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Information Technology refers to the creation, gathering, processing, storage, and delivery of information.

It deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. Computer system refers to the hardware and software components that run a computer or computers. Information System is the combination of people, devices and methods interrelated in working towards a common goal for converting data into meaningful information. Impact of IT: Creation of Multimedia Games 2D & 3D Animations Presentations Composing music Publishing websites Wireless communication(Internet) E-Commerce

Data are any facts, numbers or text that can be processed by a computer. It is individual information or unprocessed information. Types of Data: Simple- Text and Numbers Complex Image, Audio & Video (Video-conferencing, Phone calls and animations) DATA It relates to any fact, numbers and text. It is raw material for data processing. It involves collection of data. INFORMATION It relates to patterns, associations and relationships among data. It is processed data. It is processing and analyzing data.

Machine Data Types 4bits = 1nibble 8bits = 1byte 1024 bytes=1KB 1024 KB = 1 MB 1024 MB = 1GB 1024 GB = 1Terra Byte 1024 Terra Byte = 1 Peta Byte Common Programming Language Data Types Integer It is a whole number. Boolean It has two values i.e., true and false. Character It is readable text. Floating Point Number It is a number with a decimal point.

Information is processed data. The pattern, association and relationship among all data can provide meaningful information. Software is a set of instructions that tells the computer step-by-step how to perform a particular task. It is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. There are two types of software: 1. System Software An integrated set of programs that control the resources such as CPU, Memory, I/O devices, etc. It helps a computer to use its own components. It allows the computer to identify the devices attached to it and identify the memory available. It consists of the startup program of the computer. Also known as Operating System. Examples Microsoft Windows, Macintosh, Unix, Linux.

2. Application Software It is a program designed to perform a specific task. It runs under system software. It makes the computer useful for the people. Example MS Office, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver, CorelDraw Hardware refers to the physical components that make up a computer system. It includes cables, connectors, power supply units and peripheral devices such as keyboard, mouse, audio speakers, and printers. Motherboard and RAM are the hardware found inside the computer. Anatomy of Computer is the study of the various parts of the computer. Basic Structure: Input Devices Output Devices Memory / Storage Unit Arithmetic Logic Unit Control Unit Central Processing Unit Bus System Input Unit Accepts instruction and data Converts these to computer acceptable form Supplies converted data and instructions to the computer system for further processing Keyboard, Mouse, Microphone, Scanner, Mark Sense Reader Output Unit Accepts the result produced by the computer in the coded form Converts code results to readable form Supplies converted result to outside world Monitor, Speakers, Printer

Memory 1. Random Access Memory (RAM) Stores ever changing programs and data Also called main memory or users or primary memory Volatile memory data is lost on turn off of computer Read/Write memory user can read and write onto it 2. Read Only Memory (ROM) Permanent or Static memory or Non-volatile data retained on turn off Contains only readable data Contains a set of instructions to start up the computer Central Processing Unit Brain of the computer Converts data into information Controls all internal and external devices, performs arithmetic and logic operations Two parts Control Unit (CU) , Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Arithmetic Logical Unit Performs arithmetic and logical operations. Arithmetic Operations Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division Logical Operations Evaluates conditions, Compares numbers, letters and special characters (And, Or, Not) Control Unit Directs flow of operations and data Directs the computer system to execute stored program instructions Communicates with other parts of hardware

Bus System A path required to transfer the electronic data from one part to another in a computer A set of parallel copper connections on the computers motherboard It is a high-way for data Width of the Bus determines the speed of data transfer in a computer Data Bus: A path which connects CPU, Memory and other hardware on the motherboard. 16-bit bus can send 2 bytes at a time Address Bus: A set of connections that carries memory addresses. The numbers of wires decide the number of memory addresses. Applications of Information Technology 1. Business : Software for accounts, invoicing, sales analysis, payroll, etc. Working from home and home-based business E-banking 2. Industry : Product design - Computer aided design (CAD) for tools and machinery Product manufacturing Computer-aided manufacturing is the use of computer software to control machines 3. Home : Play games, information tools, entertainment 4. Education and Training Surfing for information, distant education 5. Science and Engineering Genetic engineering, simulations System Clock An electronic device in a computer that issues a steady high-frequency signal that synchronizes all the internal components.

Computers in Hiding Large Computers - Mega systems that work at backend like railway reservations, weather forecast, ATM machines Small Computers - Small automated machines or networks that work at backend and facilitate the end user like in remote controls, implantable medical devices, appliances, toys. Embedded Systems Used for controlling System on Chip (SoC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radiofrequency functions. Microprocessor It is a multipurpose, programmable device that accepts digital data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory, and provides results as output. Microcontroller (C or MCU) It is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals