and person. by and terrorism. and. and with the knowledge and connivance of His Majesty. people to ofter an armed resistance to the execution of the law." . have excited the difterent religious sects and races speaking dirterent languages against each other. contrary to law. can be n*concileable with his Majesty's sove- reign will. neverthfless. or of the members of His Majesty's royal house. And while his Majesty will not sutler any one to curtail the lib«Tties sirured to all classes by the law. that it is his Majesty's firm and steadfast determination to defend. who. 1S49.

the justly be war might termed defensive : orders had been sent offer from A'ienna to General Eadetzky to independence to the Lombards. the National AblUtli of sembl y was. declared by the prebident Piiziiiandy eoustituted. upon the Viennese ministers and not upon the King therefore. and that the states. as the sovereign was bound to be faithful to his coronation oath. a motion respecting the defences of the This proposition was met with violent disapprocountr}'. and to rebel against her lawful King.D. comprising the realm of Hungary. unless Hungary were prepared to come to an open breach with Austria. were to be presen'ed by the monarch icque indivisihiliter. for the suppression of the Italy. it appears probable that he acted m obedience to secret iustructiona . From the time the King of Sardinia entered Lombardy. the President by the ultra-liadieals. on the oth of July. the sovereign. drawn up a protocol by which they were prepared to announce their intention of proposing a grant bati(jn of troops to Austria. The Hungarian Cabinet desired to throw the responsibility of the acts.83i AftiT five MEMOIR OF KOBSUTH. but as he continued in favour at court. as his hereditary estates at the . same time. to compel his subjects of every condition and degree to obsen'e the laws and rights of Hungary. she was as much bound to maintain her part of the compact. Though ol" it ation grievances. recently committed to the prejudice of Hungary. and constitutional nationality imder the Austrian crown to Venice Eadetzky suppressed both de. spatches. [a. movement in on the ground that they were bound by the 1st article of the Pragmatic Sanction to afford aid to Austria. promising for himself and his successors. etiam contra vim externam. The Ministers had already. in the first place. was customary to commence with a representannounced that it waa the intention of the Minister of Finance to bring forward. . on the J uly. 1R48 days spent in preliminnries.

and the Hungarian Ministers were deceived into a belief that the Italians had rejected the fair overtures made them by the sovereign. and a constitution co-ordinate with that of gary. and it had been ascertained as a fact. on condition that the rebellion should be crushed in that they were not to be Hungary. 835 from Vienna. The two brothers Madarass. and inde- employed against Italy. who wad commissioned by the King to lead the Hungarians against the insurgents. The Opposition in the Diet was roused to indignation at the intelligence of these proceedings. Events had however lately transpired. commenced the at de- He was a man of a calm yet bold temper. which caused a just apprehension and suspicion of the Austrian Court and Cabinet.D. The Hungarian troops sent against the Serbs had met with soldiers of the Austrian army acting with the rebels. the Austrian Consul at Belgrade. from the Hungarian Ministers. that Greneral Meyerhofe. The Austrian Cabinet. and once accused the Ministers of a leaning towards Austria. one of the principal leaders of the ultra-Liberals. by conceding a strong protest against the Serbian rebellion and Paul Nyary. was accused of disposing of his troops in a manner wliich must inevitably cause their decimation. was openly enlisting bands of Serbs to reinforce them. In the protocol of the 5th of July. noted for their impetuosity. followed. of the county of Pesth. . made use of this feigTied liberality to advance their interests elsewhere. bate. : former Vice-Ispany.] 0nA5T OF TROOPS FOR ITALY. unless the Italians rejected the offer made to them of national pendence. 1848. and were unreasonable in their demands.A. and General Bechtold. it was therefore proposed that the troops should be granted to the King. however. the other matters. under tlie Hun- Austrian crown. and was therefore eager that the Representation should precede all They considered the speech from the Throne to have been intentionally worded so as to buy an increase of troops.

hastened to obey the summons. The shouts were re-echoed from He was at that time so reduced by illness. which was increased by the eftbrt sent for Kossuth.D. . vainly endeavoured to convince them of their error. feeling himself unequal to the encounter. he felt himself obliged to make.33G MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. accused the Cabinet of treason. the great hall lead- Chamber of Deputies was crowded to suffocation. though suftering severely from indisposition. leading to the Ministerial benches but the sympathy of the House seemed to renew his strength. On the morning of the 11th of July. [a. a majority in favour of and that the following day Kossuth "would bring forward his motion on the defences of the country. defended the cause of Ministers with such cogent reasons that all further objections were silenced. that he was obliged to be supported by two of the Deputies as he tottered up the wide steps. every mouth as he entered the Chamber. and others. E6tvo!». and Joseph Madarasa at length. and those who could not gain admittance into the galleries and adjoining rooms. XVI. 1818 and were supported by IMoritz Perczel. Deak. . when the President announced ]\linisters. CHAPTEE July Wih. Beze'redy. Justice. who. Kossuth's Speech on the Defences of the Country. which resounded along the streets. The assembly broke up in a state of extraordinary excitement. 18-48. and ascend- ing the Tribune. surrounded the building the hour approached for the opening of that day's Diet and cheers. and after a the Minister of Finance. in the heat of arguThe Minister of ment. announced the arrival of ing to the : .

but that within them they tnay nation at this sinners and weak. and partly from the English of pletely exhausted a stronger llcadiey. and after labours and fatigue which would have com- man. however opinions may differ House. Kossnth has been fre- quently known to speak for an extraordinaiy length of time. + The extracts from this celebrated speech have been partly taken from E. it of the chamber. ia whioh the President opened the sitting. iu Lis Life of Kossuth. I am oppressed Avith the greatness of the moment .D. God has placed the decision on the life or death of Hungary and because this hour is so important.A. "that later in the day. Kossuth slowly ascended the Tribune. 337 solemn pause. he Avould take advantage of their permission. I. but appeared so much indisposed that of it was thought impossible he or coidcl speak a quarter an hour. I have resolved not to use the . . for I cannot but believe. he thanked them. Horn's German translation. the sacred love of our country.f " Gentlemen. and replied. and as he warmed with became to firmer and more distinct. his clear. though feeble. I feel as if God had placed in if my hands the trumpet to arouse the dead.] Si>£l. i8-iS. while in the deep silence which pervaded the Assembly."* After a pause of a few seconds. tliey if tlie vigour of life is still waken is to eternity. weapons of but feel rhetoric. the Deputies from sides. though his bodily health was such as to to make it at first appear impossible even himself. he began his oration. aud a desire * for its When excited by any subject of interest. all remain standing half that time. if he should find it necessary. that may relapse into death. in ascending the Tribune to call upon you save the country. . voice could be heard to the furthest end his subject. I cannot in this convinced. The fate of the moment in your hands with your decision on the motion which I shall bring forward. called on him to be seated.CU OF KOSSUTH.

moir ok KasscTH.-e words. for fallen with the dawn of freedom. as well subversion of existing institutions at the very justice has been done to the people. so general aiiio. orders have found an echo throughout the nation it . Xxo needed to urge upon you to choose the proper means for its salvation. for we foresaw the day would yet arrive when justice would come too late the feeling of ju>tice. but '-ould have been so. It is. —you are aware that the Nation has granted . of the country to place the National eflfective you know that the authorities have orders Guard on a war footing.3. and the general enthusiasm may yet avert the full force of the fatal words too late ! But it is certain that the Nation and the E. that an military force may be in readiness to defend the Ihit'^e country. "At the dissolution of the last Diet. to be just to the people. hu:iuur.xecutive Power have retarded justice. functions with an empty exchequer. state from the eyes of the nation. I consider it my duty to give you a sketch of the condition of the country. that wo would is all be equally ready vo offer the Lst «lrop of Wlicrc thiw feeling in g( )ieral. and that this very delay has caused tho . without arms. nevertheless. and without the means of it was imjwssible not to perceive and lament the terrible neglect from which tlie interests of the country had I suffered. iiiJepei)dcnee. moment wlien " Gentlemen. 8 m:. enough to pronounce ihe. in [a. had the nation not been aware of tho impending danger? It is itself a proof that the wentiment is general. and its when the first responsible Ministry entered upon defence.d. i)erhai)s. the veil of darki. perhaps of patriotism. upon the Executive Power. and to punish sedition on the frontiers. our touniry is in danger.i^ ua.ehw h:i8 You ku<jw th. myself am one of many who as for years called upon the nation. gentlemen. without enteiiug into minor details. aiul freedciu. Gentlemen. our bluod stimulus for its sake. . 1B48.

the liberty that to raise the indemnity within itself. 181S. and to confer with them on the surest means by w hich tranquillity'. have neglected nothing which they thought might be for the advantage of Croat i. and peace could be best secured in Croatia. bui even laws.D. own secured his influence in the administration of the country. and we extended to them the indemnity we granted to our Nobles at our own cost. we will not accept your z2 . though they indeed play a hazardous game.A. take up weapons to acquire more.. by a law which admitted him to a seat in the Council of State . The Ban replied by open rebellion. for such weapons are double- edged. d«. accordingly.-lay. without (that invited the newly-appointed Ban thrown like a curse about our necks in a power which has fallen under the scourge of truth and freedom. the ^Iini. but I cannot comprehend a people who say the freedom you offer us is too much..str}-. for make use of their OAvn language in the adminis- the Diet has expressly decreed that the Croats slmll have ihe full right to tration of their and not only k-ft tlieir nnuiicipal pri\'ileges unimpaired. and thus cut off the possibility of coming re-action). 339 rights and privilcgjj to Croatia o'oj'scives The rights we have acquired for we ]\a\X! like^\^se acquired for was granted to the people of Hungary was likewise granted to the Croats.. I can comprehend a people who. Croatia fero-ed lor her nationality —a fear produced by misconception and error. the Ministry'. becaujje their country is too small and too impoverished her. the Ministry in^^ted his seat in the demon of to a right \mderstanding . order. nevertheless.i and of the Military Frontiers.T. llungari.. deeming the freedom they possess too little. but extended and auginented them. .] all its CHOATIA. The last Diet did not only leave the power of the Ban (upon which so much stress is laid) undimiLdiJxed. but which hoped once again by him to conjure up the Ban who had been the last moments of him to take Hungarian CouncU of State.

the shedding of blood is no light matter. al- though united to us by the llungaruui Crown. nftair it is impossible to trace motives. we are admonished by another circumstance to place the country in a state of defenco. therefore. go aiul Huhiiiit ((U. but re-aetionary intrij^ues woven under the guise of hypomust be treated as a separate its critical tidelity to the sovereign. Gentlemen.-Hclvcd to trie vukc of Ab«olutit*iii . not to form a 8elf-exiHting. which may be army has appeared on the banks of destined to move in any direction. which circumstance is the position of the countries on the Danube. ncviTthdess a distinct country establish a separate have therefore " left nothing untried to attain this end. or to the left which may act as a friend. I shall only observe that a powerful Eussian the Pruth. rebellion " The Serbian . independent nation.D. vet Huch are tl»e people of Croatia. jjrentlemen. l)ut \vi' MKMOIR OF will KOSSfTir. and. which cannot unloose the tie without incurring the guilt of high treason. though here l)y it has not been occasioned by a reign of Terror. Croatia. so I do not desire that the Hungarian nation shall interfere internal aftairs of any other country.iall I require that the internal affairs of Lower Hungary with the not be interfered with by any other nation.* As fcf. is a traitor and rebel Even where guilt is proved.3 to oIUt. . to the right. for in the petition which the Apjram Conventicle sent to his Majesty tlu'y entreat to be allowed to separate theniselves from Hungary. . the Government believed they would desene the approbation of God and man. and is . but whoever wctuld power on the territory of Ifungar)' herself. if they could avoid forcing the misguided people into the horrors of a ci\"il war. [a. IHIS. but to submit themselves to the Austrian Ministers The same part was formerly played by La Vendee. or as * The principalities of Moldavia and NVallachia.

not irge. I must hold must allude to our it relations with Austria. a Russian army had entered MoMavia On the Ist nf September. in the name of the Emperor . only to maintain the quiet of the and without orders from St. will soon have power over the whole. that if we did not conclude i)eace with the Croats on any terms.D.^Mut. Lord Palmerston assured the house. . Oct. Petersburg.\ a f<)e. I'T'j'jr u of Ru. the Vieiuiese Miuist«r.] AUSTRIAX MIXISTER3. but it seems to have been false throughout. Injustice. but the Austrian Cabinet did. but only that the departments of Finance and AVai shall be delivered up to the Ministers at Vienna.l. 1S18." Tliis reply sileu''ed further The Hosjiodiiiincpiir}-.s were pleased to inform the ^Ministry of the King of Hungary. Undoubtedly When Lurd Palmerst<>:) it waa sent by orders from St. Petersburg that the corps was and its stiy would be temporary. for Jellachich lilx'rty. that the Emperor of Austria proclaims war on the Kiug of Hungary. In the latter days of June.* Finally. the veil of State secresy was lilted. a. he coulil See the not speak with authority. except from a Rtissian source.sserted that no orders had been sent from St. 1 . did not want the army. but its does not follow because regrets are natural. the nation ^ \. and itself prepared. The disturbances in Croatia are has declared that he asks for no increase of evidently connected with this scheme. as either event is possible. the " Kusdian army bad entered at the request of the Prince of Moldavia. and still less that a nation should yield any of rights from compassion Certain attempts have been made to recover the departments of Finance ::nd AV. Westminster JtcrUic. for whoever hiM his hand upon tlie purse and upon the sword of the lor the Viennese Cabinet. \bi>'i. • In June. C. provinces. of Austria. they are also justifiable. gentlemen. The rest of the Hungarian Cabinet would soon follow. I confess that appears to me only natural that the Viennese Government should refjret its inability to dispose of it Hungary any longer. in answer to a question from Lord D. they would act in opposition to us which is as much as to say. Stuart. Petersburg.

. Dr. is term of eiistence by such a The Aula of Vienna has crushed it . and that it would he superfluous to aMsurr you that we re- plied to this iiu-naee in a manner hi-eoming the dignity of Just after we had despatched our answer to Vienna.D.stry. Commerce Schwanzer. indignation of this House. I am fonviucctl that you will give U8 credit for an attachment to the honour of our countrv. . Hungary. according to This act alone might rouae own statement. terms of the conduct of the Hungarian Ministt-r of Finance. complaint against the Austrian people no cause of them strength and a leader. side with the rebels against their sovereifn^ they cannot pursue this policy without bidding de. Horubostel. Affairs . Kiaua. a second messaj^e arrived.s MKMOIU OK liiiiisilf. But tlie Viennese MiniBters thought otlierwise. f^t'iitlciiit'ii. but gentlemen. and to lord. Foreign Atfai-s Justice . both of wliich have hitherto been * In Juns. who is also Kin g of no more. Home .'M2 wilt) i. [. and seek friends elsewhere. because he had not sent money to the rebel Jellachich. .000 florins to the tlie favoured traitor. and transmitted. will throw the broken I have alliance at the feet of Austria.000 florins. KrfSlTll. liance to Hiuigar}' who in that case. . Bach. they considered to undiTinine the their my refusal to be a desire Monarchy . they will know that if they do not mean to denr their allegiance to the Emperor of Austria. iSince the Croats broke into open rebellion. the new Viennese Ministrj. Public Works Latour. the Ministry its which hoped to prolong policy.V. Finance. ISIH.was composed Dobblhof. you fntiTtiiiii ot'tlie JNIini. I were not wortliy to breathe the air of heaven 1 sent money to an enemy. I had of courst* at suspended the remittances to the Commander-in-Chief A gram had . but in reality 150. which nourishes rebellion I only wish w ithiu her. 100.• and I hope that of whatever men the next Ministry' may be composed. ninv AVIiutcviT opiiiidii. of Wessenberg. complaining in bittt-r the nation.

ssist us. st-roiul Brumaire . and from the policy. of that nation. Li the meanwhile. that ashes of the past. France has just sc-. IV^y 343 but to the Aus- wanting. and I consider that the this respect woukl be guilty of a dereliction from the path of duty. trian ^linisters With the Austrian relations on the one hand. a nation struggling for freedom may he . and that we have also entered into an explanation with our Sovereign on our common interests on the Lower Danube.D. if in they did not exert themselves to their first entrance into office.. in as far as she finds it consistent with her own sym] interests. .] EEUkTIOXS ABROAD. France stands on the threshold c>f a Dictaturship. such as we might have expected from the liberal views. the Croatian the Pan-Sclavonic agitation. we may rest assured that England will only utmost. perhaps the world may is see a second Washing- ton . As for France. the Serbian insurrection. words do not refer to tlicm. At our very a. the nation is placed in imminent peril. and that when lihrrty exceeds Hi propir limits. In what foreign alliance could the nation tiud protection and safety ? I will not underrate the importance of relations Cabinet with foreign countries.ii xipou their protection and alliance. France has given us a lesson which proves that revolutions are not always conducive to liberty.X. and explained that Hungary has not (as many have attempted to promulgate) extorted rights and liberties from her King. but tliat we stand with him on one common ground. pathy with the French. other. I entertain the most lively . probably we shall see a second Napoleon rise from the This at least certain. and re-actionary movements. as the cluunpions of liberty but do not desire to see the existence of my nation dependeii'. 1S48. we commenced a correspondence with the British Govenuncut. AVe have received a reply on the part of the British Government. the state of the countries on the Lower Danube on the rebellion.

1848 placed under the yoke of tt/raiiui/. [a. or a Hccond Napoleon. ia the German Gentlemen. 8Cour. om of one of our first duties to send our ambassadors remains in Frankfort to negotiate respecting the league we desire to enter into with Germany. wlio will erect the tem|)le of his sanf^uinary glory on the ruins people's liberty. Poland relied on French Bvnipathy is she received that 8\^llpathy. It is indeed t(» be lamented tliat in Hueh a glorious nation as France. John of Austria. was appointed Regent German Empire in the Frankfort Parliament * to 11:4 . and is not yet sufficiently matured to enter into negotiations with foreign powers (which can only take place after the election of the Eegent. and that the free German is nation destineil to live with the free llung. one thing is certain.m()Iii of kossutii.CXXJ citizens should be shed by their lellow-citizeiis in the streets of Paris. live power whose assistance we may seek. Tht refore. we considered it two of our countrvTiien (one of whom has now been elected President of this House*) to Frankfort.d.3-11- mi. who knows how of tiie to reject a crown. + The Arch-Dukc. yet Poland third no more! The Empire. the blood of 12.t and the appointment of a ministry). and that both must watch over the civilization of the east of Europe. that France is a . by convoking the Frankfort Parliament. long way from us. whether that man whom Providence has placed at the head of the nation prove a »ecoiul AN'ashington. where they have been received with the respect which is due to the Hungarian nation. But as the Frankfort Assembly is still struggling for existence. a^ to be soon as Germany made the first step towards her unity.-irian nation in the most friendly intercourse. as The President Pazmandy. I feel that Hungary is destined to witli the fri-e (jlerman nation.^e ! >ray JJut God preserve our whatever aspeet the own country from such a atfairs of France may assume.

relations can with propriety be con- " 80. the nation has determined sacrifice for the defence of the Cro\\Ti. to mediate an honourable peace or else be Nictorious in battle. But in order to make tins important resolution elVective. but I beg to state that nothing is further from trary. all. above selves. its armament and maintenance. or rathor threatens to become and ia gathering on the liorizon of our couutrv but . and if possible. and the honour of the nation. and is dependent on the assistance of others. we ought to seek strength to repel it in our- That nation can alone sunive. with a just appreciation of the to make any own freedom. 1848. gentlemen. will amount to forty-two million of " but that of levying 40. which has vit:d power within itself. financial scheme. my is thoughts than to demand a taxation of forty-two million of florins on tlie nation. and credit to that does not suffice.L.000 men.000 men. The expense of raising an army of 200. on the con- that every one shall contribute according to his if means. which cannot be sustained by its own strength.000 men. is based upon an estimate . to form a generous Proclaim that. has no future. but the nation. from eight to ten Gentlemen. resolution. immediately to equip 40.000 men.D. the Government sliall be authorized to increase the effective force of the army to 200. of its and independence. . make up the I I we must trust to our am happy to ainiouncc that the plan shall propose. million. the rest to be levied. and in furtherance thereof. The danger is imminent. extraordinary circumstances which haa occasioned this Diet to be summoned. if you assent to this motion.] INCKEASE OF THE ARMY. deflciencj'. official 345 Boon as the sidered. "I therefore caU upon you. as shall be exj>edient for the safety of the country. I propose within a few days to lay before the House a detailed florins. !My scheme.

or by the iaiiue of paper money." and the necessary . must but thou. that the quosJtion of the pn'(«enation of the country ou^^ht to ft. IH-iH.O.. who the day before had opposed him with so much energy. a nation the will is conceive. *• Gentlemen. tliat fe«lii when thn>ateued on every side. in in formed. Tliiii. Therefort' to To do avoid it muht this develop its strength..MolK OF KOKHITH. but ia on the manner thir. a grant of 200. stood up. and the nation itself. for TraiiHS Iviiiiia Maria Tin and fucd a centun' ago i« in reality fv«n forw* mich I more nKuirnitc jmlKcc for thf the ])n-H('nt Hliould the iiiipOM-d taxation not orjjanization of a military a« rircuiiiHtancfM ini|M'rativcly di-tiuuid. a. or by Bonje other financial o|)«Ttttion.ind alone. thou muat this. Overcome by the importance to the country of the demand he was making. oh! my couutr}*. I here solemnly and deliberately demand of House.3iC afrrvi'int^ Ml.. when if in Paul Nyary. and raising his right hand. Kossuth's speech failed him as he reached this part of his oration. as . This credit ehall miiiply the deficiency (ith«T in the tthajw of a h>an. nitf of tiuatioij n-wi. our place: no matter! The may be changed guided. with tlu* l»_v [a.ike . and within itiulf and the power to repel the dancer. by whatever Ministry- alone presen'e thee. All remained silent a few seconds.Htin why have n-frained from I mixing up thi* qufstion \\ith that on the Addn^au. Hhall fhiiin from thr wliit-h Kxt-fiitivr the powi-r to ojx-n n <'n-dit to any con- amount !«i(liT thr lt»*ppeiR'ntativr« of the nation »httll neeeimar)'. '* To-dav we an- tin- Ministers of the nation: To-iimrrow Minii«ter!* f<»r others may t. and not only on the n-nolution which 1 it iti»elf. all ever remain. jjentlcmcn.(XK) soldiers pecuniary assistance. I am of opinion that the future exiatence of the nation depends on the n'Holution paiwed by the IIoum* on this <Kvai«ion. mijwppn-- hensious.

] EFFECT OF KOSSlTll's Sl'KECn. inhen-nt in the imtit)n wrw* called on thin (Kvasion some melted into : tears. You have all I bow before the genen»sity of the nation." The burnt of patriotic enthusiaxm and joyful emotion in which hailed this s|Hvch stands alone the history of Hungarian parliaments. we ask your vote for if the preservation of the country sighs fur and gentlemen.T^int it. part of the Government ought not . old I men and young. and even part with of having witnessi'd all remains of for the delight this hour. anil as one Nyiirv." Four hundred right hands were an instant raised towards tlie man his the Deputies repeated words of Kossuth still in the niejuitiuie had recovered his comhis and folding anns across breast. the passionate expression fortJi which friends is . demand breast for a vote of contidence no. pressed forwanl to gnisp the hiunl of the orator. heaven. and to con^^itulate him and succi'ss. .s<' was miclu that of the IVi-sidtait was obLif^wl to bdjourn All an hour. aiid 1 venture to atfinii that even the gates of hell shall not pn-vail against Hungary. and we have saved our count ni'. and foes." in "We j. broke the hilenoe by exchiimiiifj with a loud voice. in spite ht)u. and have patience until risen to a man. midtitude. continued with a voice " trembling with emotion: that this n^quest on the to be considered an u WTiat I desired to say was. ho bk-^siugu" of tlu* was followed by the chtvrs and the excitement within the the urgency of the sitting for alVairs. any ful- freedom or any desin* waits for its filment. " Mt-gjuljuk. 184S. it. 347 the act of tnking an oath.AD. . j>oHure. aceomjuuiied by a ffW friends. Mo- derates and ritras. w hile I add one more nvjuest let your energy e»jual your iMitriotism. euibracctl " would give the happiness of that my life. 1ft that breast sutVcr yet a little longer." exclaimed one. LiU-rals aiul Consen'atives. tlie nation on his As he departed. .

striving to put on nonie . und ejaculate«l. to melt into tear* down unable to HjH'uk ? The modem tell . truth or other try he can discover why he cannot tcU !" CHAPTER Julj/. —Kossuth opposes ttco entrusted trith the (guidance of her tiro motions in one /or the union of the other for the establishment of Government schools Kossuth notes — The — The Budget— The King orders the Pala- Chambers. the Neutor thy <»f the Nutiotml Ai»m.t<»u. niitwd hiit eyes to heaven.y. while the j^rey-huinti IjitiiahiUH Paltky. August. t«» thoji wnant depart in pent'e. with fuhli'd haiidH. and the . September. now htt«Ht ^kvnc« Himihir of ConinionH enfiuigered. honountble gentleman eannot try if let him he can tell! and then putting if off hin shot belt. XVII. in the year UVIH ? : " Why did thow? old gentleman wei-p one of like a girl." thine liave iHTurn d in our juHt hiii own IIouki- when our C'arlyle. P>-oposal of Ministers respectiiiff the destination of the troopi — Opinion of Kossuth 21ie JiaJicals oppose the troops being sent to Italt/ The clause of Kossuth He mores — — — that Ilunqarg should fte international concerns the Diet . IJible dcH'trine. rij^htM and of of an liberties were in Life Cro.U." <tbi*fi\i(l anotluT. f(»r MEMOIR OF llif lirwt K088UTII. tim<\ I bili«-vc in the future cxintontf of Iluiij^ary. How eainc tough old Coke upon Lyttle- tlu. [a. and and iwjme earnest God's eoniiider it.'heHt and hit men ever made. "Lord..uwelL thu» coinmciJtK upon the excited fi-eliiiijn Kn^ i i il<? ment ton. IStS. lS-48.Miihly.31S " Niiw.

Batthyaiiyi and a nuijority of his collfaf^ucs*. appi an-d inadnciuii to place additional wua}K)ua iu hiT handtt. which nui^ht bhnrtly be tunu-d nj.hich awaiteil liatl of strifi' H unpin'. contliat Hungary could not save hers^elf without extcnial was ilesirous to purcha.I n»ihffactory reply of the — Interrieic reception — Autograph drputatiun named letter to earrg the of the King — to — King — Its — The dc/rut^ution leave Vienna and hoist the red Jlag in place of the tricolor.j»lc «»f anothi-r. but tlicy hoped to receive the ashistanee Uatthyanyi maintained his of Austria to suppress the insurrection of the Serbs and Croats at home vinced ai<l. still who wt-re in favour of tniru^ conciliatory measures with the court. in nturn. to aMxitft in suppri'ssins those ritru|.ainst >ut Hun^\r)' . Kos- suth rcfuM-d to give his unqualified Ohscnt to the line of .AD. and tlioui^h it nird uIho a nioruJ iuitpiity for a nation on the cm* of a for her avax libt-rticu.'k" her safety at any price. it bft n niatli'. : while belief in the j»ood intentions of the royal family. and. t/ic HID ami Utah at Fiume in the tninis- tine to rctit/n Viccroyally — Uatfhi/nnyi seize on Vienna — Jt Uachich and the Croat* name of the Kmperor of Auttria — The Austrian ters icarn the Palatine that the ]ir^x*ror Ua<l csceeded his poirers in granting a responsiilf mtmatfy to Hungary — Kossuth endeavours iJiet — moderate the indignation of the lie draws up a nianifttto on the dangers which to threaten the countrg —A manifesto to the King Jellachieh of J*uUzly with H'e»s*-nicrg Arrival of the Hungarian di-^mtation at Schiinhrunn The addr>ss to the King . lh«-ir wa^j yi*t With 8Ui-l» rt'c-t-nt tin. proposed that a part of the troops granted by the Diet should be destined for the au^jiucntation of the army in Italy . but proofs of Tht> prant of tnH)ps di->tiuaticiii and of nionrv unrcrtai*. but a lon^ v.jx-rliiiy of Austria.] nr. 1S4S.sTiNATiox of the tboops. ]H'ritMl It woj" not ponce howt-viT.

undi-r such con- friH'dom in that countri8j)eech would render them innoxious to the cause of then-fore. and at the he openly expressed his sympathy with them in their past .D. [x. unless she was prepared to throw belief otV her allegiance to her lawful Sovereign. additional troops were but nevertheless he proposed. by indui-in. to rvsign. Italy. or to denounce them to all Europe as con- spirators against the int<»grity of the Austrian empire.lHlH. but wan wn oAen eutrtuvted to n*tnain which took place on the 20th July. though. them to aacrifice Italian freedom. he alluHion hIiouKI be during the initiiitcd debate thtt only an made to the (piotion of iiiitionality. on the 23rd July. that they were not to be sent to force a despotic government upon but only to enable the Emperor to command honoursame time able terms with his Italian subjects.350 polii'y adftpti'il thi' MKMOIU OK KDhhl by liin Til. paMM'd over in total silcm-e : Hatthyaoyi. His pt r- sonal sympathies with the Italians had been shaken by the which he shared with his colleagues. the liia Diet to fxpresrt their rcadine»»t to HupjHirt tiie King in Italian wan*.-t couvietion that Hungary was bound to remain faithful to the compact which united her to Austria. and tlum uncon»ciou««ly promoted the views of the Austrian mini»tcr«. and warm liiiii Hyinputhies fur the cause of freedom would to advocate a iiifaMUn' dirt«'tly op{)Oited to the not allow niovfinent in Italy. in the AddrcHH to the throne. in his . howurj^t-d alarmed by the a»[Hft of afTain*. he expressed his hone. Kossuth ditions as aij^rccd with him in the opinion. laritv who desired either to ruin his popu- and that of Kossuth. and that the d«mandj( of AuKtria should be ever. that part of the troops should be granted for Italy. that they had rejected the equitable terms offered them by the Emperor.. Hi* wtll km'W who wi-re cluff iiiMtij^aton* uiid guidrH of luH tlu* n*lx*Iliim in tlie Buuth. ttat ceded to Austria. it if should be on the condition. rollca^'iu'H. on the Address. Hr n-jM-atedly otft-ri'd .

•/ r> quirt tl. rity were out-voted by the majo- who held to the letter. as well ao to the spirit of the ju. only on condition of granting a free oonstituiion to the line shtjuld be rem in free . while Austria should retain all that lay within this imaginary K)Uiid. htrugglft'. 1818. madt! by the Italian it I'roriittft. 'J'hey who hiul ni>t yet wholly for- feited tlieir allegittnce. ci*«L!a: of kcssuth. inisters . thut tbe tr-tops being wnt to Italy They to moral effiet tjf their consent such a measure.iJHM.i»kt'd tlie insertion of a clause. KosKulh drew up a which ho produced on tho (lullowing .uull uiiuority. migiit prove detrimental to the lilximl piirty in Lnmliardy. that sho i!d be stipnhited. At the re^juest of the Diet. aJtliui:.stiei'. a stratcgetical drawn. quences iu»litHtiim$.io.MiiiIl body in tlie Diet wuie actuated cannot l^j suflieiently touiuJiMided. b<'yond whirh the Lombards should and independent. 351 free. tliut ami iiiu'. to whatever consemight lea4l Kossuth png. Vmt only toemploy tliem against Itiily. anil c»»uhtituiit>nal his <3osire to see them and govern imiit .'iJ.iry though even then. Nine-tenths of the House vot« d witii '. jM'ople : the proj>ose«l clause also enaetxxL. that prove<l imjKjKsible to satisfy Imth [airtii-s. but in their love of liberty they forgot tliat they also owed a moral obligation to th«-ir Sovereign. aftrr the drvumd fur fixe law. as a matter of right and ii ..*.er a ho lad rejuiceJ in kis iuiuoHt 84iul at tliuir ij. tjrittifiid it .thoughinahw. by which the Austrian Cabitn't should not be permitted the entire disjiosal of tlio troops.ury. fur the moment had tlie LIuckI forp-tton that their viotoriea wc«ro pnrchaseil with cf Huiij. even though thcsoMiers wcTeenjph)ye<l elsewhere.A. lnul bt-en amply if and further.c«iiiui'. but the con- (>[).ht ill protested aguiu8t any portion of the t-juded.n. tliat the continu- ance of the grant for the 8Upj>ort of the Austrian Government would dei»end upon the upright malnUiianoe ul thes« conditions. formula to th s effect. 'Ihi- gi>neioUH spirit by wliich this r.

support of the Croat re- and the eitraordinan. (U. the sujieriutendencc of her international concerns into hc-r When hazy wMs ixa^ncd MinisttT of Fonit. as well as tlie disposal of the llunpirian tnKips abroad.inally the Addrt-HH an tcTH. but that tturt ni*Hi»tam-«- would only U« ^rant^-d. 1818 tl. Iluncnr)'. that tlie nation would glaiily lend bin Majenty any anHirttanee for the eonclui«ion of a |H-atv uhieh should be con- Mintent with the dignity of the Throne. tluit majority derided in favour of the orit.. and that since the Viennese was ofVen decided by their foreign and since a system of . On t))e iUMh of July. [a. uiul thcHinall party of the (){>{»<iHitioii. lay wholly in the King and the Viennese Cabinet.Htoration of ordrr and iM-aiv in Ilunpiry.'n AlTain*.'^HatiHlicd. and of the reoMonable desires of the Italian {x-ople. bin odice did not confer upon him any power to watch over the interests of Hunt^iry Li fon-ij^n countries. Koj«!«uth owni guidance. He was of opinion affairs of tl at under such circumstances. its Kossuth pointed to the fact of the hostile position ever maintained by this Cabinet towards bellion.D. the international to the fate of nations Hungary should cot be entrusted polic]»% Ministers.demand made at such a time upon the Hungarian people to waste their strength in aid of the perverse policy of Austria and Italy. and when the moral and nuitcrial innolabilityof the land ithould have been ^uaranteotl. of const itutioiml frtvdom.iy. tiiou^li the origin of thfir diiuiatiHfru'tion tlic wiu of a difn-rt'iit naiurt' from that of the PremitT and hml been MiuUtt-r of JiiMtiiv. but solely over her relations with the hen^ditary dominions of Austria. tiiially. !«|Kike on the necessity of Prince Paul Ester- Hun^jary takiuf.'} ilKMOIU OF KOSSl'TII. The actual <juid:uice of the foreisjn affairs of Hungark-. The flaiisc wiw liowi-vrr oppoJH'd by liattluaiiyi aud uh<i Vkvrv still l)c)ik. after the re. stating but with the addition of the clauite fiirthtT.iir. framed by theMini»of KoHMUth.

Prussia and Austria. lie thought it unadvis.T). mcosure. offence to producing any also very important result for the He opposed a motion of Sehools. rr The state of the 1 Hungarian Exchequer <tf oid > incurring any additional policy advt-rsr ?\^ for reasons the proposed rted. by Hunwho had the prejudices of an old soldier. Piilffy. was opposed to these inuovations in the army. the right oi -• '' f officer* wim likewisiKossuth was so mucii engngi-d with official business that he seldom alten«led the sittings of the Diet. to secure that the tro«jp» rthould not be employed upon fon-ign 8er\ice. he as- had afTorded sufficient proofs of the spirit in wl. a ' linhnunt I t)f (Jovernment premature under pre- ut circumstances. but Kossuth maintained that. Hungarian Ainbattjuidors and CousuU. and not to the " Nobiles .K. 3Ies«zaros. 1848. and placed under the protection of.] GOTEKyMEXT SCHOOLS. sli' it was stipulated that they under Hungarian colours and Hungarian com' now that the " insurrecli«)n" had become a duty ni. On pro- the Tth of August he op]>osi-d Count Josiph who posed to unite the UpiM-r and Lower Chand)ers into one.maiuled solely by Hungarian alone. without c«>untrk'. abroad w itli tliO}»e powei-s on whose war depend." or le\y i»f " Nobilen. by a resolution whii-h would have given cause of the high Aristoeraey." for the defence of the country. The War Minister. lie moved lier iutercsts or promote decision peace and that the new levies should be commanded solely garian otHcers.ich ± A . 3-33 Austrian diplomacy could not be advantageous to Ilungan-. unless some quei«tion of importance made his presence neccssark*.i common to the whole people.ible to disturb the existing hartnony in the Diet. as in the ancient law of the *' insum-etion. or in any nervice advenw to tl»e interests of J lungary. that she should be represented by. further.

. 164B. suth notes circulated widelv.^uth retaliated. wliile the slnall notes of Austria were absolutely without guarantee therefore. have no desire for power den%'ed from an I abriilmiu'nt of the libertieii of the p'oplc. . [a." The mntitn of pA)tvo8 waj*. and not concentrated in the handji even of a liberal Miniittry. and were therefore taken by j»urj)n»e vheu. Tlie Aui<trian Minister of Finance forbade the Public Treasury of Vienna ^linisters The Vieiuiesc Cabinet always to receive these notes. however. on the 12th of August. " ImM ordered that tent \n I iihould be ih raid one of the Mini»- of thiH country. who wan iitmost freedom to the commonalty.August. obliged to find the means for the establiithmeDt and main- tenance of the new Schools in the empty Trcaaiuy of the State. nnd indejH-ndence of thought in rrpresHed the chief aim of iiuitnictiou wicrificed.351 I'ublic Silioolu tail ULMoiu or Kotst'TU." KoMUth continued. I do not feel thiH ambition. can only find in |K)Wcr I true liberty wlu-n- all alike partake in it. " Destiny. however. tUnieil All free participation ia their p^uidjtncv to the . carried again!«l KoMUth.d. the KosNational Bank. wla-n fotru«t4Mi wholly lo in the Ooveriimeut. the one and two florin notes of Kossuth came into circulation. be eondurtetl. in the beginning of . or rvn- liered 8ubordiimle to {mlitical eudii. I dintrictn. on the sii!e of Hungary.<-». for the Hungarian notes were wiU to see a frtv people in villft<. eoimnunity. and Ko-^. familieii. by forbidding the Public Treasurj. ever}'- where ond therefore entreat you to grant the who form the Btrongi-nt and uureut foundation for universal freedom. in spite of Ministerial vetos. even in Austria. wi.of Hun^ar}' to accept the one and two florin notes issued by the Austrian The advantage was. and it that human nature I ever ambit ioun of an increase of power. hnjH?d that the Hungarian would not be able to carry on their financial nrtairs without aid.

the at 2^ .070 llorins.:J50. at GJ.0m». of which the War Department ' would require 10.000 for the National (Iiinrd.'actories nf arms and powder established. 1848.:{.< I th. have to inret year at htili larger «'xpenses ensuing months. manu'.0s7 florins for the year and half of this deficit mi^.7:JOfli»nn!».lil5 florins.«iuth obsi-nvd. there remained in the Treasury . which was at least a de< August Kosfor 02. 757.uly for circulation. had exeeedi^d those of ordinary times.. had heeii sevi Vrt on the hu-st d. nsuing result.4SO.lit new direct tax'-s.000. unanimity of f-diug among the people. which thi* vc \r Department would require I'art JiO. proved that llungar)' did not require.015 1 liequer.] THE BllXiET. therefon..D.IXX) florins.a surplus of l:i. h lar<^> exun was r\5ilizi-d. I He .000.12('. from April to June. and hudgct for that the Ex- which waa to come. of which the income tax would produce the most considerable pn)ht. and the remainder could either be covered hv a loan.'jiy.r course. ami the National be coven'd by (iuard JJ. btuides 2. for which. "lialfoft" Ills Kossuth calcubted the revenue of I 10.582. the times were unfavourable. whicli hf\ a deficit of (. 355 On lii.iyof June. of silver plate alio jjourod in from all parts of the country.s the 2Uh of August. 11)7. and in the 2(5th of month the . in the t' li small. or by a fresh issue of notd«. past months. however. a supply from the Au.. Kossuth priMculed to the liis Hut accounts for the past quarter.:j. at '-«f (•. however chequer.i.ntrian ExIt wouhl. A A 2 . and on the granted the Minihter a en-dit Mtith was prepand f>r this Contributions note*< wiiv iv. t" Whi-n he wa^i appointnl Minister llorins in Finance ho had found only 500.A. New ollices nU regiments raised and accoutred.'. as the Viennese Ca!)inet had hopeil. an»l other unforeseen denumds ma<lo upon the public purse. c:i' ' ' the revenue iiients I" «ar 1819.'.175. The expenses of the creator!.i. ' V II u of iIm. ilecided The llous** on the ktt. which. as Koe.

tlu* Premier. \\:is vouclisafed. . Ilia and then-fore could not nfTvHvd h\ reiitoration to hrtUth. idnce the ap{)ointmcnt wan not occaaioned by Majehty'M indinj)08ition. Iktthyanyi and Deak had gone to Vienna to Tlie hign manual to the Ihlls uhich had already pajMcd the Diet..IO MEMOIB OF tlif KOBS-TII.. and tlnTefiire intendi-d to his King liad rccovewd n-uume the<> ^ ifo ^* r and dcHin-d the Palatine to p of Vieei-oy or Koyal Pleni{>oti-ntiary.TJesty's desires : but no fur. addr. on the Ibt of September. the Viiinu-se Minister information respecting the views of the Austrian Cabinet. and its seaport and that. [a. Ib48. Tlii» Metisa^e cau»(d the utmost eonuternation.. occupied . :: At the same time Batthyanyi from Klaural. but had been n-fernd to him individual! :i ' n .. they wanted nothing from the Austri'in Cabinet. stating that a long official document f.u the Austrian letter ^Ministers had arrived at Pesth. Baron Wesst-nberg.. as King of Hungary. but hirt hi« ^^^aa exprc»»ly made to supply \»- prt-Renee in JIungnry.....-s&cd to the Palatine Areli-Duke Stephen. A iioyal hiii Meuhatje informed the Diet that the health. .-r knowledge of his M. in the name of tlu-y the Fiume Empentr of Austria and ollieers King of Croatia. had removed the received whom the Emperor. King received them with court*»y. under . had him- silf appointed. who would gi>e them to Latour.D. had imparted utw eourage to Viennrik? Cabint-t. the Hungarian Minister of Commerce. the l'alatini*'8 oHiee of own handri. stating * is tliat the King had exceeded powers in granting the Hungarians a separate respon- . in faet..Ifllachiih had.-o.I. In mean time the victdrii-H tl>e of HatKtzky. to li*aru the Latour recommended them to apply to l{oyjU intentions. but referred them of War. In the midst of tLij? j:»erplcxity and doubt a courier arrived. with the tidings that the Croats. liatthyanyi replitd. a». in Italy. Vieeroy could not e« a»o until the arrival of the King in Hungary.

':y excite<l against another.f by an autograph letter from the King.»n Irtter. aiid the Admixiistration of the Military should be com:uitt<Hl to the Austrian Ministers of Finance and War. that tlie law of Man-h. whom they now rvgarded only as blind instruments of Austrian duplicity. and Kossuth found Deputies it lUlIiciJt to n'htnuu in anger within just bounds.r *^iv'^ . spoke as foUowd '•As it the 2nd September was never my K'ss accu-tatious against another. The document was acccnnj^uiied ••\t. The presence of the Ban Jellachiclj. IVagniatic Sanc- and he wad commanded to send S'ver.S. probation of what it h\< ap- contained. tli The by this tlieir Dit't at Pesth wiu* routed to utluiM t .ioj Miiiifrtrk'. and dtmanding that the Dopartiiu-nt of fruutierjs Finanot'.D. n>v doubts whether the grievances of the Croats. therefore. until further infonualitui could reaeh iteinent against the them from Vienna.Il. yet as I did not wish i . wa:* contrary to tion. uld \h' peaceably adjusted so long as one nation V . Assembly of the when the pres«-nt state of alTairs could not have been foreseen. ISi-S sible ] DtttlMLNT OF TUE AUSTKlAN MIMSTF.>4petisable. however unf. was itKule indi. I in the (Jeneral wish to hear onj nation utter groundexpressed some years agt> Coniitiit of Pesth. he however succeeded t<» p«'rsuadiiig the wait in patience a few days.u.A. . that any jK-'ople on earth should feel themselves oppressed. Kossuth. 'llie Viennese Cabinet extended to the xNMole liHjk Au»t 1.iu of the Mciurchy. In their eageniess they were even inclined to ronr«-de m<»re than was reas«»nablo to oii tliu deluded jjcople . . I'uhitine l'\irthcT.lignati. and the Hungarians began even to wi'h u[>on the conduct of the Croats..d of the llun3fini5tri« to N'ieiuitt jrai-iim to coiifer witli the Austrian <*on Ministry oa U) the best raerJLS to secure the unity and Holidati. by wiiich the the executive power in the tlie wm entrusted A\"ith absence of the King. '. and to rcconciU' the interests of Croatia with Jluugary. ''tn.

this. la}-ing aside all gmmidless that. a» the laut Diet bail not only left these ri(. and matter of it invite tlie Croats to a haniionious settlement of differences..'». . the representatives of the country desire to offer the hand of friendship to Croatia. but mxii them and piTuliar priviK'f»eji.arian my pmpoa.. if you art- «'«nturics of union with Ilunyary. bfst friends wrrt* iitTfndfd at history of Hun. I t*ay.MOin OF KoshlTII. ha. and nut only uhan-d gnuit4*<i all their ri^htH and libertirM witli them. eountr}'.'i'«h»tion »» o'dy out* continued proof that the llun^irian people* have nlwnya oo)iduct4Hl them* sflves likr l)rfthren to the ('n»:it«." hereupon passed a resolution although all amicable advances on the part of Hunf^rj. I uiiH prv'pnrrd to Hay to (»ur fallow eiti/. we recall all and on the other hand consider the dremlful calamities inseparable from Civil War.ement8 towards the Croats. vniiry of Boven and be in (KmI'h nnnu-. 181^. n:y . declared " as had never been : intention to abate the smallest portion of the and liberties of the land of the Croatia:. of CVoatia. a» the U*.ic solemnly rights.d." &c.- would jjLidly embrace any means to preserve peace. They their -v. and to obtain a friendly understanding with them. diiqnite. they • See p.i'ns I'nf. their enfja>.s ott the pn-Ht-nt Diet deelared itself pn'parcd to niaintain the independence :uid nationality of Croatia as well a» to fulfil the ju«t and reasonable denuuuU of the C'roatu. when.htH unimpaired. . I believe it to be now high best fulfil tur.. The intelligence received firom Batthyan\-i and Deak did nation.d but.')S Mr. [a.had been hitherto met 8till in a hostile spirit. Go. but rxtrnded their newly-a^'quired libiTties to the nrinhb»>urin<.* At that time.e for the Lei»islature to take counsel in tho very com- mencement of Tlie Diet their ofhcial labours how they can tliat. 2S8.

an proofs of his fidelity to hi« Sovereign. but to mod<rate its more useful channel..nt P^man(l\ On the Hth of SeptvmlHT they arrivi-. by which th n'instated in all Ban waa likewise his dij^iitioa and olhces .-* to introduce the Deputation.^ pn-»enc<'. published an autof^rajjh letter of the • that Jellachich had King. He moved therefore. acquainting all Eiuxrjx- with the nuidcration of tluir desires.xe of the debiy wa*« sterious that momin. wad there at the ap[/ointed time. ami If audiencv was tixed for the followinj^ moniln^ nt Ifven o'clock. in the Royal Palace of Silvonbruiui. twenty of whom were from tlu' Upj^r House. vainly awaiting? both the Dejmtation.A. civiliziition ami ot I The motion was carried unanimously. the capital of Croatia. thct they shoiUd dniw up a Manifesto dt'Mcribini. tlmt they should uuii^t on an inunt-diate audience. and not remain in Vienna lon^r than four-and-twenty hours. and led by tlie Presid. a ffsto.hts had been attacked. on the 4th SepttnilH-r.-s to mh»pt by which to ascertain tlu* ultimate intentions of the Crown. agaiiit^t 359 the Ausviolenee not toinl toalbv the inditniationof the Diet trian Ministers and the Court . dated the Ith of September.D. and impatiently paci'd Uio . The Hungarian Deputies .'hed Vienna from Apram. KosHUtli proposed. Th»' deputation wa^i named on the Kpot it consist«'d of one liundriMl Dfputifs. and the I^inl Chamberhiin to usher him into the lloyul The eau. txpose the at-cret intrif^ies by which tlu-ir inalienable ri. an conunission of five Deputies named to prepare the Mani- Kossuth next pn)j>o»fd thot a deputation from tin* House should wait ujHin the King to learn his Maji-sty's intentions. Count Batthyanyi. in the first place. lSi8. i < court of the Palace. who wa. the pcrilouB state of tlie country and while it by diverting into an active and . it expressed the Royal approbation of his acts.] DEPUTATION TO TTEy>rA. news had rea«. and a bulwark of freedom shaken. .l at \ una. that the House should consider what measun.

ilevotrd to the eare of her husband's health. him that neither he nor anyone belonging to the Council of State liad been apprized of the matter. with the Ministers. that Pulszky waa completely d. but a majority at length decided that the t'eremouy must be gone through.d. and without denying the authenticity of the letter. Pulszky. but He the Austrian ^finister confined to Wessenberg assured feigned great indignation at the conduct of Jellachich.'irffly tTcdit llic niitliciitifity of the (loiil)tr(l newH . and this with such an appearance of truth.nnd while the Kiupress s. he therefore ha^stened to Wesfound senberg.State. who weeks past had been coldly received at Court. tlu'V Imd the faith «jf the Austrian Cabinet. [a. devolved on the Und -r-Secretary of . the ambitious Arch-Duehess. 18i8. Mariana lived in who had exeereised the best infbu-nce over him. lor s(tme Prince Esterliazy.'elusit)n. bed. where Batthyanyi had b en waiting for two hours. the public Jelhieliieirrt hir^e however attributed restoration to favour HoU-ly to the inlluenee of the Areh-Duehe»H S«jphia.Mi d his charge as Hungarian Minister of Foreign A Hairs. of carriages drew At one o'clock a long up at the palace. The Areh-Duke John. were at liberty to carry on their intrigues round the person of the Sovereign. but hotl not ex- peeti'd thin treaeherv at on the part of their King. to inquire whether was authentic.'MO Mi. Hc. jMeaii time the Deputation hesitated whether to proceed on tile th. as the Kujperor wan well known to be only a tool in the hands of those who surrounded him. had rt'sii. had been lalled to J'ninkfort. The Deputies were all attired in deep mourning.Moiu OF Kossi'xn. Wessenberg and Latour. and were thus tishered intt) the . and the whole management of the int 'rests of Jlungary had. When it the news of the publication of the King's letter arrived. nMi.^ir mission.'ceived.

on the 11th of April of this year. and are rebels in your Majesty's name against the freedom and independence which your Majesty lawfully guaranteed to tlie Hungarian nation. we claim the support of our crowned King. where their Pi^sident.D. but a free country. Transylvania did the same for Leopold the First. and with ardour redoubled tlirone of it by the extension of our freedom. to preserve inviolate the rights of our countr}'. gary witli is reducing peaceful villages to ashes. Pazmandy. 3G1 presence of the Kin<T. fulfilled the long cherislicd wishes Impelled by gratitude. without . on whose brow Hungary voluntarily placed her sacred Crown. " Whilst one portion of the Hiuigai'ian battle-field. from every But now a rebellion has disturbed various parts of the kingdom. tlie "NVith aeeu-stomed loyalty. whieh has ertood brunt of centuries. we appear before your ^fajesty.J ADDRESS OF TnE DEPUTIES. and the Croats have. Hungary is not a compiered province.A. wlmse constitutional rights and independence have been signed and sealed by your Majesty's inaugiunil oath. " A Ferdinand was the first of your Majesty's House. the tlie nation was prepared with unaltered attachiiu'iit to shield your Majesty from the dangers which threatened side. and the leaders openly assert that they rise in the interest of the reigning Dynasty. This sedition in the South of Hungary manner. read the Address aa tullows " In the name of the United Statos of Ilunj^ary : and our Transylvania. army sheds its blood in Italy for the interests of the ^Monarchy. of the Hungarian nation. The laws which your Majesty sanctioned with your approbation. x8-48. and causing the nmssacre of imiocent children and women in a barbarous A rebellion from Croatia likewise threatens Hun- hostile invasion. and gathers triumphant Liunls on every the anny is another portion of instigjited to refuse obedience to the lawful government of the kingdom.

Sclavonic provinces should be immediately restored bis . that the army then to perfonn it« in Hungary slmuld be eommanded defence of rights of tlu> duty in the country. [a. on the plea that were voted would not benefit the interests of the country. to Pesth. that Majesty should give his sanction to the bills passed by the Diet and. Lkstly. money now prethe manner in which they not allow of his proceeding directly to Hungar}'. and in the maint4'nanee of the just against the rebels.ariaii the nation. faltering voice. and excused himself for not sanc- tioning the bills for raising troops and sented to liim. and plaeed at the disposal of the Hungarian Ministers. and by your Majesty yourself. should mari'hed without delay into Hungary.302 MEMOIR OF KORSl'TII.:iri:Mi port riiiine ami the u Sc-lavuuic j)ruviiKV!<. «»f j)rovocation. ISiH. 'J'lifw hi'ditinnH can t<i (»iil_v ariik' frurii re-actionary party Histt'ney who arc att<Mnpting destroy the conthe frt't-doin and iiiti't^rity of Miiiit^ary. Hungary or whatever uanie they might usurp: that the people of t<» Croatia miglit be relieved from the military despotism which they were subjected. He also alleged that the delicate state of his health would pliance Anth the desire of his faithful subjects. in the midst of his people. that the King should come in person . and enabled to lay their lawful demands before the Hungarian Diet that Fiume and th«* . that tlie Hungarian be regiments. read his reply. the Emperor. not employed against the enemy. and to preserve the integrity of the country.D." tlir Piizniandy tlu-n petitions of pnKTi'ded to lay hrfore the Kint. and. ocfU[)ir(l llic lIun.. in com- . violate the laws to in a in- He promised to maintain which he had sworn. support and direct the measures of the Diet. whatever standard.anct-H- tors of your Majesty.. llun. and of the Constitutional Govern- ment. aiui to i-anorl laws Hwoni to by tht. to tlu* aiiniiiihtti' of tlu- nation. At the conclusion of the Address.

. September.AD. FonbUuujue. ^»everaJ of the Him- that day been in attendance on the King.* CIlAPTEIi XVI II. they as a sign of their deterniiiuition to On ' their arrival at mounted the red feather in their hats wage war with Croatia. . and the Hungarians were lor the four past now nmde aware that months they had been the dupes of the Austrian Court. the red Hag instead of the tri- waved from the nia»t of their vessel «iloured standard of Huniran'. needed we will come Hungary . 131. 3G3 As the Emperor concluded his unsatisfncton. Bee the Memoirs of a ilungiiriau Lady.JJuke Francis his Colleagues Charles— liesiy nation of Batthyanyi and • Kor the account of the arrival an«l «leriarturD of tbc deputation. i>. and descended the stairs of the palace. " As soon as we are garian body guard. As they who hod to quitted the audience chamber. eaid to their countrymen. Nothing had bt^vn stated to throw a shadow oi" doubt upon the authenticity of the letter to the Ban.General at Bclyrade — — The Arch.s the Deputation stepped upon the steamer which was to convey them from \'ienna to Pesth. VoL i.' reply. the Hungarian capital. 18-iS. ISiS. The commencement of the llumjaruin lievolution solely to he KoKsuth desirous to strengthen attributed to Austria the country — — Jtllachich crosses the Dravc— Publishes a inhabitants Manifesto — Conduct of Latour towards of Jfei-sskirchen Jtllachich astnutcd by Austrian troops Mr. the Deputies bowed in silence. liritish Conduct of his soldi<'rs — — tl»^ Consul.] DEPABTUBE OF THE DEl'UTATIOK." and a.

all they and their world. The unhappy Princes. Tnc revolutionary the mass of spirit of IS-iS had not yet reached Hungary privileges rights and which obtained recently had the people entitled them to be considered free citizens. — The Diet ship iif calls upon KoxHttth to the count ri/ — The Arch-Duke auume the Dictator- Stephen ocyuainta the Deputies with the resit/nation upon the subject piiseg to — Advance of JelUichich — Kossuth prowaitinr/ invited. to undertake the government until the King had appointed Cabinet — Batthyanyi second* this motion — lieasons for the confidence of the nation in Kossuth and Szemere still — Szech*nyi Kossuth —Resolution of retires Batthyanyi — trusts that — country Is — He desires conciliatory measures may save the to form a Mitiintry without Kossuth supported by the Palatine — Tin- uositnm nf the Palatine towards his own family.i3 now apparent. w. and Belgium. 1848. influL'nce of one family. and contented with that which they had already received. and not ITungary. Lombar ly. -with few exceptions.S(U MEMOlll or KCSSUTU. treachery v»-as now added on the part of the monarch. a of has destroyed the Constitutional . had been victims to the ambition of the Hapsburg D\Tiastv. AusTniA. which has given to the succession unworthy Governments of Spain. Bohemia. [a. of Minisfera — Debute complete his financial plan — The Diet determine for the Royal the nru) on levying the truops without sanction — Kossuth with Szemere. by folly or misfortune. Austria. . had commenwd a Revolution. and riveted the most bigoted form of Romanism round their necks: and the intention of the Royal Family that Hungary should form another of the unhappy nations who.d. As if it were not sufTiciently galling to a nation to be subject to the illegal control and interfortnce of a foreign Cabinet.

and Peace. the inhabitants. Jellachich led lie had j)ublished a manifesto in The very night following the day when the Jhmgarian iiis army across which he stated priestc tluit the Drave.. the Nobles and the people. in compliance with the royal commands. the river which separates Croatia from llcnigary.iar}-. IJatthyanyi still hoped and believed measures of coneili<ition.'ir Croatia the Sclavonic popidation of llinigary turned a leaf ear to their exhortations. Two Lutheran master of the name of Stur. excited the . or by the violence of deputation returned to IVsth. and that a mutual good understanding should subsist between them and plendour of a Court tlieir lawfiJ sovereign. he advanced towards IVsth tlie in the interests of freedom and of United Kingdom. 3G5 Nobles required was. by another of too much. that ]Iuugary should be allowed the tree exercise of her aneient Coustitutioual form of GovernAVitii the ex- ment.A. v ho. 1818. a town on the southern borders of llun. "uly by a display cf the power and stivngth of the country lat « ouhl be maintained he wtus accused by one party of too little. and the two leaders only dillercd aa to the mode in which it uiiyi >uld best III be attained.] JELLACniCn CROSSES TUE DIIAVE. ception of a small body of men who were dazzled with the life. and their oiiicers that it would be an easy matter to march upon and that the Iliuigarian army of only eight thousand regular troops would either join them or retire before their superior numbers. but he was not to riglit be moved from the path which he deenu'd by the timidity of Aristocratic factious demagogues. while Kossuth foresaw it was the Throne. the existing form of Government. licfonncru. Batthyand Kossuth. the Croatian -ixty-five army nuistered were persuaded Pest!. but wide as was II tlu. At Weis!*kirehen. thousand men. moderation. . considered themsiOves subject to the decrees .D. had one and the sjime end in view."soldiery and a schoolby promises iiUluence of a great Sclavonic kingdom.

d. in a and Arad. by the ear-rings and rings of M'omen offered for sale with the ears and fingers of those to whom they had belonged still attached to them. the British Consul. devastating the country before the Prince of that country of the disgusting spectacle presented in the market-place. Latour replied that he lamented the fate of the inhabitants of Weisskirchen. Austriim officers.866 of tlie MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. Tlie stores of arms and ammunition collected by the order of tlie Hungarian Diet in the fortresses of Esseg and Peterwardein for the purpose of defence had been distributed among the insurgents by the Austrian Commanders of these garrisons. and steadily to persevere in the course they had hitherto adopted. while the Hungarian Ministers were acting in accordance \nth. repulsed the enemy. the law he could only advise them to wait patiently. Such was the barbarous conduct of his soldiers that Mr. [a. that. was obliged to lay a complaint garrisons of Temesvar corps. Jellachich had meantime been joined by a detachment of Austrian cuirassiers. Deak had had an audience with . had been three times attacked by and the third time received a summons to surrender from the Imperial Lieutenant-Colonel Mayerhofer. they would be released from tlieir embarrassment. in the present time. and as he advanced. joined his army. the doubt that. and tlie rebels. since while they were obeying the commands of the Hungarian Ministers.General at Belgrade in Turkish Servia. 1848. cut off by the troops and auxiliaries of Jellachich. Before leaving Vienna. Fonblanque. regardless of the sent a deputation to Latour. Hungarian Cabinet. besides other Austrian and committing the most horrible cruelties on the Magj'ar and German population. them how they were expected to act. to request biju to inform War. Though the inhabitants were all German they refused to comply. and he had no few days. were leading the rebellious Serbs against them. Austrian Consul in Belgrade. the Austrian Minister of law.

fi'om the Imperial House and that the intrigiies to undermine. In in patience for the further resolutions of the Diet. Madai'ass declared this announcement it to be contrary to law. Paul r> } ary was at length deputed to address the people. the Diet began to mistnast the conciliiitoiy policy of Batthyanyi. that he had already sent a new list of Ministers to A^ieuna. and his proposal to govern alone to be likewise contrary to law. announcing the resignation of the Cabinet to the Diet. He warned him that " the measures of the Viennese Cabinet would for ever estrange Hungary. . since." Sfive the country. Em- aud the father of his successor on the Austrian throne. and solenuily sanctioned by the King. to this A-iew of the question. Batthyaiiyi and his colleagues resigned on their return to Pe&lK. he acquainted the Deputies. that the voices of the speakers within the House coixld not be heard. and on the Pazmandy officially announced the failure of the de- ])utation in their mission to Yieniia. would greatly .] EESIGKATION OF MI>TSrEES. "can became such. shake the authority of the Crown. and the noise and tumult at last alone. the brother of the peror. as want-ed the counter-signature of the INIinistere themselves. opposed the motion. which had been constitutionally voted. tlie Kossuth assented and further demonstrated that Palatine had nnnecessarily adopted this couise. and persuade them to wait The Arch-Duke Stephen. "He }iamed Dictator. and in fact to nullify the laws.A. Prom that hour wlien the flagrant treacherj^ of the AuytrJan Court had been exposed. ISJrS. as the coimtry could only be ruled by a responsible Ministry. let him be The multitude without re-echoed the words of the Deputies." they cried. anxious to prevent any occasion of oflfence to the Imperial family. and now -with one voice called upon Kossuth.D." 11th. 367 the Arcli-Duke Frauds Charles. aud that until he had received the Eoyal approbation he intended to take the Government into his own hands.

" the notes should be received in coin. . Troope piupose of defending the country.„. They were all ..defeudera of the oountry. . the Diet n. arrived of the hourly ad^iuioo of JeU Diet and tiial the liun^^rian cuq)ii of obm-nration va« K»»i«i«uth |»r<»j>osed ri'tirin^ lufore him. atinouuiviiicitt of the Palatine was null and News meantime inchioli. wliich was vet unsanctioned by the King. tuioontlitionally rtjeeted l>y the Kin^.. and that their standard^ all uniform. as well as the people. \. accepted unanimonidy. by which he ho|>ed to provide for the defenee of the countrv.... had bein llin . m<a. and whirh. and dition of not being who Berved eoldy OD th« coo- infantry and artillery employed for any other purpoee. * The Diet. rt-taiiH-d iiii* until the a^ nt the new MiiUMtrv.Miilll (tl Ktts>llll. i(>l^ *' ai'iiK-l liatl n-xitjiud.: . though un- confirnud by the Sovereijoi- l''urthcr it was dc* : ' ' * the bat t:\lionsj of llonveds* should receive the till1 MI. The ex- tremity of the times justified this act of the Diet. and tho ther»*forf without hui count4fr<Hiig- natiirt' \iiid. Majesty Hlmll ((auction the «>f law for opening a credit to • meet the want** the eoiuitr}'.30S tli<»u. and a de(*laration his nuitl. with the reitt of the Minititeriol UilU. -Icr of of tlu- Jiitorittr. which thus took upon itself to bring a law into force. oHiiH- S/. they cmjwwored the Mi troops granted by the law pa!<»cd in the Diet. lerieJ for th« expreas Honveds .»'iiii'rt*.il value of tl 1". maud in the Hungarian language. for the circulation of the Uvo florin Minister of Finance.. :. revenue derived from the land...U. They all public banks in place of 1 and aa the country could not be * time of dauffor. and badges. guanintce tlie full nomin. that the HJiouhl authorize him to com|ilete hi« financial mrheme. and as representatives of the nation. should be Hungarian..

I in named the man K»»s. checked the violence of the Kadicals. 1 better than none." Kossuth resumed list is place on the ^lini^te^^a! benehcs. He was desired by the llou. though refused by the the ex. let it .J KUJiSllU BlL8rMi:8 HIS SKAT. should have defniitively setth-d the t'abinet." he t«) prepare a of Ministers to act provisionally. and u was sent to the I'alatine to acqujiini Iiii. had become absolutely necessary to supply the country. but the enforcement of law*. We need a and energetic Goveniment. The general voice has already say. that the ground seemed to be giving way beneath it. 1 . until the King.-o Louia us confide the Oowill vernment to him. and Louis Uatthvanvi expressed his acquiesccmt' in the general desire. to be hi»jH(l.. and Tli<* that that unanimity was wanting irnsponsiblility law.D. In order to carry out the resolution just voted. and an hour of daji. but unitid present moment. 300 expected that Kossuth would liave immediately assumed the Dictatorship. w hich. but that he proposed nothing. or the Palatine as his y I' . >' '1. let us tni. :i action necessarv. and were disap)>oint«'d to find that he not only vas unanihitious of the honour. Ko>8uth v^as unaiiinumsly called u|)on to resume his seat beside Sjiemere on the Ministerial benches. like the present. ajnidst enthusiastic cheers. among us of the Vii-eroy in is neither accordant with uor nH|uired the responsible. fear of "It is "that no one will suppose that the colleagues impending dangers has chased me and my from the Ministerial benches. his calmness and njoderat ion effect of tranquillizing the public r had the immediate it mind at . tliat n u . i*»jns« Our iit resignation was onlv a that in the present difis quence of our ackti' \ii\a ficult cireuuistanivs. any direction is for at all events in be guided in a decided dinx'tion. thenfore. and inspired hojH\ all with The Diet recovered its etjuilibrium the very moment.«iuth.

s not only mark of collea^gues. but at tlu* mtH ill«'{^al. of its But it had ever been his principle to spirit . but an acknowledgment that his riewa though opposed of his to those of most were correct as to the present junc- what ture. his opposition to the policy of his Chief. at the eoncluMJon of the war. 1S18.«ures. had been to urge the people to reminly existing grievances by prompt and effective niea. the Under 8ecretarie« of Stute of the hit*- MiiiiHterH. w ere now all justified . but he had been obliged to yield to the sanguine ho|)es and credulity of Batthyanyi . and without violence. and therefore that the wouiuled and aged should receive of tlm-c iMMisions. ^ll(lu^(^ and the Tli«' wi'In'^H hiu! ipriili:iiis ^ho fill In- maintained. particular confidence. end invited them to a conference the following day. Dionys Pazmandy (the IVoiiU'iil the Diet). ward otf rather than invoke the revolutionary his constant aim. named hiu coadjutora. and to ctrry them out eteadilv. While the Deputation were with the Palatine. and moved that the new battalioiiH of Ilonveihi should. Koitsuth dilated on hi» Hnaneial HchemeH. Diet (. and roused the country to a sense danger. be connidert'd a« belonging to the regular troops. luimo time reqiUBted hin Ko8i*uth the iiirwurfw they hud adopted. that to place the country in a state of defence was the surest guarantee for peace. Diet ha\ing naimd a Ku. and his energetic endeavours to enforce the laws conceded in March. to conHuit upon the ort^iuuKation of a Pr<»vi»ional Government. .' for Hungary in He had always urged. Ix-nideH i»f Paul Nvary. and Baron Perenyi.'oiiMiiliTtHl Ilia rcet'iit (i|)iiii(Mi t»f iu» [ad.-'Ulli hca»l ut t!»c' rrovihiuiial Mini>iry wa.370 tliL' MiMoiii or Kosbi ru. for not having sooner detached himself from his colleagues. but always to keep within the boundaries of law.-. waa necessan. he was even blamed by some. indeed. his suspicions of the Austmn Cabiuet had been fully confirmed.

though sincere u l» 1 in his prttfessions of confidence in him acting as Provisional Minister. should an open rupture take place b«twecn the and the nation. for the King. whicli wi-re unfavourable to quillity true liberty. As a I'rinor of the blood royal he was naturally disimlin d to separate himself from tlie other njerabers of the House of Hapsburg. his sincere attac'iment to Hungary. for the liberty and independence of the people.A. all the grievances complained of were imput<'d to evil a^^lvisers about the throne. Above they admonished the people to refrain from violent demonstration*. ISki. Still farther. contrary to his own inclinations . while. and to revive the feeling of loyalty towards the Sovi-reign. yet now. had been strengthened by S D 2 owing . and. made by tlie enemv. 371 On the 12th of September Kossuth aiid Szemere pro- resolutiun to use every means to repel the threatened danger. The jealousy between the H4>_\al branches of the elder and younger Family n-sembled that between the dislike enter- Bourbons and Orleanists of France. aud the tained by the near relatives of the Emperor towards the his Arch-Duke Stephen. Hatthyanyi alone still nourished hopes of peace and con- cdiation with Austria. but to be ready. ported in this view by the Palatine. The proclamation was received witli loud cheers. at the same time. He had entreated Kossuth to con- tinue in the Cabinet.] TUt lALATINE. Bueh as those of the preceding dav. and his sense of justice made him lean towards the cause of tlin)ne the people. if possible. even at the last hour. to avoid the collision with his l)e He was sup- who desired. first. he proposed to form a Cabinet from which he sliould be excluded. to the excitement which prevailed. to liined their accept any amicable advances ail. secondly. since the utmost tmnto allow the ministers to was required which overcome the appease diUiculties lay before them.U. own family to which he would exposed. his libend views.

— t Secret Correspondene* ' Tvonrt to i preccnt luimberg going to camp — The Pesth at the illegal city — Is — He Diet declares the appointnteni of Lamherg arrires in Pest h— Is advised to Irace the murdered by the mob — Sensation 314.o.. tin* iuflucnci* [a. an rouses Hungary to enrr- grtie oppiiinled ijciy action— Xew battalions formed Count Lamberg Commander-in-Chief of the trt-'ps in llun- — and Croatia — Pulszlry remonstrate* with Latomr on - the illegality of this appointment hrttcern I^atour and Jcllachich — PuJ-. xiii p. iiotwitli- »nd by ninny iiubM'qucnt ^tuullinf» tlu* «'-«t«'cni uf n-oi patriutijim. (IIAITKK \i\ September. of luM tmn family. or a dt-nin* to liiiu r> IfttiT. Arch-Dukc puMu i> <'iurki-t-|iliu>«- A^rani title and ad(ln*»«in^ him. whirli f«-ar. King to order Jcllachich to tcithJt^. 1846 mainly to ai*tM of Kuwiuth.372 fii» Mcuoin or eU'ctiuii n» Palatine Kosiirii. imtmidiHl hu«l <if in an to .* iiturfd to JiUnchich btfo the in unrrprovnl «heD in the ht* bum at thi- imap«' . in the Diet — — Letters found on I^mherg — The battU of Sukoro — JtUachich appointed Military Dictator of Ilungary • See chill. lbl«. Kossuth anil the Palatine — Jtatthyanyi imfonat the J)lel he — KoMtuth has been appointed by the J'alati$te to form » neie Cabinet tiipj>ort4 Jiatthyanyi — Thf nete i'ahtmet— The Palatine takct the rrtjurxts the command vf the armtf — II i . . he ^ r<-fii»ed hin) the of Palatine.' MTito. Palatine rrerire* a tetter from the rrfuset to meet the Palatine retires to — The King— Jrllaehich ( Germany — Kt'stuth Palatine viBigns..

a gcxMl undi-rvtojidiivR with King.a*t From am the grt-at nen'ice hax of opini«in tlmt the fulun* our country will bt- rundered impossible. but. above look to the great end. the Arch-l)uke aiid the Diet and any thing which would I fompel ui» to act indeiH'ndmtly of him. tliat nothing is so desirable for the country as that the Diet should maintain a pH>d uiKh'nitanding is with the .D.- them equally • in the preiteut. 1S48." pres«*ned by the maint^-nanw of thene rights and N'j^ides. if |>0!t{4iblt'. h'lherto done our cause. Pjiiatino. fight. I ilvation of i.M. I. or at improbable.^ Ktcp he had been inducinl to take.. exerlionM.\rch-Duke.] TUE of the Croat* i. at any HJiglil tfereDCo of opinion. Con- vinced as I nm. Zichif 873 Drftvtt — Death Sztchcnyi. trtjed U|)on " I the nienibera tlieir maintain. merits ail t}i.ih lenoed our Miniiiterial cann-r the 1) An-h-Duke no bed of his . to whom the nation owes unbounded thanks for l>i.' :.t. whoever may undertake the J 1 :it. an- cx'lfd for « ^i. whilf cx)uunl»»ioned by the r^'ijri't An-h-Duke to ciprt'sn hi« for the ilK*.iry nuu»t bear uitnesik • what a hard battle he has to n>se<i Hinco haj* wo com> n*jK>»ed h.AriXE. tlie House will not take umbrage all. "that the Areh-Duke St^-phen. . should any eatmngement occur between ." he otnitinmyi. :.«. undiT Uj>on til' cin-iim^tanees of the time. stat.'r\ievrt a the past Diet. hut the finnntnM with which he -<ip|>ort4*<l our just denuuuls has brought him into eollisioii lie \Tith own family. I who faithft^ to the rights of the am also convinced that the thrune can only be liln-rties. it is of imj)ortanee that tlje pri'wnt proxisional 'lould not continue. aiid who. of Count — Guryry — Gencnil Jloya. sliouli consider the greatetit miiifortune which could IxJall llungar}'. ation. to tl)t> Kossi'Tii was as de«irou« m Batthyanyi or the maintain. and lia/thyanyi — Kossuth. I and that we should receive a di-finitive trust that.-< «K. he duty towards him jwrsonally. and.A.

to acquii-vce in thia motion. wlio. Count Alexander Erdody. the P:i.ih. rdldy. when J/ouia liatthyanyi rfiac and a»Mun*d them tlu-ir wiahea had lHi*n fon-irt ailed. and the extrenu' nouncement had but Ufore they luul extended further. at the same time. as the President of the hible tlie first respon- Ministr}'.r ttalvntion of our t-ountn'. Baron Nicolas Vay.'i- as the P. announwd an unexpected chan|»e in the Ministers where the names of Kossuth and Szemere did not apjH'ar. deserved This declaration silenced the numt en^dit for obtaining the couc»s«iona of Man-h. was sent by ' ' to the Viennese Diet. Baron Baron Pionys Kemeny." preparinf. Percrol.u ! •«eU'rt«'d a man wIiojh* d with l.. projx)<ing that a cot. after the Arch-Duke. Kiuiii-als with their leaden*. and the uamew. and was enthusiastically receired by the troops.. l.flufLCf of I privatf iiyin|mthi«-ii or iuiti|iathiea move that the IIoum* aiipoint a di-imtatiun to lar theae I'nlntiiu-.iti. Coloman tJhicxy.uaa and to name the deputation. and thrrctun' iii»t auuw tuc to prevail.. romsettle poscd from both Parliaments. and that lie himiielf had bet-n already cunonandol by the Pala> tine to form a new Cabinet. Murmun left of diaapprobation followed this an* fn»m the ijallerieH . It consisted of Josrf E«it\-oi«. one who. should be appointed to .r'. inan A deputation. an^i AT.- At the request of Batthyanyi. Madnmss and fn>ni and removed all further ob?t- ' the Palatine and Hatthyanyi. on the mor list of of the 13th. aijd ^iewB IxTorc the to di-nuutd tho t<'nmri-tv" l»y of our IVoviHioiial (ioMTumfut thf power* grant*'! by tlu' hiWB of ISIH. The IIouM.i. of Huii^arinn freedom. S/furl.i- General Meszaroi".c Icfi 1' to place himself at the head of the Hungarian army agri l: Jellachieh. KoMUth ' rose to expresti his satiafaetion that the wishes of the Diet lHH>n antii'ijmted.

he dismissed the boats to the despaired of reconciling his duty steamer.Duke Stephen an autograph colli- from the King. na from a foreign couutr}*. He therefore invite*! Jellachich to a conference . 375 thf (iifftTt iiits The Scla- vonic nu'nibiTs of the VieiiiH'sH.Duke reached the middle of the lake. voted witk the Ministerial party. and The steamer containing the Cn>atian on the south-iast^-m. but tliat all things else should be But letter inst4>a«l of Jellachirh being orden*d re*vive«l to >»ithdraw his troops." . immediately . and in»|uired if they gave their consent t<i his departuH'.D. indi'i>«-T'<h of the Empire. and having.ilachich should be commanded to withdraw his trtH)p5 from Hangar)'. Tlio Archand Ilnn/ irU-s an. upon the HuIaton (I'latten Stv) in view of both armies the llungarmns being encamped on the north-western bank of the lake. as he exiHcted.A.>»trian it«»elf tut Hungary nt Y. and Si-eured a majority ni^ninst receiving the deputation. HH-eiveil a negative from them. comntanding him to avoid any sion with the Croatian army advancing upt>n Pesth.Diet. result of their miiwion.m\ a separale nation. the . that he could only fonii a Cabinet on condilion J. .'roatia "1 be settled by arbitration. ixnM'fn Huni^ary and to a(*quaint the tliat K • _'. who now his countrj- and to the Imperial House. and that all questions ndating to (. A« wkju as Hatthyanvi learnt the he desired Puls/. on the ^rtunid that injustituted Au. ' Majesty approved of the ctinduct of the Areh-Duke St4*phen 111 taking the command of the IIunt^ri:m lro<»pH. the Arch. The to Palatine. the deputation must be tvnsiderr*'.-i*! had nothing to objeet to the names which Count Uatttivanyi propo«i>d for his Cabinet pro\ idi'd. aj»d boats wen* sent to eonvey Jellachich and his aid-de-camp but the Han turned to his officers. that " His nuke I'r:. 1848 "I THE PALATINE. An h. however.«*»ered for tho King.

but tho s<^tlemn strains of the no music be beard upon our boundRakoczy March . and the •iiid he exhorted the iluno ^'urian nation to fulfil crush the enemy in«j gloA tcm»s he : riae to a man who invaded their country aad in denounced those who should ahriuk from ita an imjM'rative duty. in a call to anna. to «houi Tt-fi^rft i-&|>rt*i«fH-d d(*f|) for tin* wliioh lie uw nv art. ' lastly.'«ia«m of the |>eople . lie appealed to the eternal decriHtj of the Ahnighty jKjwer. hundred. but unHU))]>orted by moral rectitude enthu.itthynnyi iiiin^^ination. [a. hopea of hia country. let him collect ten. vtnive to the »inkini. fifty. ctiich and hU forces were at that time Btationed. and marshal them the way to Voszprim.hteoti« raui*o jK'rjurv injtu^tice. lit* 3fo^. ptrt'onnanif I'rtidoni. *nd excite tbe to iMiId and energetic action. . and fame of haj» Hungary in theae w<irdii: be NNho influence in a County. ' of thr bmin.37G Mi. by furttukcn whom none are who do and not fomake themai'lvea. He ' sArr- wanlH n*tin'd to iiiiiiiH'd futalt-H in (ifmiany. . llun^rv roii!«e ]K>4)pli> the Cmatijui army ita but KoMUth. nnmt eventually triumph over he deiH'ribed the host of Jellachich a3 great in number.* between Veszprim and Weisaenburg. nirrv " phantom » . 'i-iui tounnU liin till' wator which other* kno«r to be folI«iw»'«i tiit* i. „ liiko tlif thiruly man .ml tin* Moiuirt'by. in n priK-htiiiation hnjuent from {Mitriotic ardour. where JeUa> * Veszprim. or even in a villap-. of and riling to fu'. ini|M>ndin(.MoiK or kosKiTii. . a es many as he can gather. (ivrr Ilun^^ary liiii r. he hailed the future happiness. and .d. then* ho luu rvrr f»iu«T in a iMirt of luMiMumMr r\ in lh«' drin-rt. let oiiu raise his iCSii banner : let plains. while to n>niiit i atill miatnuting the power of . the on the northern shore of the lake B41aton. and fntv haiii(nK*d to lit- had his tli«-n- an inU-nirw uith iNiUxkv. and by whoae divine law n ri>. 'on* ilintion with Austria. a thousand foUowera. n» li. IMS. rcttipicd t)u> c(>iiinmnd U) (fi'nenil X'iriina. «i.

and \olunt«Trjj jHiur< in even fnuu Vienna.•owardiee. titade to No it ntt<-ini)t wa« put a atop to theite pnK*ee«liiigH. well- File ap|H-al I waii (wariLj lV»th. and therefore he could not accept onlers from his Majesty's Austrian Ministers. An attempt of the Austrian Ministers to moke f all the ir. ISiS ] APPEAL or K088UTU TO THE NATION. And on with thb* grave »liall Mtand a ' nionuuient ju- e< ribfd a record of our »haine. fell. ^ submit to Jella- 1. or the UAine. 377 women <:• shall dig a det'p grave. the honour. which he had n'ceived from Latour.' or iiAjly we will plant on it the tree of liberty. fliM-aking an from the .iiJ).« but wa« not their intention field they should Je their (juarrel on the of batth- a \ictonf." sent The pre- circum8tanc«'s of the countrj' therefore seeme<l cal- culated to end the predatory and savage mode of warfare . tuul refused to thee ^-orrison of Komorn lie surrender to the Ban in spite of an express i. enlist in fix-odom. where enlijitmeuts took place for Hungary under the ver)' eyi*« of the Auatrian MiiUHteni. renown. even il' g:uned by Jellachich.'' r-ave. from out whose foliage bIuiU fierj- heanl the voice Mose. eter- green. by n*ndering liungar}'. it nmttem des{M-rate b«^ween her and should the waa thercforv of in)i)ortanc«> that this be prev«'nt*Mi. to the lliuii^urian tl ThouHnndt lit reamed nnny new . the ry.'.r. for wait to thein a ntatter of indilference t how nuuiy llungarianM and Croats tliat : ought and .re«»ed .-*. n [ili«'»l "that the King conveyed his legal orders by the Hungarian Ministers. in which wo w ill bury our nation of lluiw cuemicu. — 'The do I thuit to that effect . would ha\e been dijuidvantageous to Austria."pot bush to on which thou »tande«t ' ijt holy ground. a« long as the cauae of Austrian des|M>ti8Ui it |ir':. iMitalions were fonncd. So God punishes Ik* . cf God. To the Mo^^arM not unan«wer\<d.

that required. and represented to him that the act was in law null and void. by all appointing Count Lamberg. commander-in-chief of the troops in Hungary. that in P\ilszky immediately published the treasonable C(»TTespond- rnce at his ovm. [a. 18i8 in a regular battle . chastise the University. of substituting a for ment they could best centralized government the lawful independence of Hungary.373 hitherto MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. and that should Lamberg be instrumental in such an act. the sensation these letters occasioned was the greater. Department believed that by this arrangeattain their object. in direct violation of the laws.D. -snthout the counter-signature its present form would not be respected by the Hungarian people. and deliver the Emperor from thraldom . Latour replied an" Greneral Lamberg was provided with all he grily. and that the counter-signature was perfectly unnecessary. risk. In them the officers of Jellachich avowed their intention. and thus unite the garrisoned towns. for having ventured to assume the highest authority in the State." Letters which had passed between Latour and others connected with the Austrian Ministers and Jellachich were at this time intercepted. he would render himself amenable to the charge of high treason. to advance upon Vienna. if . waged by the Croats. after destroying Pesth. since Latour had just before pledged his word . No sooner did Pulszky hear of this decision than he hastened to Latour. the Hungarian and Croatian armies Cabinet determined to prevent this between and the Viennese untoward event. whether Croatian or Hungarian. under one head Diet. and gave a plain v\'idence of the understanding which existed between them it uf the Hungarian Prime Minister. he was further empowered to dissolve the he considered Austrian War The Court and the it necessary. as well as the two armies. and hundreds of copies were circulated in Vienna itself.

and endeavour to persuade him not he also despatched a courier to Batthy- who fully expected that Lamberg would in the first instance join the Hungarian camp. all expectation. until it had received the counter-signature ol Batthyanyi. and had therefore hastened thither himself on the 27th of September. . and advised his instantly leaving Pesth for the army. Lamberg. instead of joinin. The Diet . avoid obser\'ation. On the evening of the 27th tho Diet met. whom the Diet had appointed to assist the Minis ters in regulating the disposition of the troops raised for tlie protection of the country. A report meantime had gained ground. and declared the appointment of Lamberg to bo illegal.D. resolved to coun- tersign his appointment. left He the Committee of Defence in Pesth. ISIeantime Pulszky. set out for Buda. Lamberg ridiculed these precautions. and thus prevent the possibility ol the disasters which he feared might otherwise residt. and National Guards put in their stead.A. commissioned a personal friend to he must incur.r the camp. 379 official of honour to the Viennese Diet. arrived at Pesth and hastened to the Chief Jus tice. and of garrisoning it with the Austrian troops which had just been dislodged on account of suspicions being entertained of their loyalty towards the Hungarian Government. that he had come to Pesth with the intention of taking possession of the citadel of Buda. and entering a public carriage. presided over by Kossuth. whom he found confined to bed from indisHis son immediately acquainted the General with the excitement which raged in the town against him. to proceed further anvi. offering at the same time to conduct him by a private way to position. that he had had no communications with Jellachich. anxious to save risk Lamberg from the he executed the commands of the Austrian IMinisters.] COUXT LAMBEBG. Contrary to Mailath. 1848. if follow him to Presburg.

and marched thither to secure the gates. [a. and the other a Hungarian from Transylvauiai put an end to his citadel of life. The multitude armed with scythes. A coiyier was despatched to Batthyanyi. Independent of the crime which appeared to sully tLo greatness of theii- cause. Unfortunately. but when they saw B. the infuriated mob dragged body through the streets. and believed his The news of the mur- der struck horror tlirough the Diet an immediate inquest was ordered upon the body. :iiul MEMOiu OF KossL Ku. take they began to dif«per8e. one a (ierman student. and eitadel of Buda wa« threat- ened. .siith rii. and the next iustant two yoinig men. when rumours Balof^li reaelied the H0U8C of a tumult in the streets. "With the news Batthyanyi also received three autograph letters from the King.3S0 was ttittiiif^. and entreating his Majesty to put a stop to those illegal pro- ceediugs on the part of the Austrian Ministers which Iw. just as they reached the bridge of boats connecting Bud-i with Pesth. . which had been foimd on the person of Lamberg. assassination to be a patriotic deed. and no one could tell what consequences might follow in the army. they met Lamberg drivuig towards the citadel he was immediately recognised. led to so dreadful a result. He was mucu beloved by the troops.h tjuiet possession. was rnhirj.ilop. dragged from the carriage. and the following day Kossuth moved an address to the King expressive of the grief of the Hungarian Diet at what had occurred. plaeed himself at the head of a band of volunteers. and a search made for the murderers.d. followed. and to proclaim martial law his . containing an order to seize upon tlie Buda. 1S48. when he heard the ery that the hastened down. but they had already effected their escape. the Hungarian Diet felt the murdei of Lamberg to be a political misfortune. In his pockets papers are reported to have been found.s.iji^ upon his hchfiueB for the clflciK-fH of the eouutry.

000 Croats. he hiinsfll" . and his Croats General Moga. Cs. and appointing him ^lilitary DicOn the 5th. however. a body of 12. under Generals Eoth and Phillipsnch. led by the Deputy Joseph Vidos the same day a Koyal Message was conveyed to Jellachich. Laiiiberg Eign his appoiiitment .] 'A^hich EA. Jellachich for other feelings..TTLE OF SUKOBO. It was the commencement of the decisive battle of Pakozd t)r Sukoro.4. Diet.ipo. were obliged to surrender to Perezel. besides twelve cannon. in which the Ban was repulsed. received the first fire of the cannon of the Hungarian army.D. and it was considered a brilliant action to have been executed by a raw levy of troops. Jellachich took advantage of this to retire in the and reached Raab. 381 by oup of was coniinaiidi'd to counter- by a second. Batthyauyi. Gorgey. On tlie 3rd. as sixty officers were captured. : . hope- and feeling himself incapable of disentangling or even breaking through the web of treacher}' raid despotism which Austria was weaving around her. luider the com- mand of the Austrian Lieutt-nant-Culonel Xugeiit. 1S48. and hastened to Vienna. proclaiming a suspension of the Hungarian institutions.000 Croats. i'nmediately resigned his place as Minister. were attacked and routed by a body of National Guards.joi such as had been feared. did not followfled in confusion. tator of Hungary. ^vas '. whose name now became first knoAm in Hungary. upon the troops of the murder of Lamberg was They were burning with impatience to encounter the enemy. Perczel conducted the aflair. seven standards. but granted the enemy an armistice of three I'he eflect .!'3S authorised to dissolve the for his country. where he expected reinforcements from Latour. and Only a few days previouslv. 5. George Mailath was made Statholder of Hungary and by the third. and Gorgey. days. up his victory. uight. eleven thousand muskets. and had no place left On the morning of the 29th.

who had entered with him the city of StuJil "Weissenburg. soon after the invasion of Jellachieh Szechenyi. Hitherto Kossuth had had to contend against time-rooted prejudices.cnt that futility of his schemes. his guilt having been fully proved. no generous aspirations for the good of mankind. hidden under the veil of plausibility Batthyanyi liad retii'od in disgust and aud sophistry. where he arrangt'd his affairs. 18i8.D. A spirit of a different order was patriot.382 MEMOIB OF K0S8TTH. Batthyanyi gonism with the Hungarian and Szechenji had been like men walking in the pure but dim atmosphere of the early dawn they could not yet bear the day. . ]\Iany of those whom he had opposed. and charged with carryini^ on a treasonable eorrespondenee with the enemy. while Count Paul Zichy was discharged and sent to Pestji. Szcchenj-i and Bat- thyanyi. by the verdict of Gorgey. had left Pesth for his house in the country. they might judgmeiit or of incapacity to see truths. . . he was condemned and forthwith hung. [a. sorrow. and lunatic asylum in the proceeding to Vienna. Count Eugene liad been appointed Koyal Administrator by Jellachich. but they had left the night far behind them Gorgey aud Kossuth were opposite as darkness and light. and aud the dissolution of the Ministr)-. and the interested views of men who had been set apart from their fellow citizeus by aristocratic privileges. "Whatever might have been their errors of character. now rising into anta- There was no sympathy for the human race in the heart of Arthur Gorgey. who had been seized by their own peasantry. there to mourn over the larr. and who coninianded a body of Iluiif^arian troops. had rtceivod as prisoners Counts Eugene and I'aul Zichy. placed himself as a patient in a vicinity of the Austrian Capital. and to he had not sooner le<imt wisdom of Kossuth. and after a trial before a court martial. were gradually approximating to be excused their his opinions. among others.

however.] AKTIIUR GORGET. but in times replete with difllculties. therefore. was commanded to occupy the island of Csepel. The honest though impetuous and hot-headed Perczel could not well assort with the cold nature of Gorgey. brilliant talents. to cooperate with Csapo and Perczel against Jellachich. was almost commanded . Kossuth. About the end of September he rounding him. He was one of those unhappy men envious.A. he alwayt* professed extreme contempt. and to superintend the erection of powder magazines. Endowed with personal altrac-tions. and Militia. south of Pesth. 1848.D.and in whom. cynical. when he was appointed Captain of a battalion of Honveds. and when the army. superiority in others awakened hatred in place of love. lie was soon afterwards employed by the Governm«>nt to purchase military stores. for whom. and in the commencement of October. which he had abandoned for the pursuit of chemistry. he BUi*- gained considerable iiiHuence over those immediaieiy His nature was. who had long discerned his great natural abilities and administrative capacity. and ambitious. as well as for the Curps of A'oluuteers. who look upon all things through the discoloured medium of self. Honveds. on the ground that before a year expired Gorgey would probably be required as Minister of W^ar. had been asked by an influential member of the Diet to appoint him engineer to the INIint. and they had not been many days together before serious disagreements took Neither Kossuth nor the Government were wholly place. lie joined the Hungarian army in the spring of 1848. and a certain fascination of manner. however. 383 and therefore it is not to be wondered at if such men found it hard to comprehend one another. but refused. deceived as to the dangerous character of Gorgey. cold. Arthur Gorgey had commenced his career in the Austrian army. on entirely whom 80 much depended. He also assisted to organize the Nor tional Guard.

MoiR oftlctrH of (»F K088LT1I. neighbourhood of by thf uf Zifliy. vacillating character. in the Miantime Jtlhuhich hovcnd purftued. Presburg.3R-4 Mr. C HAPTER XX. hlowly retreating before Moga. oiii* wa« of iin|)ortame tlic hitvk-i-h of who had ulrt-ady coiiiprouiiited lui with the Austriun (lovtTiunent c-xi'cuti(»ii Oorgey had doue. Xocembrr. bv AuBtrinn to Hcfure liiinat'lf untrird fultlity. Baron liectcy. () Uut Moga wum an Auiilriau truer. October. and to the favour of the Arch-Duke Stephen. and the Hungarian Councillors of State Commencement of the Viennese lierolution Murder of — A(jfa\r» — — Batthgangi and Buhzkg together join the Lotour Hungarian Army on the frontiers Hungarian Army Resignation Jellachich Austria of Baron Becsey of — — — — and Auer»perg prepare sent to Vienna — Conduct the the to blockade Vienna of the — — PuUzky Viennese — Prince the Austrian at is Army — Kossuth Joins Hungarian Army Parenstr^>ps — A herald IVindorf— Addresses defulned — Conurtl of JVar of the dischgratz — Hungarian Army — General Moqa — Kossuth — sent to /*' Tflndischgratz assumes the command of . and. 1848. um if who na slowly unwilliitg ngnin to encounter the enenty he had ho HJgnally defeated. ulio owed hitt hiuh |H»ition solely to accident. Hungarian JUlnUter for Forfijn Conduct of Feeling totcariU Hungary in Vienna Pithzky. ISIS.d. a man of a weak. it [a. be»ideH.

ami the resi^iiatitni ot" Batthvanyi. the King appointed Baron Vay.D. 1848 ] COXDUCT OF THE UIIT. it tlic royal was in direct violation of the Constitu- by which the Diet can neither be closed nor dissolved before the vote of the budget. ^essenhauser. soldier. the sympathy for llungar}' had declined Tii'nna. one of his late niiniators. In the meantime the Diet refused obedience to ordinance. and in the presence of 8e%eral witnesses bitterly reproached him for his conduct.i flight the Jeloricki. iti owing to the influence of newspaper writ«-rs and speakers in public e. Since March. some of wh<jm see adv(»cat«-d Germanitm. and desired to c c llungar}-. Seeker. Gorgey Sat tie of an-. Minister for Foreign on condition of his conHenting to Jellaehich being nominated Military Dictator of Hungary.A. the civil He also eounterits aigned the ordinance by which the Diet was dissolved. Baron Adam Reesey. decrees annulled.\clusive meetings. like . and decreed that brought to trial Baron Kecsey should bo upon the charge of having as-^isted at an In order to provide a government. and a few davH later named an old Affairs. denounced Jellaehich as a traitor to the country. <jv. They declared their intention of continuing their sittings. After the iimnltT ot' LmiilxTg. the Diet confided the executive power to the Committee of Defence which had already been fonned under Batthyanyi. laws suspended. the 5^85 — The Hungarian Army crosses frontiers — Schtcechat — Retreat Hunof garian Army — Tflndischgratz and JeUachich enter Henna — Execution of Blum — Sternau. because tion. act contrar)' to law. placed in a state of siege. and the country No sooner did liatthyanyi hear of this transaction than he hastened to Kecsey. and of whii-h Kos- suth was named President. before a ministry could be appointed. Jt Hi nek. to the office of Premier.



[a.U. 1818.

Posen, only a part of the great united

German Empire, and

Bomo of whom objected

to the Hungarians, that they

not at once abolished the House of Magnates. Both these but the Sclavoniana, parties belonged to the Democrats

who mustered no


friendly to Jellachich,

in the Diet, and were the bitterest opponents


of the Hungarian cause, and Dr. Bach, the

Minister of

the Interior,

who had been

a strong radical in March,


professed absolutist doctrines.

The Hungarian deputations,

which had visited Vienna in September, had, however, turned the popular tide in favour of Hungary, although the newspapers continued their violent animadversions against Batthyanyi and Kossuth until they at last became so personal that the Hungarian ministers were obliged to indict

some of them

for libel.


the 4th October, rumours reached Austria of the

Pakozd, and reports of

other defeats of


The Hungarians in Vienna were convinced that their countrymen would never submit to the military dictatorship of Jellachich, and Pulszky with other Councillors of state, met to consult as to the line of conduct they ought to prescribe to themselves. They came to the conclusion that it was their duty, as civil oflBcers, to remain at their posts, and they acquainted Batthyanyi with their reCroats followed.

which he eniirely approved.

He himself proposed to

start for Paris,

and endeavour to excite an interest


for the cause of



that evening therefore he left


for CEdenburg, to bid farewell to his family.

A few


Pulszky received an autograph letter from the

King, accepting his resignation, which he had never tendered.

A report

was spread in Vienna that the Ministers pro-

posed to disolve the Academic legion, re-organize the National Gruards,

and declare the city in a state of siege Jellawas expected immediately to march from Eaab upon





the Austrian capital, and the proclamation which placed


gary under Martial Law, was considered to be only a pre-

cedent to the

dissolution of the Austrian Constituent Assembly. Without acquainting the Diet with their inten-

German battalion, which had always shown sympathy with the people, to be in preparation to march to the support of Jellachich, while the Sclavonic battalions, within the city, were ordered to be reinforced.
tions, the Ministers ordered the

On the Gth, when the troops arrived at the railroad by which they were to be convened to Kaab, the people interfered, and the soldiers themselves showed unwillingness to be employed against Hungary. Another detachment of
troops was summoned, and ordered to


refused to disperse.



upon the people and the fire was

commanding the troops, The soldiers were obliged to retreat, with the loss of one cannon. When the news of the disturbance reached the city, Pulszky, who was proreturned with
the General,

being killed upon the spot.

paring to leave Vienna,

hastened to offer himself as a mediator between the Court and the Hungarian nation, provided the Ministers would consent to resign their intention

of sending aid to Jellachich.


this time, however, all

Vienna was in an uproar; the alarm bell was tolling, barricades were rising in the streets, and the cannon had already begun their work. The palace of the Minister of War, Latour, was surrounded by the enraged multitude his treachery and duplicity, his treasonable acts against the

laws of the countrj',


his having ventured to


upon himself to send troops against a sister nation, and the disorders and deaths it had already occasioned, filled up the measure of his iniquity, and of the people's indignation. He was persuaded by his friends to address them from the balcony of his palace, and to assure them that the order to the troops should be withrawn but it was too lale; ia




[a.D. 1818.

cftrrt Win e»H'a|>e hy a back door, and barbarously iiiurdcnrd by the enraj^i'd populace. The town waj*, in a few hours, iu the Imnds of the people; the ViennetH? n'V«»lution was accomplished, and no further acts of violence followed. TIk* Diet, which hud taken no part in the cnieut^.*, lurut a deputAtion to the Kinperor at Schcinbrunn, to request an amnesty lor the

attempting afterwanls to
\\!w rc'c'ogiii/.L'd, »i-i/.fd,


the appointment of a |Kipular

Ministry, and a

recall of the decree

by which Jellachich had been named

Military Dictator of llunf^ary





would return


the imiH-rial palace in Vienna.



Kraus, the ex-.Minister, Pillermlorf, and the ex-

pected Minister, Count .Sladiun, had n-mained in Vienna, and had retained their placea in the Diet during the dia* turbance, it wa^ hoped the Emperor «(»uld listen to the address. His Majesty promi-sed everything, but fled that night to Olmiitz. On the Gth, Pulazky had left Vienna for Sopriiny, where he found IJattliyanyi, and Ihey resolved together to join the nearest division of the Hungarian anny, as volunteers. The first they met, waa that of Vidoa, which consisted of a few raw recruits, as the band of volunteers with whicli he liad already defeated the Croats, had only bound themselves to a service of eight weeks, and were now di?persed. In order to facilitate his movements, Jellachich had dismissed Ibi.OOO of his soldiers, who were on the sick list, and were now passing through the country in which

Vidos was quartered, on their way to Croatia or Styria. Bad as waa their condition, they might still, from their
lunnbers, be formidable to the

band which remained

with Vidos, and Pulsky hastened on with this intelligence
to Pesth.

news of the Viennese revolution had just

reached the Committee of Defence who, unwilling to identify it

with the cause of Hungary, were resolved to use the

utmost caution in their proceedings.


courier had been

A.D. 1818."



sent from Vitnna to apprize JeUaohk-h of the outbreak, and he immediately abandoned Itaab, where he liad arrived on his way to Pesth, and advanced to Ebersdorf, witliin two hours' march of the Austrian capital. The Huii<;arian army in pursuit of him had just arrived on the frontiers, wlieii they General Mo<,'a was received an order from Pesth to halt.


to re<]uest the Austrian General, Auersper;^. to

disarm the lian a^ a rebel to the Kinj; of Hungary, but in
caae of refusal, U) pursue Jellachieh across the frontiers,

although, even then, not until he had received permission






was sent to


to express the j^nititude of the lluiii^irian nation to

the Viennese, for their succcsaful efforts to prevent

forcements being sent to the traitor Jellachieh, and to declare that if the Ifungarian tro<»j>8 were obliged to enter
Austria in pursuit of him, they had no int«*ntion to violate
the Austrian

and that the maintenance of their

army, while in Austria, shcnild devolve upon

Tho Viennese Diet in the mrantime sent to Jellarhich U) demand his reason for npjiroachiug the city, and comnmnd^-d him to retire. They found him in a miserable condition, Bum)undt'd by about 20<X) ras»g»'d Kohliers, worn out and dispirited with forced marches ami fatigue it was some days before he was joined by the ri'st of his anny. The delay of the Hungarians on the frontiers was

not approved of by Kossuth, who, ha<l he been alone consulted, would have ordered (Jenend Moga at once to Icp.d
the army to the attack of JelUichich. Had his opinion been followed, the prt)bable result would have been the final d.lVat
of the

General Auersperg would not have renas he had withdrawn his tnujpa assistance, any dered him from Vienna <m the 8th, and had taken up a strong posit inn under the pn)tection often batteries; thougli. at that time Auersperg could have been dislodged, or staned into subI Jan.



IX. U.










fiuTm'tic U-adiT, the jn-ople mipplifd



ith proviiiionD,


he, in return, mnuited

them with uegu*
to the


Baron Kec8cy now sent


liis ri'iiig^uitioD


Olmiitz, and expreitMed his ccmtrition for having con«

The iian and AurrHptTK Were preparing to blockatle Vientta, and Pulnzky on hiH arrival found the U*ader« of the Comttituent \ntn-nih\y
oentcd to the apixjintments of Jellachich.
timid, vaeillating, and afraid lest they should tnmitgresii the



existing laws;

though daring to

aiiMert their

inclfjH-ndence, tliey did not poMiwiiji the courage neceiMar}' to

encounter the dilUculliea which they hml brought u|>on them*

They were men of suiBcient boldncMi


meet the


burst of the t«'nipe8t conjun*d up by the adhen-nts of des«,

but without that moral courage which could alone

enable them to steer the vessel of the State into a safe harbour. They replied to the offers of a(M*i»tance from Hui

brought by


that, as represt^-ntalives of the v

Empire, they could not lawfully accept the aid of the Hungarians as a separate power, and referred him to the
Municipal Council.
of the Kevolution.

Neither Assembly entirely approvi-d
Stadion and other Consen'atires were

members of the former, and they vacillated between the Court and the |>eople. Pulszky was therefore sent by the
Municipal Council to ^fessenhauser,
pointed to the


they had ap-


of the National Guards for the


Messenhauser assured him he himof his own oflBcers, who would probably report all that passed to Jellachich and Auersperg. On Pulszky demanding a supply of arms from the arsenal for the Hun£jarians, thi*? was also refused, on the plea that it might create suspicions, and he was not even permitted to
defence of the town.

could not rely on


take the muskets purchased by the Hungarian Ministers in

A.D. 1848.]



Bflj^ium, which had been detained in the

Custom House






at this

time arrivtd in the Capital,

with the intention of procetnling to Hungan', but waa requesttHl to remain and undertake the defence of Vienna.


pHJposed, in the

tirst phvce,

to establish an intelligence

with the commander of the Hungarian anny
after all

but Pulszky,

he had witnessed, thought


wiser to decline giving

any promwes

and after advising an appeal to the Central


at I'ninkfort, Icil


the 17th of October, Robert

Blum and

others, from

the Frankfort Parliament, arrived. the town, aitd

Prince Windischgratz

had now assumed the command of the tr«Mips blockatling he commenced by issuing a Manifesto, in

which he declared hia own ap|K)intment to the Civil and Meantime Military- power over the whole Monarcliy. Pulszky n'ftched IVslh, and acquainted Kossuth with the
state of affaim,

who immediately despatched a

letter to

Bern, which, however, never reached its destination. wan inlenx-pted and suppressi-d by MessenhausiT, uho

hoped for a reconciliation with the Court, and therefore wished to prevent a communication being established between Vienna and Pesth, which, no doubt, would have
taken place


receive«l the letter of



Viennese Diet hatl been continually urged to call in the Hungarians, and had as continually refused, on the plea that they had alnady done enout,'h in protesting atrainst the invasion of Jellachich, but could not r\i\ite the Hungarians to cross the frontiers.

They declared

at the


time thev did not forbid them, and they j)assed a resolution by which, without inviting the tro<)ps, they implied that it

would not be considered an hostile act if they should enter Austria; thus, though too timid to take upon themselves
the ri'sponsibility, they allowed their wishes to be inferred,

and the Vienneae people even reproached the Hungarians




[a.d. 1848.

with their delay to

what they termed, a debt of gra»

The great

object the

to ascertain in the Jluiigariaii It

or against them.

Committee of Defence had in view, army itself, who were for had always been the policy of the

Austrian Government, to place Austrian or Italian

command of the army in Hungary, and Hungarian The exchange officers in command of the army in Italy. which had been demanded by the Ministers in March had
been slowly progressing, and in the present
impossible at once to dismiss

crisis, it


the Austrian officers whose

places could not be readily supplied.
at the head of 12,000 troops

Kossuth placed himself

which he had assembled in Pesth, and joined the army at Parensdorf, where he read the manifesto of "NVindischgratz to the officers and men, and then addressing them, declared all who pleased were " Magyars," he said, free to leave the Hungarian army.
extending his hand, " there
is is

the road to your peaceful
the path to death

homes and





you take ? Every man shall choose for himself. We want none but willing soldiers." The great body of the army replied by shouting
the path of duty.


with one voice, " Liberty, or death."

About one hundred
gary for six months.


most of them foreigners,
to sen-e against


the army, after giving their

word not


Colonel Ivanka, a young and distinwas sent to Windischgratz, to summon him to refrain from bombarding Vienna. It was his own wish to undertake the office, and the character of a herald was considered too sacred to allow him to entertain any


fears for the consequences.

Windischgratz received him graciously, but delivered him
over to Jellachich,

who immediately arrested him, and sent comrade back alone, to bear the intelligence of the ill

A.D. 1848.]

corKCiL of war.


success of their mission. Ou the 27th a Council of war was held, at which Kossuth presided. The bombardment of Vienna had already commenced, and the Members of the Council were startled by the distant sound of the cannon. General Moga, supported by Kolman, the chief officer on his staiF, and the President of the Diet, Pazmandy, proposed they should withdraw the Hungarian army, and leave Vienna to its fate, or turn their arms against the Austrian General, Simonich, who had already entered Hungary by Gallicia, and was inciting the Sclavonic population Kossuth was of a contrary opinion. He to rebellion. urged that they should at once march to the assistance of the Viennese. Their suflerings had commenced by an attempt of the people to frustrate the designs of the Austrian Ministers against Hungary, and he considered it not only

a wiser policy to assist the rescue of their capital, but a

moral obligation.

"Whether victory or defeat should be the

was besides absolutely necessary to ascertain which among the officers of the Hungarian army were disThe disaftected were demoralizing inclined to the cause. the troops, and an encounter with the enemy, or the very fact of crossing the Austrian frontiers, would be the surest There could be no longer any doubt test of their fidelity. of the legality of the act, as by the acknowledged laws oi

when the Austrians

refused to disarm Jellachich tht-m-

Hungarians were justified to enter their country General Moga remarked upon in the pursuit of an enemy. the imprudence of the measure, and represented the undisciplined state of the army, <S:c. His observations were received in silence. Colonel Gorgey spoke next. Until the hour
selves, the

Kossuth arrived

at Parensdorf,

Gorgey had been eager

for the advance of the troops to the attack of the


he had been continually asking

why they did not cross the but always added that the command ought to ba


to a trustworthy officer, one

[a.d. 1848.

made over


wm aware that


on victory, and that


into t)»o

ImiidH of the AuHtriim8 ccrtiiiii drath await<^-d him.



knt'W (iorgey meant hiin»elf, ws

believed, that

waa generally taken priwmer, ho would be hung for the

execution of Zieliy.
rather towards

In the Council of war, however, or
conclusion, he seemed suddenly U) have





motion of


Kossuth had however decided the nmtt«r. and on the 2Hth the Hungarian anny crossed the frontiers. It consisted of 30,000 men, l0,0OO«if wliomwere raw
HjH'ech of


mere peaaant« armed with acythes. They wen^ advancing to the attack of twice their numbers, conducted by Windischgratz and Jella<.'hich. In spite of their
troops, and 5,000
inferiority to

the enemy,

the fortunes of the gallantly-

Austria and had the Vienneae seconded the exertions of the Hungarians, or held out for
Hungary-, might have been
verv* different

fought battle of Schwechat, and those of

two or three days longer. Under leaders such as Kossuth, Batthyanyi, Bern, Blum, and a noble list of statesmen and generals, constitutional rights and liberty might have been for the vacillations of s couquered and maintained. Alas people unaccustomed to self-government and new to freedom The enemy's troops were stationed at Mannsworth, Schwechat, and Kaiser Ebersdorf. The Hungarians kindled a large signal fire on a hill, which could be seen from the spire of St. Stephen's church in the city, to warn the Viennese of their approach Kossuth and the General, with the officers composing the staff, bivouacked for the night in a




The Austrians commenced the attack on the following
morning, the 29th, under the cover of a thick fog, which
gradually dispersed, and at

Major Guvon, a young


who had

quitted the Austrian senioe to enter that

A.D. 1848.



of Hungary, charged with the advance guard of the right

wing, and gained posscBsion of Miiunsworth.
action would have been followed

This gallant

advancing upon JSchwechat w


up by Gorgey, who was the main body of the riglit composed of

wing, but he received orders from the General not to proceed

which were partly

peasants with their scythcH, volunteers and national guards,

had therefore to remain stationary during four hours, to
stand the

of the Austrians without being permitted to

retuni a shot, and to see the

enemy gradually


a post which could have been instantly carried,


the attack
in the

had not been forbidden.





and the reason alleged by the Geni-njl for the delay of the attack on Schwechat was, that if the right wing had
advanced, the distance would have been too great between




Meantime not a shot wa^




nor an attempt made to

That morning

the municipal authorities had determined to surrender to

Windischgratt, but sent no notice of their intentions to
the Hungarian army.
Tlie people, the

National Guards,

and those who had hitherto maintained Vit-nna against the army were indignant at the menti<in <>f «-:i]iitul:ui(ni ami all was confusion w ithin the city. Gorgey, chafing under a restraint wliic-h lie fort-suw would ruin the fortunes of the day, hastened to head (juarters, and demanded counter orders from the General. !Moga refused,

and a hot altercation ensued, which ended in Giirgey returnKossuth had been a silent ing disappointed to his troops.
spectator of the scene, but

when an hour




the order for a general retreat, he ventured to remonstrate,

though he considered he had no right as a



to interfere with the details of the battle, he could not allow


termination in such a manner,


success had


been entirely on the side of the




[a.D. 1848'


remouBtrance proved unavailing, he turned to an

oflicer prrBcnt,

and demand

and desired him to hasten to CJeneral Giirgey, Moga acknowledged immediate pre«enee. treacherous dehigns when some time Liter, he had to


before an Auiitrian court



having led the Hungarians
pleaded in his defence
iuid foot,


and gave the army, bound hand

into the power of Prince Winditwligraiz, and he

not sufileient wit or courage to take advantage of

Before Kossuth's message could reach Giirgey, a couple
of rockets falling into the midst of the band of pi^a^ants,

w ho had hitherto so bravely endured the


of the


dwring four Imurs, struck such a panic that

threw the

wing into confusion. The volunteers and Natioiml Guards gave way, and the retreat was soon converted Happily, the Austrians were also reinto a general flight. treating, so that unaware of the advantage offered them,
they did not pursue the Hungarians.

who had

remained beside General


the whole day,

whose retreat was covered by the skill and conduct of the commanders, Colonels Karge The total loss of the day only consisted and Eyratly. of two hundred Hungarians and four hundred Austrians. General Moga immediately resigned his command, and many of those officers who were delusively Austrian in their

up the rear of the

right wing,

feelings quitted the army.

Kossuth was aware of the injurious effect this retreat might have on the country, as well as on the army; and, therefore, as President of the Committee of Defence, he reby sending Guyon, who had been proGeneral Simonieh at Tyrnau (Xagy Szombath), but he had already retreated into Moravia. Bem, who had escaped in disguise from Vienna now joined Kossuth he found him confined to
solved to retrieve


to a colonelcy, to encounter the Austrian


A.D. 1848.]

TnyDiscnoRATz ly tiexxa.

never seemed


room with



to interfere with the perionnance of any duty

he sent Bern

to await further orders at Pesth, and appouitod

Gorgey to



of the army of the

Upper Danube, with a
Gorgey was the
and because being

special charge to re-organise the troops.


best fitted to execute this trust, from his habits of strict

discipline acquired in the Austrian aniiy,

a thorough soldier by nature, he valued above
fection in the n)achinen,' of an army.

things per-


the 30th October and on the 2nd Xovember, AVinsuccessively entered Vienna.

dischgratz and Jellachich with their troops, Austrian and

Schwarzenberg ad-

journed the Diet to Kremsier

the loth November.


the 9th, the city was startled and horrified by the commencement of the executions which have for ever sullied the name

One of the suburbs having resisted the of Windischgratz. entrance of the troops aflbrded a pretext for placing thecitv The cold blooded murder of IJlum, who in a state of siege.
died a martyr for the cause of the people, spread a sensation of terror throughout Vienna

Jelovicki, a Pole, perished in

the place of Bem,

who had escaped

Baron Sternau




as an example to the other olilcers of


National Guards.

Doctor Becker, the editor of a newspaper,

perished as a warning to the press. Doctor Jellinek, a young Jew, died because the Jews were generally counted among

the Radicals



workman and


Hungarian shared the same

fate, as representatives of a class and of a country.


who had

accepted the


of the National

Guards only in compliance with the orders of the Municipal Council ratified by the Austrian Diet, was hurried to death,
it was feared a pardon might arrive for him from Olmutz. Having thus satiated his present vengeance for the resistance made to his arms by the A'iennese, A\'indischgratz

awaited further orders from the Austrian ministers.

representing the miserable state of the coimtry.D.. Stephen. CHAPTER XXI. Xocfmber. Pattoral AdJrett Letter of the Catholic JJuhops to thr King — People TrartJty lean Revolt the M to of the If'allacki — — — The Austrian armiet advance upon JIun(far\f lin*' liatthyanyi sian army in Moldavia lit* letter to Guryry organize* the army of the Upper Koituth Danube Hem in Triin*ylrauia Charle* AUirrt abandons Milan Kossuth calls a Council of War J'jctoriet of the Austrian* in the North of Hungary Kossuth tries negotiation Abdication of the Emperor — — — — — — — — — — Firdinand — The Kmperor. The Government leave Pe*th for Deand take with them the Crown of St.398 MEMOIB or KOSSUTH. January 1818—1849. not laW' He denounce* Kossuth and fully King of Hungary the Committee of Drfnce a* outlaws Repeal* the law* of March Austrian Ministers appointed by Franci* Joseph Pulsky sent to Giirgey Guyon Perczel Defeat of Perczel Alarm in Pesth — Gorgey disobeys — — — — — — — — the instruction* of the Committee of Defence — Kossuth fail* in hi* endeavours to induce between Hungary and Austria — England to mediate Pulszky leaves Pesth for London —Batthyanyi lead* the Deputation from the Diet to JTlndischgratz /* thrown into prison Kossuth Gorgey is ordered to march call* a Council of War — northward* breczin. and the sincere desire of the people they reminded . 184ft. Francis Joseph. for the maintenance of Liw and order. — — — The Catholic Prelates of Hungary now addressed a letter of remoustrance to the King. [i.

praying for an acknowledgment of their separate nationality: the ignorant people were deceived into a belief. and they therefore next addressed a pastoral llunc^ry. his coronation HOO Majesty of to return received. and entreated them to abstain from all violation of the laws. eagerness to concede the sanje privileges to the Transylvanian people. which had already been granted bv the Hungarian Diet. 1S48. the path of happiness to Hungary. the Court turned a deaf ear to their admonitions.] his TBANSYLVANIA. happy would it have been for llungarv if in years gone by they had acted as Christian . that when the Transylvanian Diet unanimously . in the hour of trouble and danger. The Prelates who liad ever been the supporters of ilespotism and aristocratic privilege. they were opposed by the who allowed themselves to be made the Austrian intrigues.D. and while the Magyars and Szeklers had evineed their this During vania had not been inactive. exhorted them to obey tlie letter to the people. because the franchise (comprehensive as it waw) required a certain pro- perty qualification . The Wallac-ks also (by Saxon population.000 treated as a distinct nation in Tnmsvlvania.A. and tools of far the most nuniedu]K's rous. in which they lamented the calamities which had befallen legal authorities. and pniyed him to and restore peace and Their petition was uiiixraoiously oath. . Walla^k peasants assembled for the purpose of sendiu'^a deputation to the Emperor. and to place Iheir trust in an Almighty P(jwer.ind patriotic a part summer. and they therefore demanded to be The aj^'onts of Austria were not slow to take advantage of this state of things they fomented the spirit of discontent until 3. justice. charged tliem with tl»e defence of the country. TransylThe Diet there had met in May. so eventful for Hungary. though the poorest and nmst misi-rable inhabitants of the country) considered themselves aggrieved. now found that.

ary. exciting the minds of the from their people. with pitchforks.000. but e»|)ecially in the mountain those districts of Zalatnya. men en- camped near Vienna. Wayden. Some were beaten to death with cudgels. he could not foresee the drea«lfid consequences of his proclamation. and it beeaine at hint Iwdated ca»e8 of violence followed. Temesvar. some tortured pits. and the necessary quantity of linen and cloth for the supply of the army was neither manu- factvu^d at home. and on the lOth of St-ptember (Jeneral Puehner civil issued a proclamation releju»ing the oflieers oath to the Hungarian Constitution. and to unite TnuiHvlvania to the Austrian enjpire. some thrown into and others crucified on their own doors. with 75. and Esseg. and converted them into ulavetj of the King of ]Iun. but AuMtrian agents and iM-mi-barbanm* leaders were still actively at work.. nor could be imported from abroad: . 1818. [a. and Serbs.d. Hungary was almost destitute of arms aud ammunition. Saxons. were "NVindischgratz. and Generala Nugent and Dahlen supported by the insurgent "Wallacks. tlie voted for the union of TrnnHvlvunia with JIuiifjarv. threatened Presburg and (Edenburg. and Urban. thua to sever the tie Though endeavouring between the two countries.000 there in command. Horrible massacres were perpetrated in cold blood on the respectable inhabitants. or who were in the enjoyment of wealth and influence. Such was the state of Transylvania at the time of the battle of Sclnvechat : Puehner. Schlick advancing from GalUcia through the mountainous passes of the north with 15. On the 18th of October the Wallacks suddenly broke into open insurrection in all parts <tf the countrv-. neeewhary to employ military force to disperse the rioters. while the fortresses of Arad. were in the hands of the Austrians. hung on the borders of Croatia.000 men.400 MEMoin OF Kossurn. twi dethroned tiit'ir Emperor. Simonich was on the Moravian froutier with an army of 12.

as the information contains has aln^atly been imparted. 184S. I^E. he wrote iu wliicli he addrewed to Kossuth. me that t-ome . Hatthyanyi. who had been prevented by horse. 1) — n . •"i'liniig hix months full of ililinuinis life. 1 have Ixm ex- hausted by the cares of public My tirst feeling on withdrawing fn. Wliat can be more bitter to a true patriot than to be accused of duplicity t^jwards his ctuuitry.shouhl di>approve of my line of policy but no one shall accuse me of having abuseil my inrtuence to endjinger the independence of my country. be interesting to the reader. Voii. who had never failed to do It is it full JM. ho\\v-\er.fVii ml.X. from taking the defence of his a fall from his any active part in the preparations for country. but the infonnation of threatened invasion of Hungary by tlie two despotic l*owtrs appears to have been regarded by England with indifference. knoW state the n asuii of it. My my my •I whole life — an open book from the connnencement of . November an explanatory letter. public career last visit to will^iiiiplv ought to silence every suspicion but as Vienna hjis occa-xioned me to be Khiend. 401 the Russian arinv in Moldavia was ready at a signal Austria to descend upon llunjjarv: this lact was ainiouneid by Sir Stratford Canning in a letter to Lord a Palmerstoa on the 7th of Xovenibor. AVounded by the. needh'ss to give this letter at length. a few extracts may. for the manner ducted himself when Miaist<. d.'r. quitted his post in a critical accusations. :n. was reproached by many both in in which he had conand especially for having moment.D.)m the Government was one of bitterness. I'rorn LETTEH OF BATTlirANYI.] la-<tly. at a time when it is »ur? n»uiuled by intrigues and endangere«l by manifold treasons It does not distress .Htii-e to his intentions as well as to his llungar}' and Vienna.

and secondly. fer in hastened back to con- person with Jellachich. and that I if it may partake in the glory of victory. but 1 trust that my bruised arm will expressed its condemnation of the act. or. was anxious to clear will up the affair of the sad end of Lamberg. and of Beveral deputicH then asueniI bled in uiy lioune.. from his Majesty. ^ly other reason for going to Vienna was that 1 believed a crisis in our ailuirs wad at hand. actuated by two motives first. and that according to law the Diet could only be prorogued or dissolved AViih respect after the discussion on the budget was ended. into a pretext for a coup cTetat.D. I pro. well 1 went to the camp with the consent of the C\>iiiiuittce of Defence. with his troops. [a. and 1 wished to arrest the danger which threatened our countr}. I wished to express .at I therefore had an interview with Wessenhad always been directed). . ceeded directly to Vienna. berg (to whom I to Lamberg. must be so.4<)2 MEMOIR OF tliat KOSSITII. as the I. was desirous to return to Pesth. but on the way a courier the delivered to me murder of Count Lamberg. at the same time three autograph 1 by The messenger letters. its very source.raph letters 1 my opinion of the illegality of the autoI had received. As 1 did not succeed. 1848. doomed me to inactivity. could not be turned and the less so. in the glorious death . lest arbitrary and evil intentions should make this deed a pretext for a coup iVctat. pointed out to Wesseuberg how they themselves at Vienna had been the indirect occasion of the murder of Lamberg by An unlucky fall has tlieir neglect and evasion of legal forms. and persuade him. wanted to upeak with Laniberg. directed to me. Diet had same time. and not to forsake the path of law I learnt . at the soon recover sufficient strength to be used against the enemy who is ravaging the country. persuade him. and told him that our laws did not recognise any vioe-regent. to leave the countr}'. 1 if possible. I told him that as a criminal investigation conit cerning the sad event had been ordered.

to arrest the fur. Kossuth was still desirous. Bern waa sent on the 1st December into Transylvania ^^ ith an army not exceeding 8000 men with these he promised in a fortnight to take Dees the kev of Transylvania. official I have proved this in my private. and Colonel Daniianics was accordingly despatched thither by the Committee of Defence. Even when so extraordinary a combination of hostile forces tlireatened to crush Hungary. 403 of our fatherland. jiud Klausenburg.D.] BEM I>- TRA. hands of the Austrians. to a Council of War . I may yet add that I never acted without the consent of the other ministers. AV'hilst Gorgey was engaged in organizing and training the army of the Upper Danube. This was no vain boast fidence . and that 1 would never hear of measures detrimental to the laws passed in 1848. In Albert had abandoned Milan to lladetzkv in the Lombardy was once more attention to Hungary. public.A. 1S48. The Serbs were still in rein llion in the South. Schlick had defeated Colonel Alexander Pulszky on the 8th of December.schgratz. had met with a severe repulse. ther progress of the w ar by negotiations i> he therefore sent n 2 . although he could only depend with conlegion of Viennese students. and happily succeeded in driving them out of the Banat. at the point (»l the bayonet out of the Province. Kossuth and the Committee of Defence did not despair. for." at this period. also who had been sent to replace Colonel Pulszky.and was approaching theTheiss. and actions. if possible. Charles fulfilled all he had engaged to do.XSYLVAXIA. the upon his German brave old General Italy. General Meszaros. and the Austrian General had received orders to maintain his position until he heard of the advance of the main army under AVindi. and to drive the Austrians . and their the conquerors were at leisure to turn luidivided Kossuth sununoued General Kiss and Colonel Daniianics (both experienced officers).

cannot break my oatli. warning Joseph has therefore no more right at him of the imcoustitutional act about to be committed.loseph. my oath. and bound himself by oath to reAll titles and grants made spect the laws and constitution. ft youth of nineteen years of ajje. the perjury he had been induced to commit towards Jlun" My oath.. in Envoy of the United Stateu Vienna. 1770 1780. throne.-uicis Charles. the right of succession in the Though the Hungarians acknowledged Hapsburg dynasty. null. and the laws passed during his reign had never been considered — binding because he refused to be crowned. had been declared illegal. Francis Joseph was not the next heir. the son of the ambitious Arch. and repeating the words. and could in no way be contlie sidered legitimate king until he had been crowned with the crowni of St.. and therefore could not in law be counted among the sovereigns. this Francis hour to nJe over Hungary than the Queen of England over Hanover.u. and void. the would have deterred the Jiun^arianii from Emperor Ferdinand was persuaded to abdicate in favour of his}'. and of the Arch-Duke who resi. Stephen.•KU n li'tter to MEMOIR OF Mr. if incapable.had reserved to itself to provide for the due execution of the laws. 18IK. I j. [a. which there been no other motive) the cold-blooded murder of the Viennese ju'ceptinj. viewed on all sides.ned his own claims to the The ex-Emperor had troubled those around him by his weak thoutjh conscientious hcruples. ever-lamenting. tlie KOSSiril.Duchess Sophia. was contrary to law. The Kinp. Francis . for. to abdicate in favour of another. but . StiK's. of Hungary had no power IV. by the law tribunals in Hungary. but the Prinre rcfiuied to linten to any (ha«l tenuH and demanded unecMiditional Hurrender." The act. the Diet. by Joseph the Second. Lord Palmerstou received a letter from Lord Ponsonby. entreatinf* him to olttaiu an arnuMtice from Prince AVindischtjratz . liberals On the 2n<l Deeeinbi-r.

of augured well for success. although Ferdinand's act of abdication could v. 8tiks." A conference followed ft • She was nt ilmt time unman ied. 2nd December (the day of the accession of Francis Joseph). with the hopes he had when a mere child.] ATTEMPTS AT yEGOTIATIOy. but published under the assumed name of Baroness Beck.* She had with her a servant girl. a young lady arrived. however. in the disguise of a peasant woman. who. and passed by Austrian sentinels. becoming possessed of her secret. and to stop the calamities of a war so fatal to the iiilercsts of both countries. if ]K>s8ible. still solicitous.o not be valid in Austria while invalid in Hungary. at the office of the Legation of the United States. Stiles (Jovemment. knowing that the discovery of her mission would have been certain death. made use of it later in a work written by another. ^Ir. The morning applied to initiate the after this the Imperial inteniew had taken place. Stiles. through which she and the mediation the On the night of the her confederates cftectually deceived the English public.A. for the conveyance of which she had travelled in an open wagon exposed to a snow stonn.D. Kossuth determined to request American Minister. Concealed within a part of the wood of the cart in which she came was a letter from Kossuth. 1S48. she ventured to infonn him of the purport of her visit. As and the Hungarians were. to restore peace and their relations with Austria. but ha« since become the wife of uublemnn of high rank. Mr. without breaking the unity of the two crowns. 405 attempt was made on the part of England to prevent ita coDsummation. . as the in raised the hearts of the people new Emperor's youth. After an intiniew of some length with Mr. " with a view to negotiations of an armistice for the winter between the two armies standing on the frontiers of Austria and Hungary.

Emjx-ror. like vileges of llunganieftects of various Kossuth. in wliirh tlu' udviM-d rvceive any furtliiT eoniuiunicatiun frotn llimtiarv. thus continuing the old the educated and higher system of Austria in courting the lower classes in order to enlist their services against classes of the communit}. Count Stadion. and IViiict' [a.v. will (KTUpy IV»th with in my trtKipn. to apply to |)nic<'«'din^H I'rinre WindiHrli{ u|>on which the Anu-ric-an Minister had AVindiiH'h^ I'uli«7. themselves of the constitutional prifor. with real the raj*h lieved his annies to be invincible and Count Stadion. and counterHit. ." all The EmiH-ror. 1K18 l>rt«rcii . mtt'k latt-r ^Ir. to whom all relating to that kiiif^dom had btt'n i'ntru»t*'d hy the EmpiTor. theAuhtrian Priiu-c* MiniHter of him. the head of the Cabinet. Hhould Fort-i^ii lie . Stilf« ffcvived a netxind comnuinication from Koi<Huth. hy A . and the laws of March repealed. " can do nothinf» in the matter.sted. in which Kossuth and the Committee of Defence were denounced as outlaws. an intfni»'W with I but the only annwer I he n-eeived was.'ht which they rid .arian desired to rxtend constitutional liberty and self-goveniment throughout the hereditary dominions of the Empire. hoped the hour wa« arrived in niij.-. the Austrian Miniiiter and the young Emperor desired to crush both where they already cxi. The Ministers appointed by Francis Joseph. were Prince Scbwarzenberg. and then the Emperor must decide what with those to be dune 1 cannot coiuteut to treat confidence of youth. be.that an exception should be all made in favour of those which concerned them .Mr. Hi^iod by him. he felt the injurious forms of Government under one Monarch. StilcH SfliwurmilKTj^. niuut olK-y the orders of the I H unfair}' mujtt submit. who are in a state of rebellion. .\H"uir«. that while the llunc. with this difference. though with an assurance to the peasantry.1(»('> niSToUT or HTNOABT. Francis Joseph commenced his reign by a proclamation.

Gor- gev had received orders from the Committee of Dt-fenco to maintain the frontiers as long as he could. coronation oaths. !" tribe i. entered from Gallicia . 184S. owing to the severe cnld in the vicinity. Rumours soon reached Pesth entered Hungary-. .l). appn»ached Presburg inferior officers. in thet>e acknowledged their policy with regard to Hungary words : " The ^fagyar has been. 407 tlu'ir Dr. found the General in had retired fn)nj Presburg. such as it lies iu the agonies of death. and on the Pulszky was tlie de- spatched by Kossuth to Oiirgey to ascertain trutli. and they entered upon duties with the avowed principle that pledges. from Stegna .] WINDISCUGHATZ ENTERS UUNGABY. Jellachich. Puchner was already Transylvania . which had frozen the marches to fortify Baab. Bach. entered the country' from other directions. The army. and entailed no obligation on his successors. The Vienna Gazette.A. conventions. Simonich. having laid the plan of his campaign in such a manner tliat the kingdom should be entered at nine iteveral points. and compacts between a jH'ople and their sovereign were only binding to the individual monarch who consented to them. and Baron Kraus. its future belongs On Vienna the for 15th of December. to Austria Its history ended . after existing a is thousand years. the organ of the Cabinet.>« now being thrown back upon its geographical territory. and there await the arrival of Moritz Perczel and his . and that engagements had taken place at Tymau and Parens- which the Hungarians had been defeated. Prince AVindischgratz lift Hungary. led by Count Schlick. that Windischgnitz had 17th. under himself. with the intention of marching from ea*h and all ujHtn the capital. but when he declared this to be impossible. and Wiiuliscligrat* while three aniii»-s. He dorf. and the kingdou) of Hungary. from in Vienna Nugent. ad>anc<'d fnnii . Moravia.

was marching in a parallel direction towards the East. he would march to his HU|>|Mjrt with the main body. movements. lie wiw however di».l».striaiiH already in ])08seH8i()ii. though. they were totally defeated and dispersed. in the best way he could. it to be his duty. ^A. Gorgey assured Pulszky he could no longer hold Baab and accordingly abandoned his position. Gorgey.I'H MKMOIll rruin tlu' iM KoB. to succour a rash and impetuous officer. (luyon knew himself to be hat«*d by (Jorgey. them with hirt sinuU body of 500 men.h the enemy and acconjpliwh hi« retreat with his pliant little troop.' point of instance. meantime. at least they were sufficient to satisfy the Comluittoe of Defence. who. IMS. ait he knew (iiirj^ry to be at no f^reat ditttanee. even a defeat might sen^e as a useful lesson. in this Oorgey might allege. in the hope of his destruction. (luyoii found the Au. Perczel. and as his army only consist . ^VlK•^ Giir^^fV army of Siinonicli was u|i|)roucliiii^ Szomhatli) he deU'rmined to tu-ud but concfivfd Tyniuu (Nugy Ouyou to occupy the place: on his arrival. that it was not the duty of a commander to endanger the rest of his army. only just received information of hia the hands of the enemy. in time to save his own army from falling into Soon after.'d of 5000 infantry and cavalry. while they issued general orders to the Commanders iu Chief.ip]Mjintcd. Perczel encour. li'-anl army tlif C'ro.itiaii iniiitifrw. who was advancing thither. the rest being raw recruits. The acknowledged hatred and . armed with pikes and sc^'thes.tered Prince "NVindischgratz. view. left the details of their moverivalry ments to themselves. Possibly he had good reasons for remaining inactive. and concluded that at the lir.-^L I II. iiut\^ithi<taiidiiig. and had to cut his way throuj. in a Hound of cannon. and believed that his commander had wilfully abandoned him. to whom. subsequent acta of the General to attack tjave a stronij colour of truth to his suspicion. but made no attempt to succour them.

Ml. might exert. Th»' Diet determined accordingly to remove the st^at of Government to Debreczin. and The news of the defeat of Perczel occasioned a panic in damped the joy which had been produced by the successes of Bem in Transylvania.A. the conduct of the former. that the British (iovernment had no knowledge of Hungary. without once having encountered the enemy. and probably overwhelmed. even if defeated. before begging to be permitted to lay the Hungarian question him. did not consider this moveua-nt advisable instructions to engage the : he next receiviil some distance from Pesth. because. in this instance. and make one more attempt at negotiation. she j)leased. to fall back by forced marches upon Raab.ikoczy. and reminding him that Great Britain had mediated between Hungary aud Austria as independt nt powers on a fonner occasion. more open to Pesth. suspicion even than in the affair with Guyon. as he had failed in junction with Perczel. cover the passage of the Damd)e.— 1715. S<-c p."". where he might have surprised. but as • AfUr the war of H. however. but first to send a deputation to Prince Wimlischgratz. unavailing. he arrived on the 2nd of January at Pesth itself. ITO.I) 1848. The mediation of Mr. he could make a fresh stand at liuda. Kossuth immediatelv ellVctinL. however.* But Lord Eddisbury replied in the name of Lord Palmcrston. when the relations of the two countries were identical with the prc'icnt. Stiles having j)roved the . the resenes cf AVindischgratz Giirgey. and 8av«» at enemy Capital but instead of obeying. his agent in London to apply and therefore commisKioned to Lord Palmirston. . although Kossuth doubted the prudence of a measure whieh had already been tried without success. 400 laid which existed between Giirgey and Perczel.] DISOBEDIENCE OF GOKGET. .' :i sent an order to Gtirgey. he if still trusted in the influence which England.

1353. until she obtained her promise to assist in stopping the massacre of an obscure sect inPiedmont. not unimportant to him. Pesth. This day. and roused into sacred fire. of Humiliation. and as the champion of the cause of the oppressed.0(10 from his purse appoints a Day . and not notable. and what he liked with his own. and a general collection over England for that object that he will bring help to these poor see has.410 a part of tlie MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. [\. vol. . Days arc changed. October. since Kn^^land re- cognized a moral obligation in her conduct towards foreign when to spare bloodshed. and yet had to meddle to compel the business. and ought to be fished therefrom. till the king and cardinal undertake to him in getting right done in those . and made more apparent. righted. them helped and . in short. poor valleys. t Pity : ! : This day he refuses to sign assist it. was to be signed. all How Envoys were how blind Milton wrote letters to operation Protestant States. decided men . She was unwilling disunited from the Empire. " Ye have compassion on one another !" is it is perennial In our days too there are Polish balls. He sends the poor exiles £2. recorded in the unreadable stagnant deluges of old official correspondence. but for a mediation to which Austria probably to be irrevocably would not then have refused to listen. much astonished at the All this. is \evj certain. Duke not of Savoy. 5G0.D. ISIS. calling on them for co- how do the French Cardinal was shy to meddle. she n-fused to sign a treaty with France.* countries.f for Hungary asked no fleets. The Lord Protector is melted into tears. 358. Pulszky started for London by way of Paris. CarlyWs Life of Cromwell. beautiful such like but the pity of the Lord Protector and Puritan England for these poor Protestants among the Alps is not to be measured by ours. and Lurd l*alincT»tou forththe correspondL-nce to with despatclied a copy of the Austrian liinhassv. that England and he will sent. and would have been satisfied with an aeknowledgmeut of her lawful Immediately after the news of Perczel'a defeat reached rights. Austrian Empire. iL p. to justice. p. in the Westminster Review. the French treaty.

] liopo of ABREHT Of BATTHTAXTI. the Chief Justice testify. His fears were unhappily justified. and Francis Deak." and. In the mean time Batthyanyi. and endeavour to separation of the Austrian columns. placed the whole deputation under arrest. undertook to carry the message of the Diet to Windischgratz. should march to the north. commanding the army of L'pper llungar\'. after again demanding unconditional surrender. where he remained a short time. to obtain a hearing from the British Government. and London.AD. after his departure. which were effect a advancing from thence into Hungary. and where Gorgey. for the Prince. " to treat with rebels. but with how little advantage gained to the cause of Hungary the history of the few months which followed may Mailath. gave him an advantage over any other who miglit have been selected for the mission . called a Council of War in Pesth. He had to pass through Austria where a price had already been set upon his head. His well-known reputation as a man of honour and ability. JNIailath . who was dotined a second Alva. On the 3rd of January. and the Committee of Defence. Kossuth vainly tried to dissuade iiatthyanyi by representing the useless risk he would incur. . Perczel. as the accredited representative of the Hungarian nation. he succeeded in obtaining several inten-iews with the Ministers. and the number of his personal acquaintance and friends in the highest circles of Pesth. the ex-Chancellor. 411 being able. released all He soon afterwards to except Batthyanyi. as he expressed it. and arrived in London in March. were present. 1848. meet the fate of Egmont and Horn from After the failure of this last attempt at negotiation. the Diet and . Lozovics. and Lazar. refused. Archbishop of Erlau. It was here determined that Gorgey. and after a hairbreadth escape through Gallicia. finally. Kossuth. over which General Vetter presided. Vienna. reached Paris.

Meszar6s was defeated at KasThe news reached the Government when on the road to Debreczin. After three consecutive Aiistriaus Klapka succeeded upon Debreczin. earn iiij. Januori/.'. question — Xon-interference of tories in to Char^''s in in in that -ith of February. Commander-in-Chief Szemere with the Battle of Kapohia and Klapka army Interview of Kossuth with Goryey Tetter sucLetter of Kossuth Letter of Goryey ceeds Dembinski JVindischyratz sets Kossuth sends Guyon to Komorn Vica price on the heads of the Hungarian Leaders — — — /* Joined by Goryey — — — — — — — Transylvania — Letter of Sir Stratford of Bern Canning Lord Pahnerston — Conduct of the Italian Albert Ltaly — Interference of England Hungary. Executive left IV. 18t0. Frhniary. despatched to supersede him.d. by his skill and courag«'. to maintain order until victories. Defeat of Mt'uzarus tion — Proclama— He marches north — The victory of Branyiszko — Conduct of Giirgey — — /* superseded hj/ of Gijrgey — //* reception by the Klapka army Demhinski. 1816. them the sacred Crown of St.stli I'm- [i. willi JJibrrezin. while Szemere. liis arrival. and General Klapka was immediately Ou the chau. government CllAriKK XXII. March. hopiii}. acting as commissary of the army. in checking the advance of the . in a city civil remote from the theatre of war. to carry on the with •rreater securitv. contrived.412 tlie MKMDiit or KOSSUTH. Stephm.

in accordance with his own proclamation. and that he him- would then. to tho The main body of the army. that the recent defeats sustained confi- by the Hungarian arms had materially shaken the dence of the nation : and accused himself of having. and betrayed lie purpose of assuming the military dictatorship of Hungary. for the inflicted t'liture. that Minister m\ist from the Emperor. which was attached .] PHOCLAMATIOX OF GORGET. 413 After fortifying Komoni. be liee to twt aa he pleased. and sent a deputation to Windischgratz witliout the concurrence of the anny. instead of as the champions of the con- stitutional liberty of Hungary . 1849. and that. recognized as such by King Ferdinand V . by wliich he first announced his his intention of refusing to submit to the directions of Kossuth and the Committee of dtfence. oppose all who by an untimely republican movement should attempt to overturn the Constitutional Monarchy.000 :i men along the Danube to AVaitzeu : hore he issued proclamation to the troops. be alleged. since he pleaded in the 1st Xovember.D. while pledging itself to n-sist foreign aggression. yielded too implicit an obedience to the Committee of Defence that he hl ' : excuse for this error. at the same time. that the Committee of Defence and the Diet had quitted the Capital. the responsiMinister of War. commenced by stating. The reasons wiiich now impelled him to alter his line t' conduct were. responsible Koyal Hungarian Minister of War. or the person named by him Giirgey knew that be- fore orders could arrive have received his If conr/e from ^[eszard8. it would only obey the orders transmitted by the as his representative. Gorgey marched his army of 25. had followed the example of Meszaros. he concluded by declaring army of the Upper Danube. and that he therefore considered the troops had been treated as mere mercenaries. after a re-capitulation of all the injuries which he considered the Committee of Defence had that the upon the country.A. would.

He disposed his troops in three divisions. the Commander ** of the Cavalry. [a. did not scruple to tlieir (General. Diet. only corps in the anny upon which he felt he could securely depend. who failed in all their attempts to weaken the Through their means. express their opinion of the conduct of of t lie in One is dis- said openly: We hear some one . the fidelity of the men. and Windischgratz and it was only by a skilful approaching from the south and gallant manoeuvre that Guyon succeeded in protecting the baggage from falling into the hands of the enemy. and joining the Russians in Gallicia.H.414 Diet. or by those attached to the Auntrian interests. as he could not safely surrender to Austria from fear of the consequences to himself of the execution of Ziehy.000 men. and by gratifying their influence interest and am- Hia manners and brilliant talents captivated others. unless he already contemplated abandoning the cause. 1>>49. the generals of the other armies of Hungary. and Njigy Sfindor.D." G(irg. to Colonel Guyon. He placed such men. however. composed of 10. among us posed to pluy the part of Caesar a second Brutus if he shall be in no want of he does. or with sif^iia of (lisiipprobutiuii. and ventured no further for the From this time the seventh Battalion waa the present. and even Kossuth himsell'. and confided the rear guard. Schlick was advancing from the north. his staff. It is difficult to account for the conduct of Gorgey at thia time. Instead of placing himself in a position to prevent the approach of Schlick upon the . announci-nu-nt in silence. over them. were for some time deceived into a belief that the whole army was devoted to Giirgey. rt'C't'ivfd tliis MEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. Guvoii. obtained considerable plausible . it was almost entirely commanded by Austrian oflicer.ey became aware he had made an imprudent step. with foreigners and soldiers of fortune upon bition. the wecond in coininaiid. yet his followers and admirers never exceeded fifteen hundred officers.

and advanced into the county of SanSs.AJ). The snow lay on the ground. he continued to advance northwards. nitz. of Guyon. man It to bear his burden. which was considered impregnable. climbed the narrow foot paths between the rocks. On the 17th. The Pass of Branyiszko was occupied by Schlick. No sooner had they reached the summit when they commenced firing on the Austrians below.severe winter's night. responsibility eflect As Gorgey resolved to refused to Guyon take the upon himself.) in the witli ammu- morning before they jeached the heights commanding the defiles. while the rest of Guyon's troops advanced boldly to the assault of the enemy. 1849. and prevented tlieir suspecting the movement. in spite of the representations of the officers next in com- mand. and sent it. he received a decided check at Schem- but Guyon secured the gold and silver belonging Government which had been kept there. and such was the strength of their position. and their companions meanwhile engaged the Austrians in feigned attacks. Guy on was 8urprii»cd by the enemy in the night. he commenced operations on the 5th of Kebruar}'.] THE PASS OF BBANTISZKO. &c. being the ordered to disencun\ber themselves of their arms. as well as the supplies of gunpowder which he found in Xeusohl. so as to enable each nition. but after a bloody conto the flict was victorious. A\here a division of Schlick's anny occupied the defiks of tiie Branyiszko. carrying the cannons (which were taken to pieces. Gorgt-y refused to listen to remonstrances who urged him to attack the Austrians. and a junction with that of the Theiss. give any orders to advance.000 but it was the only road by . which the anny of Giirgey could reach Kaschau. At Neudorf. 415 seat of Government. ropes. in safety to Debreczin. and the plan of the attack having been dniwn up by Colonel Bayer. was one . with 15. when a part of troops. and it was a .000 men. that they could have defended themselves against 100.

No suspicion was. \iiMtriniirt. that the merit belonged solely to \\ Guyon. had permitted his otncem to join in a toirer dtinsanfr nt of volunteers.H ^cH>d fate. The Polish General. the joy was unbounded. who finally ^nvc way. i»«Turr<l the tent of (i ii.tka. however. which had reached the Diet for a considerable when it was stated that his troops.jiirian army. had reached Kaschau. in the . The victory of Bmnyiszko waa the first tidings of the army la'utsfhau. and n-solved (a* he aAenrania expre«»td it) to " ripe for dtvimation. Guyon fortune t)inn hrainii. more to hi. X. Thia (pliant action not only a«ve<l hut tho IInii. Gdrgey hop(*d. a vote of thanks it was decreed a marble I'olumn should be erected. an old soldier of Napoleon. of Gorgey. on which his name should be as passed to that brave officer.Jli'^ UKUOIU Mh-ll WJIH trii I litI o» KOHHITII. hy • • the victuricM <»f Kla. and werr '!" d('ff«t«'<l and (IrivtMi hack ttft4'r n thpiu- (iiir^^fv'H vani. Kossuth was desirous to place at the head of the Ilunaniiies. a well-known military commander whose name might be of important benefit to the cause. who had rctiiaincd during.ary. in pursuit who was expected to join Windischc^atz. at that time breathed of Gorgey's conduct. and dnive the VuMtrianH from the north of llun(. Dembinski. \ il make' HiKVfMnn • . and inscribed in bronze. lbll».uar«l their way to K|HTifi*. the (Mi^f^'nicnt at a distance of aix miles.l>. nmllv rt'inarked. on hearing of (Juyon'H «uccc«ii. and time. ** We have While ahandonini. The troops of Guyon were chiefly compomMl who with their commander." h:\t'rilu'e lie his four wor>t battalion*. ami of Sihlick. fjariau and who had successfully fought against Diebitcb. When it aubseijuontly appean-d that Gorpey was not in the battle. Gorgi'y. would have met thfir deaths in the Poms of Hranyinzko.

how- ever well inti'utioned. the is fortunes of the day were marred. from an nppn'hension lest an opposite conduct might induce the army to place it. unfortunately. New levies had been enrolled. but. the Austrians ft»rced the Hungarians to ret in. This step. to delibi-rate whether they should put Dembinski under arrest. disagreements arining between the three Hungsirian genenils. who was guilty of insubordination. His rvtn-at tlirough Lithimuia ci-li-bratt-d in military aniuils. was is 417 iu Polish Ri'Vulution now Hung:\rv.nchgnitz and Schlick hud united their ft>rces. where Windi.self and for the Diet : in dinct collision with the Government. The Austriims attacked the village of Kapolna on the 2Gth.l. was looked upon aa a sign of weakness and oomproroisod Kossuth aud the Diet towards Dembinski. On *' the 27th.D. he. meantime. l^iO. and sanctioned the proceedings.] OENEUAL DLMUINSKI of iJvJl. hod been actively engaged in establishing factories and foundries at Debreczin and Gros-* AVurdein. The Uovernment. officers. Dembinski was met by Giirgey and Klapka at Kiipolna. tui Commissar)' he joined the court martial. Sremere was at for the Executive this time with the tnwps. fuiiion Dembinski »up|)osed to have caused Home con- by giving contradictor}' orders. or request him to resign the command. X X . and were twice driven out. after informing him that he had lost the confidence of the army. and ever)' mvdful pn-paration made to strengthen the army.'. and during the n'tn*at Giirgey obser>ed to his This comes of being commanded by foreigners and old women!" On n'aching Tissa Fun-tl. on his own authority. He soon afterwards received the appointment of Commander-in-Chief over all the amiies of Hungary. called a court martial. aud he was then-fore a welcome adjunct when he arrived from Parii* in Januar}'. but much blame also rests on Giirgey. aud joined Pererel in an exjH'dition in which the enemy wan defeated at Szolnok.

expresaed themselvea sati86ed. IMO. that he would co-oix-rate with the Government in all which lay in his jxnver.o. Vett<?r IB Field Marshal. t4» havo nndorfd him clii. that he wa<» mii<judi:e< Am til M£UOIB or KOtlUTU. h© even a»!iun*d Kosauth that he would deiliue the chief command if pre«*ented to him. in an atknuwItHl^nfnt tliat. ho wou. after this was inteniew with Kossuth. but of whoHO honour he as yet had capaoity. to oonoiliato no n>ore doubt tliau of bia . ^ . HchMtened who wa« alMavn awed by hia pn'Sfiu'f. )iuA taken place. and only asked in return the Profo«8or'« Chair of Clieinistry in IVsth. and jdoadod thu oxigvuciea of the cue alone tm an cxcutM* for bin iimduot. ho thorvforo offort-d him tho all ili «f i. if he were fortunate enough to secure the national independence. providod ho would oonaont to give up 8<-homo of fonuing a »oparato party. 1840. JIarck 10. with the eioeption of Damianies (who was the friend and admirer of Gdrgey no less It than of Kossuth). that Gdrgey : wrote thus to Klapka '* " E^yek. Kotututh hoiH-d. f command ho thon (if acnt for Ciorgey. partioa for tho welfare of Hungary but (J orgoy only replied ovajiivoly. had ho biH'n in tho |thui* uf DonibinHki. rathor tlian cause disunion at »ii jK'i-ilous a juiM-turo. docidod Kuaauth at oncv to dopriTc him of tho . on thia whifh a^o apjK-arfd occMion by Dombinaki. and Commander-in-chief of aU . and devote his taleutu and onorgio!* to tho good of Hungan. oh RunMith hoard what wluii (iurf. and Douibiiutki had condiictotl hiniHoir aj» ho had dono. tho (fonoral'a doitin* for power. . and all the higher officers. llio wtuit uf ability di«|)hiycd in u |Hmiti«»n fur unfit. but a« bin own obji-ct « > tho indojK-ndonco of hi« ctjuntry. thi- riiiup. by this oonoo*i«ion to a man all who«*o ambition ho might dn a^i. cou(li-niiu-<l hiiuM' oflioo in tho Stalo. General Vetter was a^x-ordingly appointed to Buoceed Dembiuski. and told him be wa« aware hi» umbitiun.'c-y.'.: . h«miii [. ho wuuld liavo had him shot.

1849. substitute. Be2 . Aulii-h. ami hims4. addressed him •* in 1 the following letter: in the — of the countr}' not to be too beseech you name susceptible. third I the first. . • When you to in your proclamation from Waitzen. am firmly convineed that effivted Damianios. and wait in patience what the ComGouoET. acted as you would wish I retained the seeond and seventh. Your |»lun ha« my aequieiKvnee.A. your Battalion. but the intended to cross of Ood Hungary forbaile aud sent must go to Tokuy. seeoud. ! aud couutrv He will »uecefti . From all this you will perceive.-difd friend. 119 the troops of Hungar}! May Heaven fill kct»p his breast free from hia all jx-tty views. without a Commander-in-i-hief. if and would have mueh.*eeived by the Auriiians. and so I . him with a geuuiue love lor if he follows your aJvice. and to sow the new C'ommander-in-chief. . I we had remained tlie it. 1 told aud seventh battalions. Another day lost! In Dfbnvrin they have made a blunder in the disDamianios is only to have tlie tribution of the troops." mander-in-chief shall decide. that -t. at least as many as I. and Aulich. doubtful of the sincerity of his vaunted motleration. but he allows be led into and full will be d«. and for tluit reas4tn tht-y assigned to I believe I him also the first that is. Kossuth. a vvty honest and skilful general.] LETTER OF GoBGET. *' While (Jorgey was thus endeavouring by di»cont«'nt aj^iiist flattery to gain over Klapka. declareil you wotild not render or hia ob.*lf to does not reject mine error.-. to his side. Theiss to-day at C'sege.D. and much of our time and opportunities lost. I I. rain. The foriniT I continue to eumnuind n»ys«*lf. that Damiunios should have nu»n*. but our steps are hamjHTi'd by the Domination of Vetter. the lutt4'r 1 ha\e entru8t4*d to Aulich. Pamianics.iit-nce any one but Mc'-azaros. jrou. . them they were wrong. that I can do nothing but pursue my operations.

or the Diet but I . your army now clearly perceives that it has no confidence in Vetter. esteemed friend.4i:0 MEMOin OF KOSSUTH. believed the enemy cannot overpower us. what would have been our fate country. and others Vcttcr. Had I irritated then allowed my feelings to master me. But how can I continue to maintain it ? Only by never permitting the momentary feelings of revenge to overpower the reason of the nation. or plotted a military revolt and many came to me. at we have disposed of the people. much [a. for the horrors of ci\al The enemy would now rule over the war would have ravaged the IMay the merciful God avert such a calamity. the destiny of the nation yet safe in my hands. for I was only desirous that no mistake might be committed which might compromise the weal of the country'. I have sufiered and laboured I have not yielded to any momentary excitement. miserable intrigues. Let us remain \inited even amidst our errors.d. dispute awhile enemy Then let the among themselves.' I have ever yielded. if they please. least until ? nation. dear friend. and now we are already so far advanced that it is generally ' . ! You perceive. and issued decrees in that spirit. and snares is laid by selfish- ness and knavery. and by always repeating. that amidst a thousand dreadful tribulations. 1849. and to act with energy against those of greater importance. rose in indignation against you. maintain. I have endeavoured to remedy minor errors. Meszaros. that we avail ourselves of every means according . used arguments in the Diet. of ITungary as at that time adhered to us. which would have ruined the country) had I yielded to my feelings of in- dignation. as . (for I was by a proclamation presenting an opportunity to many to refuse obedience to the Government. You say. when I saw that not to yield must lead to secession. and much was said to convince me that I ought to be offended with your behaviour. looking upon you as a rebel wlio intended to play the part of Dumouriez or Monk.

He set a price and to have extinguished the armies oi upon the heads of General Kiss Extract from the • Prospective Review. and on whose rested their hopes for the country accused him of treason. 13. pos- sessed of a dangerous ambition."* is past. Hungary. no one which might endanger the danger Though Guyon had complained of the conduct of Gorgey towards himself. 421 to our abilities. . make use of First. but I am the also aware that they are not such as to endanger the victory of the nation. and cast aside personal ambition. longer. a commander many when Guyon therefore and refused to serve iinder him any abilities as . 1849. hastened thither. 1853. LETTEE OF KOSSUTH.D. pp. and . in a manner which put Kossuth on his guard respecting the character of the General. of the Kossuth allowed something for the impetuous nature young soldier. 414. accepting the appointment. was believed to be influential in the army. that after the victory. 12. We must. all elements at our disposal. 413. made his Windischgratz had not pursued the Hungarians after his victory of Kapolna. with the single-heartedness of old. pp. when the arrogate to himself a power liberty of the nation. we must conquer. after encoiintering many difficulties. which he believed to be decisive of the fate of the coimtry. January.A. then let it comes the time for organization. therefore. and advised him to be in future more discreet at the same time he invested him with the command of Komorn which was besieged by the Austrians. he had no reason to believe him false . and. that let we may rescue our covmtry us not endanger this great object by our personal anti! pathies 1 am avrare that faults and defects exist . Winter Feldzug. and be both our care. Guyon immediately way into the fortress. it was besides necessary to act with prudence and caution towards a man who.

Count Bethlen and Colonel Gal. and marched to Klamw-nburg w hich General Puchner. : trian armies in the battle of Kronstadt.000 men under his command. Particular orders were given on the frontiers for their arrest.000 insurgent army of 10. lastly. and Count Caniniir Perczel. evacuated on his approach tenant Colonel Urban and his body of Austriana over the he was however frontiers. he repulsed and was recovering his position. . he had to enbe fugitives. while an tlieir advancing to support.U. the favourite poet of the day. he soon afterwards received a reinforcement from Kossuth. who Oeiicnils IJutthyanyi liad fiillowed Bi'iii throuf^h the whole cainjwi^i little . placarded in counter 15. with his -KMX) men. .000 Russians were He had taken Dees according to hid engagement. .000 Russians. where. : co-operation of the Szeklers of Transylvania. a^rainHt the pebellioua SiTbs . and three children under eight yeanj of age. who captK-iticH in their military and civil had acted Meuz. Nothing daunted.000 regular Austrian troops. hirt wiff.000 or 12. and. garrisoned by 6. taking possesion of their baggage and artiilerr on the 19th March he finally defeated the Russian as well as the Austhe enemy once more. [a. and then returned to Puchner defeated and overwhelmed by the superior numbers of of the enemy.200 men. he attacked Herrmamistadt. alao upon lieni. and drove them from the whole province into "VS'allachia. and witli 6.lros. upon KoHsuth. and his little army reduced to 1.422 MKMolU OK KOHSITII. 1819. und the Deputy VukovicH. Ably supported by his officers.'d to and minute drncriptionH of their jxrwons wcro all places occupied by tlie AuBtrians. upon all the menibenj of the Coniuiittee of Defence. when the Russians entered the country. in the lKH)e of cruahiug him by his concentrated Bern first drove Lieuforce. and 30. Bein had nieaiitinic continued his course of victims in Transylvania. upon Petofy. an they were already 0uppotM. and the AVallocks.

England openly approved of sequently tried to mediate his intervention. and was a lit subject of remonstrance on the part of the Sultan. writing. Abercrombie). replied.>ivmpatliy of the English . which would in his in all probability occasion a similar uiovement own dominions. fact interfere by lier word or deed Government had in placed itself in a dilllcult the position. When Charles Albert. on the 2Gth. to which Lord Palmerston. he signed a declaration of war. no sooner had the King of Piedmont become engaged.A. therefore he thought himself obliged "to take measures. of Russia. Canning. might prove an awkward and that the intervention affair. l>vis. 423 Sir Stratford Lord Palnieriitou. and subhis favour. than Englaiul was readv to c»niie forward with her gtxjd invaded Lonibardy. that undoubtedly the pas. pretence of favouring the liberal cau. which by preventini. England did not to prevent the unrighteous act.}rd.] CUARLES ALBERT.Ministers. the king gave as a reason for this act his alarm lest a Republic might be proclaimed in Lombardy." nevertln-less on the 2. and the same evening. (Mr. in a despatch to the English Envoy at Turin. sliould avoid in for Piedmont and the rest of Italy the catastrophe which . 1849. despotic powers were stitutional Although two now actually combining to crush ConHungary by the force of arms. On the 2'Jnd March.' tlie actual movement Lombardy from becoming Republican. without any provocation on the part of Austria. under in Italy. on the 4th February to informed him that the Ilunj^'arians seemed to be victorious in Transylvania.D.-^age of the Kussian troops was an infraction of the Porte's neutrality. instead of protesting against their entrance into the Danubian Principalities. j)em)le with Austria in Though the cause of the (»ppresse<l Lombard had not excited the active . Cliarles Albert had assured the Austrian Minister that " he desired to confirm the relations of amitvand good neighbourship existing between their two States.

Lord oil II PiiliiuTMloM. the Cabinet of Vienna knew they had nothing to dread from the interference.fully Kn^linh Minijit4.I. and thout^h niadi. Kn. I%t9. between her character for comiiutenc)' and her character for justice. luid nunmunienbed by Mr. and Hf^inut thi* Auiftria which he actually did invndi>. l&iO The Emperor of Austria annuU the Hunganan Cotutiiution-^ Victories oj" the Hungarians — Illness of Vetter — Gorgey The Austakes the command — Kossuth with the armg Hungary trian Gocernment demand aid from Russia Hungarian victories calls upon England to interfere Retreat of tht Ausbetween the Theiss and Danube trians O^cial invitation from Vienna to St." In an inUTvirw with ('(tuut Hullxt ihem* inutivi'H were could not She had to choose Will Hupport one and condemu the juHtified their actionii. <l<)ul)li- AUhtI wm tlu'n'foro carrying iittri(. March. Petersburgh. tlu-y huj>- porti'd hiij His inra^iun of Lombardy. to send troojys into Hunqarg Lord Pclmrrtton — — — — — — assures Sir Strafford Canning Russia trill not inter' fere — The Declaration of Independence— Kossuth elected . »he chose the former and when !>• : communicated the corresp<»ndence Ix-twceu h BjE^nt of Ko88uth to the Auatrian Embassy.ut>. April. only diffen'd in the pretoxta by which the King and the C/. Abercrorabie to C'lmrli-H viz. jir«j- u form of (Jovfriiiiicnt weiv cliiiim-d./(Mnbardji whom he thuit prt'U'iidod tu Ui<HiMt.'ni wfre aware of cauMf.. Ium mobt wcrft iulentiuna. it|riiinst th<.421 mi^'ljt MKMOtll oi taki' j)hu-c. if hui-Ii KO^^'I Til [ad. CHAPTER XXIII. or mediation of England. and the RuaHian invaaion of lluMf^ary.

-'terH for their refusal to mediate be: tween the two countries aa independent power«. a iiiaiiitVsto wa« iniiiu-iluitflv issued. :»nny. coiutistent d as little trust in him as was . of S^agy WiiE5 the news of the battle of Ka|)olna reached Oliniitr.000 prisonem and a large quantity of military Kossuth immediately repaired to head quarters.*. pla<'e. The main body of army then marched towards the north in pursuit of •/. — Sandijr Relief of Komorn.and continued with it for some time. that JIungar)' formed a part of tlie Austrian Empire. taking 5. Ck'ueraU DamiaiiicM and Vecsey defeated the Austrians. vix. Vetter falling ill. and act of annexation aufliciently disproved the rea**on alleged Hrilitth by the Mini. and the kingdom waa Thia nlanife^ito declared annexed to the Austrian Empire. whereas .\ustria thuii a4.A. So<»n afterwards Kossuth joined the iiian'. Ktoren. thanking them in the name of jM'ople for their heroic actions. under General Ottinger.D. :ind in two succesuive engagement. reviewed the troops. during which the lined a series of brilliant victories.iin a clearer insight into the characters of the otKwm. He was also the the " -< 1 : . Gorgey. Gi/rgey G'orgey reliete Komorn — Proclamation and — Kossuth Klapka. by wliieh the ancient C'dustitution of Hungary ««« annulled. He therefore in future repossible.-know ledged that Hungary had hitherto U'en a Bt>parate kingdom under the enjoyment of a Constitutional fonn of Oovi-niment. as next in eomWii.] THE COKSTlxrTlOy ASTrCtLED. 425 — Successes of Bern the South victory at Proritional Governor of Hungary Appoints a Ministry in Transylvania. and of Perczel in — — £scapeofJellachichfrom Pesth — Hungarian Xayy Sdrlo to — Aulich enters Pesth tends — Victory of Damianict. and pos« for the first time became fully aware of the intriguing nature of Gcirgey. 1849.

though diurenpectful towardu the Govemmeut. iiiArior The complaititii of Guyon. were equally dec^eived as to the depth of villainy of which he was capable. they ought not to be condemned too hastily for want of foresight by those who judge of events after they have past. 1849. that almost all phinned for him by his subordinate left officers. discipline. and the countr}-. and asking how he came there. GiJrgey replied. Kven (ftlrg«'y'n proi-laniation at in the ull'air. army. and general science suth. lay in organization. His talent . [i. AVhile Kossuth was with the army.' an act of injustice. but no one knew.-* had that bwn contrary to law. On Kossuth wakening him. Gbrgey affected extreme regard for him. it without commithim. Kossuth always hinis*'lf considered he possessed more administrative than military capacity . might nnats from inuu- bordiiiution or ill-foundrd sunpirion. " Where could I be better than guarding the safety of the Defender of Hungary r" Jealous of hia . i onlv laid him ojw'n to the accuwition of over nenliiit jM-rsowil dignity and to that of Ambitious motives might be implied^ on which subject Koshiith had already privately remonntrati-d with him. toward** other onie<Ti». and one morning the General was foxind stretched asleep in hia cloak before hia door. (j«irgey After the battle of had frankly acknowledged hb conuuct militar}- Dembinrtki wa. with Giirgey's and if Kosthe own immediate friends and officers.420 with hiB position MEMOIB or in the KOttiCTU. until it (Jiirgey inadhia vertently betrayed battles were in his ^lemoirs. removed been impoKMible to have tjtif. and frequently to them to execute. and even olVered to indulge his wishes. and while nothing actually would have tr:in«|)irrii to juHtifv want of confidence. army. and of KajMilna. be<-n and it evident Dembinitki himwlf had to blame AVaitr-en.D. so long as they were not wilh ngard to prejudicial to the interests of the country.

mate the soldiers with fK'sh courage. another at Tapio The presence of Kossuth seemed to aniupon Pesth. about this time. and treated him with the most profound re8i>ect. The consciouswhen inferit»r unacknowledged. as the invitation to enter iiun- gary did not come from any legally constituted authority.xuth. tJiirgey could manner agaiii!«t iiim. &c. on the 10th of March. which as a soldier was undoubt<. A series of battles had been fought between the Theiss and the Danube. and in the pn-fM'Mce of one so much his superior he at once became ditVrintial.H{>osal of Austria. sent U Czar for military aid against the " rebels in Hungary. laid before Lord accepted. (ioNtriiimnt. IJieske. failed him as a man."h upon Englund to interfere against Russia's of international law.>d. calling brea«. a despatch from Debn-czin." and demanded that Russian troops should be asiHMnbled on the frontiers of Uallicia and of tlie iiukowina. 1849. The request wa« granted under certain conditions which were gratefully Pulsrky. and the invasion of Transylvania had taken phiee without any just cause of war. 427 fellow officers. Palmerston. The Hungarians had gained one at Arskszallas. his courage.-k wards two victories at Isaszeg. Au. he was still more jealous of the civil auand even considered the iVieudlv spirit with which Kossuth always met him. and though in the ahsence of Kos.'*lriaii The re<^ue8t to the and be placed at the di. in w hich the Austrians had been successively defeated. and had been driven ba«. work. thority. a sign ul* weakness yet in reality .D.] BUSSIA PROMISES AID TO AUSTBIA. ness of intellectual and moral worth in another. The evening before . produces hatred in minds of an talk in a loud and boasting stamp. he feared the man he afl'ected to despise.A. on the othtr hand. ever returned. Ac. No answer to this appeal was liuw In the meantime Hungary was doing her own uoassistiHl by foreign allies.

Here a council of war waa held.* The Hungarians pursued the enemy so closely.('nu'nt8 at IsaHzeg. he is a brave youth. when u dcHpatth After remiing it lift was brought him by a llonvetl. p. in the beginning of April. KohkuIH wjuj takiuir a frugal meal with some of the olHcern. that in Godollo Kossuth slept in the room occupied the prenoua night by Prince AVindischgratz. in which it was resolved to commence operation* Two batagainst the army which waa blockading Pesth. oflered the bean-r a ghvMH of wine.. before he could prevent it." roMC. 1819. one of the " I remarked to Kossuth know him. the Ilou- vod placing the gliws on the table. The Austrian ^linister. "Sir. one of the enp. and emptyseized the hand of it ing the glass at one draught. Kossuth and waa present pressed to his lips officers gone. Alarmed for their own safety. aiul . aud not to TearH started to the of the soldier. »t*'pt i/ou back. Count Stadion." uj»<»n which HUch as KoMHuth lue. talions under Damianics and Klapka had attacked and gained possession of Waitzen. aud m this moment he feels himself so exalted. answered. that he will seek danger to-morrow." The the next morning the body of this officer 8pt)ke too truly Honved was found among those of the forlorn hope who had stormed and taken the battery. " in Men you save our fatherland honour eyeri lie due to you. and it waa generally believed nothing now could prevent the Hungarians marching to the . room.D. [A. As he left the . and go to certain death to prove he waa worthy of the honour you have bestowed on him.ap. an official request to the Czar to aasist them in subjugating Hungary. . gates of Vienna. 30. Haymg. embniceti him. and dewired him to join him in drinking vietory to hin fathrrland . 1 am not worthy to drink with .428 MBMoin OF KosstTii. the Vien- nese Ministers sent once more. however * Sagen uud Erzahlungen aus Ungam von Therese Pulszky.

561. Lord Palmerston nevertheless officially informed Sir Stratford Canning. authority of On the 24th of April.A. did not On the the 14th of April an event occurred of the utmost Fn)m the 4th of March. Thus the new army.] THE DECLA. ISiO. Debreczin." dicted this assertion. were most eager to have the tie between Austria and ilungar}' dissolved. As this step required the sanction of the Diet. as Gorgey called them in contempt. he sent to acquaint the several armies intention.BATIOX OF IXDEPEyDEXCE. Out of tlie eight first they were composed. under and entire consent to under Haddik and Gal. and was so niueh excited on the occasion. while expressing appear to been made the medium by which a false statement had been transmitted to the British Ambassador at the Porte. Before taking his departure. and the third under Damianics. Ootob«r. he determined to leave the army and return to importance to Hungary. the British Minister. 429 ri'fused to sanction so iniquitous a measure. that he shortly afterwards became insane. those who had beaten the Austriana and WestouJiBter Review. when Emperor annulled the Hungiirian Constitution. namely. . however. and the fourth and fifth and Volunteers. sent in their full Bem and the measure. National Guards. Kossuth was of opinion the nation should reply by a Declaration of Independence.D. p. Perczel. the and th»-ir leaders with his Hungarian corps of which under Klapka. 18 S3. in Transylvania and in the South. on the of the Baron lirunoic. and only added that he had nothing to say resent having to it.* his regret at the interference of the Czar. were unfavourably disposed towards the j)roject. though they did not oiler any decided objection the second and sixth. " that it was not the intention Emperor of Russia to take aaiy part in the Hungarian "WTien the subsequent conduct of Russia contra- war. the Honveds.

expressed themThua the only selves to be uiuuiimoua for the measure. [a. and remained faithfiil to his country and to his word.4!^0 MEMOIE OF kobbcth. then in Komorn under Guyon. in the Austrian service. The commissar}. • Colonel. the Hungarian representatives met in the Protestant Church at Debreczin. .* wa* decidedly in favour of Kossuth and of the Government . Kossuth consulted them in person Debreczin. agreed. On the 14th April. but both accepted office under Kossuth iuunediately after the Declaration of Independence had been proclaimed Gorgey gave it his unqualified assent. Russians out uf Transylvauia. who had defeat^-d Schlick in the north.d.of the army. 1S48. a now General George Km^ty. formerly a diBtinguiahed oflBcer Hungarian by birth. refused to accept the absolution. A few months later he was absolved from his oath by Austria. battalion. heartily concurred in gained four of One third «jf the seventh the Deilanition of independence. wlio had subdued the rebellious Serbs. did not ofler any objection Count Casimir Batthvani hesitated. and had tlie most reniarkale victories in the battles between the Theiss and the Danube. than he and Szemere openlv avowed their disapprobation of the measure. coininandid by Cohtnel George Kuiety. soon as they were free to give an opinion. and was sent into Hungary by order of the Austrian Government. and after a solemn of the . but no sooner had Kossuth departed. but^ though not a politician. he knew the value of his honour. He was in the army of the Upper Danube throughout the campaign. consisted of two and of these the former In order to obtain did not openly expn'ss their dissent. . and has since written a refutation of the false statements of GKirgey.He served in the cam- paign in Italy. 1819. Szemere. while as the eighth battalion. and commanded to take his oath to observe the laws of March. the unbiasi^ed opinions of the officers belonging to the anny and a part of a before returning to Upper Danube. portion of the army battalions who were not third.

placed the House of Austria upon its throne. and the WTongs the people had sutiered. do by these presents solemnly proclaim and maintain the inalienable natural rights of Hungarj* with all its dependencies. After of the Hungarian arms. wA9 . The Declaration of Independence was then prayer. These three hundred years nation. recapitulating the \'ictories read. adopted to presen'e from destruction a nation persecuted to the limits of the most enduring patience. innumerable sources of prosperity. the legally constituted representatives of the Hungarian nation assembled in the Diet. 431 Kossuth rose and addressed the meeting.'p. as perjured in the sight of God throne. feels the Its population numbering nearly fifteen millions its glow of youthful strength within docility veins. that the civilized world may learn wo st<. " We. have taken this not out of overweening coulidence in our that own wisdom. its and l^tia shewn temper and which guarantee proving at ^«'ever once the main. and the guardiaii of that civilization when attacked. we feel ourselves bound in duty us to make known the motives and reasons which have impelled tliis decision.A. in varied profusion. "Tlie Creator lia. 100.s blessed this land with Its area of all the elements of wealth and happiness.000 square miles presents. in accordance with stipulations made on both sides. to occupy the position of an independent European State that the House of Hapsburg Lorraine. of civilization in Eastern Europe. 1S19/ TUE DECLARATIOK OF IN'DEPEKDEKCE. it is or out of revolutionarj' excitement. and ratified by treaty. he called upon Hungary to assume her rightful place among the free nations of the earth. "Three hundred years have passed since the Hungarian by free election.sprin*. to and man. has forfeited its right to the Hungarian At the same time. have been a period of uninterrupted suffering for the country.D. la^jt but an act of the necessity.

in breaking up the integral territory of the kingdom. further. The House of treachery. " State is declared to be inviolable. with its dependencies. as follows its own existence. and its districts from Hungary.Lorraine. : — Hungary w ith Transylvania. which cannot point to a single ruler who haa ba«ed hi« |>owcr on the freed<»m of the people.House of Hap»burg Ix)rraine.d. Sclavonia. llun^^arv would now nujk ojuon^wl the m08t pro»j>eroui» of nations.432 a more MnMoin or j. adopted. thnii timt wliii-h de\ol\etl upon tilt. by compassing the destruction of the independence of the country by anna.'nit«'ful t/u*k kossutii.ProvidciiiT. " this nation from generation to generation a course towards which meetH the name of jMTJur}in the justice Conhding of an eternal (Jod. Fiume. . It wna only nei-esHan' to n-frain from curtailing the gnriaurt united moderato nhare of Coiuititutional liU-rty which the Uunwith rare fidelity to their Sovereign*. «lvnui. further imjH'Ued by that sense of duly which urges every nation to defend lawfully ropresonlid by us. " 2nd. and its territory to be indi- \-isible.ijfiiing bv tlie dirt|M'n->ati()i» of Diviiu. and the tluM '" House of Hapuburg might long have counted nation amongvt the mont faithful adherenUt to the thnine.t_v iipixfinU-d rt. are henby declared to constitute a free independent Sovereign state. and nmintftined through cautiou>*ly the troublett of a thouMind years. as by law united. ]>^iQ. porjur}-. as well as by its outrageous violation of all compacts. t<* ft [a. in reliance upon the natural rights of the llunijarian nation and upon the power it has develojxd to maintain tliem. and levying Hapsburg. we in the face of the civilized world. having by war against the Hungarian nation. Croatia. If nothing had been doni* to impcdi' tht* di'vc-lopnient of the countn. The territorial unity of this Ist. do hereby declare and proclaim in the name of the nation. tliirt Hut I)ynai*ty. in the separation of Transylvania.

and declared to be banished for ever from the united countries. They are therefore dt-elari'd to be de- posed. Tlie form of government to be adopted in future will '* be tixed by the Diet of the nation And this rewilution of ours all we shall proclaim and make known to the nations of the civilized world. territory'. as well aa to contract alliances with nations. States of maaxM — is. We also hereby proclaim. for ever excluded from the throne of the United Hungary and Trausylvani:)^ and lUl their possesand dej)eudencie«.'ht9 and sovereign will. in the exercise of its rii. that towns. 433 and by calling in the disciplined army of a fonMini power by violation for the purpose of annihilating its nati<)n:ility. with the convieti<m. with the same acknowledgement of its rights. all Hungarians proffer to other countries. and their dt-pt-ndencies and poMSfShions. cities.AJ). and banished for ever from the Hungarian " 3rd.] THE DZCLAKATIOX OF nrDEPEXDEyCE. degraded. Crown of Hungarv'. both in the counties and V V . both of the Pragmatic Sanction^ and of treaties concluded between Austria and Hungary on whirh the alliance be- tween the two countries depeudeil. ** other 4th. de«'lftn's it to be its intention to establish and those maintain friendly and States with which it nfighlnjurly relations with was formerly united under the same all Soven'ign. 1849. connnunes. authorities. which the and make known to the inHungary and Transylvania. The Hungarian nation. as treachenius and perjured. habitants of the United States of and their dependencies. bt-ing detennined to assume the position of a frve and inde|H'ndent State amongptt the nations of Europ**. and the civil officers. and is heri'by deprived of the stvie as well as of the armorial biiirings belonging to and the title. that the them amongst free friendship and fn-e " Hungarian nation will be received by and independent nations.

Csanyi. Public Won<hip. and afterwards as Comiuisriar}. tsiry of State for Home affairs. and in the surrounding districts of the Tbeiss.43-4 MEMOin OF KOSBTTU. aluill way tu aid or aln-t any one violating na Kuilly of hi^h treaiwm. the appointment was popular iu Debreczin. Minister of Justice.Lorraiuo any individual iu dariiig to contnivfiu. AprU 14/A. and Arthur Giirgcy. that until the new form of Go- veruineut ahould be detennined upon. all an* t'oinpli-ttly uiuli-r vshicli and n Iciu^d from atid tluit obligationi tlte tuiid tlii-v HU*ud by uath or utiu-rwino to : llouBO uf liupHburg. had evinced courage and determination under very difficult cirovmistmices. 1840.d. where the Calvinistic fonu of worship prevailed In nominating him. aiid aity by word or deed it. oflBce he because lus conduct when in the Batihyanyi Ministry. a strict Calviniat.thiu decree. wt Ircc [a. Minis- ter of Finance . the seat of Government. who waa forthwith appointed Governor of H ungarj'. wu hereby bind and oblige the inliabituntu of thetK? cuuntrii*« to obedience to the ineiit Ooveruncces- now iiiMiituted formally. Bishop of Caanad. 1849. the Governor believed tliat their sentiment* were agreed ou those questions which now agitated Hungary? . Foreign Afiaira. the admiuijjtratioD of the airuirs of the counlr)' uhould bo confided to a President and Diet The PrcHident aelecti'd by tho wa8 Louid Koasuth. Public Works .for tl¥? army of the North. As be was. Sebaatian Vukovica. and named Dusehek. be treated and puniMhed lication of And by the puball thii4 drcn-e. MicWl llorvath. Count Ca^imir Bat tliyanyi. *' Dcbreczin. Kossuth had selected Szemere for the important filled." It wiuj further decreed. Szemere reserved for himself the office of Secreresp(iJit«ibLe Miiii»t<T«. besides. and endowed with all aary legal j)owenj. He deputed Satemere to form hia Cabinet. Minister of War.

and Paul Alnuissy. were Koiiian Catholics. Peri'nyi. Pn*8ident of the Chamber of Deputi«'s.. in the Declaration Independence. Duschek. the Minister of Finance. 435 he issued a ot* but shortly after Szemere had accoptod a republican tlie and revolutionary accordance with Kossuth.A. Kossuth himsi-if and Giirgey. it to be the iiiteutiou Minintera to conduct the of the countr}. had resolved to leave the Diet to decide what form of Govern and to act. in the meantime to the countr)' in a state of intrrreynuin. both belonged to the Lutheran persuasion. States of the Kealm. Minister uf Public Works. The point of religious toleration ha<l been always that for for jiolilical liberty which Hungary thriiUghout her struggles had contended with the rights for all liouse of llapsburg.D. Hon'ath. who had formerly been attached to the Bureaucracy of \'ieruia. on of contrary. which at that period was comparatively small and insignificant. DfTicc. and was supixtMHi to luive nuu>li ability in his own department. its maintain the ancient Constitution in original form of King and therefori'. Szemere. in Horvath had formerly bcfu iVotf s-«or of Hi'^turv Vienna. and in ever}' treaty (even although the Hungarian leaders were lionian Catholics) the same wa« insisted upon as a priman. The Governor and Sxeniere were equally desirous that the new Ministr}' should contain representatives of in all the principal sects acknowledged Hungary. iu which he deelared aflairs spirit. and had been named i F 2 . Minister of Public Worship. 1&49. by this to the placed himself in t)ppi>sition Governor. MT5T8TBT UXDEB KOSSUTH. ment should oooiiider in future be adopted . In five successive warn with Austria she had maintained e(pmlity of denominations of Christians.condition. and at the head of the Republican or Democratic party. Csjuiyi. President of the Chamber of Magnates.

was evident by the avowal of sonal friend of one of their o'vra. wai* a thorough Magyar. and justice.a desire in all things to promote the ends of humanity. by the liutthyuiiw iliniHtrv* He had obtained a hi^'h reputation for hiu JJisturt/ uf Jlungary. [k.43G MEMOIB OF KOSSUTH. a« well an Sebai*who was a gentleman of good family of Serbian extraction. the moat exalted ideai* tliou. Vice . belonged to the Greek church. Unitarian liiahop Pkto uaezkovics. of State in the Miuiatr^ of Public .D. a man of advanrrd years. asd the appointment of his successor. Bishop of Cpnnad. when Horvdth was immediately nominated on the • It 6ome years death of his predecessor. and of Szemere. Till the end of the war will be necessary to keep under a strict surveillance of the police " ever}' Protestant clerg}Tnan and Protestant professor had always been customary with the Austrum MinisterB to allow to elapse between the demise of one Bishop. Csanyi. 1849. General Benedek declared. President of tho Chamber of Deputies. Vnder Stentary ship. . Count CaBunir was a Hinccrc and ardent patriot. the Miniuter of Foreign Affairu. with an iron will and unwt-arird uiduhtry and though not a great HtateHmau.h entertaining of the duties belonging to the clerieal profession. Chairman of a Hoard in the Ministn' of Public tian Vukovics.. . in which interval the State enjoyed the revenue of the bishopric. Though himself a Hungarian and Protestant. and Hzauz. WorAtlia- were Calvinists John a Palfi. This was changed under the Batthyanyi ministry of 1S43. generals. Szcmere. Minitsttr of Justice. That the Austrian Government considered the war one of religion as well as of politics. " Thia is a Protestant rebellion . Wonihip. lie wa« a per- Count Caaimir Batthyanyi. it will never be put down till the Proit testants are put down. truth. and bin abhorreuce of the power of a hi«'rarehy. and who united to a sincere love for hia countn. and wa« remarkable for hw enlightened views on religiouti mnttirrt. Batlhyanyi.

his sleeping chamber. which contains four ajiartments. 350. but he replied. were in the ri>om as at the • in his usual phu-e. .. I despatches. a parlour. but had often to feel the pulse of his left arm. while the was engaged with his pen. D. I Three couriers. the chancery where we four secretaries have oar places. He scarcely took any nourishment. and Kossuth was pressed by the Rtpublicau partv to de- clare hinisell* for their views . and Kossuth his right hand. I hastened to Kossuth's house. after I had breakfasted. p. 1S49. F. as usual.A. abridged form had come The letter in ita Ib copied from a work on Hungary nd KoMotli..* "There is hardly ever a pause in the Yesterday morning.] KOSSUTU OOVERSrOR OF HrSOABT. and he had letters to write at the same time . and with an earnest desire to perform his duty to his country despatches were often arriving after midnight. His onlv recreation was an occasional drive into the country with his wife. moment ultimate form of Grovernment. with entered. his physician continued to nsit him.D. and a small room for copyists. that to save his first the country and its Constitution was care. course of the Oovernor's ai-tivity. with a left pen in and in the despatches just brought him. Tefft. and the only duty which ought to occupy them in the present and that the policy of Europe must decide the The labours imposed by his new office upon him were. 437 It was some weeks before the Ministry could be appointed. .s he passed along.D. had One of his secretarii'S thus describes him in a letter which was published in some of the leading journals of Europe and America. while listening and answering the him. by B. and continued at work when his secretaries right fallen asleep fmm exhaustion. interrogatories of those Still who surrounded As his health continued feeble. in various languaijes. fulfilled without regard to himself. where the ])ea«antry weli-nmed him a.

did not liinder him from examining the documents we had . He returned at about four o'clock in the afternoon. for the ill were not will BO. and two di-HpaUbes Am 1 came in. and each of niv three colleagues three. accompanied by several Eepresentatives.43B ratlur lute. tuid he is not had scarcely taken my place when the Governor began to dictate a letter to General Bern. taking with him some papers on which he bad made several memoranda. He himself had in the mean time prepared two desjtatches. a« if to keep up his phyHieal exiHtence.. with whom he held a conference of two hours. one for After nine o'clock. answering their questions and suggestions. 1849. hia mouth waa dictating. One might almost aay. that the physical part of him htm scarcely an existence of if it its own. who came for him. Indeed. and another for Komom. to the National Assembly. leavPerczel. He lookt-d pulrr and was alrrady a (juarU-r paat five o'eKx-k. he went w ith the Ministers Szemere and Duschek. anittluT setTftary hml pn-pan-d in my pbice . th(»ugh I have often worketl at his aide from early in the morning till lato at ni^ht. and hiH mind din-ctvd and fitllowrd all the ojk-rationH of thosf wlio workrd under him.D. worao in health than uitual. I He not be ill. by his dictation. and the quajitity of food consumed by him would hardly be enough to keep a young child from atarv ing. A ghuta of medicine atood beHide him. during which time I had \\Titten two letters. of whieli he taatt-d from time to time. M&H ocTupied in Beveral ways hia hand wm writing. 1 do not rt'inember having aeen him atop to take any n«»urihhiiu'nt excepting thin mixture. This. [a. hia eye ghuiced at and read the open drspatohru. the man is nothing but spiritual energj'. however. the perishing sickly fnune would long since have been all dissolved in spite of skill of physicians. and we were simikrly engaged for about four hours. for it 3JLMOIB OF KOKHITII. KoHwuth vliicli liiul bi't'U Bfut ufV at livt*. ing us work enough for the whole day.

and began to help us. feeling the rt^tin-d o'clcH-k. p)inted to a chair. one to Bern. and returned to his occupation. This made five secretaries and to give some idea of the labours of the At six o'clock . five im- portant letters. the Doctor and Professor Hugat Pril.] KOSSUTH OOVEBNOK OF UUNGA. Ho d>d not sceui . figun«s. his friend and family pliysician. and the fifth to Vienna. went away.>e or four letters on totally diflen-nt subjects. While he was thus in cuinniitting dictating to us thn. 1S49. at the same time. and a cloud sudis it. after patient. evening 1 will mention. ' Has no 'No. that from half-past seven to past eight he dictated to all half- us. he be«'ame uneasy. which he yielded to him as held it did not belong to the owner. which he without being noticed by the the head of one of my coland both I myself. Kossuth was some time engaged with a state of almost |H'rfeet which ho reckoned in abstraction. and for about fifteen minutes. the fourth to Gyoni. this. or from dictating more letters. beating of the pulse. with one exception. came more despatches. and when we told him it was just pai«t twelve. The doctor if it his left hand. all of which were answered promptly. and he began to pace up and down the room.' was the of the departure of the copyists r»)used the (lovernor from his reHections. ' Wh it time gentlemen?' he asked. express arrived from Pesth r' He arose. could hardly keep our eyes open. and the one opposite to me. and one in Hungarian. the third to Paris. came in and interrupted him. and the noi. we had to be exceedingly earefiJ them to pajxr. clock struck twelve.yos. While he was tlius occupied.A.D. Two were After in (icrman. denly passed a4Tos's his brow. t<M)k He greeted the dcH'tur kindly. so rapid was his utterance. one in French. The Rt'presentatives. and verbal inquiries. One of them was to Dembinski. The At eleven leagues was already nodding . The one remaining sat down beside Kossuth. saying. 439 prepared during his absence. of diflcrent contents.I1T.

' " Btmi had finally triumphed tlie in Transylvania. hitherto we w^ut our 8ous now we. consequently. he to bo dont'!* Biiid Geutlemen. escaped down the Danube on rafls. and Maid. he at the same time referred forbade Aulith to the matter to Gorgoy. ." bath. who immediately obey the wishes of the Governor. the old onea. there rfnt. Penzel driven the Austrians out of Bat's country. uii and KoHituth. "(ircy-bt-arded ]K*aMautt. still wu took our pUec-M. Man tiuiu tu be seeking rent. their progress with 20. but our n*8t was not of long duration betwtH-n thri'O and four o'eliK'k the deMpateheH arrived hulf ujtlcep . that watchman of hia countrj'.d. Kossuth chich a^lvisod that he should capture the island below Pesth. dictated to aa before. and prevent the escape of Jella> who occupied the city . though we were to be then* a^in by The effortu of Ko«»uth wen* responded to by the wholo country. will call you when " Ho Wfnt into hi« In-d-nioni. and. 1849." Klapka in hia War in llungar}'. and the Hanat in the South. and General Aulieh was at the gates of Pesth.000 where General "Wohlgemuth opposed men the Hungarians gained a . " ahook the hands soldiers and Raid with that tranquillity which charac'Don't you care we'll get the 11 unitarian pea-nant peajtantry only aitkiHl : — the better of the Kussians. mothera brought their sonn to fight for Ilungarr. aftrr vainly waiting another Lt-t I to ns ' : ub taki* a little grutUnuttit we are waiting. your help. [x. that it MxicoiB or kobsutu. and the come of for relates my terizes whether the time had now them to rise rn maste . erect batteries there. but .000 men. ' u if to ia keep vork hour. too only. 1 uimmI yi't lit" Finally. with 7. iug wo received jH-nnissiou to go At nix in the momaway while he went for a eight o'clock.' and we arrungid ourwlvut ait on the iM-nchi-a and slept with our fatigue an i»ouudly in the BofWiit bed. On the 19th of April the Hungarian army encountered the at enemy Nagy Sarlo. Jellachich. will take horse.440 to think. wliile xiu from such a thou^lit.

though he now professed to disapprove the measure. defeated the enrmv in several enoountem.000 prisoners. ths Ut« acta of the young aud un- lawful Km|i«Tor. induced the Parliament tn proclaim the indffxndcncs of Hungary. although pis!H'd Guyon it.] TICT0HIE8 OF THE nuyOAIllAXS. over Consequently much time was Some dis- content wa. with his troops and heavy guns had already lost.D. and only learnt that the Austrian^ had fled by the written report of General DandanicH. and Gorgey. He had alremly thrown a bridge across .(HH) iiirii to obsene th© Austrian garrison in tiuda. to follow the main body of the Austrian army either towards Pesth. after relieving Komom. The Hungarian anny.(HX) men undt-r llentze in liuda. Guyon. wliich they wtro to besiege if they did not offer to cnpitulate. or should they retreat upon the frontiers to pursue them to Vienna itself: but in this cnisualty to leave rJ. 441 decisive victon-. the rewt of the •Were strewed in the path Uungariau army pushed on to the relief of Komom.of the day Wlonpinp.* deter* The mcoeMM. and took 3. who had in March cut his way into Komoni with a handful of men.i. made a successful sally. Tbs . to Daniianice aud Klapka. Kossuth sent directions to Gorgey. alleging it but the (Jenend refused sulfieiently would not prove strong. and her rvpudiation of the House of Hajxiburg. it. banners waved from every window. leaving a garrison of 0. 18^i9. pectation of the arrival of Ciiirgey to cross. and now commanded the garris<in. On the 24th Genend Aulieh enten'd the capital aiid was n-ceived with the utmost en- thusiasm .^ evii\ced by the 7th battalion on occasion of the Di'elamtion of Independence being proclaimed . On the news of this dffeatthe remainder of the Austrian army evac-uated Pesth. but abore all. oa Gorgey remaiiifd stationary in an old castle three hours* march fi*om the scene of action. which had btH'n closely invested since December. defeating the Austriaiis on the left bank of in ex- the river. besides several guns. meantime. tlie glon. and flowers of the soldiers.

by forced marchea.D. War in Hungary. Think of thu when you m^iuii cncountor the em-iny. hia nrtillrn.'. and h«T |M'niiani'iit Buch in your moHt ^loriou^. 1849. Q'^gey refuses to march upon Vienna Lat/t "<'y^ to Sudo^ Sends Klapka to Debreczin to act as his substitute in the — War Office — Want of subordination among the Sarlo." the 20th. yountelveH. May. and On the 25th. -kXiO dead. CJor^'ey. besidea his eamp and part of prisoners. the Huugariaiiii xtonned and carried Sxony. oppOHite Komom. to allay the murinurrt <»f lii>i [a. . Many of us imagine the wiBhed-for future to l)e alrea<ly won. and on ^'apy Sandor pattM-d over the river CJran. CHAPTER XXIV. across the Austrian frontiers. Damianicn.4^(2 MKMoIU OF KohHlTH. voL L p. hoH devolvtKl the ha|){Miu*«H. holient muaion. and Bc^'eral thouitaod He retreated the same day. niiiu'd favount4? wuldiers by a : Vuheiiu-nl pruflaniutiuii. It news of this act reached our camp after the battle of Xagy made a favourable impression on the majority of the troops. Klapka. The Auiitrian General was de- feated and driven fnmi hie {MiMttion. IxixrilL £ apka's . leaving. remaining on the other side of the nver. 1849. in which ht* cltxrlarfci " On you livi-H. with the flower of hit* amiy. Do not deo<*ive nntioitiilitv. by the aacrtflce of to Mt't-un* your her to Iluii^ury hrr ancimt in'' ' f. Thin combat will — not liun^^ar^' alone against AuHtria — Europe |)e«)j)le fifjht for the natural. and attarki-d the Auatrians. hiT fn-t-dtJin. mout sacred rights of a will againnt utturi)iug tyranny and the people conquer ever>' where.

been tampered with by Austria. with BenH'd to disjK?! this credit. and besiege that fortress at his He himself afterwards alleged as a reason for his conduct. as had aln-ady been surmised. that the iwssession of ties for Buda afforded gn'ater facili- an advantageous treaty than even Vienna itself. he would join the Imperial army suspicion. in 443 — Klapkas Utter— Gorgry fails an attempt — KLipka — Hussions and Austrian* on of Hungary — Efforts of Government — Free Trade between Kossuth and other nations — State of Hungary and Hungarian armies — Conduct of Giirgey — He takes liuda — Proelamatiom of Kossuth — Honours toted Giirgey by the Diet — Wallack insurrection — Xetcspaper of Szemere— Generah to storm liuJa sent to liiula JVie the frontiers the all the to Szemere and Giirgey intrigue against Kossuth at Debreczin — Veace majority in the Diet — Takes Party — Endeavours — Gorge to obtain a his oath to the Declaration of Independence — Removes the JVar Office to Jimla — Commences his reforms in the army. Hun- garians might have dictated to the Austrians what terms Tliis juncture is considered by many to have been the turning Italy. of advancement. after wasting a rt'tuni to week in Kornom. where the they plea«»ed. he may not have wished to present an obstacle to the junction of the Austrian and . to Austria except that of l{adetzky in full Gorgey. 1849. he had been his actions. Huda. that brilliant Gurgry had reci-ivrd a letter if offers .] CONDUCT or ooeoet. but hia late success had Had he now followed tho instructions of Kossuth. and crossed the fnintiers. he would have reached Vienna on the 2nd of May. yet j)oint left of the destiny of Hungary. There de- was no Urge army termined to leisure.juD. Befobe the relief of Komorn. but thert^ were other motives which may have determined If. reports had hvm nynmi and had bf^un to gain from Austria.

may [a. for liuda. ly approached Hudu. while the first and third corps. Declaration of and who natunilly avorse the IndejH'ndence. taieo. he requested General Damianics. Klapka the the anny on the 29th April. useless in a and the heavy guns. Wliatevrr were he com* meneed the ruin of a caune which had already cost so many lives. wlio liad formerly been wi-re in the to Aiwtrian m-nitx*. left requested Klapka full to be his substitute. gave him instructions to endeavour. and on his arrival in Debreczin. and which now aeemed almo«t secure. Dami> un- the Governor. had time to make left convertB. for the present. and even the Upper Chamber was fi^lled numbers by Magnates. intended for the chief to the (whom Kossuth had command when he api>ointed O rgiy and War Ofliee) to take his place in the Cabinet. but seven thousand of these were Hussars. who wa^j sincerely attached to of Kossuth. gi y. the oflicerM. and he also have rt'niembert*d tliat difluffectcd during the leisure hours afforded by a siege.anil the main body of the army. which were indispensably neces^ were left at Komoni. the day he Komorn Qiirgcy sent forward one corps to Haab. as far as possible. As Giirgey intended. and another into the Schutt. Public business was discharged with precision and prompti- Kossuth was the life and centre of the Govern- . the division of • Colonel Kim'-ty. his motives. who arrived from tude. and all parts of the country. found the people of hope and confidence Members of the Diet were assembled in greater than before. Gor- therefore. to make the War Department independent anics.d. Bar}". and lead the way to the Military Dit-tatorwhip he coveted. to remain with the army. 184A B-usHJan nnuics. They were in all thirty-ti\' md siege.444 MiMoin or KOBgrtn. in spite of the overwhelming numbers which still thn*atened Hungary. fortunately was overturned in his carriage and fractured hia leg the day before he intended to start for Debrecrin.

he five when visiting the was distressed to see their condition.D. being with the sick and wounded soldiers from the torious campaign.] TnB WAB DEPABTMEST 4tf for ment.s impossible evil. immediately applied to the la<lie8 of Debreczin and the neighbourh<x>d. laat vic- The tilled hospitals at this tinie presented sad spectacle. but a^i thousand shirts were requin-d at once. Bem had hitherto solely applied to Kossuth for supplies. Without greater advantage. There had been represented to at first a great shirts. pn)duced number : Kossuth was. As soon his trust : as Klapka arrived. a<»sured her. who. the required ajid in less than a week.A. urged from diflerent quarters. 1S49. which had patients. unit}. with Madame all Kossuth. tiie Generals of the several anniett were each desirous to act indejK'ndently of each other and of the government. to remedy the Ma<lame Meszlenyi. to appoint his sister to superintend and of control the management of all the niilitar\- hospitjils Ilungar}' which by her exertions were soon in a tar better condition. the nect^ssan* supply of linen for banila<. looked in consideration of the brilliant victories he had Perczel was however equally independent Dembinski protested he would not consent to receive his instruetiona from the War Office. and Giirgey himself rutitiiiu'd his operations on the Upper Danub<'. Klapka perceived it would be impossible to employ the forces of the country to lie represented this to the Government and . the sister of Kossuth. Mi-szanSs willint. Meszanm was quite aware of this deficiency. been Mesxaros bv Madame Meszlenyi. utterly n'^'nr. Meszanfc held the War Department i\ Gorgey. and waa disinclined to tuni from him to the new Minister of War. therefore. achieved. however. Such a deviation from ordiimry fonns was. want of Ac.of of the wishes of the Government and of Kossuth. over-.ea.'ly resigned the task was one of no small ditiicultv . it wa.

ajid able reinforccnu'ntH wliich it tht* coijuider- Imvi* liiU-ly j)ourt*d iu to the AuHtrian amiicH. make to u«o all its incumbent u{x)n the Government powers to provide for the defence of the countrj*. they are bound to ^peal " to the AVar Office. General Gorgey proceed to this place to take the lead in the War OflUce for the purpose of establishing the preparations for the defence of the coiuitr}.4-iO MEMOIR OF KOSSCTH. IMO. is to take in the operations. appoint.D."*. 20/A J/*»y. n'pre8«'ntati<»n of (iem-nil Kl:ipka.the S<*cretary "Oil the at War. foUowiug resolution to the " Vrhrrczin. " Immediately after the capture of Buda.on a broad and solid basis. immediately after the establishment of a blockfortres. induced Kossuth to forward Geiu-ralH. or. Ou the battle-field only shall the commanders be entitled to reward the merits of individuals. " TIh« probability of a KuBuiun inviusion. informing him of the part his corps ment. re^^ardless of tlie direction of the campaign. it upon them- orders to military officers. and in the higher grades. For this purpose. must be done away with. displace. Each commander will likewise receive his sejMinite instructions. the commanders of the annies shall have the general plan of the campaign ccmrounicated to them. to the Governor of the country for confirmation of their orders. according to the best of their judgment. I have therefore resolved tu^ follows: the military forcfH of the nation are to act in conivrt and co-operate with the CDiiibined plan of defence ailopt<-d by the Govern- The arbitniry plan of o|HTationH which some commanders liave adopU-'d according to their own fancies. The commanders of the various corps have hitherto taken selves to remove. . 1840. in caae of a failure. and grant medals and For the future. ading corps roiuid that other corps on the and the arrangement of the will Upper Danube. tJ»e [a.

hatchets. and General Nagy Sandor laid a complaint of the conduct of his commanding ing oflicer before Kossuth. " K088UTU. authorities throughout be im- mediately communicated to the army. No time was to be lost. The Russians were on tlie borders of (iallicia witli '. for the Uussians and Austrians were again assembling upon the frontiers of Ilungar)'. 1W9. pitchforks. Still Gorgey hesitated. upon whicii Kossuth desired him to order the heavy guns to be brought immediately from Komom. willi tiie full real state of affairs. . commanded an Au.000 men at I'resburg 12. pointing out at the sauie time the necessity of send- down a Government Commissioner to head quarters.H). had undertaken the siege upon own responsibility.] TIIinD IKTASI05 OF nUXOABT. and insisted upon his using all means his to carr}' Buda . to incjuire into the In the meantime the Governor.{)0() men. he and now would was therefore bound to overcome every difliculty a failure inflict a worse injury on the nation than the mere loss of a fortn'ss. and extinguishing that hope and confidence which recent victories had just revived.A. and to the militiuy Hungary. Klapka accordingly returned to Buda. roused the people to arms.UO0. . who was afterwards succeeded by General Haynau. calling upon them to be in readiness to dri\-e out tlie foreign invaders with knives. or whatever they could lay hands on. by causing a panic. and that he intended to raise the siege.strian army of 60.000 Austrians were assembled on the banks ." an attempt to Gorgey had on the IGth of artiller)- ^^fay failed in Btorm Buda. antl had jUready entered Transylvania with 4l). concurrence of Klapka. General Welden. bhsill confirmation by the Governor of the country. and 447 its " This resolution of the Council of Ministers.D. and had written to the Governor that his want made success impossible.

under General Nugent while Jellachich was at Easeg. Manufactories of gun. and active means set on foot. however. [jL. Heaven for the safety of their beloved father- Neither were measures neglected which might provide for the future prosperity of Hungary. and that she was existence as a nation . gunpowder. and on the Styrian . on which the Government depended. Kossuth sent instructions to Pulszky in England.s. Drave.hia there a Wallachiau corps of was a Servian corps of 15.4A8 of tlie MEMOIR OF KOSSUTH. was the enthusiastic devotion and patriotism of the people. horses. and saltpetre. while 10. to increase the numbers of the troops. The total number of the enemy being 307.000 men . The chief support. tlio But the Government and Kossuth only redoubled efforts to meet this alarming alliance of the two great despotic Powers of Europe. therefore. and Con- ourrenz. Commissioners were employed to purchase accoutrements. the Sclave and the Magyar.000.000. A general fast was proclaimed. the had been proclaimed Governor. Iroiitii'r. swords. were at work over the whole country.000 whole of the Hungarian armies their men. and the country had dewhen having driven out the Aus- Hungarians conld with reason hope that their wovdd have been acknowledged by foreign Governments. and 20. ready to rally round the standard of their common country in the hour of danger.D. with 25. to acquaint the Government there that the trade of Hungary was open to all nations.000 garrisoned Es^seg. twice that of taken together. In Transylvania and Wallai. The day on which Kossuth clared its independence. The efforts of Kossuth in times of peace had united the nobles and the peasantry. all Hungary was. trians. and the prayers of the people ascended simultaneously to laud. and military stores in various provinces. Teniesvar. 1849. Kuma. and Karlsburg.

and of the careless manner in which the siege was conducted. fell and determined mortally wounded. he found Nagv' Sandor indignant at the dilatory conduct of Giirgey. in the South.'d from the civil authority. and chafed beneath instructions nation respecting her laws. r ceiv. which now consisted of 60.000 men. who had triumphantly expelled the Austrians and Russians from Transylvania. and Gcirgey openly expressed to Klapka the intense hatred he bore Kossuth. Perczel and Vecsey. While Kossuth believed it to be a fortunate circumstance for Hungary that the political and military chief were not united in the same person. and he complained bitterly of the indifterence of the staff.000 fresh troops. in the fortress was taken after a gallant which the Austrian General Hentze. consisting of King and Diet. whose motives he suspected. Gorgey eagerly coveted the whole power. a brave oflBcer.D. Buda took place in good earnest.000 formed the garrison of Peterwardein. and 6. On the arrival of Klapka at Buda.] OOEGEY TAKES BUDA.(XX3 Kussians. 1849. but no answer was returned. had only 12.000 men to encounter again their combined forces there. were opposed to Nugent and Jellaehich.000 Hungarian troops were in the Marniorush. The stall" officers were trying in every way to throw discredit upon the Government. should continue. at last The guns were.A. a As he was desirous that the ancient form of government. whose Constitution resembling that Hungary might be a guarantee for a Sovereign of that The petition was laid before Lord Palmerston. was prepared with 32.000 with which to defend that quarter against 90. in the North. Bern. with 30. Dembinski. 449 ready to receive the fruits of English industry. however. and in which o o . while 5. and on 21st of May sistance. he at the same time commissioned his envoy to solicit a Prince from the Eoyal of Family of England. the storming of the re brought from Komorn.

victor}' After thin (iorgcy returned to Koniorn. and declared that his principles would not allow him to accept any mai'k of distinction. [a. when tliein might have driven out by one energetic On the return of phiining of Khipku to Debreezin. and one of the leaders of the so-called This party peace party in the Diet to head the deputation. possessed no influence with the countrk.CKKj prisoners memoir of were captured. He refused the proffered honours. and the liberation of thectjuntry ! complete Peals of Ik-Us throughout the countrj. and waited flicts much efiort. he found a U'tter from Perczel. whose heroic deeda have made bulwark of European liberty "The Governor " Debreezin. but even among them Gorgey attempted to giiin auxiliaries. and the thank Him for the glory He ! has vouchsafed to grant the it Hungarian anny. which waa announced in the following proclamation " May the nation gather fre»h courage and enthuMia«m ! from the example of this success is still May the combat which impending be short. " Louis Kossuth 22nd May. hhouUl be brought before a court-uiartial wHri at tliat but Debreezin oceabioned by moment : in all the delirium of joy the 8uece88 at Hudo. KOHKUTll. and demanding that he . 1849.d. was composed of men who with the exception of Paul Nyary. Pray to God. and the Grand Cross of the Hungarian order for military merit be awarded to Gorgey." to Szemere proposed that a vot^ of thanks should be passed the victorious General and his army.4jO G. of the Commonwealth. and that he desired to set an example . several of the deputies were appointed to convey this resolution to him. 1849. comtlie conduct of Gorgey. tiuje in |H'tty conlie with the AuMtrianH on the Schutt.proclaim the victory of the arms of Hungary.because they aimed at impossibilities.

and would only rea--«»emble in the beginning of July. to in<piire how far General Klapka was correct obj«'cted to the Declaration in his statement that the anny <<f Independence. the insurgents committed the most horrible mur- ders and deviwtations. Wallacks in Transylvania. " The assembly.] TUE PEACE PABTT. and assured them that they might thus preser^'e the country from the Kussian invasion . was somewhat damjKii of insurrections the by Austrian assents." Gorgey writes. " showed confidence in them that it me. Stiniulat<*d at the successes of May. which was entirely in the interests of (iorgey and against Kossuth. though crediting his words. it is dilllcult to know which of these contradictory statements can be relied on. but his simple auditors.mere denies reply. At length Giirgey arrived in Dcbreczin to asisume the direction of affairs in the War Office. pamphlet writti'n in As both however wi-re intriguing against Ko!*suth at a time when both were acting as his ministers. in Pesth. officers. who inllained their religinus fanaticism. Gorgey a.i. wIktc the Wallm-ks tortured whdle families to death. thev np[H'are«l to give implicit belief to my assurance that the Diet had been mystified by Kossuth and they desired no further proofs " he proposed the abolition of the decree : of the 11th April. Szi-mere had for some time pa. and encouraj^jed bv two one of them a Bishop. informed him this could not bo. Gtirgey in a relates in his me- moirs that Szemere made overtures to him which he n^jected. as the Diet was prorogued.D. esperially in the Maygar districts. 151 of moderation to his subordinate structions from the Governor. an accusation which S/. 1849. Gorgey next o u 2 . that he would receive neither reward nor in- The joy by the leaders. and that the Declaration of the 14th April was quite contrary to their HUpjHjrti-d a newspaper. As soon as (iiirgey arrived at Dt-breczin he w:w invited to an interxiew by the pcju-e party. His actual reason however was.ssured was perfectly true.

proposed the decree should be abolished by a counter rerolution from the army. he determined to unite the of Minister and Commander-in-chief in his own person. whose there await further orders. to form a majority entirely depend. and established a kind of War Chancery at head quarters. took the oath to uphold the decrees of the Diet. Dembinski. upon whom he could He also contem- jjlated depriving the party who brought about the Declara- tion of Independence of their weightiest supporters in the army. as he liimself expressed it. . 1849. had been temporarily disabled.d. General Aulich. the ahrogation of which seemed indutpensable to the great cause of Hungary'". . In order to accomplish this end lie came to the conclusion. and Guy on from their commands. "to swear to a law. Perczel. and Perczel and Dembinski were desired to join the army of reserve in Szolnok. command of the second corps. his fatal aversion.452 MEMOIE OF KOSSUTH. no Sabre Government " which concluded his Diet. by displacing Bern. He therefore. by procuring the election number of his own officers. but he ! conference with the peace party. that he must overcome. Klapka was sent to succeed Guyon in Komorn. to overrule the Diet He therefore determined of a sufficient when it met. and to maintain the resolution of the 14th April then took his place among the Ministers. Visocki to supersede Dembinski and Colonel Ashboth to take the Commander. [a. over which he appointed Colonel Bayer to preside. without waiting for the consent of the was interrupted by loud cries of " No Military Revolution. to remove the He proceeded War Office to Buda. and in the North. where he commenced his offices reforms . He next sent General Vetter to take the place of Perczel in the South. with the full intention to commit and perjury.

to Pesth. with Klapka Csanyi writes to Gorgey. June. passed. trians. TJie — Szentkirdldy Pazmdndy The Hungary —Letter of Kossuth to Klapica Gorgey and the 1th Battalion at Raab Haynau Russian Officers with Gorgey — Klapka remonstrates Oovernment at Pesth — — — Russiam enter — — with Gorgey —Battle of Pered — Consequences — of Gor- gey s disobedience to of Klapka wounded Kossuth removes Gorgey. One of these was Szentkiraldy. Minister of Public Works. 453 CHAPTER XXV. — — Kossuth.] THE QOTEEiniENT EETUENS TO PESTH. and though. Commissary in the South. 1849. and neglect of the advice Alarm at Pesth Victory at Atsh Gorgey — — — — — — hut insists on hi^ resigning the JJ^ar Department — Inter- view of Csanyi. where Kossuth was received with every testimonial of who showered flowers on him as he During the occupation of the Capital by the Ausseveral of the former members of the Diet. Envy and jealousy had ever since rankled in his breast. and appoints Meszdros to the command of the army Letter of Kossuth to Klapka News of the victory of Atsh reach Pesth The army insist on Gorgey retaining the command Klapka and Nagy Sdndor at Pesth Kossuth permits Gorgey to retain the command of the army of the Upper Danube.D.l. under the Batthyanyi . July. 1849. — In the begiuuing of June. stooped t* court the notice of Prince Windischgratz. especially those unfavourably disposed towards Kossuth. the Government returned joy by the inhabitants. who had been elected with Kossuth for the Diet of 1847. but who had never forgotten that his own name had been as Civil eclipsed by that of his colleague.

but he exciim'd himintluencx* of fear on the plea of having acted under the and the Hungarian Government denpixing in his cowardice. ninnder. The whirli had been the objeet of hi8 ambition. the I*rt*KidfntMhip. had bit-n obtaim-d fur him chit-fly through the ini«trumentality of KoM<uth. di-\ot<'d Htudy of nu'dieine. Western ' £urop>e would gladly have seen that Empire strong. 111* lo quell tlif St-rb n'bi'lait witlulri-w fniiii {Mtlitii*H mmmi a» KoHMUth vtujt appointed IVfsidiMit of Win(lisi'ht. and then hastened baek to pay his court to the Triuce. 1819.'^t urMoin or KOBKirn. Another.«>trv. wa« Pazm. I'n-Hiih-nt Diet of \H-iH. Hungary A» the in "As for the intcrwta of Auotria in d<> and Europe general.* jmrticular. and rt-tirin^ into Havaria. a disgraced man. IJut wht-n the and paid homaf^v to the Aiuftrian Com(iovrnimrnt retumi-d. The Kudsian army was now descending through the • into patises i«f tlie Carpathian mountaina.* Prnth. Wht-u writ*. granted him liberty to retire. When the Austrians were driven out. Hud statesmanlike riewa developed bj Lord Palmerston on Saturdaj The House of Hi^tsburg it might hare been auppoeed would have wished to rule over a strong empire for its own sake. diiuivowi'd h'm principles. has reigned over two countries to endeavour to strengthen itaelf : . and summoned si'lt" to anf«wi'r for hi« ctmduct. like him. sack an act for a aovereign familj peace and order in those regions. we could h&nlly anvthing more than refteat the e&Iaf]ged la.'nitr iMit«Tf<l tlu. hi* qiitted hiiuM-lf to the Hungary. he the (Jovrrnnirnt part of the way to l)cbrecxin.4. who. hi' lent hinnwlf to a prorlaniiition a^ainHt tin. seema aud wLen for that purpose it calls in the little little less than suicidal \ery power from whose designs it has the most to dread. Miiii.t'oiimiitttH* of DoftMuv.C'uiiuiiitU'e of iJffeiUf. thuuf^h opposed by the Kadiealt* only fi>llo\vfd : but on the arrival of Windiitch^^tz. Now.-<t. aa a guarantee of which by attempting to crush one countr}' bj the forces of the other. he wa« am-nted. almnduned the of the cauiH> of hi» eountrv.'indy. Inlioii. had lu-tivtlv Il^»i^t»•(^ [a. to hia estates the eountr}'.d.

to the >>alanc*e of |>ower in in Kurope.D. 1849. r.. "The Government The tlu' people received us with enthusiaatic exultation. and to the preaervation of peace. on the confines of Kussiau Poland. June. U couccnied. a tjfxinl tka» a worn omt and Uxcrrattd empire' rif/urous JJunyary. aud on the 7th June. and I reply to them as follows: I believe that the the prtsatnt can hanllr be termrd anythiiiK rvprvArotatirr of tJie t>ut ahMT ia ni(«liipMi. " Mt dear General him at length arrived at Pesth. r»tbcr than to prejvr>ii*<-«j(ion<i of that h>>iia« by the aupiKirt of a gene- roua an<l lojal p«Miplc. auch a atate of thing* outline of the Auntrian totally oppostd. 455 Kossuth road wa« only commanded from Dukla. on this position . to rvi^ ovrr both HungkTj aa<i aenrc tbe uici<. But we with re«pect to matten which affect ua deeply.A. for in our jxTnons they hailed the liberty and independence of nation.nt Aiutria a« a vaaaol of another power.\*s: certain errors in the conduct of the " The Gorrrnor if the CommoHwralth to Genrral Klapka. on the ^ound. If Houae i>f ii«|Mburx willing. proposed to »i'ize but he was opposed in the Diet. that as Dukla was situated in Austrian Poland. lament luuiit olnierve. Klapka had written to the Governor.>lvc«. Even wore the oa tlie external |>oi«««««iui)« to reniaiu the aaine an in 1815. 1849. in Gallicia. seizure miijht atlord a its pretext to Kunsia for her inter- vention. that to the maintenuioe of order. " I hare received your two letters of the 2nd and 3rd of June. if it oil a (jaaia We ahould were poaaiblo. aa relation* of the reipning family wotild be totally chnnged.] LETTER OF KOSSUTH TO KLAPKA. pivinp a rejHjrt of War Department which he had already stated to Gorjjey. ao far aa he the infatuation which len'ta to auch a choice. |»refer. w« can only. . the re-con«triiction of the Auatrian empire which would aecure atrvngth and pormani-nce.ill. the wi-ll internal reaourcea of the countries thenim. " — The would be found more GI/Jk. Kossuth replied H-. Hut if thit ytumg and h* imprarlirabU.

in this time of general activity are indij«peuaably neceaaarj to the country-. and I niuxt entreat you to eonie to an iinder«taii(liii^ with the Secretary of War.OOO men. I . . on the illeg&Iity of the proceeding. i*afe in other handi«.000 to IG. I the forces under ithoulii thii« be incorrect. cannot but consider your being condemned to the keeping of Komom.456 |ilaii Mi^MuiH or KUHHi'TU. 1 am in hourly cxjHX'tation of the relie im turn of the Minister Vukovics from the lianat. and the iutimat« friend of Kossuth. but hia trial He was waa only prerented bv the amnestj of 1S41. to be a nerioun wa«te of ^mir which nijuire a larger Bphen* of action. to let you have the money. which would be quite OA talent^t.i>. . Ujhazi apoke ia the Count r Meeting of S^rua. fully Thouf^h if convinced of the importance of Kouioni. one of the most distingmsbed men in tbeooontj ofSirtm. construction of the works and fortifications. K appointed him Government Commissioner at Komom. and which. wa«there»ult of un uiMh-rHttutdiu^ U'twivu you luid your frinid Oorgejr. He was hinxself in consequence indicted for hi^ treason. yet is that place to be rt-f^arded men-ly 1 tut n fortn-itn and not as a gn>at entrenched camp. and wax one if the most eloquent Magn. * Ujhazi. you Mubiiiitt^'d to the Cabinet Council ut Dri-bn-fziii. which we a*-tfj)t4tl. appointed Fo lapanj of the county of Siroo. ItviO. nnd 1 htul no reason to d. follow You will ui»e all your energies 1 will « in the i. plan would be en^'uted. \S*hea Kossuth vmi imprisooed in 1S36.ites on the liberal side in the Diet. conft*«« tluit I Bptvdil) tu execute the afon-aaid plan of o|>eration. of opcmtiouH which iiiid [a. and the Commi&sioner is L*j instructed to provide you with labourers and tools. gaged in recruiting a corps of from 12. . Ac. and induce him our coininnnd to U*. en. flor tli< . calculated Hut even do not entertain any lu'riouM apprehenHion.mbt thnt after your departure thin \ from Konitirn. The beariT of this is instructed to pay you 1000 Hill another remittancv to the same amount after to-morrow. Ac.

the development of n-sources. to advancv upon the l^i\tha. at lea*t. cn>sjM'd Hohnuia and Moravia. Giirjjey and gave him the c«Hnmand of Colonel Kmety's division which had advaiut-d fntm Huda quarters. Many more e»ca[)ed durnig . The most vantti^' if important point of o|H'ration a proper Htate of defence.ntaelea orercome than we. u[>on Pa|ta. excursions.Hian iuten'ention wa« pending.* kept in a state of most harassing incertitude. to atUu-k the Auhtrians. am of opiniun that it would have bivn for our ad- we had made mte of tlie time when the Kus. Others followed their example.D. us. 1849. seventh battalion stationed at Kaiib was hi>spitably reivived by the inhabit- and though the enemy was increasing in strength and numbers on the frontiers. as in a tiuu* of while the ottlcvrs «»f p«'ace. particularly sinee we are in want oi I arms. I 457 As to the que»tiou of offfusive ur detVnsivo war. «tc. aitd S. or.0U0 ants. while promising him a reinfonvment of beTlie tween 4. Hut whether this Lu«t movement is now adviMtble or not.UXJ rvcruits. until the whole reginitnt was ordered into the Tyrol. in had d<-!MTted from the Austrian army through s«-venil bndu s of Austrian tnxtps sent to intercept the them.A. IJorgey permittetl his oUicers to indulge in balls. and had reached Hungarian army in safety. the to enemy has fewer ob. fighting their way was t«Mn[H>nirilv n-lieved by the arrival of 120 Hussars. wlio were then iitolated. the better prepared will the ditlic-ult enemy be to meet In and the niorv will it be for us to «ucoi'ed. am fully conviueed that the lougcr we Jclav aetinjj on the otfensive. Their depression Sasony." \t>. who Some of the soldiers had left their regiment in the previous Novemb<'r. that Kotiiorii )h* placed in Soon arriveil after at his Klapka liad reeeived llii-> n tur. the remaining corps wen.] *' THE ABMT AT BAAB. must depend upon the dispottition of the enemy's fonvs I pn)|)o8e to confer on this matter with (Jorgey. and theatriejils.

a lady was flogged by the command of . but having retired. he the Austrian serv had recommended holding out to the last. on thfir arrival in Styna S«Jinc were captun**! and <l«MMniat<-(l. and one of the most eloquent in preaehers in Hungary. him a lie willing instrument for the execution of hia orden. whom they were owing to the inferiority of their numbers. l»ul ulln'm. by gt'uernlly repuli««d. T iminediaU-ly attarhrd t'olonrl Knictv'a divin the 18th in hi* defeated the Aujitriaiui at with the loHH of trifling. which 150 of ihr i-neniy 120 lluncariaiui. a Protestant clergyman. H«-h:»' wli while in Italy. llu'V all dih|K'ri»<*< hanging Baron La- dislaus Medniansiky who had oncf served in the Noble Guard of the Emperor. (torgey only sent dctachnienta Ai-roaa the rivers Waag and Neuhau*ler Danube. General liaynau. His crime. 3fajor (Jrube. for which he died. was at man who had already.u. who wrn* Wuinning to \h* diopinted by thr atate of k»'pt total ignonuice in which they wtTe inteiitiona of the t'ommander-in-ehief From i«niall the lOlh to the 'Jl(«t of June. highly Presburg. in command of the Austrian tro<ip» to the «'nded young Emperor by Kaditr. commenced ojH*rations in llungarj. was also hung. had no rank in ice. who eonjmandt^ respected in the artillery in the fortress. ami aniou|{ them those who reaohiMl the hcsil-quartc'ni of the iiucr«M*«liMl in t<» army of n* ii the TpptT DanulM*. though efltvt of infusing fresh courage into the with rvgard to the trooprt. now placed Pn-hburg. Madame von Udvamoky. was that during the siege of I>eopoldstadt where he commanded. in Caoma. Thin i»Or<-fjui. ISIO. a given sigiuil proofs of cruelty. and he thuH gave the Austriana time and opportunity to concentrate thiir f(>rc«'«. engaging them in akinninhea with the enemy. a good station of life. niul [a.458 tlit» Miiyuiu ov kosmtii the next victim was Razga. their atl«'mpt. had the an action with their (jeneral were killed.

s olficern. while atlVctnig to despiwe the AustrianH. 459 at Haynau. 1&49. w hiU* |)oke of luui them a« mt»re friendly or at the wime time he lew hostile to Hungary the Au. having a wuHieient the AuMtriunit advancing garrimin in Koinoni to prvvent further for the present. lii Tl»e delays of Oorgey had enabled a Rusmiui lO.iXJO Mu-n to join Ilaynau. •o a« to . KuMtian hi. with them? KiNWuth proposed they should at once march to attack l'n-kiiwit«Hh Mctoru'H of the whow Hn -.olnok. i» The subnequent in fate of Mailamo MadiTsvirion of well known England.l^tt-d .AJ). Gorgi'y of fijlelity. and even hint^'d at a Coni«titutional Monarchy under the Prince of Ix-uchtenberg. After the ni batth-H where they had to encounter twice their own numU'rn. or the (Jrand Duke C'onstantine.f 1)0.] BC8SIA>' ABMT IN UlMlABT. Hut » Jorgev. as well a« the dau^htor of Prnfes^or Gt'vtT Kaab. he wiia not too aan* In-ing a total (h-feat guine in hiu eX|MH-tation of the reitult of the enemy. Count Pa»kie\«it!teh hatl entered Hungary by to full ba*^-k and KowKuth Kent orders to (Jorgev imnu*diately u|>on IVnth.UUO men. always inagnilied the Dumbere. back for having turncii her bark on tlu* EiiijM'n»r whi'u h** fUtori'd the citv. The main body of the Kunnian army once beaten.H). there to join IVreiel. with flagH of truce wert^ varit)u« pn-textH . Their combined ft»rceM «ouUl have formed an army of lOO. {>owent.. and reiiource8 of the HuMxiaDa diiicourage hi» own troopn. .H. n*plied by asHurancca On the iHth of and promiaea to obey the orders of Goveniment.Htrian. June Klapka wrote a friendiv letter to in whi< I) 1 • • Gorgey cumpljuiuug of the manner xxluctcd .CM. with the intention of aeting as a eorj>a dr rrarrtf to the main body of the Austrian anny. n-quently »e<'n at (juarters under and when Kotwuth remonstrated. and then to proceed by the niilrimd to S/. Oorgey and Perciel could rvtuni to the attack of he Auntro-HuBnian army under Haynau and Paniutin. Field Mantluil General Gallieia.

suit of the distance. The uioniin^ rf the the liun^^uriaiiM txjm- UOth rose in a denne the fo. the Hun- were obliged to retreat. when Gorgey insisted on their forcing their way through the villaf^e of Kiralyrei. however. led the sei-ond battalion to the charge. and the enemy det«ehment of had leisure to secure a Htrong in lh»' rear |K>fiition. retitrain bin and at ten o'clock Colonel Aahboth. and forbade the purenemy. the soldiers readily obeyed .i(>0 IIEMOIB or KORBUTU. acquainted with the troops. They were retiring in good order. (^rden. at ten. their (. officers Leiningen Colonel Kaszony. the uly dii«penk>d ns the aun rose. but (Jorgey T'l. which ended a total defeat of the Hun- ai\vr the Iobm of mnny and liven. Hungarians took Just as the victory wan gitined arrived. who had halted in a villa^je at a short He next degraded Colonel Ashboth for having acted without orders. whom he accused un- of having delayed his Colonel own and arrival at Pered by his indecision. and (ieneral Knerich. tliey hIiouKI not move until hiu arrival. and the possession of Pert^d. ". unable to own ea^eniena or that of his troiips.j. A lIunynrianH. desperate htru>. occupied by the enemy. and of the di»tribiiti<»n tlu« [a. tilt' if tin* Huni^ruin ariiiii*B. The village itwlf wKiii bei-ame the scvne of action.yle followed in every house. attacked them and oblij^ed ihem to retn-at. they would hare aurj)ri»ed enemy in tlieir quartern. and wan dijiplaytni to the aatouliibed AuMtriauM the Huni^ariaii army prepared for battle. and though fatigued with the exertions of that morning and of the previous day.'onimunder-in-»-hief ulill but ab«*ent. ha<i incneed the attack at an early hour. the Austriana attacked Pered. garians The next morning. 1810. and after a desperate fight on either side.D. Oil the 20tli unti Hint of uuiuf in month the battle of Pered wan g:iriiin8 fou^'ht. an At two Gorpey o'clock the Austrians fled. 1 and a yanl. assumed the command. under Major KakooNoy. were appointed to sucoeed them.

Tlie Connnandcr-in-chief arrived in the a pfamint's cart. and now. they had disobeyed the orders of Kossuth and of the Government. Komom. but mounting his Klapka to maintain his {Hisitiou until the following day. but the houses and gardens were filled with the corpses of brave men. assembled in groups on the banks of the Danube. Iven engaged with enemy near Asrod. after a gallant defence by the Binall Hungarian garrison. The War Chancer)' hesitated what next should be done. he aasisted . a critical hour for Hungary. and to Pesth for the to iiifomi the Goveniment he could not answer and twenty hours that . Jellachich had been victorious in the Bats countr>'. and ment chose to follow him there. instead of taking active measures to remedy the evil they had brought upon themselves. while a large left number of their troops renmined inactive on the bank of the Danube.000 men in Kaab to defend the place against the Iinp<^rialist army. They had even neglected the advice »>f Klapka to fortify Kaab. the Ku. panicktrickeu. the third time they succeedt-d. gloomy and dit*piritcd horse. and from which It was they could provide for the neces.] THE WAR CHA5CEBT. and the place was therefon* taken possi'ssion of by the Austrians on the 29th. to bear in the witness that Gorj^ey had been saved the mortification of a total defeat. they only left 9. they . and had entered Transylvania and tho confidence of the Hungarian (Joveniment was shaken in their Commander-in-Chief The inhabitants of Pesth. where Gorgey and the remainder of the army joined him. .D. 1849. 461 they twice advanced gallantly to the change. meantime. safety of the Capital for four that he in- tended to retire upon if the Governmust look out for a place of greater security for themselves. and were twice repulsed. (Jorgey next entrenched himseiit self on the outskirts of the forest of Atsh.A.ssians were rapidly advaticing from the North.«*itie8 of the army. Klapka had.

and obliged them to retreat 18. was to concentrate the forces upon the Theisa and the Maros.!. commenced favonr- but though the Hungarians were only brought into the field by detachments. any iu-wm flosfil.g failures to hia having listened too much to the advice of Colonel Hayer War Chancery. \\ hirh ini^lit arrive from the sili'iit shops wi-n- the ntn-ftH aiul (ieiwrt'i'd.000 men were killed or wounded on therefore to encoimter superior numbers.^a. ablv for the Imperialists . KoMitTM. .4G2 c'a. although he had not shown much ability as a general. threw the enemy into disorder. KonButh. and there join till' MF. but that as since he had given this promise the Imperialists had advanced leave the upon Atsh. attributed Gorfjey. On the 'Jnd Klapka returuwd to the army. to hoar . with Hzemere. he could not defended. as the only hope he now saw of saving the nation from the dangers which were thickening around it. and conveyed the opinion of Kossuth to Gorgey. and P»'re7A'l waiting for (ienerals Kiss and Aulich and the Minister Csanyi. carts ol' army and wounded and . IhIO. Coiiimir Batthyanyi. and now Bent him orders to retreat into the North.eB. which amounted to 70.i). near Komorn. and had always was and Gorgey. laj*t who hml b«cn Kent to Gorgey after the n»e8»age had been received from the Commander-inand the Chief. led by Hayuau and Pauiutin. and Generals Kiss and Aulich to obey the orders of the Government.000 men. pushing on with the artillery aud cavalry-. Gorgey had conducted himself with courage. nutliing wa« to be Been but raw recruiti*. and intended to have <*ommenced his retreat upon the following day. and the bearern of oflicial nie»»a^. He reci'ived from him aii assurance that he had already promised Csanyi.^fOIn of KOBHUTn. He both sides. now camp un- The young Emperor himself accompanied the The battle Austro-Kussiau amiy. found the Oovcnior. . Kla|)ka arrived in the capital on the Int of July. every point finally recovered.

and the have been by one of hla he received is believed to own Hutwars. 1 shall not Ix* *• deceived in you. 403 had received a wound in the head in the course of the dav. Ut July. by one of his own m«n. 1 am reasons to you. uiforming him that tlie Commander-in-Chief was removeti from his ofliee. inlbrmed Klapka that Meszaros had • Pesth in a Gorgey. Governor of the Commonwealth. countrj'. and the liberty of Kurope depend at this moment upon there being no dissensions.* and was under the hands of the surgeon when Klapka received a letter from Kossuth. will refuse to Lieutenant Perhaps Gorgey in obey : that would be infamous his him — treason: — as indeed the breach of his word. and General Meszaros appointed to supersede him. " Mr DEAR General.A. 1S49. and Bayer's intluence. no party quarrels in the army. was only wouuded this once. has been appointed to that post. ISW.D. In you I respect a (leneral! the liberty of our all Our country and our libertv above character. ! Koman convinced. Support General Meszaros.' He waa hated by moat inQictu<i of the privates for his cruel and harsh dabre-ctit conduct towanU them. ." official This letter was accompanied by an signed by Kossuth and Szeiiiere. afterwards General Kiutty. •' Kossuth. is blind submission to akin to treason. notification The eourier who brought left them.] OOBOET Df-PJMVKD OF THE COMMAVD. General. but the chief command cannot be allowed remain another moment in his hands. Secretary at t<) He shall continue War. " Pesth. " Gorgey has broken his wonl which he pledged to a Minister of State and two Generals. according to the account given by Colonel. 1 shall communicate my God and history will judge us. Meszaros. when he received a " briJctn hrad <jiven him at Komt/rn fi/T hit brutality. The Field Marshal.

that the news of diuf^race Bbould reach the army while it wa« tliis still fluHhed with victory. It wad as unfortunate an for ihe authority of the Civil anibitiouH Governnu'iit. and attached to in observations hia person. fortunate for the liis Bcheines of Gorgey. were loud and comments which ail stirred up the hearts of the men to revolt against the orders of Government.000 men authority . 1849. The olFicers of the start". commanding he should remain at Komom with 18. that if it offices of Commander-inchief and Minister of AVar in the same person. Klapka As Gorgey was prevented by his wound from summoned the commanders of the several battalions to a conference on the 4th of July. he had returued to Pesth.d. and send them against Paskiewitsch . and all those whom Gorgey had carefully selected for their Austrian tendencies. should lead the rest of the arm/ victor}* of down river and stating that the Atsh had fur- only confirmed the resolution of the Governor to concentrate the forces. coiimmuiuI ot tlic uriiiv. especially among those belonging to the third and seventh battalions. and ll'in when a in halo of f^hjry Hurrounded him. but in the hour which arrived it oceziaioned the greatest excitement. it were impossible to unite the two . but that on lu'uriii^ the report the cannon at Atuh. tliat General tlie Xagy Sandor . were deputed to convey the wishes of the army to the Government.4Gt Bteunier for MKMOIU OK KOhSlTH. Colonel Bayer was above actively en- gaged in intriguing against Kossuth and the Members of the Diet. He the vainly attempted to enforce obedience and respect of civil was unanimously agreed. acting for himself. Just as they were preparing to embark for Pesth three letters arrived the first was addressed to Klapka and was signed by Kossuth and Szemere.Saudor and Klapka. ofTi-jers had not been unprepared for it announcement. General Nag}. . Koinorn to take tlir ol" [a. Gorgey should retain the former.

to per- suade Gorgey to consult his heart as well as his head. what may happen to me. " I have nothing to lose. where they arrived on the 8th of July.s concerned. Csanyi " I pressed his hand. but if Pesth is lost.that harrows my soul. however. Casimir thyanyi." he said. calling upon him to obey the orders of Government. that he believed if Colonel Bayer and a few others were removed. j)erhaps. Arad care I go to Szegedin. Csanyi. garrison Komorn. within forty-eight hours if possible.A. countr}. but bring desirous to meet the wishes of Gorgey's the effect were left he resigned the War Department. decided that under present circumstances. and the Generals Meszaros and binski. one addressed to Gorgey. In his anxiety to soften the resentment of Gorgey. 4Go ther informed Klapka of the capture of the fortress of a large supply of military stores: the Arad with second and third were from Meszaros. self perfectly s^atislied. provided Klapka expressed himti. I shall. and the third. and llorviith. Bat- Dem- Kossuth refused to alter the present arrangements so far as Meszanis wa. As Klapka the room. Csanyi wrote him a few lines entreat- H n . their best course was to proceed at once to Pesth. and instructions to immediately drawn up. there would be no difficulty in effecting a reconciliation between Girgey and the Government. and assured Csanyi. am old. perhaps even to Arad. addressed to the commanders of the army. and entreat«d him with tears. directing them how they were to act.D. I again shall again be the last to leave it. and march to Pesth.. . Klapka and Nagy Sandor." it is the thought of my his Klapka confessed own uneasiness at the influence the War Chancer}' exer- cised over Gorgey. but beyond I do not I am too old to be an exile will not go. 1849.] it KLAPKA A>'D >'AOY SAKDOH. They had an immediate interview with the Governor in the presence of the Ministers Szemere. he proposed to leave him command of the army of the Upper Danube.

(ior.4GG MEMOIB or KOSBUTU. Giin/ry r. called n oi War. July. recommends the interests Intended treason of — to the Russians and Austrian*. decriM? of the Klnjfka and Nat^y Sandor brou^iht him the Goremmcnt. or of enabling X\m . Hi« wurda ami thr h-ttvr wim fuuiid.d. but soon recoTcring hia composure. ing him not to dixturb the h&rinony which exinti^d betwit'ii the civil yvvTV di»rfj. upon the floor of vkheu he left Kouioru.-ra. and imnKniiately tendered hi? the War Office.'wt the country S^agy Siindor. hia commencing. The next day he presided. [a.. and brow dark* - ened at .artlfd.'f_\ 'u u|i:irtiiu'iit.. he expressed 'n ' himself satisfied.rprrntr$ himMrfJ" gatisfird — Calls a — I'ntjuurs rrrnmrnt vails C'vunnl of ll'ar — contrary to the ordcra of C/'oOurgey's opinion preKlapka remonstrates lu act Jtrrctly — — lie is is taken ill — Letter Kossuth of Kossuth to Klapka-— — JJe Prsth Klapka prepares to obey rrijuested to remain transaction suth notes — Jliiynou hangs and tnjUrls Igmand is left — Ki>s*uth's — Mrssan'ts — Tlie letter to — Guryey's own account of the — KosOorernment Goryry— Kossuth returns at Szt'yedtn to — (ioryry threatens to rrstym carj/oral the Clergymen at -Nuyy commences his — Klapka The retreat — The Hussion army approaches Pestk in to — Battle punishment on of Czem — G'urgey Komorn.and of to resist the Lower Danube were incapable of affording auffieient it provisions for an army. lb ID.. (11 \ITEH XXVI. aet in the drama of Gorgey 'a perfidy waa now aa he read. an*! of Gorgey knoicn l. and military leadrni of the countrj'. over which Colonel Bayer He giving began by laying his own views it befort^ hi- offii-. 1849. with other {ia{M'ni. aA his opinion that the plains of the The is.

the war into the districts round the paws over to the right bank tuidst of the Plattt'ii and to of the Danube through the this direct enemy : Klapka protested against violation of the orders of CJovenvnient. the adviuitaf^e would ujuloubt4Hlly be on the also pro|K)!M-d that vide of Hungary.-» of a junction with the army of the South. 1649.Htomed men and raw if the country'. and of their the Hungarians a could by the union armies gain numerical «u|)eriority.«iifiii_\ '-I fii^lit would only suggest that in the first place a virtorious battle to which the position of torcrs uivitfd them .-parat<' the army from the Goreniuieut.Hki. who would thus he eiuibled to drive the