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INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN UNITY SCHOOLS OF SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARTS EDUCATION (EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY) UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

BY

ONUZULIKE IKEDICHUKWU PG/M.ED/08/50032

SEPTEMBER 2011

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TITLE PAGE

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN UNITY SCHOOLS OF SOUTH-EAST ZONE OF NIGERIA

RESEARCH PROJECT REPORT PRESENTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF ARTS EDUCATION (EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY) UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA

IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE IN EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

BY

ONUZULIKE IKEDICHUKWU PG/M.ED/08/50032

SEPTEMBER 2011

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APPROVAL PAGE

THIS PROJECT HAS BEEN APPROVED FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF ARTS EDUCATION (EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY), UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA.

BY

-------------------------------Dr. T Ofoegbu SUPERVISOR

-----------------------------Dr. Uche Asogwa INTERNAL EXAMINER

-------------------------------Prof. Eya EXTERNAL EXAMINER

-------------------------------Prof. U. Umo HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

-------------------------------------------------Prof. S.U Ezeudu DEAN, FACULTY OF EDUCATION

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CERTIFICATION ONUZULIKE, IKEDICHUKWU, A post graduate student in the Department of Arts Education (Educational Technology), with Registration number

PG/M.ED/08/50032, has satisfactorily completed the requirement for the research work for the degree of Masters in Educational Technology. The work embodied in this project is original and has not been submitted in part or full for any other Diploma or Degree of this or any other University.

---------------------------------Dr. (Mrs) Theresa Ofoegbu SUPERVISOR

--------------------------------------Onuzulike Ikedichukwu STUDENT (PG/M.ED/08/50032)

DEDICATION This work is dedicated to the memory of my late brother, Chidinma Onuzulike. Chidinma, You did not die forgotten For in my heart, You are eternally in bloom.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
My sincere gratitude and appreciation go to God and His faithful Servant, Ben Unegbu for seeing me through this programme. I acknowledge my debt to my supervisor, Dr T. Ofoegbu, under whose tutelage this work was carried out. I am grateful for the patience and motherly care with which she guided me along the way of this project. You ma, is worthy of emulation, I promise not to disappoint. Dr J.U Akabogu, mum, thanks for being there always. Mr Chris Ibeneme, thanks for accepting me as a brother. Prof. U Umo and Dr U. Asogwa, thanks for making me stand on my feet. Pastor Innocent Eleke, words fail me. I am immensely indebted to my parents Mr and Mrs Nathan Onuzulike for their all round support. I will make you proud. Brother Echezona and wife, God will surely reward you. Dabere and Chiemerie, your contributions can never be forgotten. Brother Anayo Ahanonu (Camai) you were always there: thanks a million. Dr Ozioma Onuzulike, academically you inspire me. I will get there. Chimdilim and wife, without you I wonder how my defence would have been. Mr Victor Onuzulike, thanks for teaching me the difference between being educated and learned. Uncle Levi and Uncle Ngozi thank you very much. Chukwuma and Uzochukwu, my brothers from another mother, hold on for we are almost there. Chukwudubem Ojeah, it all started with you. Nnaji Ekene, words fail me. Special thanks to Elochukwu Francis, Callistus Eke, Ilokanuno (Bonchor), Eze Kenneth, Kelechi Nwaike, Chidinma, Edeh Okwudili and my entire classmates, your support was immeasurable. Maureen Obiezu and Madam Agatha Ugwu, your care was awesome. I acknowledge also, the English H.O.Ds in all the South-East Unity schools who served as my research assistants and the English language teachers for their time and patience.The numerous authors whose works were consulted and other lecturers who in one way or the other encouraged or assisted me during the course of this study, I am grateful. Onuzulike Ikedichukwu PG/M.ED/08/50032

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TABLE OF CONTENT Title page i ii iii iv v vi viii ix 1 1 12 13 13 15 15 15 18 17 19 25 30 34 40 49 50 53

Approval page Dedication Acknowledgement

Certification page -

Table of contents List of tables Abstract -

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION Background of the study Statement of the problem Purpose of the study Scope of the study Research questions Hypothesis Significance of the study -

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW Conceptual framework Nigeria ICT policy -

Information and communication technology (ICT) ICT in Nigeria school education teaching -

Information and communication technology (ICT) in English language Teachers competencies Gender and age -

Teacher qualification and teacher competence Unity schools: A brief history -

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UNESCO ICT competency standards for teachers Theoretical framework Empirical studies -

58 61 67 71 74 74 74 75 75 75 76 76 76 77 78 94 97 98 99 100 101

Summary of literature review Design of the study Area of the study -

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD -

Population of the study Sample and sampling technique Instrument for data collection Validation of the instrument Reliability of the instrument Method of data collection Data of data analysis -

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Educational implications Limitation of the Study Summary of the study REFERENCES APPENDICES Conclusion and Recommendation Suggestion for further studies -

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Mean and standard deviation responses on the ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers 78 80 85 88 91 92 92 Table 2: Mean and standard deviation scores of the influence of qualification on the ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers English language teachers ICT competencies competencies of English language teachers affects their ICT competencies teachers Table 3: Mean and standard deviation scores on the influence of gender on the Table 4: Mean and standard deviation scores on how age affects the ICT Table 5: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) scores on teachers qualification as it Table 6: T test scores on ICT competency possessed by English language Table 7: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) score on age as a factor in the ICT competencies of English language teachers

ABSTRACT This study investigated the Information and Communication Technology competencies possessed by English Language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east zone of Nigeria. It also examined the influence of gender, age and qualification on their ICT competencies. The study was guided by four (4) research questions and three (3) hypotheses. The population consisted of all the English language teachers in Unity Schools of South-East Nigeria. A 30-item questionnaire was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation were used in analyzing the research questions while T-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used for the hypotheses. The findings revealed low-level ICTcompetencies on the part of the teachers. T-test analysis indicated no significant difference between male and female teachers ICT competencies. ANOVA showed that age and qualification are not significant factors in the ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers. Based on these findings some recommendations were made. Among them are: that the Federal Government should make the development of teachers ICT competencies a priority and set targets when all long-serving and newly qualified teachers are expected to become ICT-competent to mandatory standard. It is also recommended that ICT should be made a compulsory course in all teacher training-institutions.

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CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The English language is an invaluable legacy of colonialism which has increasingly assumed a great importance all over the world. Many countries,

especially the former British colonies, realized the importance of English as a language of International Communication and voluntarily adopted it for official and, sometimes inter-ethnic communication purposes (Akabogu, 2006). Consequently, there have emerged different varieties of English as a result of the nativization of the non-native varieties of the language. This is so because whenever languages come into contact they are bound to influence one another. In this case, according to Akabogu, the English language, which is external to the Nigerian society, has been radically transformed to adapt and integrate fully to the cultural and linguistic milieu of the society. This tends to explain the emergence of new domains for English usage especially from the late 20th century. In the over 1,500 years of its use, English has changed substantially reflecting patterns of contact with other languages and the changing communications needs of the speakers. Modern means and tools of communication have been very influential factors in the cross-fertilization of languages. The English language is one of the popular modern languages that have oiled the wheels of contemporary technologies of communication and information dissemination. Information and

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Communication Technology as a modern means of communication is usually called ICT and is often used as a synonym for Information technology (IT) but it is a more general term that stresses the role of telecommunication(telephone lines and wireless signals) in modern information technology. ICT consists of all technical means used to handle information and aid communication, including computer and network hardware as well as necessary software. ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telephony, broadcast media, and all types of audio and video processing and transmission. One major outcome of the expansion of the domains of English language to Information and Communication Technology is the increase in the number of English language users of these ICTs most especially the young ones. In

addition, the electronic media provide new context for the writing process. According to Kupelian cited in Akabogu (2006), the electronic media encourages the younger ones to participate in writing activity because it provides a non-threatening atmosphere in which writers feel less inhibited about expressing themselves. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is an indispensable part of the contemporary world. In fact, culture and society have to be adjusted to meet the challenges of the knowledge age. The pervasiveness of ICT has brought about rapid technological, social, educational, political and economic

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transformation, which has eventuated in a network society organized around ICT (Castells, 1996). The field of education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. Undoubtedly, ICT has impacted on the quality and quantity of teaching, learning and research in traditional and distance education institutions. In concrete terms, ICT can enhance teaching and learning through its dynamic, interactive, and engaging content; and it can provide real opportunities for individualized instruction. ICT has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills; motivate and engage students in learning. It also helps to relate school experiences to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrows workers, strengthen teaching and provide opportunities for connection between school and the world (Davis and Tearle, 1999; Lemke and Coughlin, 1998). Indeed, Information and Communication Technologies are essential tools in any educational system. They have the potentials of being used to meet the learning needs of individual students, promote equality of educational opportunities, increase self-efficacy and independence of learning among students and improve teachers professional development. It offers great potentials for revolutionizing school administration (Kirsschner & Selinger, 2003). According to the Milken Exchange on Educational Technologies (1998), it has been found that ICT, under the right condition, has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen skills in reading, writing, mathematics and the

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sciences. It motivates and engages students in learning as they are encouraged to be more independent and responsible for their own learning. It helps to relate academics to the practices of todays work as the influence of ICT is pervasive in every field. Furthermore, it is relevant in increasing the economic viability of tomorrows workforce, as students are prepared to be fluent in thinking with and using technology in ensuring efficiency and effectiveness in their work places, thereby increasing productivity. ICT strengthens teaching as it provides powerful tools to teachers repertoires, thereby enabling them to meet individual learners needs, and also allow for networking with other teachers, enabling them to exchange ideas, share resources and improve teaching practices. As catalyst for education they also contribute to changes in school learning environments. In addition, ICTs provide opportunity for connecting schools to the world, as learning is expanded beyond the classroom, thus relevant real life contact can be established. Finally, student and teachers can access information and resources and they can communicate with experts and peers and make useful contributions to knowledge through electronic publication. In view of the role of ICTs in modern societies, especially in the field of education and business, Nigeria developed a National Policy on Information and Communication Technology (2001) which states the countrys perspective on ICT in the 21st century. Some of the objectives of the ICT policy for the nation are as follows:

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To ensure that ICT resources are readily available to promote efficient national development. To guarantee that the country benefits maximally and contribute meaningfully by providing the global solutions to the challenges of the information age To empower Nigerians to participate in software and ICT development. To encourage local production and manufacture of ICT components in a competitive manner To establish and develop ICT infrastructure and maximize its use nationwide To empower the youth with ICT skills and prepare them for global competitiveness To integrate ICT into the mainstream of education and training To create ICT awareness and ensure universal access in promoting ICT diffusion in all sectors of national life. To create an enabling environment and facilitate private sector national and multinational investment in the ICT sector. To encourage government and private sector joint venture collaboration To develop human capital with emphasis on creating and supporting a knowledge based society

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To build a mass pool of ICT literate manpower using the National Youth Service Corps (NYSC), National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and other platforms as a train-the-trainer scheme for capacity-building. Of interest to the current study is Nigerias ICT policy as it affects education and human development. Incidentally, in the last chapter of the policy document, education is discussed to cover human resource development and mainstream levels of education, including virtual university initiatives, distance learning networks, internet connectivity, collaboration with IT companies and IT services providers, train the trainer scheme with the National Youth Service Scheme (NYSC) and the National Directorate of Employment (NDE). The National Policy on Education (2004) also prescribes the introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into school curricular. Specifically, the policy introduced Computer Education as one of the prevocational electives at the junior secondary schools and as a vocational elective at the senior secondary school respectively. At the university level, and in the colleges of education, computer literacy is a compulsory course in the curricula. At the secondary school level, which is the focal point of this study, the unity schools represent a significant point of interest because of the huge amount and effort already invested in the ICT sector of the schools as stipulated by the National Policy on ICT and Education. Unity schools are federal government funded and managed secondary schools which are supposed to serve as role models to other secondary schools

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in Nigeria and also serve as unifying institutions. Unity schools were established across the country after the Nigerian civil war and spread across the various political zones. As role models, the federal government, after signing its ICT policy into law built and equipped ICT laboratories with multi-billion naira facilities to the standard stipulated by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and each year provision is made in the national budget for the maintenance and upgrade of these facilities. This huge investment of the federal government in the ICT sector especially in the unity schools made the unity schools the focus of this study From the foregoing, it is observed that the numerous benefits of ICT can only be realized when teachers who still remain the key to learning have developed the necessary pedagogical competencies for instructional use of ICT (Akudolu, 2008). There is a global awareness of the centrality of the teachers role in the learning process, even in ICT-rich contexts teachers cannot be replaced by the best Technology. Jones (2003:3) reiterates this fact and opines that no matter what educational systems mandate and expects, in the end effective learning is very dependent on the will and competence of the teacher. In recognition of this fact, country members of the European Union entered the twenty-first century in the throes of a major programme of equipping schools and training teachers (Abbott, 2001). Also the ICT in Schools Commission (1997) warns that if we wish to ensure that our children and country reap the

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benefits of ICT we must cherish our teachers and do everything we can to help them to have it on board. UNESCO-ICT-CST (2009) postulates that for

students to become comfortable and effective users of ICTs, teachers must be able to make wise and informed decisions about ICTs, meaning that all English language teachers and in fact, all teachers should be confident in using ICTs for instructional purposes when and where appropriate. For the successful implementation of ICT policies and programmes in Nigeria schools especially in the unity schools, it will undoubtedly begin with the question of teachers possessing the basic ICT literacy skills that can empower them to demonstrate any kind of competence in actual instruction. We cannot think of ICT integration without determining whether the teachers are acquainted with the operational skills of the ICT components. So far it have not been ascertained if the teachers are competent to carry on with this enormous task of integrating ICT into our school system as there is no such record, hence the need for this research. Competence will be needed for successful integration of ICTs in the teaching and learning process. One thing is to possess the basic skills another is to successfully achieve predetermined objectives which are the responsibility of competence. Therefore, teachers of English language require the needed ICT competences for there to be successful achievement of the objectives of the ICT policy. The required teachers ICT-competencies to be developed include ICT

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literacy, content development, and pedagogical teaching approaches using ICT, the use of ICT for management and administration and technical skills on implementation, management and maintenance of ICT facilities. It is believed, that the level of ICT competences among teachers in Nigerian schools, such as the Unity schools under study, is determined by a number of other factors including qualification, age and gender.

Uzoagulu(1992) while discussing attributes that affect students performance noted that teacher qualification is a factor of students level of achievement in school subject. Domingo Inyang (1998) observed that students taught by qualified teachers perform better in examination than students taught by lessqualified teachers. These assertions will be subjected to new verification in line with ICT-competencies of these teachers. FRN (2004) stated that National Certificate in Education (NCE) is the minimum qualification for entry into the teaching profession. But the federal ministry of Education in 1991 stated that by 1999 that the minimum qualification to teach in the Unity schools is University or Higher National Diploma (HND) but there is no record to show that this has been enforced. Consequently, any teacher with NCE is qualified to teach English language and so teachers with a minimum qualification of NCE are considered qualified for the purpose of this study. Age is a strong factor that determines ICT competencies and integration of ICT into the teaching process. Studies show that older teachers find it difficult to adapt to the present form of

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teaching with ICT. Studies by Kotrlik and Smith (1989) and Thang and Padron (1997) found that younger teachers felt more comfortable working with computers, had higher levels of computer literacy, and had less computer anxiety than older teachers. In terms of usefulness, the Princeton Research Associates, Inc (1993) found that almost two third (59% of teachers under 35 years of age believed computers in the classroom were essential while only 29% of teachers over age 35 shared this belief. The age bracket of English teachers in the eastern unity schools needs to be known and determined if they are in any way impending the success of the ICT policy. Gender is a set of characteristics distinguishing between male and female, particularly in the cases of men and women as well it refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviour, activities and attributes that a particular society considers appropriate for men and women. Gender issues themselves affect all aspects of the society to the extent that access of woman to certain profession/competencies in higher institution is constrained by these same sexrole stereotypes. It has been argued that this long-standing gender bias also reflects in performance levels. Gender was identified as a critical factor that affects teachers attitudes towards computer (LU, 2002). Loyd and Gressand (1984) found that females have lower scores on computer technology competencies than males. Chan (1980) also found that female teachers had less experience working with computer than male colleagues. Coakes (1986)

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showed that there are sex differences in language and in communicative competencies. All these prejudice limit the performance level of women in some courses. The gender issue in mathematics and ICT has been a source of aversion as mathematics and ICT has been male stereotyped and regarded as difficult (Okafor 2006). This suggests that gender may affect interest and confidence in the teaching of English with ICT. If these assertions about the female gender are true, it is left to be found, what the federal government is doing about it to avoid the failure of its investment in ICT education because according to Eke, C(2009) the number of female teachers outnumber that of their male counterparts. The ability of English teachers to use computer to develop, enhance, and expand students understanding of English is in the context of this study is termed: ICT Competency. This study is out to look at the ICT Competencies of English teachers in Nigerian unity schools, South-East Zone based on the ICT Standard stipulated by UNESCO for all member countries.

Statement of the Problem Although, the federal government of Nigeria has equipped its Unity schools with ICT facilities so as to achieve the aim and objectives of the countrys ICT policy, the ICT competencies of teachers in these unity schools are not known. This poses a great danger to the aspiration and expectation of the

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federal government who have invested so much in ICT. Secondly, there has been a worldwide clamour for a re-orientation of teaching and learning towards greater use of ICT facilities. The success of such clamour, the federal government having done their own part, however, depends largely on the level of ICT competencies possessed by teachers and its actual use in classroom instruction. This is so because teachers are at the center of any educational innovation implementation and when they are not competent to carry on with the implementation, the innovation becomes a failure. So for there to be an envisaged success of the ICT policy, there is need to ascertain if teachers who are expected to implement the policy are competent in doing so. Therefore, the problem of this study is to find out the ICT- Competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools of South East Nigeria and the extent to which it is it is influenced by gender, age and qualification. Purpose of the Study The main purpose of this study is to determine the ICT-competencies of the English language teachers in Nigerian unity schools in the South-East Zone. Specifically the research intends to: Find out the ICT- competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria Find out if the qualifications of English language teachers affect their ICT competencies

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Determine the influence of gender on Teachers of English language as it affects their ICT competencies.

Determine the influence of English language teachers age as it affects their ICT competencies

Significance of the Study Many researchers have confirmed the positive contribution of ICT as a flexible language learning tool which leads itself to a variety of uses in realistic contexts (Maduekwe, 2006). It is hoped that the result of this study will be of great benefit to Policy makers in government, Teachers, Students, and the Ministry of Education. For policy makers, this study will help them determine the ICT competencies of teachers in unity schools thereby knowing if the objectives of the policy can be achieved as teachers competencies can aid or mar the achievement of the objectives. It will also enable them to know if the items in the ICT policy are well understood by teachers. This study will greatly benefit the teachers in so many ways. First, it will help them to know the ICT- competency standard as stipulated by UNESCO. Secondly, it will enlighten them more on the objectives and aim of the ICT policy in Nigeria. Thirdly, it will make them to know the usefulness of ICT in a language classroom. Lastly but not the least, it will re-awaken the need for the

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teachers who are not ICT competent to go for training and not to be left out in a first changing world and classroom. When the teachers are ICT-competent enough the learners reap the profit. The students stand to gain more from this research, if the level of teachers ICTcompetency is known and enforced, it will encourage the idea of constructive approach to learning thereby making the learners to learn at their own pace As the supervising ministry, this study will help the ministry of education know the ICT competencies of their teachers which will help them determine how to improve the ICT skills of their teachers, either by sending them for a refresher course or organizing in-service training for them. The result of this study will also make the ministry of Education to liaise with the pre-teachers training institution to make sure that the new teachers attain the required ICTcompetency standard. As well, they will liaise with the policy makers to make sure that the ICT policy is well understood by the teachers and achievable within the context of the classroom. Scope of the Study The study is focused on the assessment of Information Communication Technology competencies of English language teachers in unity schools. The study was conducted in the unity schools of South-East Nigeria.
The content scope of this work covered the standard ICT competencies as stipulated by UNESCO (2009).

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Research Questions The following research questions guided this study. 1. What are the ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers in the unity schools? 2. What is the Influence of English Language Teachers Qualification on their ICT competencies? 3. What is the Influence of Gender on the English language Teachers ICT Competencies? 4. To what extent does age affect teachers ICT competencies?

HYPOTHESES The following hypotheses was formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. 1. ICT Competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools do not depend significantly on Teachers Qualification. 2. Gender is not a significant factor in the mean rating of ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers in unity schools of South-East Nigeria.

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3. Age is not a significant factor in mean rating of ICT Competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools of South-East Nigeria.

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW

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This chapter deals with the review of related literature to this study. The review will be organized and arranged under the following sub-headings; Conceptual framework, Theoretical framework, Empirical studies and Summary of literature review. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework to this study will be discussed under the following headings; i. ii. iii. Information and Communication Technology Information and Communication Technology Policy in Nigeria Information and Communication Technology in Nigeria Secondary schools. iv. Information and Communication Technology in English language class v. vi. vii. Teachers competencies Teachers Qualification Teachers Gender and Age

viii. Unity Schools. A Brief History ix. UNESCO ICT competency standard for teachers

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

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Information and communication technology (ICT) is the catch-phrase used to describe a range of technologies for gathering, storing, retrieving, processing, analyzing and transmitting instruction (Uroko, 2006). The term, Information according to Ajayi (1999) can be viewed as crude data that are processed into meaningful form; Oyeyinka (2001), Thomas and Ballard (1995) cited in Uroko (2006) state that information is never valuable unless it is communicated in the right way to the user. Communication on the other hand is a process of passing information. This information may be fact told, heard or disc used etc. Communication covers a wider spectrum than information. Communication according to Laudon (1997) is the process of transmitting information and understanding from one individual to another. In the view of Hadiza (1999) as cited by Uroko (2006), it is an interpretive medium of self-expression. The materials are just like tools with which the communicator expresses his or her creative ideas. Also, communication is a transaction; symbolic process which gives peoples the opportunity to relate and manage the environment in establishing human contact, exchanging information, reinforcing the attitude and behaviours of others (Ike 1989). On the same line, communication is a process of information exchange between two or more individuals or organization. Thus, communication is a two-way process which involves the imparting of information to people (Danape, 2000).

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Technology is seen as the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical tasks in schools and industries (Okeke, 2006). It is a complete integrated process for analyzing problems, controlling and evaluating solution to those problems. More so, technology is seen as a complex integrated organization of men and machines, ideas, procedure and management. It also includes process, system management and control mechanism both human and non-human (Imogie, 1998). Communication technologies include all media employed in transmitting audio, video, data and multimedia such as cable, satellite, fibre optics, wireless, radio, infra-red, bluetooth, and Wifi. Network technologies include Personal Area Networks (PAN), Campus Area Network (CAN), intranets, extranets, Local Area Networks (LANs), Wireless Area networks (WANs), MANs and the internet. Computer technologies include all removable media such as optical discs, disks, flash memories, video, books, multimedia projectors, interactive electronic boards, and continuously emerging state-of-the-art PCs. Mobile technologies comprise mobile phones, PDAs, and palmtops. These technologies have information as their material object. Information is not reserved for use in isolation, but, rather communicated among users. Vincent and Vincent (1985) in Ajayi (1999) cited by Uroko (2006) defines information technology as new way of storing, processing and transmitting information which was brought about by rapid development in

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electronics, computing and telecommunication. Information and communication technology (ICT) is the study of concepts, skills, processes and applications of designs for representing physical, hypothetical or human relationships created, collected, stored, retrieved, manipulated, protected and presented electronically. It refers to a whole range of technologies involved in information processing and electronic communications. French (1996) cited in Nworgu (2006) defines ICT as a broad based technology including its methods, management and application that supports the creation, storage, manipulation and communication of information. Haag and Keen (1996) defined information technology as a set of tools that helps you work with information and perform tasks related to information processing. According to Nworgu (2006), ICT originated as information technology until recently when it is thought that the communication component ought to be highlighted because of its significance. It was then that the concept transformed to information and communication technology (ICT). According to Ofoegbu (2010), the configuration of a basic ICT system comprises eight (8) essential elements or components which Haag and Keen (1996) described as the building blocks of an IT system, these are: 1. Input Devices: These enable the user to enter information and commands into the system. Examples include mouse, keyboard, microphone, scanner, Joy stick, light pen and Touch screen.

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2.

The Processing Unit: This is made up of the central processing unit (CPU) and the internal memory or Random Access Memory (RAM). The central processing unit executes the instructions provided by or in a particular software or command in order to perform a task. The internal memory (or the RAM) is where the instruction or software is stored temporarily.

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Software: This is the set of instructions given to the computer to enable it perform a particular tasks or operations. Examples include Ms-word, SPSS, Excel, Coral Draw, Power point etc.

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Communication Devices: These are devices used to connect ICT systems and people in different parts of the globe. Some examples include modems, satellite, coaxial cables etc.

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Information: This is what is processed; it may be textual, audio, practical/visual or motion.

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Output Devices: These are devices that enable us to retrieve information from the system. Some examples include monitor/screen, printer, loudspeaker etc.

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Storage Devices: These are used to store information on a permanent basis. They include CD-ROM, Tapes (Audio and Video) floppy disk, flash discs etc.

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People: This is the most important component of an ICT system. Without people the ICT system will be non-functional. According to

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Haag and Keen (1996) without you, an IT system really is nothing more than an expensive piece of electronic requirement that takes up space and gathers dust. Advances in ICT have progressively reduced the costs of managing information, enabling individuals and organization to undertake the information related tasks much more efficiently and to introduce innovation in products, processes and organizational structures. In particular, is the use of electronic computers and computer software to invert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere and anytime. ICT when applied to education enhances the delivery and access to knowledge, and improves the curriculum. It produces richer learning outcomes compared to education without ICT. It encourages critical thinking and offers unlimited means of achieving educational goals. The key thing is not in ICT itself, but, in understanding ICT and effectively employing it in the delivery of knowledge and reaching goals in less time. ICT is used as a means but not as an end. Four major approaches have been identified for effectively employing ICT in education. They are the Emerging, Applying, Infusing and Transforming approaches that constitute ICT optimization stages in education Information and communication technology (ICT), for this study, is an electronic based technology generally used to collect, store, process and package information as well as providing access to knowledge. More also, it

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includes various technologies and their application such as the use of computer, micro-electronic devices and satellite and communication technology. It is the processing and maintenance of information, and the use of all forms of computer, communication, network and mobile technologies to mediate information

Nigeria ICT Policy In order to husband the potentials of ICT, most nations of the world have evolved national information and communication technology policies to serve as a framework for ICT integration in all facets of the society especially education. African countries, and particularly Nigeria, are not exceptions to this practice. The digital divide between advanced and developing countries, particularly in Africa, is well established. Like most African countries, Nigeria as a nation, came late and slowly in the use of ICT in all sectors of the nations life. Jensen (2002) notes that Africa has 12 percent of the world total population; the continent has two percent present in ICT use. In Africa, there is a low access to basic ICT equipment, low internet connectivity, low participation in the development of ICT equipment and even low involvement in software development. In fact, New York City has higher internet connectivity than the whole of Africa (Ajayi, 2002; Hall 1998).

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The seeming backwardness of the African continent in ICT necessitated a continental-wide initiative, the African Information Society Initiative (AISI), which had its origin in the African regional symposium on telematic for development, held in Addis Ababa, in April, 1995. The symposium organized by the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), United Nation Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation UNESCO, the International Development Research Centre (IDRO), and Bellanet International, urged the ECA conference of ministers to consider the importance for Africa to join the global information revolution (Ajayi 2002). Based on this recommendation, the ECA conference of ministers in May 1995 passed resolution 795 titled Building Africas Information Highway, which called for work on national information and communication networks for planning and decision-making group, made up of African experts in ICT, to prepare Africas entry into the information society, subsequently in May 1996, the ECA conference of ministers through its resolution 812 approved the plan of action prepared by the high-level working group entitled the African Information Society Initiative an action framework to build Africas information and communication infrastructure (Ajayi 2002). The AISI action plan framework called for the formation of National Information and Communication Infrastructure (NICI) plans and strategies. This was to be an on-going process through planning, implementation, and regular

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evaluation of programmes and pilot projects, developed according to the needs and priorities of each country (ADF, 1999). According to Yusuf (2005) Nigeria did not achieve much on the NICI plan and strategies at the beginning of 1999. But by October 1999, Nigeria issued a document on telecommunications development strategy and investment opportunities in Nigeria (Yusuf, 2005). Similarly, in October 1999, the national policy on telecommunication was approved (Ajaya, 2002). The document contained policy statements on objectives, structure, competition policy, satellite communication, management structure, finance and funding manpower development and training internet, research and development, safety and security, international perspectives and policy implementation and review (FRN, 2000). The national policy on telecommunication was a step in the development of infrastructural base for ICT. In 2001, the Federal Government approved the Nigerian National Policy for Information Technology (IT), and followed this up with the establishment of the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), which was charged with the implementation of the policy (Ajayi, 2002). Nigeria started implementing its ICT policy in April 2001 after the Federal Executive Council approved it by establishing the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA) the implementing body. The policy empowers NITDA to enter into strategic alliances and joint ventures and to

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collaborate with the private sector to realize the specifics of the countrys vision of making Nigeria an IT capable country in Africa and a key player in the information society by the year 2005 through using IT as an engine for sustainable development and global competitiveness . Information and communication technology (ICT) policy, as noted by Rowland (1996) and cited in Hafkin (2002), can be categorized into vertical, infrastructural, and horizontal policies. Vertical ICT policy addresses sectoral needs, such as education, health and tourism. The infrastructural aspect deals with the development of national infrastructure and this is closely linked with telecommunication. The horizontal aspect deals with the impact on broader aspects of society such as freedom of information, tariff and pricing, privacy. These three aspects are adequately addressed in the Nigerian IT policy. The IT policy mission statement recognized the need To use IT for education (p.iii). in addition, the general objectives in three (xv, xvi, and xxiv) of the stated objectives stressed that information technology must be used to: xv) empower the youth with IT skills and prepare them for global competitiveness. xvi) integrate IT into the mainstream of education and training xxiv) establish new multifaceted IT institutions as centers of excellence to ensure Nigerias competitiveness in international markets (p.vi)

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In other to achieve these objectives, 20 strategies were outlined. The fifth strategy was stated this way: Restructuring the education system at all levels to respond effectively to the challenges and imagined impact of the information age and in particular, the allocation of a special IT development fund to education at all levels (p. vi) It should be noted that although as the mission, general objectives, and strategies recognized the importance of ICT in education, the document has no sectoral (vertical) application to education. Issues relating to education are subsumed under sectoral application for human resources development. Under this sectoral application objectives 1to 4 relates to education as follows: To develop a pool of IT engineers, scientists, technicians, and software developers; To increase the availability of trained personnel; To provide attractive career opportunities; and To develop requisite skills in various aspects of IT. In order to achieve the objectives for human resources development, nine major strategies are outlined. These strategies are targeted at the building of knowledge and skills in information technology. These includes (a) making the use of ICT mandatory at all levels of educational institution; (b) development of ICT curricular for primary, secondary, and tertiary institutions; (c) use of ICT in distance education; (d) ICT companies investment in education; (e) study grant

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and scholarship on ICT; (f) training the trainer scheme for National Youth Service Corp members (g) ICT capacity development at zonal, state, and local levels; (h) growth of private and public sector dedicated ICT primary, secondary, and tertiary educational institutions; and (i) working with international and domestic initiatives for transfer of ICT knowledge. The Nigerian Ministry for Education ICT Department was created in February 2007. Different initiatives by government agencies and private sector to introduce and promote ICT in education are ongoing. The major drawback to these programmes is the generally sporadic and insufficient supply of electricity (Osei, 2007). ICT in Nigeria Secondary School Education The Federal Ministry of Education has launched an ICT-driven project known as School Net (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2006; Adomi 2005). School-Net Nigeria is a non-profit organization created to address the use of ICT in Nigerian secondary schools with the support of several government ministries. It is a public sector initiative geared at mobilizing Nigerias human and financial resources for the purpose of using ICT in education. School-Net creates learning communities of educators and learners to use ICT to enhance education by;

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Implementing, supporting and coordinating ICT development projects in education Providing and supporting lower-cost, scalable technology solutions and internet for schools. Providing support mechanisms for schools for technical infrastructure connectivity. According to Osei (2007) school-net Nigeria has in collaboration with the mobile phone operator MTN, established ICT laboratories/Cyber Cafes for four schools in four states in each of a four-phase project using local Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Furthermore, School-Net Nigeria, in collaboration with the computer company Busynet, is setting up ICT laboratories/Cyber cafes in four schools in 12 states across the federation. Another initiative by Zinox computers, a private computer company in collaboration with Microsoft, is revolutionalizing ICT usage in education from the primary to the university level. Zinox targets the students, lecturers and institutions themselves. They provide computers at highly subsidized prices and hopes with government support to achieve 75% ICT application in Nigeria schools by the end of 2010. First bank of Nigeria is bankrolling the project. ICT labs are built for schools that can repay in two or three years while teachers repay the cost of their laptops in one year.

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The ICT revolution in secondary schools has also registered corporate backing not only with computer companies like Zinox but also with the banks. Over 80 schools have benefited from Zenith Banks ICT for youth empowerment system. The scheme focuses on assisting Nigerian youths in secondary schools to bridge the digital divide through early introduction to ICT. Each school receives a minimum of 10 computers. To encourage the use of ICT, the bank organizes an annual ICT empowerment forum for youth totaling 2000 secondary and tertiary level students. The bank distributed 100 personal digital assistants (PDAs) to the first 100 students to arrive at the venue in 2006. In June 2003, at the African Summit of the World Economic Forum held in Durban, South Africa, the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) launched the e-Schools Initiative, intended to equip all African high schools with ICT equipment including computers, radio and television sets, phones and fax machines, communication equipment, scanners, digital cameras, and copiers, among other things. It is also meant to connect African students to the Internet. The NEPAD capacity-building initiative will be executed over a ten-year period, with the high school component being completed in the first five years. Three phases are envisaged, with fifteen to twenty countries in each phase. The phases are to be staggered, and an estimated 600,100 schools are expected to benefit. The aim of the initiative is to impart ICT skills to young

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Africans in primary and secondary schools, and to harness ICT to improve, enrich, and expand education in African countries (Aginam, 2006). In October 2006, Nigerian government approved the sum of N1.32 billion for building physical structure for ICT centres in all the 102 unity schools in Nigeria, to be equipped with multi-billion naira ICT facilities. This project was funded by Petroleum Technology Development Fund (PTDF). The Nigerian Federal Government has commissioned a mobile Internet unit (MIU) operated by the Nigerian National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA). The MIU is a locally-made bus that has been converted into a mobile training and cyber centre. Its interior has ten workstations, all networked and connected to the Internet. The MIU is also equipped with printers, photocopiers, and a number of multimedia facilities. Internet is provided via VSAT with a 1.2m dish mounted on the roof of the bus. It is also equipped with a small electric generator to ensure regular power supply. The MIU takes the Internet to rural areas and various primary and high schools (Ajayi, 2003). The number of buses is so small; however, that most rural areas and schools have not yet been covered. Although efforts have been made to ensure that ICTs are available and used in Nigerian secondary schools, the level of uptake is still low. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in English Language Teaching

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ICT can perform multi-talent roles in English language teaching especially in a second language setting. It can be a complement to the teacher; can also serve as a coping strategy where the teacher as a role model is contestable. In the developed world, the role of technology as a resource for teaching and learning of second language is increasing as educators recognize its ability to create both dependent and collaborative learning environments in which students can learn the new language (Butler, 1997). Butler draws attention to the silent characteristics and benefits of a technology enriched curriculum for second language learners that underscore the central role technology can play in second language teaching and learning. According to Akabogu (2006), Butler argues that technology can provide students with language experiences as they move through various stages of language acquisition and can be used to support the writing process approach. Also, it can be used for drill and practice designed to reinforce class instruction. Akabogu went on to point out the limitless opportunity provided by on-line database for students to have access to authentic audiences and allow second language learners to compare the voice patterns of their speech with that of a native speaker. According to Akabogu (2006), this is akin to computer-based immersion method, which is based on the theory that language is best mastered if the learners are surrounded by only native speakers.

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Warshauer and Healey (1998) cited in Akabogu (2006) stated that in a technologically developed world, there has been an explosion of interest in using computers for language teaching and learning. Warshauer and Healey identified three main stages in the 30 + years history of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). These are Behaviouristic CALL, Communicative CALL and Integrator CALL. Bahaviouristic CALL, according to Warshauer and Healey was characterized by repetitive language drills referred to drill-andpractice. In this mode, the computer was viewed as a mechanical tutor who never grew tried or judgmental and allowed students to work at an individual pace (Akabogu 2006). Communicative CALL emerged in the later 1940s and early 1980s. Proponents of this mode according to Akabogu (2006) stressed that computer based activities should focus more on using forms than on the form themselves, teaching grammar implicitly rather than explicit, allowing and encouraging students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulated prefabricated language and use the target language predominantly or even exclusively. Blake (2004) according to Akabogu (2006) believes that increasing contact with the target language is one of the most critical factors for successful second language learning. In the absence of going to the regions where the target language is spoken and immersing oneself in the society and culture,

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technology, if wisely used can play a major role in enhancing all second language learners contact with the target language. Digitalization of many ICTs has made it possible to design, develop, manage and assess the English language learning process. It increases the efficiency of the system and makes it more powerful. These techniques under ICT help students learn English language by enabling them to communicate, edit, annotate and arrange text quickly and flexibly. It enhances interactive teaching and learning styles. Using ICT can help students do the following in the language classroom: Access, select and interpret information Recognise patterns, relationships and behaviours Model, predict and hypothesise Test reliability and accuracy Review and modify their work to improve the quality Communicate with others and present information Evaluate their work Improve efficiency Be creative and take risks Gain confidence and independence ICT can be used to integrate speaking, listening, reading and writing. It enhances interactive teaching and learning styles. It also extends students'

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ability to exercise choice, work independently and make connections between their work in English language and in other subjects. For example, ICT can help students: use a wide range of strategies to explore contrasts, comparisons and connections dynamically annotate text in innovative ways enrich or broaden the context of literary study see texts in alternative versions use a wide range of analytical and critical techniques sort and process text and data quickly and efficiently order and arrange text and data experimentally, using combinations of word, image, sound and hypertext save, record, edit and adapt their work quickly and efficiently retain evidence of the editing process so that it can be examined change the organisational structure and qualities of texts to suit different audiences and purposes compose multi-authored texts select from a wider range of audiences, throughout the world exercise choice of medium and design while composing According to Rathore (2001) ICT has been found highly relevant in developing all the four skills of language learning. Otagburuagu (2006)

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outlined how some of these ICT programmes can be used in a language classroom. Different programmes in the computer can be used to teach Oral English for example, the Microsoft word office 2003 can be used to teach the speech sounds of English language and prosody. This can be done by connecting a headphone to the computer and tuning on the Microsoft word and clicking the tools menu to select speech input on the headphone which will show on the task bar. This mechanism has speech, voice and correction commands. When the speech sound is activated, the teacher/learner can speak and write sentences without the use of the keyboard. The voice command indicates what to save; close or delete from the system while the correction command is used to correct mistakes. This programme is adequate for the teaching of English pronunciation because it can indicate both right and wrong pronunciations. It is effective in teaching pronunciation and spelling simultaneously. Microsoft word for windows can be used in the teaching and learning of grammar. The application package has to do with graphics and text editing. The computer will correct the use of redundancy/tautology, inappropriate use of punctuation marks, correction of grammatical errors, or wrong expressions. The software will detect and underline all grammatical errors, wrong spelling and provide options from the in-built dictionaries.

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The oxford advanced learners dictionary software performs speaking functions, when you type a word, and click on it, the dictionary will pronounce the word, and it has American and British pronunciation. This function helps in pronunciation and other dictionary functions. Thus ICT not only makes language learning easy and fun but also spices the text with real life experiences which make a learner more broad minded and humane. ICT when used properly enables a student to go beyond the textbook to have the feel in real life situations. A lesson on child labour encourages a student to get more information about the condition of child labour in different parts of the world and also to think and devise the ways to help and support them. The students may also be asked to carry out small research related with the topic. This undoubtedly will sharpen their mental abilities and make them more creative. Similarly a poem on River can make the student collect pictures of ever flowing rivers filled with sparkling clean water as well as polluted dirty rivers of today. Thus making the students think over the present scenario. Poems like I Love a Tree when taught with the use of ICT will succeed in developing environmental awareness and sensitivity towards nature. Kindling the spark of imagination, making students aware of the reality existing outside classroom, stretching their perception, sensitizing them with the values, refining their perceptions are some of the merits of using ICT in the English language classroom. Information and communication technology can greatly improve the teaching and learning if teacher of English language are ICT competent.

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Teachers Competencies Competencies are defined as the set of knowledge, skills and experience necessary for the future which manifests in activities (Katane, 2006). Gupta (1999) defines competencies as knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, motivations and beliefs people need in order to be successful in a job. The common understanding related to teachers competencies is divided into three main areas as field competencies, pedagogical competencies and cultural competencies. Teachers professional competencies are composed of different dimensions other than these three main areas (Bukjieava, 2003). Selvi (2007) carried out a research regarding the professional competencies of English language teachers. The conventional Delphi Technique was applied in order to constitute the competencies of new teachers based on the teachers and teacher education views. Delphi process was completed after third rounds collecting the responses from experts and Delphi round continued until the group language was achieved. The results of this study indicated that teachers professional competencies were composed of four main subgroups such as curriculum, life-long learning, social-cultural and emotional competencies. The results showed that teachers competencies must be discussed from a different point of view. Selvi, (2010) analyzed the literature and outlined the following competencies which he tried to redefine depending

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on different dimensions of teachers professional competencies. Among the listed competencies only our area of concern which is ICT will be discussed. Field competencies Research competencies Curriculum competencies Literature learning competencies Social-cultural competencies Emotional competencies Communication competencies Information and communication technologies (ICT) competencies Environmental competencies Information and communication technology competencies are based on using tools and technical equipments for the teaching, distributing and transferring the knowledge. They include any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information. ICT competencies are concerned with the use of technology for the manipulation and communication of information; it means that the ICT competency is very important to improve the communication in the learning and teaching process. The inner core of the teacher education curriculum pyramid shown in Figure 1.1 comprises core teacher competencies, which are grouped into two major clusters: Pedagogy and Technology. These two clusters of teacher

competencies, although discussed separately below, are not independent of each other in a curriculum where ICT is infused in pedagogical practice.

Figure 1.1 A framework for ICT in teacher education (from A Planning Guide 2002, p. 41) 1. Pedagogy A Planning Guide nominates pedagogy, along with content, as the most important aspect of infusing technology in the curriculum (p. 41). Infusion of ICT begins with teachers mastery of the content of the su bjects. As they begin to incorporate ICT in their teaching, they develop new ways of doing things, gradually changing the focus of classroom activities from an emphasis on teaching to an emphasis on learning. The adoption of ICT in the classroom generally proceeds in stages as depicted in the model of ICT development

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(Figure 1.2). At first, teachers discover ICT tools such as, for example, presentation software. They then begin applying ICT tools in place of previous instructional activities, such as preparing a PowerPoint presentation in place of a lecture. As teachers become more familiar with ICT in the subjects they teach, they explore new ways of using ICT, and so how they previously taught begins to change. In time their classroom practice becomes transformed as the focus of the classroom becomes learner-centered and students use ICT to solve realworld problems that cut across traditional subject boundaries. Pedagogy includes much more. It includes theoretical knowledge and pedagogical skills. The theoretical and practical components of pedagogy included in the teacher education curriculum at East China Normal University, China, as reported by Zhu (2003) is shown in Table 1.1 Examination of Table 1.1 shows the wide view taken of pedagogy: it includes, for instance, knowledge of learning theories and instructional process and design, it includes assessment and evaluation strategies, and it includes planning and designing lesson plans. To these might be added selection and presentation skills.

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Figure 1.2 Stages of ICT development that educational systems and schools pass through in the use and adoption of ICT Theory (Lectures) Learning theories Instructional process Evaluating technology Discussing pedagogical issues Self/peer evaluation Internet Explorer Bulletin boards Pedagogy (Activities) Media and instruction Instructional design Studying theories Designing lesson plans Communicating/publishing Search engines Chat rooms

Table 1.1 Theory and pedagogy in the teacher education curriculum at East China Normal University, China

Collaboration and networking are other aspects of pedagogy. The real power of ICT comes from new ways of communicating beyond the four walls

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of the classroom and by locating information from worldwide sources wherever these may be located. The implications for teachers as they assist their students in collaborating with other learning groups and using networks to research assignment topics is that they cease to be the main source of knowledge in the classroom. Instead, teachers roles change from being a sage on the stage to becoming a guide on the side. Teachers need to accommodate a philosophical shift in their approach to teaching. A Planning Guide asserts that the development of teachers competencies in collaboration and networking is essential to infusing ICT in the curriculum: Through collaboration and networking, professional teachers promote democratic learning within the classroom and draw upon expertise both locally and globally. (A Planning Guide, p. 43) 2. Technology Whole books have been written about the ICT competencies required by teachers in the classrooms of today and tomorrow. At the emerging stage (see Figure 1.1) when teachers discover and learn about ICT tools, they need to go through a process similar to that of their students in schools. These competencies, often termed ICT literacy, include knowledge of ICT concepts and operations. Anderson and van Weert (2002), for example, include under ICT literacy the following:

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Basic concepts of ICT Using computers and managing files Word processing Working with spreadsheets Working with databases Composing documents and presentations Information and communication Besides the kinds of ICT competencies relating to concepts and operations, there are many social, healths, legal and ethical issues associated with the use of ICT about which teachers need to know. The facility, for instance, to access information easily from remote sources, download it to a personal computer, and then utilize the information in a classroom assignment brings with it a host of social, legal, and ethical issues relating to copyright, evaluation of information sources, and appropriate forms of acknowledging electronic information. Health issues arising from extensive use of ICT include considerations of correct posture, placement of hands and wrists on keyboards, avoidance of eyestrain, as well as safety issues concerning power supplies and care of equipment. At the next stage beyond the emerging stage, described as the applying stage in Figure 1.2, teachers need to learn how to use ICT tools in different subject areas in which they teach. And from this stage, teachers need to advance

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to an understanding of how and when to use ICT tools for particular purposes, in teaching as well as for professional and management tasks. Teachers need to have a clear understanding of why ICT is useful to themselves and their students. Allied to the contextual factors of change and lifelong learning, further technology competencies required of teachers are the need to update constantly their skills with hardware and to familiarize themselves with new generation software. Technological competencies have an attitudinal dimension also: as Cabanatan (2003) reported, among the ICT competencies required of teachers are a positive attitude toward ICT, along with a clear understanding of the education potential of ICT.

Teacher Qualification and Teacher Competence Certification is a measure of teacher qualification that combines aspects of knowledge about subject matter and about teaching and learning. Aminu (1987) sees a professional teacher as a person who has the registerable professional qualification which enables him to teach at any appropriate level of education and who is of a sound mind and mentally alert. Anderson (1982)

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describes the qualified teacher as one who is able to bring about intended learning outcomes. Three areas which are needed to help produce learning outcomes include; Command of theoretical knowledge and learning the science subject and genuine human relationship. Command of the subject matter to be taught Control of technical skills of teaching that facilitates learning In the review of the national school curriculum, the federal ministry of education (1991) set that by 1999 all teachers in the school system must possess a minimum of the Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) and for the unity schools, the minimum standard is University degree or Higher National Diploma (HND). Gwanyama (1992) showed in his study that teacher qualification has positive effect on students achievement, which invariably is attached to competence. According to Darling Hummond (2000) tests of basic skills, subject matter, knowledge and teaching knowledge or skills are basis for teacher qualification. She suggested that among students who become teacher, those enrolled in formal pre-service preparation programs are more likely to be effective than those who do not have such training. It is then important to look at teacher qualification and teacher competence Gender and Age

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Gender has several controversial definitions but it here refers to an individual's inner sex or psychological sense of being a male or female irrespective of one's (outer) sex identity as determined by one's sexual organs. There are two main genders: masculine (male) or feminine (female). Gender identity refers to the options available to members of a society to choose from a set of social identities, based on the combination of one's sex identity on the one hand, and one's natural gender, interests and social experiences on the other. A gender role is a theoretical construct in the social sciences and humanities that refers to a set of social and behavioural norms that, within a specific culture, are widely considered to be socially appropriate for individuals of a specific gender. Proponents of gender role theory assert that observed gender differences in behaviours and personality characteristics are, at least in part, socially constructed, and therefore, the product of socialization experiences; this contrasts with other models of gender that assert that gender differences are "essential" to biological sex. Research supports this theory, finding gender differences in almost all societies, but with differences in the norms adopted, suggesting that gender differences are, at least partly, influenced by culture. A gender role refers to the set of attitudes and behaviours socially expected from the members of a particular gender identity. Gender roles are socially constructed which are often politicized and manipulated, which then result in the oppression of people.

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Even though women have made great strides in the law, medical, and social science professions, very few can be found in graduate programs or professions in mathematics, computer science, physics, engineering, or information technology jobs (Eccles, 2001). Many ideas have been put forth on why high achieving women may not be entering these professions including discrimination, gender-typed socialization, self-concept of ability in these areas, and the value and interest that women have in these professions (Eccles, 2001). Given the mounting pressure ICT has placed on the educational community, there is a dramatic surge in the new teaching competencies expected of teachers in Unity schools. All academic staff are expected to use and integrate new technologies into their instruction, communication and research. However, findings from local and international studies have suggested that gender differences exist in relation to the use of ICT and of late, this issue is beginning to gain the attention of researchers. This is evident by the amount of research carried out in recent years to investigate whether gender differences exist with ICT usage (Ong & Lai, in press; Atan et al., 2002; Houtz & Gupta, 2001). Conducted studies have mostly been based on the perceptions of target audiences towards ICT. Savery (2002) stated that examining the perception of a target audience is a widely used strategy based on the premise that perceptions matter and often influence behaviours (p. 1). For example, Cop e & Ward (2002) suggested that teachers perceptions of learning technologies are likely to be crucial in their successful integration. In other words, measuring an

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individuals perception is pertinent as it is likely to influence the human behaviour. In recent years, the gender gap issue has caught many scholars attention and as a result, many studies have been conducted to study this gap in technology internationally. In a very recent study, Ong & Lai (in press) reported that males had more positive attitudes toward e-learning than females. They found significant gender variations where males ratings of perceptions towards computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness and ease of use and behavioural intention to use e-learning were all higher than those of females. This is not surprising as Liaws study (2002) had earlier indicated that males had more positive perceptions toward computers and Web technologies than females. Chen & Tsai (2005) also reported that males exhibited more favourable attitudes toward Web-based learning than females. Their results suggested that males perceived the proliferation and development of the Internet to result in a better tool in reducing the digital divide and establishing a society of equity and justice. Jackson (2001), however, found that while females used e-mails more than males, the latter used the Web more. Houtz & Guptas (2001) study found significant gender difference in the way females and males rated themselves in their ability to master technology skills. Even though both genders were positive about their technological ability, males rated themselves higher than females.

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Kirkpatrick & Cuban (1998), however, noted that the gender gap is narrowed when both genders are exposed to the same amounts and types of experiences on computers. Atan (2002) further added that the absence of gender disparity is obvious when females and males are in a learning environment that requires the constant use of specific computer software to support their learning activities. However, activities such as handling computer hardware and performing computer maintenance are still seen as masculine in nature (Atan, 2002). King (2002) added that measurable gender differences exist when females construe computers as masculine. Females view technology as less of a threat when they perceive computers as a method of communication and not as a computational tool (King et al., 2002). From the studies above, it appears that the evidence for specific gender differences in ICT competency is inconclusive although there is a widespread belief that computers and the Internet are male-dominated technologies. It would, therefore, be interesting to find out how gender affects the ICT competencies of the English teachers in Unity Schools, especially now that ICT is seen as not only crucial for the teaching and learning process but also for professional advancement. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between teachers age and the perception of computer technology. Liao (1995) found that older teachers have more experience working with computer technology since they have more experience with teaching and learning. On the

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other hand, Kotrlik and Smith (1989) and Huang and Padron (1997) found that younger teachers felt more comfortable working with computers, had higher levels of computer literacy, and had less computer anxiety than older teachers. In term of usefulness, the Princeton Research Associates, Inc. (1993) found that almost two-thirds (59%) of teachers under 35 years of age believed computers in the classroom were essential while only 29% of teachers over age 55 shared this belief. As well, younger teacher has been found to be associated with more positive attitudes towards ICT (Jennings & Onwuegbuzie, 2001). On the other hand, Yang, Mohamed, and Beyerbach (1999) found that there was no relationship between computer anxiety in vocational-technical educators and age. UNITY SCHOOLS: A BREIF HISTORY Way back in the late 1970s, the General Yakubu Gowon government had an overriding passion to heal the wounds of the just ended Nigerian civil war, hence the 3 Rs declaration viz: Reconciliation Restoration Renovation The essence of the 3Rs drive was to unify a nation whose fragmentation had been accentuated by a very divisive civil war. The principle was simple: build

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decent boarding schools, throw in young unpolluted minds from across the nooks and crannies of Nigeria, and ignore the vagaries of tribes and tongue. Coming in the period when Kings & Queens Colleges Lagos were about the only schools that had some semblance of being National schools, the principle of unity through education could not have been better timed. Federal Government Colleges were conceived to be unifying institutions, bringing together young Nigerian teenagers from multifarious ethnic & religious divides with a view to instilling high quality education into the students in an environment of academic and developmental excellence devoid of ethnic, religious or social stratification that ruled Nigeria then and unfortunately continues to plague Nigeria till today. The architects of the unity schools chose an appropriate pay-off to reflect their motive hence the ProUnitate (for Unity) sign-off that was part of the logo of all Federal Government Colleges. Apart from its major aim of national unity, they were also meant to serve as models to other secondary schools in Nigeria in terms of funding, educational programmes, etc. The first set of Federal Government Colleges was cited in true Federal Character Spirit with representation in the North, South, West and East. They were: Federal Government College Sokoto, Federal Government College, Warri, Federal Government College Odogbolu and Federal Government College, Enugu. These schools were set up to provide high quality education to

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children from across the various areas of the country with teachers from across the world. The Pan-Nigerian nature of the schools was enshrined in the replicated design of the hostels and classrooms that was undertaken by Dr. Alex Ekwuemes architectural firm. Presently, Unity schools are in all states of the federation and the federal Capital territory. Federal Government spent the sum of 1.32 billion building ICT laboratories in the 102 unity schools and equipped it with multi billion naira facilities (Vanguard Newspaper, October, pp. 2). According to the federal Government Budget (2010) the following had been budgeted for Information and Communication Technology development in Unity schools across the country: Provision, Development and hosting of Websites and Email facilities for the various Unity Schools2 million each Anti-virus software. N4,000 each Data capture in 45 unity Schools - - 50million Oracle support Renewal license - - - 3 million Hard Disk Storage and software license -- - - - 57 million Provision of solar panel for all unity schools ------- 4 million each

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Professional training of 114 N250,000 each

ICT staff in unity schools annually at

Provision of 100 desktop computers and accessories (printers, UPS) at N200,000 each Printing and distribution of 12,500 copies of ICT in education policy at N400 per copy and 2,000 copies of IT education framework at N1,000 per copy. UNESCO-ICT Competency Standards for Teachers UNESCOs ICT Competency Standards for Teachers provides a framework that allows teacher professional development providers to connect their course offerings to the broader national educational improvement and economic development policy goals. The objectives of the UNESCO ICT Competency Standards for Teachers project are: To constitute a common set of guidelines that professional development providers can use to identify, develop or evaluate learning materials or teacher training programs in the use of ICT in teaching and learning. To provide a basic set of qualifications that allows teachers to integrate ICT into their teaching and learning, to advance student learning, and to improve other professional duties.

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To extend teachers professional development so as to advance their skills in pedagogy, collaboration, leadership and innovative school

development using ICT. To harmonize different views and vocabulary regarding the uses of ICT in teacher education (UNESCO 2009). In developing the framework, UNESCO identified three productivity factors that lead to growth based on increased human capacity: capital deepening (the ability of the workforce to use equipment that is more productive than earlier versions), higher quality labour (a more knowledgeable workforce that is able to add value to economic output), and technological innovation (the ability of the workforce to create, distribute, share and make use of new knowledge). These three productivity factors serve as the basis for three complementary, somewhat overlapping approaches that connect education policy with economic development: 1. Increase the technological uptake of students, citizens, and the workforce by incorporating technology skills in the curriculumor the technology literacy approach. 2. Increase the ability of students, citizens, and the workforce to use knowledge to add value to society and the economy by applying it to solve complex, real-world problemsor the knowledge deepening approach.

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3. Increase the ability of students, citizens, and the workforce to innovate, produce new knowledge and benefit from this new knowledgeor the knowledge creation approach. The ICT Competency Standards for Teachers framework has been created by crossing these three approaches to education reform with the six components of the educational system - Policy and Vision, Curriculum & Assessment, Pedagogy, ICT, Organisation & Administration, and Teacher Professional Development

Source: UNESCO 2008b Each of the cells of the above matrix constitutes a module in the framework. Within each of these modules, there are statements which refer to specific curricular goals and teacher skills. The UNESCO (2009) ICT-CST project attempts to bridge mainstream and ICT specialist domains in TPD

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programmes into a holistic framework for a modular continuum of ICT integration - moving from technology literacy to knowledge deepening through to knowledge creation purposes which develop increasing capacity for teacher empowerment in the utilization of ICT as a tool to enhance the quality of learning. UNESCO ICT which is focused on teacher professional development is based on the realization of the need for new teacher roles in the light of new technologies. The successful integration of ICT into the classroom depends on the abilities of teachers to structure the learning environment in non-traditional ways. The framework is also situated within a broader context of educational and economic development policy goals. The objective is to link educational policy to current, and future economic and social development goals. The framework is thus presented in a concentric set of contextual levels that effect and mediate change. The realization is that teacher professional development only has impact, if it is focused on specific changes in teacher classroom behaviours and in particular if the professional development is on-going and aligned with changes in the educational system. The document stipulated ICT competency standard in all areas of education for teachers and this was outlined in a tabular form (see Appendix 3) Theoretical Framework

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The theoretical base for this study is anchored on Banduras social cognitive learning theory which is in line with Competency Based Teacher Education. This theory posits that people are cognitive beings; active information processors- who, unlike animals, think about the relationships between their behaviour and its consequences. They are often more affected by what they believe will happen than by what they actually experience. Bandura states that anything that can be learned from direct experience can be learned by observation. Often this allows a person to skip the tedious trial and error stage of learning. Observational learning is achieved by watching and imitating the actions of another person or by noting the consequences of the persons actions. Observational or modeling learning is any process in which information is impacted by example before direct practice is allowed. Observational learning will not occur unless cognitive process is at work , one must attend carefully to a models behaviour actively, digest or encode what he/she observed and then store this information in memory (as an image or a verbal label) in order to imitate what have observed. In further elaborating on the social cognitive learning model of development, Bandura emphasized that social learning is interactional in nature. He pointed out that human learning involves the interaction of the learner, the learners behaviour and the environment. He referred to this as Reciprocal Determinism. Bandura stated that there are four sub-processes in the social

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cognitive learning theory view of observational learning. According to him, these processes improve with age. The first two account for the acquisition of a models behaviour, while the remaining two control the performance of the behaviour. These component processes are: 1. Attention; this requires the individual to extract relevant information from the model. 2. Retention: Retention is the observers ability to encode and retain what has been observed. Encoding refers to the transformation of modelled information into visual or verbal abstract representations. A reminder of the coded information may be accomplished via cognitive rehearsals 3. Motor reproduction: Motor reproduction is used to refine the cognitive representations. Motor ability allows the symbolic/cognitive (i.e., visual or verbal) representations to be translated into actions or behaviours. 4. Reinforcement and motivation: This refers to motivational processes. These may involve external, vicarious, and self-reinforcements and motivational. Individuals are more likely to execute a modelled behaviour if they are adequately motivated and the motivation is goal directed. Information and Communication Technology provides new and innovative methods to create social learning environments. One aspect of ICT is the ability to interact and observe others. Human expectations, beliefs, emotional bents and cognitive competencies are developed and modified by social influences that

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convey information and activate emotional reactions through modeling, instruction and social persuasion (Bandura, 1989). Social interactions create learning where students are able to apply meaning and thoroughly comprehend. Teachers being models, who are supposed to be imitated there is a strong need for then to be ICT competent as enshrined in the ideas of Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE). When teachers are ICT competent and teach with it successfully there is bound to be a positive imitation and change in the behaviours of the learners. Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) according to leading Educational theories refers to a type of training that focuses on teachers acquisition of specific competencies. It is an educational thought that stresses the explicit demonstration of specified performance as evidence of what a teacher should know and be able to do. Competency Based Teacher Education also known as performance based education is a new approach to teaching having its base in the idea of accountability and competencies. With regard to accountability it is argued that teachers should be held accountable for their products. This accountability is accomplished by taking teaching in to discrete competencies or behaviours which can be stated as objectives. In Competency based education, Competencies are spelt out so that it is possible to assess students learning through direct observation of students behaviours. The root of competency based teacher education (CBTE) is established in behavioural psychology and learning theories (McDonald, 1974; Morgan,

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1984). Chesholim and Donald (1985) demonstrated that CBTE in behavioural psychology has two dimensions; i. The behavioural dimensions which are based on planning of instructional curricula through determining the behavioural objectives that can be shaped and modeling behaviour. ii. The performance dimension which has to do with determining and measuring performance, inclusive of all skills and experience necessary for the achievement of teachers professional and behavior duties. All competency based programs share four characteristics, which according to McDonald (1974), are: a. the organization of what is to be learned into independent components; b. the precise specification of what is to be learned; c. the provision of feedback during learning sequence; and d. the insertion of models of the performance to be learned into the learning sequence (in programs applying what has been learned about modeling and imitative behaviours). On the other hand, Houston (cited in Saeed & Mahmood, 2002) and Clark (2000) identified and categorised Competency-Based Teacher Education (CBTE) into five stages:

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(i)

cognitive competencies, which relate to knowledge and intellectual skills and abilities that are expected of the learners;

(ii)

performance competencies, wherein the learner demonstrates that he or she can do something;

(iii) (iv)

consequence competencies, to bring change to others; affective competencies, which are expected attitude and values that tend to resist the specificity and are more difficult to assess than the first three stages; and

(v)

exploratory competencies, which include activities that provide opportunities for teachers to learn about teaching.

The features of competency based teacher Education are Knowledge, skills, attitudes and values expected of prospective teachers which are specified in advance as set of learning objectives Social Cognitive Learning theory is part of behavioural psychology in which CBTE is rooted. As discussed above, social cognitive learning is divided into two types: (i) observational learning which emphasizes learning by watching others; also called modelling; and (ii) cognitive behaviour modification (CBM) which utilizes both modelling and self-instructional verbalization. Cognitive behaviour modification as a strategy has two dimensions: it can be a neobehaviourist strategy, emphasizing social learning; and it can be a metacognitive strategy, emphasizing self-regulation. Cognitive

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behaviour modification (CBM) is consistent with the competency based teacher education (CBTE). The present study represents a systematic effort to apply the theory of observational learning and modeling in the classroom based on the ICTcompetencies of the English language teachers in line with the ideas of Competency Based Teacher Education Empirical Studies There has not been any major Research carried out in the area of English Teachers ICT- Competencies since its introduction. However, there are some related works; Maduekwe (2006) reported the findings from a case study on ICT and Language Teacher Training in Nigeria. Using two Nigerian Uni versities where the students are taking the computer course FSC 103. The study was to determine the attainment of ICT competencies of initial language teacher trainees, after completion of the course. The findings reveal that the provision of training in ICT competencies of the initial language teacher trainees in the computer course in the two Nigerian universities is largely inadequate. The findings also reveal that the language teacher trainees who completed the computer course have very limited opportunities of developing their IT skills. This is because the institute themselves have insufficient support in terms of resources, tutorial, supervision, access and use. The study also reported that the

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teacher trainees were motivated by sheer desire for knowledge and the acquisition of more ICT skills after their exposure to the computer course. Maduekwe therefore asserts; training language teachers to use computers can be very easy once a tension free environment is created, where trainees can develop and maintain a pleasurable and interest driven attitude. He called for an urgent transformation in language education across the curriculum in Nigeria universities by shifting from a position of relative ignorance regarding information technology to one of emphasizing the integration of technology as a productive learning too. Furthermore the study exposed the inadequacy in the provision of resources and equipment in the use of computers in the teaching / learning process. This is because there was only one teacher for a class of 300, and not a single computer was used as practical demonstration, throughout the course. Akudolu (2006) carried out a research on the quest for teacher needed competencies for instructional use of ICT. Its aim was to identify the competencies needed by teachers for the development and implementation of ICT-based education. The study covered 19 member countries of European Union and was guided by three research questions. Data were collected through use of emailed questionnaire and analyzed using frequencies and percentages. Some personal pedagogical and subject oriented/didactical competencies were identified. Some of her recommendations are;

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- ICT should be a compulsory course in all teacher preparation institutions. - Teachers should be helped through in-service educational activities to become competent in and receptive to ICT. - The federal government should make the development of teachers ICT competencies a priority and set targets when all long serving and newly qualified teachers are expected to become ICT-literate to mandatory standards. Apanpa and Laula (2009) carried out a research on the ICT competencies of teachers of English as a second language in Lagos State Secondary Schools. The study sample consists of secondary schools English teachers in Lagos State only. Four research questions guided the study. A 30 item questionnaire was used for data collection. T-test, Chi-square and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the questionnaire. The findings revealed low-level of competencies on the part of the teachers. Awareness of policy goals on teachers part was also low. Facilities and resources to support ICT-integration into school curriculum were very limited and poor. The recommendations were; Government and institutions should provide the enabling environment that will support the training of teachers on a massive scale in ICT skills.

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Infrastructure, facilities and resources that will support integration of ICT into school curricula should be made available for developing capacity of teachers in ICT skills. Usman, O (2006) carried out a study on the ICT Competencies for the Implementation of Mathematics Curriculum. The study was guided by two research questions. The instruments used for data collection were

observation/interview guide and a questionnaire. Frequency, percentages, and mean were used for data analysis. The results revealed that most mathematics teachers are not computer skilled. The computer competencies required for the implementation of mathematics curriculum were classified into five areas as competencies related to computer software; competencies related to computer hardware; competencies related to classroom instruction, competencies related to professional development. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made; Introduction to the Use of Computers in Education: This course would serve as an entry point for education student to educate them on computer literacy and other fundamental principles of computers. Application of Computers in Education: This course would prepare all education students for the application of computer in their various subject curriculums.

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Use of Computers in Education: This course would prepare mathematics education students on the use of computers to teach mathematics, this would include introduction to computer programming. Advanced Topical Seminar in the Use of Computers in Mathematics Education: The course would be for postgraduate students in mathematics education. It would cover interdisciplinary seminars. Workshop and Seminar: Should be organized for the in-service mathematics teachers on some of the identified competencies required for the use of computer technology for the implementation of mathematics curriculum. Summary of Literature Review The literature review looked at all the variables contained in this work. The definitions of Information and Communication Technology were viewed from different definitions given by various scholars. For this study, Information and Communication Technology is seen as an electronic based technology generally used for collecting, storing, processing and packaging information as well as providing access to knowledge. The Nigerian National ICT policy was reviewed starting from its inception in Africa to the formulation and implementation of the policy nationwide. More also, the level of its implementation at the secondary school level and most especially in unity schools was examined. Its use in a language

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classroom was looked at, highlighting how it can be applied and used in teaching and learning English language. Furthermore, teachers competencies was defined and identified. Competencies were also looked at in line with age, gender and qualification. The UNESCO ICT competency standard for teachers was also presented. The theoretical aspect of the literature reviewed looked at Banduras Social Cognitive Learning theory in line with Competency Based Teacher Education upon which the study is anchored. Social Cognitive Theory posits that portions of an individual's knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences. Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) refers to a type of training that focuses on teachers acquisition of specific competencies From the review of literature, it was discovered to the best knowledge of the researcher that no attempt had been made to find out the ICT-competencies of Teachers of English language in Unity schools of south-east Nigeria. This gap is however, what this study intends to fill.

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CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOD This chapter is organised under the following headings: Design of the study, Area of the study, Population, Sample and Sampling Technique, Instrument for Data Collection, Validation of the Instrument, Reliability of the Instrument, Method of Data Collection and Method of Data Analysis. Design of the Study In this study a descriptive survey research design was adopted. A survey research design according to Nworgu (1991) is one in which a group of people or item is studied by collecting and analysing data from only a few people or items considered to be representative of the entire group. The design is considered appropriate because the study requires the identification of the ICT competencies of English teachers which is required for effective

implementation of the ICT initiative in Unity Schools. Area of the Study The area of study is South-East Zone of Nigeria. The South East zone is composed of five states. These states are Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu, and Imo state. Each state in this zone has two unity schools with exception of Anambra and Abia that have three (3) each.(Appendix 3) The researcher choose unity schools because they are well equipped with ICT facilities and so the issue of non-availability of ICT facilities will not in anyway affect the work. Population of the study

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All the unity school English language teachers numbering eighty two (82), constituted the population for this study. (See Appendix 4 for the number and location of the schools and the number of English language teachers in each school) Sample and Sampling Technique Sample is the subset of the population or the entire population. Because the population of this study is manageable, the entire population numbering 82 English language teachers constitutes the sample of this study. Instrument for Data Collection ICT-Competencies of English language teachers questionnaire (ICTCELTQ) was used for this study. The questionnaire was developed by the researcher based on the standard given by UNESCO (2008) and Akudolu (2006) to cover the various levels of ICT-Competencies (Personal, pedagogical, and subject oriented and didactical competencies. Each of the 30 questionnaire items were rated on a 4-point likert type-scale, Very competent (VC) Competent (C), Fairly competent (FC), Not competent (NC).

Validation of the Instrument The instrument was face validated by three (3) experts in the field of education. The experts are from the department of Arts Education (Educational Technology and Language Education) and Science Education department

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(Measurement and Evaluation) all in Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. The experts were required to validate the instrument in terms of relevance, clarity, usability and suitability. Their comments helped in modifying some of the items and arriving at the final version of the instrument (Appendix 2) Reliability of the Instrument The reliability of the instrument was established by administrating the instrument to Thirty (30) English language teachers in Unity schools of southsouth zone of Nigeria. The cronbachs coefficient alpha was used to determine the reliability at 0.96 index. Method of Data Collection The researcher made use of English language head teachers in the twelve Unity schools as researcher assistants to administer the instrument to the respondent and also collect them. The research assistants were trained by the researcher on how to administer and collect the instrument. This method ensured the collection of the instrument from the respondents. Method of Data Analysis Mean and standard deviation was used in answering research questions. In order to obtain the mean performance rating of competencies possessed, values was assigned to the various levels of competencies as follows: 4 3 Very competent Competent

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2 1

Fairly competent Not competent

Based on this scale, the mean rating for ICT competencies was interpreted as follows; 3-50- above 2.50 3. 49 1.50- 2-49 0.50-1.49 = = = = Very competent Competent Fairly Competent not competent

ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses on age and qualification while T-test was used to test the hypothesis on gender at alpha level of 0.05% significance.

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CHAPTER FOUR PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH FINDINGS This chapter presents the organization and analysis of data gathered from the questionnaire in accordance with the research questions and hypotheses. Research Question 1: What are the ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers in the Unity Schools of south-East Nigeria? Table 1: Mean and Standard Deviation responses on the ICT competencies possessed by English language Teachers. S/N ITEMS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 How competent are you in: booting a computer system The use of computer Keyboard The use of different computer operating systems The use of different instructional software packages Accessing the internet The use of e-mail Using key ICT skills in developing and presenting information Participating in online discussion Carrying out minor hardware repairs Writing/designing general programme/software The use of presentation software and other digital media to supplement a lecture Developing and maintaining educational website Preparing schemes of work and lesson notes using ICT Preparing ICT-based learning materials Solving common ICT problems relating to instructions N Mean Std. Deviation Decision FC FC FC FC FC FC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC

60 2.1667 .97714 60 2.000 .82339 60 1.7333 .77824 60 1.7500 .79458 60 1.8167 .89237 60 1.9833 .98276 60 1.4833 .77002 60 1.5500 .79030 60 1.1833 .46910 60 1.3167 .59636 60 1.3667 .63691 60 1.3833 .64022 60 1.5333 .49119 60 1.4667 .74712 60 1.4667 .79119

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16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Writing of educational programmes Monitoring and evaluating ICT teaching and learning Integrating ICT in other subjects across the curriculum Using ICT for teaching and learning Selecting and evaluating subject-specific educational software The use of ICT as a didactic tool in the classroom Employing digital devices during instruction Implementing cooperative learning strategies using ICT Establishing virtual learning environment Encouraging ICT-based collaborative learning Using educational subject-specific software to give assignment to students Working effectively with ICT in developing learners ICT capability Using ICT to involve parents in their children learning Promoting learner-autonomy by discussing teacher-learner interaction Encouraging online learning more than faceto-face learning

60 1.5667 .76727 60 1.3833 .69115 60 1.3833 .71525 60 1.5167 .83345 60 1.3667 .75838 60 1.6667 1.44582 60 1.4333 .69786 60 1.4500 .74618 60 1.5667 .81025 60 1.3833 .64022 60 1.4500 .67460 60 1.3833 .64022 60 1.4500 .74618 60 1.7333 .84104 60 1.6333 .82270

FC NC NC FC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC FC

The mean scores in table 1 indicate that the teachers are only Fairly ICT competent in items 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 16, 19, 24, 29 and 30. In the remaining questionnaire items, the mean scores revealed that they are not competent. Research Question 2: What is the influence of English language teachers Qualification on their ICT competencies?
Table 2: Mean and Standard Deviation scores of the Influence of Qualification on the ICT Competencies Possessed by English Language Teachers. S/N ITEMS Qualification Number Mean Std. Deviation Decision

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How competent are you in: Booting a computer NCE system B.ED B.A M.ED PhD The use of computer NCE Keyboard B.ED B.A M.ED PhD The use of different NCE computer operating B.ED systems B.A M.ED PhD The use of different NCE instructional software B.ED packages B.A M.ED PhD Accessing the internet NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD

2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5

2.0000 2.1290 1.6316 2.6667 2.2000 2.5000 2.3226 1.6316 3.3333 2.4000 1.5000 1.9032 1.4737 2.0000 1.6000 1.5000 1.9355 1.4737 1.6667 1.8000 1.5000 1.9355

.00000 .71842 .89508 1.15470 .83666 .70711 .97936 .89508 .57735 .54772 .70711 .74632 .69669 1.73205 .54772 .70711 .77182 .77233 1.1547 .83666 .70711 .85383

FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC C FC FC FC NC FC FC FC FC NC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC NC FC FC

1.6842 88523 2.0000 1.73205 1.6000 .89443 1.5000 2.1290 1.7368 2.0000 2.2000 1.5000 1.5484 1.2105 2.0000 1.8000 .70711 .95715 .99119 1.73205 .83666 .70711 .72290 .63060 1.73205 .83666

The use of e-mail

NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD

Using key ICT skills in developing and presenting information

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Participating in online discussion

Carrying out minor hardware repairs

10

Writing/designing general programme/software

11

The use of presentation software and other digital media to supplement a lecture

NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD

2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19

1.5000 1.5806 1.4211 1.6667 1.8000 1.0000 1.1935 1.0526 1.6667 1.4000 1.0000 1.3871 1.0526 2.0000 1.6000 1.0000

.70711 .84751 .69248 1.15470 .83666 .00000 .47745 .22942 1.15470 .54772 .00000 .55842 .22942 1.73205 .54772 .00000

FC FC NC FC FC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC FC NC FC FC NC FC NC FC FC NC NC FC

1.3548 .60819 1.2632 .56195 1.6667 1.15470 1.8000 .83666 1.0000 1.4194 1.2632 1.6667 1.6000 1.0000 1.5806 1.4211 2.0000 1.6000 1.0000 1.5161 1.3158 2.0000 1.6000 1.0000 1.4516 1.5263 .00000 .56416 .65338 1.15470 .89443 .00000 .76482 .69248 1.73205 .89443 .00000 .72438 .67104 1.73205 .54772 .00000 .67521 1.02026

12

13

14

15

Developing and NCE maintaining educational B.ED website B.A M.ED PhD Preparing schemes of NCE work and lesson notes B.ED using ICT B.A M.ED PhD Preparing ICT-based NCE learning materials B.ED B.A M.ED PhD Solving common ICT NCE problems relating to B.ED instructions B.A

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16

17

18

M.ED PhD Writing of educational NCE programmes B.ED B.A M.ED PhD Monitoring and NCE evaluating ICT teaching B.ED and learning B.A M.ED PhD Integrating ICT in other NCE subjects across the B.ED curriculum B.A M.ED PhD Using ICT for teaching and learning NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD Total NCE B.ED B.A M.ED PhD NCE B.ED B.A M.ED

3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 60 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3

2.3333 1.8000 1.5000 1.4839 1.5263 2.3333 1.8000 1.0000 1.4516 1.2105 2.0000 1.4000 1.0000 1.4194

1.15470 .54772 .70719 .67680 .77233 1.52753 .83666 .00000 .67521 .53530 1.73205 .54772 .00000 .67202

FC FC FC NC FC FC FC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC FC FC FC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC FC NC FC NC NC FC VC NC NC NC FC

1.2632 .73349 1.6667 1.15470 1.6000 .89443 1.5000 .70711 1.5806 .80723 1.3684 2.0000 1.4000 1.0000 1.3871 1.1579 2.0000 1.8000 1.3667 1.5000 1.4516 1.4211 1.6667 4.0000 1.0000 .83070 1.73205 .54772 .00000 .61522 .68825 1.73205 1.09545 .75838 .70711 .56796 .96124 1.15470 4.00000 .00000

19

20

Selecting and evaluating subjectspecific educational software

21

The use of ICT as a didactic tool in the classroom.

22

Employing digital devices during instruction

1.3871 .55842 1.4211 .83771 1.6667 1.15470

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23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

PhD Implementing NCE cooperative learning B.ED strategies using ICT B.A M.ED PhD Establishing virtual NCE learning environment B.ED B.A M.ED PhD Encouraging ICTNCE based collaborative B.ED learning B.A M.ED PhD Using educational NCE subject-specific B.ED software to give B.A assignment to students M.ED PhD Working effectively NCE with ICT in developing B.ED learners ICT capability B.A M.ED PhD Using ICT to involve NCE parents in their children B.ED learning B.A M.ED PhD Promoting learnerNCE autonomy by discussing B.ED teacher-learner B.A interaction M.ED PhD Encouraging online NCE learning more than B.ED face-to-face learning B.A M.ED PhD

5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5 2 31 19 3 5

1.8000 1.5000 1.4516 1.2632 2.0000 1.8000 1.0000 1.5161 1.5263 2.0000 2.0000 1.0000 1.4516 1.2632 1.6667 1.4000 1.0000 1.4839 1.4211 2.0000 1.2000 1.0000 1.4194 1.2632 2.0000 1.4000 1.0000 1.3871 1.3684 2.0000 2.0000 1.5000 1.8065 1.4737 2.3333 2.0000 1.0000 1.6774 1.3684 2.0000 2.4000

.83666 .70711 .67521 .73349 1.73205 .44721 .00000 .76902 .77233 1.73205 .70711 .00000 .67521 .56195 1.15470 .54772 .00000 .62562 .60698 1.73205 .44721 .00000 .56416 .56195 1.73205 .54772 .00000 .66720 .59726 1.73205 1.00000 .70711 .90992 .51299 1.52753 1.00000 .00000 .70176 .49559 1.73205 1.51658

FC FC NC NC FC FC NC FC FC FC FC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC NC FC FC FC FC NC FC FC NC FC NC FC FC

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In table 2, the mean score in all the responses from item 1 to 30 indicates that Qualification is not a significant factor on the ICT competencies of English language teachers in South-East Nigeria. However, while those with M.Ed degree showed a higher level of ICT competencies in almost all the entire items except in items 8, 11, 21, 22, and 30, those with PhD performed better. In Item 24 and 28, M.ED and PhD had the same mean score. The results show that the teachers with higher degree of M.ED and PhD tend to be more ICT-Competent than others, although the difference cannot be said to be significant. Research Question 3: What is the influence of gender on the English language teachers ICT competencies? Table 3: Mean and Standard Deviation Scores on the Influence of Gender on the English Language Teachers ICT Competencies. S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ITEMS How competent are you in: Booting a computer system. The use of computer keyboard The use of different computer operating systems The use of different instructional software packages Accessing the internet The use of e-mail Using key ICT skills in developing and presenting information Participating in online Gender Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male N 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 Mean 2.2353 2.1395 1.9412 2.0233 2.1765 1.5581 2.0588 1.6279 1.9412 1.7674 2.0000 1.9767 1.5882 1.4419 Std. Decision Deviation 1.03256 .96563 .82694 .83062 .80896 .70042 .89935 .72451 .96635 .86842 1.00000 .98774 .87026 .73363 FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC NC FC

1.6471 .86177

xc

9 10 11

discussion Carrying out minor hardware repairs Writing/designing general programme/software The use of presentation software and other digital media to supplement a lecture Developing and maintaining educational website Preparing schemes of work and lesson notes using ICT Preparing ICT-based learning materials Solving common ICT problems relating to instructions Writing of educational programme Monitoring and evaluating ICT teaching and learning Integrating ICT in other subjects across the curriculum Using ICT for teaching and learning Selecting and evaluating subject-specific educational software The use of ICT as a didactic tool in the classroom Employing digital devices during instruction Implementing cooperative learning strategies using ICT Establishing virtual learning environment Encouraging ICT-based collaborative learning Using educational subject-

Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male

43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17

1.5116 1.2353 1.1628 1.4706 1.2558 1.5294

.76756 .56230 .43261 .87447 .44148 .79982

FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC FC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC NC FC

1.3023 .55784 1.4706 1.3488 1.7467 1.4419 1.7059 1.3721 1.7059 1.3721 .62426 .65041 .97014 .70042 .84887 .69087 .77174 .78750

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

1.9412 .96635 1.4186 .62612 1.8824 .92752 1.1860 1.5294 1.3256 1.7647 1.4186 1.7059 1.2326 1.6471 1.6744 1.5882 1.3721 1.7647 1.3256 1.9412 1.4186 1.5882 1.3023 1.7059 .45018 .41743 .71451 .97014 .76322 .91956 .64871 .70189 1.65789 .71229 .69087 .97014 .60635 1.02899 .66306 .87026 .51339 .84887

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27

specific software to give assignment to students Working effectively with ICT in developing learners ICT capability Using ICT to involve parents in their children learning Promoting learner-autonomy by discussing teacher-learner interaction Encouraging online learning more than face-to-face learning

Female Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female

43 17 43 17 43 17 43 17 43

1.3488 .57253 1.5882 .87026 1.3023 .51839 1.5882 1.3953 2.2941 1.5116 1.00367 .62257 1.04670 .63140

NC FC NC FC NC FC FC FC FC

28 29 30

1.8235 .95101 1.5581 .76539

The result in table 3indicates that gender is not a significant factor in the ICT competencies of English Language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria. Despite the fairly ICT competencies of both genders, the data above also indicates that male teachers seem to perform better than their female counterparts in almost all the items except in item 2 where female teachers showed a higher level of competence in the use of computer keyboard than their male counterparts.

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Research Question 4: To what extent does age affect English Language teachers ICT competencies? Table 4: Mean and Standard Deviation Scores on how Age Affects the ICT Competencies of English Language Teachers S/N 1 2 3 4 ITEMS
How competent are you in:

Age 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44

Number 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31

Mean 2.1450 1.8710 2.1329 2.3750 2.0645 2.2381 1.7500 1.5484 2.0000 1.7500 1.6129 1.9524 1.7500 1.5806 2.1905 2.1250 1.7742 2.2381 1.1250 1.4194 1.7143 1.5000 1.5161 1.6190 1.0000 1.1290

Std. Decision Deviation .96362 .71842 .83452 .74402 .92864 1.13599 .70711 .67521 .89443 .70711 .76059 .86465 .88641 .76482 .98077 .83452 .92050 1.09109 .35355 .62044 1.00712 .53452 .85131 .80475 .00000 .42755 FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC NC NC FC FC FC FC NC NC

Booting a computer system The use of computer Keyboard The use of different computer operating systems The use of different instructional software packages Accessing the internet The use of e-mail Using key ICT skills in developing and presenting information Participating in online discussion Carrying out minor hardware repairs

5 6 7 8 9

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10 11

45above Writing/designing general 25-34 programme/software 35-44 45above The use of presentation 25-34 software and other digital 35-44 media to supplement a lecture 45above Developing and maintaining educational website Preparing schemes of work and lesson notes using ICT Preparing ICT-based learning materials Solving common ICT problems relating to instructions Writing of educational programme Monitoring and evaluating ICT teaching and learning Integrating ICT in other subjects across the curriculum Using ICT for teaching and learning Selecting and evaluating subject-specific educational software The use of ICT as a didactic tool in the classroom Employing digital 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above Total 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34

21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 60 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8

1.3333 1.1250 1.2581 1.4762 1.0000 1.3871 1.4762 1.2500 1.3548 1.4762 1.5000 1.4516 1.6667 1.5333 1.2500 1.3871 1.6667 1.1250 1.4516 1.6190 1.3750 1.4839 1.7619 1.2500 1.2581 1.6190 1.5000 1.3548 1.3810 1.1250 1.4839 1.7143 1.1253 1.3226 1.5238 2.7500 1.3871 1.6667 1.5000

.57735 .35355 .51431 .45960 .00000 .66720 .67964 .46291 .60819 .74960 .75593 .72290 .91287 .79119 .49291 .66720 .91287 .35355 .76762 .92066 .51755 .72438 .88909 .46291 .57548 .86465 .53452 .75491 .74001 .35355 .85131 .90238 .35355 .74776 .87287 3.37004 .71542 .91287 .53452

NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC NC FC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC FC NC NC NC NC FC NC NC FC C NC FC FC

12 13

14 15 16 17

18 19 20 21 22

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devices during instruction 23 24 25 26 Implementing cooperative learning strategies using ICT Establishing virtual learning environment Encouraging ICT-based collaborative learning Using educational subject-specific software to give assignment to students Working effectively with ICT in developing learners ICT capability Using ICT to involve parents in their children learning Promoting learnerautonomy by discussing teacher-learner interaction Encouraging online learning more than faceto-face learning

35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above 25-34 35-44 45above

31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21 8 31 21

1.3226 1.5714 1.2500 1.3871 1.6190 1.2500 1.5161 1.7619 1.1250 1.3548 1.5238 1.3750 1.3226 1.6667 1.1250 1.3226 1.5714 1.1250 1.4516 1.5714 1.6250 1.7419 1.769 1.5000 1.5806 1.7619

.59928 .87014 .56291 .71542 .86465 .46291 .76902 .94365 .35355 .55066 .81358 .51655 .54081 .85635 .35355 .47519 .87014 .35355 .67521 .92182 .51755 .81518 .99523 .53452 .76482 .99523

NC FC NC NC FC NC FC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC NC NC FC FC FC FC FC FC FC

27

28

29

30

The results from Items 1 to 30, as shown in table 4 above, indicate that age is not a significant factor in the ICT competencies of English language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria as the various mean score of all the age brackets was just fairly competent in ICT. However, despite the fair or no-ICT competencies, it was discovered that the age bracket of 45 and above

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performed better than other groups except for Items 1, 2, 18 and 21, where the bracket of 25-34 performed better. Hypotheses 1: ICT competencies possessed by English Language teachers in Unity Schools do not depend significantly on teachers qualification. Table 5: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Scores on Teachers Qualification as it affects their ICT Competencies Items Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of Squares 1.642 17.625 19.267 DF 4 55 59 F 1.281 Sig .298

Table 5 above revealed non significant main effect of qualification f (59) = 1.281, p<.298. The null hypothesis stating that ICT competencies possessed by English Language in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria do not depend significantly on teachers qualification is not rejected, indicating that there was no significant difference in the mean scores of teachers on their qualification and ICT competencies possessed.

Hypotheses 2: Gender is not a significant factor in the mean rating of ICT competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria. Table 6: T test scores on ICT competency possessed by English language teachers. T-test for Equality of Means T Df Sig 1.812 58 .075

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Table 6 above revealed non significant main effect of gender t (58) =1.812, p<.075. The null hypothesis was not rejected, indicating that there was no significant difference in the mean scores of male and female teachers. Therefore, gender is not a significant factor in the mean rating of ICT competencies possessed by English Language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria. Hypotheses 3: Age is not a significant factor in mean rating of ICT Competencies possessed by English language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria. Table 6: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) score on age as a factor in the ICT competencies of English Language Teachers Between Groups Within Groups Total Sum of Squares .800 18.467 19.267 DF 2 57 59 F 1.235 Sig .298

Table 6 revealed non significant main effect of age F (59) = 1.235, p<.075 on the ICT Competencies of English Language teachers in Unity Schools of south- east Nigeria. The hypothesis stating that Age is not a significant factor in the mean rating of ICT competencies possessed by English Language teachers in Unity schools of south-east Nigeria is not rejected

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CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION This chapter deals with the discussion of findings, educational implications of the study, recommendations and conclusions. As can be seen in the mean score analysis in Table 1, English language teachers in Unity Schools in the south-east zone of Nigeria have very low or fair competencies in all the required areas of ICT as stipulated by UNESCO (2008). This finding is not different from that of a similar study by Apanpa and Lawal (2009) which also reported that English language teachers in Lagos State are not ICT competent. This has great implication for the success of ICT policy implementation in Unity Schools. This is because teachers are at the centre of all curriculum implementation process and hold the key to its success and failure. So, being a core subject in the secondary school curriculum, the English Language teacher is supposed to be at the forefront of ICT integration and implementation of the ICT policy in the Unity Schools. Unfortunately, this can not happen because the teachers are not ICT competent. This finding contradicts to the tenets of Competency Based Teacher Education (CBTE) since the teachers are not competent in the use of ICT in teaching. Qualification, as can be seen in Tables 2 and 5, is not a factor in the ICT competencies of English Language teachers. This may be because ICT is not

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taught specifically to any particular group or level but integrated in the teaching and learning process. All the teachers are qualified to teach in the Unity school but their qualification failed to reflect on their use of Information Communication and Technology in the teaching process. Tables 3 and 6 reveal that both gender (male and female) have very low or no ICT competencies. However, male teachers performed better than their female counterparts. This result agrees with earlier findings of Liaw (2002), Chen &Tsai (2005), Ong & Lai (2007), and Eke (2009) who found gender variations in which males rating of perception towards ICT use in the

classroom, self-efficacy, perceived usefulness and behavioural intentions to use ICT in classroom instruction were all higher than that of their female counterparts. This finding is not surprising considering the socio-cultural barrier Nigerian females encounter as they venture into science related disciplines. Njoku (2006), cited in Eke (2009), has observed that there is gender role stereotype which assigns specific roles to the different genders. This stereotype shades the female away from such sciences as mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer sciences and statistics among others. In addition those who venture into such subjects experience obstacles in terms of discouraging attitude of members of the society which in turn may result to personal conflict and self doubt (Eke 2009). The societal imposed masculine image of science and in extension Information and Communication Technology could have resulted in

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lower level of female ICT competencies. This may owe to their viewing themselves as not competent as their male counterparts. However, the T-test analysis cumulatively on the items showed that there is no significant difference between male and female teachers. This is not surprising because Kirkpatrick & Cuban (1998) noted that the gender gap is narrowed when both gender are exposed to the same amount and type of experiences in the use of various ICT tools. Atan (2002) further attested to this. He added that the absence of gender disparity is obvious when females and males are in learning or working environment that requires the constant use of specific computer software to support their studies or work. Age proved not to be a significant factor in the ICT competencies of English Language teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria. This result contradicts the earlier studies by Kotrlik and Smith (1989) and Huang & Padron (1997) who reported that younger teachers felt more comfortable working with computers, had higher levels of computer literacy and had less computer anxiety than older teachers. In terms of usefulness, Princeton Research Associates, (1993) found that almost two-thirds (59%) of teachers under 35 years of age believed computers in the classroom were essential while only 29% of teachers over age 45 shared this belief. On the other hand, Liao (1995) found that older teachers have more experience working with computer technology since they have more experience with teaching and learning. Yang, Mohamed and

Beyerbach(1999) further stated that there is no relationship between computer an vocational-technical educators and age. However, the result of the present finding may be attributed to the lopsided ICT training given to the teachers in Unity Schools where only senior teachers were trained for just two weeks. This might have resulted to this present case where older teachers performed better than the younger ones in almost all the items. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS The finding of low-ICT competencies among English teachers in Unity Schools of south-east Nigeria impedes the rich gain of ICT in our language classroom. The numerous benefits of ICT can only be realized when teachers who remain the key to learning have the necessary and required ICT competency. Where they fail to possess these competencies there is no way the benefits of ICT can be realised. The implementation of ICT policy in Unity Schools in the south-east lies in the hands of these teachers who are the agents of its integration in the educational system. Whereas these teachers are not ICT competent, it means that the aspiration and expectation of the Federal Government that has spent so much equipping these school will not be achieved thereby still placing our school back to the dark ages where the teacher is the originator and vehicle of knowledge.

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CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Nigeria as a nation will find it difficult entering into the new era of technological advancement if concerted effort is not made to promote ICT integration in the teaching and learning process. The lack of ICT competency among English Language teachers impedes the envisaged development or progress in the countrys march to technological advancement. This is because of the crucial role of the teacher in any school reform agenda. The way out of this, is the production of teachers who are ICT competent. Teachers who do not possess these competencies cannot develop same in the learners. To ensure the success of the ICT policy and proper utilization of the facilities that have been provided, the following recommendations are made: ICT should be a compulsory course in all teacher-training Institutions. In-service training should be organised for serving teachers till all becomes ICT competent. ICT qualification should be introduced in line with other educational qualification as criteria for teachers recruitment. ICT competency should also be made one of the compulsory requirements for teachers promotion. The Federal Government should make the development of teachers ICT competencies a priority and set targets when all long serving and newly

cii

qualified teachers are expected to become ICT-literate to mandatory standards. To ensure the integration of ICT in the language classroom or in the educational curriculum, every teacher training-institution should include, as a most, elements for developing ICT competencies of teachers and learners. Limitation of the Study The exhaustive nature of this study which holistically covered Information and Communication Technology competencies of English Language teachers in unity Schools of south-east Nigeria does not go without some limitations. Some of these limitations include: 1. The lopsided in-service training given only to the senior teachers in the Unity schools was a strong factor might have affected the influence of age not being a significant factor in the ICT-competencies of the English language teachers. Had all the teachers been trained, there would have been no doubt on the influence of age on the teachers ICT competencies. 2. Eighty-two (82) questionnaires were distributed and only sixty (60) copies were returned because some teachers could not return theirs because of promotion exercise going on at the period of my field work.

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3. Some teachers were not cooperative because they alleged that the Inservice training was inadequate and their training allowance was not paid this might have caused some bias in their responses. These and more are some of the limitations that this work encountered. Suggestion for further Studies 1. A similar study should be carried out covering other subject areas and other zones of Nigeria 2. Observation and checklist should be used as instrument for data collection to find out the ICT competencies of teachers. 3. An investigation should be carried out to determine the quality and authenticity of the in-service training given to teachers on ICT.

Summary of the study This research set out to investigate the Information and Communication Technology competencies possessed by English Language teachers in Unity schools of south-east zone of Nigeria. The findings revealed that the English language teachers have very low or no ICT competencies which will serious affect the implementation of the ICT policy in Unity Schools and the much expected benefit of ICT will be a mere mirage. It was also discovered that there was no significant difference between the ICT competencies possessed by both

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gender. Qualification and Age also proved not to be a significant factor in the ICT competencies possessed by the English Language teachers.

Recommendations were proffered to ensure the success of the ICT policy and also for proper utilization of the already provided ICT facilities. Suggestions for further studies were also made.

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APPENDIX 1 ICT-COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERSQUESTIONNAIRE(ICT-CELTQ) SECTION A Please tick () as applicable to you 1. Sex: Male Female

2.

Age: 25-34

35-44

45 and above

3.

Educational Qualification (Tick your highest qualification) NCE PhD B.ED B.A M.ED

SECTION B Please indicate your level of ICT competencies by ticking in the appropriate column. C=competent, V.C= very competent, F.C= fairly competent, N.C= not competent S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Personal ICT Competencies: How competent are you in: Booting a computer system The use of computer Keyboard The use of different computer operating systems The use of different instructional software packages Accessing the internet The use of e-mail Using key ICT skills in developing and presenting VC C FC NC

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8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

information Participating in online discussion Carrying out minor hardware repairs Writing/designing general programme/software The use of presentation software and other digital media to supplement a lecture Developing and maintaining educational website Preparing schemes of work and lesson notes using ICT Preparing ICT-based learning materials Solving common ICT problems relating to instructions Writing of educational programme Monitoring and evaluating ICT teaching and learning Integrating ICT in other subjects across the curriculum Using ICT for teaching and learning Selecting and evaluating subject-specific educational software The use of ICT as a didactic tool in the classroom Employing digital devices during instruction Implementing cooperative learning strategies using ICT Establishing virtual learning environment Encouraging ICT based collaborative learning Using educational subject-specific software to give assignment to students Working effectively with ICT in developing learners ICT capability Using ICT to involve parents in their children learning Promoting learner-autonomy by discussing teacherlearner interaction Encouraging online line learning more than face-toface learning

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APPENDIX 2 VALIDATORS COMMENTS

APPENDIX 4 RELIABILITY TEST

APPENDIX 5 ANALYSIS OF THE WORK

APPENDIX 3
UNESCO ICT Teacher Competency Standards Modules

cxv I. Technology Literacy Approach Policy Vision and The policy goal of this approach is to prepare a work force that is capable of taking up new technologies so as to improve economic productivity. Related educational policies goals include increasing school enrollment and improving basic literacy skills including technology literacy Objectives II. A. Policy Teachers should be able to identify key characteristics of classroom practices as specify how these characteristics serve to implement policies Example Methods Engage participants in a discussion of both national policies and common classroom practices. Identify the characteristics of practices that support policy. Have participants identify and analyze their own classroom practices in terms of policy. Select a range of subject-specific software packages in the subject area, have participants identify specific curriculum standards that are associated with these packages and discuss how these are supported by the applications.

II.B. Curriculum Teachers should be able to; and 1. Match specific curriculum Assessment standard to particular software packages and computer applications and describe how these standards are supported by these applications

2. Help students acquire ICT Have participants prepare a subject lesson skills within the context of their plan that includes teaching on the use of ICT, courses such as word processors, web browsers, email, blogs, wikis, and other emerging technologies. Have participants demonstrate and teach the ICT skills to others. 3. Use ICT to assess students acquisition of school subject matter knowledge and to provide students with feedback on their progress using both formative and summative assessments Have participants incorporate ICT and certain kinds of software for formative and summative assessment into their lesson plans, then share these plans to receive recommendations from other educators in a professional learning community.

II.C. Pedagogy

Teachers should be able to: 1. Describe how didactic teaching and ICT can be used to support students acquisition of school subject matter knowledge.

Describe how the use of ICT and specific types of software can support students acquisition of school subject matter knowledge and demonstrate ways in which the use of this technology can supplement didactic (i.e. lecture and demonstration) classroom teaching.

cxvi 2. Incorporate appropriate ICT activities into lesson plans so as to support students acquisition of school subject mater knowledge. Have participants design lesson plans that incorporate tutorial and drill and practices software, e-resources and e-content. Have participants share these plans and receive recommendations from peers.

3. Use presentation software Demonstrate the use of presentation software and digital resources to and other digital media to supplement a support instruction lecture, provide a variety of examples of instructional presentations, have participants create a lesson plan that includes the use of presentation software, have participants use presentation software to design a presentation. I.D. ICT Teachers should be able to: Discuss and demonstrate the basic operation of various hardware technologies, such as 1. Describe and demonstrate the desktop workstations, laptops, printers, use of common hardware scanners, and hand-held devices. technologies. 2. Describe and demonstrate the basic tasks and uses of word processors, such as text entry, editing text, formatting text, and printing. Discuss and demonstrate the basic tasks of word processors, demonstrate how they are used in instruction. Have participants create a text document in which they use these in generating a text document.

3. Describe and demonstrate the Discuss the purpose of presentation software purpose and basic features of and demonstrate its general features and presentation software and function. Have participants create a other digital resources. presentation on a topic of their choice using digital resources. 4. Describe the purpose and basic function of graphic software and use a graphic software package to create a simple graphic display. 5. Describe the internet and the World Wide Web, elaborate on their uses, and describe how a browser works and use a URL to access a website Discuss the purpose of graphics software and demonstrate the creation of a graphic display. Have participants create and share a graphic display. Discuss the purpose and structure of the internet and the World Wide Web and participants experiences with these. Demonstrate the use of a browser, have participants use a browser to access popular websites

6. Use a search engine to do a Demonstrate the use of a search engine, keyword Boolean search discuss and demonstrate simple keyword and Boolean searches have participants search for websites on their favourite topics and discuss the keyword strategies they used with

cxvii the group for discussion. 7. Create an email account and Demonstrate the creation and use of an email use it for a sustained series of account, have participants create an email email correspondence. account and create and send a series of email messages. 8. Describe the function and purpose of tutorial and drill and practice software and how they support students acquisition of knowledge of school subjects. Demonstrate a variety of tutorial and drill and practice packages in the subject domains of the participants and describe how they support the acquisition of subject matter knowledge. Have participants analyze specific packages in their subject area and describe how they support the acquisition of specific subject matter knowledge. Have participants search websites and catalogs to identify appropriate software for specified learning objectives or standards and analyze these packages for accuracy and curriculum alignment. Have participants discuss the criteria they used for analyzing and evaluating the software.

9. Locate off the shelf educational software packages and web resources and evaluate them for their accuracy and alignment with curriculum standards and match them to the needs of specific students.

10. Use networked record Discuss the purpose and advantages of a keeping software to take networked recording keeping system, attendance, submit grades, demonstrate the use of such a system, and and maintain student records have participants enter record keeping data for their class. 11. Use common communication and collaboration technologies, such as text messaging, video conferencing, and web-based collaboration and social environments. Teachers should be able to: Discuss the purposes and advantages of various communication and collaboration technologies, and have participants use these technologies to communicate and collaborate with others in the group.

I.E. Organization And Administration

Discuss and give examples of different ways that computer laboratories (or a set of 1. Integrate the use of a classroom laptops) can be used to computer laboratory into supplement classroom teaching, have ongoing teaching activities. participants create lesson plans that include the use of computer laboratory activities. 2. Manage the use of supplemental ICT resources with individuals and small groups of students in the regular classroom so as not to disrupt the instructional activities in the class. Discuss and give examples of different ways that limited classroom ICT resources can be use by individual students, pairs, or small groups to supplement teaching, have participants create lesson plans that include the use of ICT to supplement classroom

cxviii teaching. 3. Identify the appropriate and Identify different hardware and software inappropriate social technologies and discuss corresponding arrangements to use with social arrangements for their instructional various technologies. use, such individuals, pairs, small groups, and large groups. I.E. Teacher Teachers should be able to: professional 1. Use ICT resources development enhance their productivity. Discuss different tasks that occupy participants time during the work day, to discuss how ICT resources can be used to help with these tasks and enhance productivity, have participants use desktop computers, laptops, hand-held devices, and software, such as a word processor, blogs, wikis, or other productivity and communication tools to help with one of the identified tasks. Discuss different ICT resources that participants can use to increase their subject matter and pedagogical knowledge, have participants identify a personal professional development goal and create a plan for the use of various ICT tools to accomplish this goal, such as web browsers and communication technologies.

2. Use ICT resources to support their own acquisition of subject matter and pedagogical knowledge.

II. Knowledge Deepening Approach Policy Vision and The policy goal of this approach is to increase the ability of the workforce to add value to economic output by applying the knowledge of school subjects to solve complex problems encountered in real world situations of work and life Objectives II.A. Policy Teachers should be able to identify key concepts and processes in content areas, describe the function and purpose of simulations, visualizations, data collection tools, and data analysis software and how they support students understanding of these key concepts and processes and their application to the world outside the classroom. Example Methods Demonstrate a variety of software packages (and/or applets, interactive applications, learning objects) and describe how they support student understanding of key concepts and their application to solve complex problems. Have participants analyze specific packages in their subject area and describe how they support concepts and complex problem solving.

cxix II.B. Curriculum Teachers should be able to: and 1. Identify key concepts and Assessment processes in the subject area, describe the function and purpose of subject specific tools and how they support students understanding of these key concepts and processes and their application to the world outside the classroom. Demonstrate a variety of software packages in the subject area (such a visualizations in science, data analysis packages in mathematics, role play simulations in social studies, and references resources in language) or engaging with an expert online, visiting an online museum, or running a web based simulation and describe how they support student understanding of key concepts in the subject and their application to solve complex problems. Have participants analyze specific packages in their subject area and describe how they support concepts and complex problem solving in a learner centered environment. Discuss characteristics of student responses and products of different levels of quality and develop rubrics that convey these characteristics, examine examples of such assessment rubrics, have participants generate and apply rubrics to sample products, such as student reports of results of a chemistry experiment. Describe how the use of ICT and specific types of software can support students understanding and application of subject matter knowledge and ways in which the use of this technology can support project-based learning. Generate and discuss different cases, in this regard, such as student teams becoming marine biologists or oceanographers using the web and applying concepts to identify ways of protecting ecological systems or student teams in social studies using presentation software and applying concepts of government to advocate a position with the local council. Include collaboration via online dialogues or real time communication with experts. Discuss characteristics of authentic world problems that incorporate key concepts, examine examples of such problems, and have participants generate examples, such as the need to improve crop productivity or market a product.

2. Develop and apply knowledge and performance based rubrics that allow teachers to assess students understanding of key subject matter concepts, skills, and processes.

II.C Pedagogy

Teachers should be able to: 1. Describe how collaborative, project based learning and ICT can support student thinking and social interaction, as students come to understand key concepts, processes, and skills in the subject matter and use them to solve real world problems.

2. Identify or design complex, real world problems and structure them in a way that incorporates key subject matter concepts and serves as the basis of student projects.

cxx 3. Design online materials that support students deep understanding of key concepts and their application to real world problems Analyze online materials to identify key features of the materials that support deep understanding. Have participants work in groups to design an online unit that supports the understanding of key concepts and the development of related skills in the subject area. Discuss characteristics of activities that engage student in project-based learning; examine examples of such activities have participants generate units and activities in their subject area, such as the use of physics concepts to strengthen homes against earthquakes or the use of fractions to create an equitable distribution resources. Conduct a small group facilitation of a unit with other participants.

4. Design unit plans and classroom activities so that students engage in reasoning with, talking about, and using key subject matter concepts while they collaborate to understand, represent, and solve complex real-world problems, as well as reflect on and communicate solutions.

5. Structure unit plans and classroom activities so that open-ended tools and subject specific applications will support students in their reasoning with, talking about, and use of key subject matter concepts and processes while they collaborate to solve complex problems.

Discuss characteristics of activities that employ open-ended digital tools and applications to engage students in projectbased learning, examine examples of such activities, tools and applications, have participants generate and demonstrate units in their subject area, such as the use of a computer simulation and social studies concepts to understand the factors and dynamics involved in the expansion of a colony or the use of a graphics package to illustrate ideas expressed in a poem. Discuss the role of teachers and the strategies they use during the implementation of collaborative, project-based units. Have participants demonstrate the use of strategies and digital resources to support the implementation of their units.

II.D. ICT

6. Implement collaborative, project-based unit plans and classroom activities, while providing guidance to students in support of the successful completion of their projects and their deep understanding and key concepts. Teachers should be able to: 1. Operate various open-ended software packages appropriate to their subject matter area, such as visualization, data analysis, role-play simulations, and online references.

Demonstrate the use of a variety of software packages in the subject domain, have participants explore and demonstrate packages.

cxxi 2. Evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of web resources in support of project-based learning with the subject area. Have participants search websites and catalogs to identify appropriate software for project-based learning in their subject field. Have participants develop evaluation criteria and rubrics and justify their selections based on effectiveness for the intended purpose.

3.

Use an authoring Demonstrate the use of an authoring environment or tools to environment or tools. Have participants work design online materials. in groups to design an online unit. Use a network and appropriate software to manage, monitor, and assess progress of various student projects. Use ICT to communicate and collaborate with students, peers, parents, and the larger community in order to nurture student learning Demonstrate the use of networked project software that allows the teacher to manage, monitor, and assess student project work, have participants enter project data for their students work. 766221Discuss the use of online communication and collaboration environments by teachers to support student learning, have participants keep a log, share printouts, and demonstrate examples of their online interactions, in this regard.

4.

5.

6.

Use search engines, online Discuss the use of search engines, online database, and email to find database, and email to find people and people and resources for resources for collaborative projects; have collaborative projects. participants conduct searches related to a project for their course; engage in an online collaborative project; have participants reflect on their experiences, share with others, and discuss these. Examine and discuss different classroom arrangements of computers and other digital resources in terms of the ways these configurations support or inhibit student participation and interaction; have participants design arrangements of classroom resources and discuss the rationale for their designs.

II.E. Organization and Administration

Teachers should be able to: 1. Place and organize computers and other digital resources within the classroom so as to support and reinforce learning activities and social interaction.

2. Manage student project-based Discuss ways to manage student technologylearning activities in a based classroom activities during project technology-enhanced work; have participants discuss their unit environment. plans in terms of classroom management with a focus on the advantages and disadvantages of various configurations.

cxxii II.F. Teacher Teachers should be able to: Professional 1. Use ICT to access and share Development resources to support their activities and their own professional development. Discuss the various sources of online information and other resources that can be used to support professional development; have participants conduct online searches for materials that support their professional development goals; have them share and discuss the results of these searches and plans for implementation. Discuss the various sources of online experts and communities that can support professional development; have participants conduct online searches for experts and communities that support their professional development goals; have them communicate with experts and participate in communities and then share and discuss the results of these activities. Discuss the importance of developing knowledge management skills related to the analyzing of online resources, integrating them into practice, and evaluating their quality, have participants describe, discuss and demonstrate examples of their practices in this regard.

2. Use ICT to access outside experts and learning communities to support their activities and their own professional development.

3. Use ICT to search for, manage, analyze, integrate, and evaluate information that can be used to support their professional development.

III. Knowledge Creation Approach Policy Vision and The policy goal of this approach is to increase productivity by creating a workforce that is continually engaged in and benefits from knowledge creation and innovation. Objectives I.A. Policy Teachers should be able to design, implement, and modify school-level education reform programs that implement key elements of national education reform policies. Example Methods Discuss the intentions of national education reform policies and ways that they could be implemented in school level programs. Have participants work in teams to design a schoollevel program that would implement a component of national reform policy. Have participants implement an initial phase of this program, evaluate progress, and share challenges and strategies for overcoming challenges.

III.B. Teachers should be able to: Discuss the characteristics of complex Curriculum and cognitive thought processes and how 1. Identify and discuss how students acquire and demonstrate these.

cxxiii Assessment students learn and demonstrate complex cognitive skills, such as information management, problem solving, collaboration and critical thinking. Have participants identify the use of these skills in their own work. Have participants explicitly incorporate the acquisition and demonstration of one or more of these skills in a lesson plan. Have participants reflect on the lesson plan implementation and offer suggestions for improvement.

2. Help students use ICT to acquire the skills of searching for, managing, analyzing, integrating, and evaluating information.

Discuss characteristics of effective information search and management skills and how technology-based learning activities can support the development and demonstration of these skills, have participants generate examples of such activities. Discuss characteristics of reasoning, planning and knowledge building skills and how technology-based learning activities can support these skills, have participants generate and share examples of such activities. Have participants critique units and offer suggestions for additional resources.

3. Design units and classroom activities that integrate a range of ICT tools and devices to help students acquire the skills of reasoning, planning, reflective, learning, knowledge building, and communication.

4. Help student use ICT to Discuss characteristics of communication and develop communications and collaboration skills and how technologycollaboration skills. based learning activities can support these skills, have participants generate examples of such activities. Have participants model effective communication and collaboration through participation in virtual professional learning communities. 5. Help students develop both knowledge and performancebased rubrics and apply them to assess their own understanding of key subject matter and ICT skills and concepts and the understanding of other students, as well as use these assessments to refine their products and learning. Discuss characteristics of self and peerassessment and of the knowledge and performance-based rubrics used to reflectively assess ones own learning and that of others; have participants generate and evaluate examples of such activities and rubrics. Have participants develop knowledge and performance-based rubrics that increase expectations for extending and expanding learning of key subject matter and ICT skills and concepts through the integration of emerging technologies.

cxxiv III.C. Pedagogy Teachers should be able to: 1. Have participants build on the discussion of their own cognitive skills to externalize and Explicitly model their own overtly demonstrate the use of these skills to reasoning, problem solving, solve problems in their subject area. Have and knowledge creation participants share their strategies and while teaching students. processes for solving problems and creating new knowledge with peers while considering other models. Design online materials and activities that engage students in collaborative problem solving, research or artistic creation. Discuss characteristics of online materials that support students in the design and planning of their own learning activities; have participants work in teams to generate and evaluate online materials; have participants model online collaborative problem solving, research or artistic creation in a professional learning community. Discuss characteristics of teacher activities that support students in the design and planning of their own learning activities; have participants generate and demonstrate examples of such activities. Discuss characteristics of teacher activities that support students in the use of various production technologies in their own learning activities; have participants generate examples of such activities; have participants demonstrate examples of multimedia production, web production, and publishing technologies to support student publishing in online professional learning communities.

2.

3.

Help students design project plans and activities that engage them in collaborative problem solving, research or artistic creation. Help students incorporate multimedia production, web production, and publishing technologies into their projects in ways that support their ongoing knowledge production and communication with other audiences.

4.

5.

Help students reflect on their Discuss characteristics of teacher activities own learning that support students reflective learning, have participants generate examples, share their reflection, and critique others work in a professional learning community. Demonstrate a variety of software packages and digital production resources and describe how they support and advance students innovation and knowledge creation practices. Have participants analyze specific examples of use of these resources in their subject area and describe how they support student innovation and knowledge creation. Have participants use and evaluate these tools in a

III.D. ICT

Teachers should be able to: 1. Describe the function and purpose of ICT production tools and resources (multimedia recording and production equipment, editing tools, publication software, and web design tools) and use them to support students

cxxv innovation creation. and knowledge unit that they design.

2. Describe the function and purpose of virtual environments and knowledge building environments (KBEs) and use them to support increased knowledge and understanding of subject matter and the development of online and face-to-face learning communities.

Demonstrate a variety of virtual and knowledge building environments and describe how they support student learning communities. Have participants analyze specific examples of use of these resources in their subject area and describe how they support student learning communities. Have participants use and demonstrate the effectiveness of these tools in a unit that they design. Demonstrate a variety of planning and thinking tools and describe how they support students creation and planning of their own learning activities. Have participants analyze specific examples of use of these resources in their subject area and describe how they support the development of students selfregulated learning. Have participants use and evaluate these tools in a unit that they design. Discuss various types of visions of schools that integrate ICT into the curriculum and classroom for educational improvement; have participants design and share action plans in which they will take the lead in working with colleagues and administrators to create such a vision for their school. Have participants implement an initial phase of this program, evaluate progress and share challenges and strategies for overcoming challenges. Discuss the types of social support that is needed by teaching professionals to engage in and sustain innovation in schools; have participants design and share action plans in which they work with administrators and colleagues to create a supportive environment for innovation. Have participants provide strategies for implementing innovative tools and resources in their schools. Discuss professional practices that support ongoing innovation and improvement, have

3. Describe the function and purpose of planning and thinking tools and use them to support students creation and planning of their own learning activities and their continuous reflective thinking and learning.

III.E. Organization and Administration

Teachers should be able to: 1. Play a leadership role in creating a vision of what their school might be like with ICT integrated into the curriculum and classroom practices.

2. Play a leadership role in supporting innovation in their school and continuous learning among their colleagues.

III.F. Teacher Teachers should be able to: Professional 1. Continually evaluate

and

cxxvi Development reflect on professional participants practice to engage in ongoing demonstrate innovation and improvement. experience. 2. Use ICT resources to participate in professional communities and share and discuss best teaching practices. given examples of these from their and own

Discuss how ICT resources can be used to support ongoing innovation and improvement through professional learning communities; have participants give examples of these ICT based practices from their own experience.

APPENDIX 4 LIST OF UNITY SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH EAST ZONE OF NIGERIA AND NUMBER OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHERS 1. Anambra State: Federal Government College, Nise (7) Federal Government Girls College, Onitsha (11) Federal Science and Technical College, Awka.(4) 2. Abia State

cxxvii

Federal Government College, Ohafia. (4) Federal Government Girls College, Umuahia (9) Federal Science and Technical College, Ohanso. (5) 3. Ebonyi State Federal Government College, Okposi. (5) Federal Government Girls College, Ezzemgbo (4) 4. Enugu State Federal Government College, Enugu.(8) Federal Government Girls College, Lejja (5) 5. Imo State Federal Government College Okigwe (9) Federal Government Girls College Owerri (11)