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SATHYABAMA UNIVERSITY

(Established under section 3 of UGC Act, 1956)


Semester: III
SMEX1015 - GAS DYNAMICS & JET PROPULSION
Part A
Unit I
1.

Define Stagnation Enthalpy.

2.

Define stagnation temperature.

3.

Define Mach number and Crocco number.

4.

What is the sonic velocity in air at 60C?

5.

Show various regions of flow graphically.

6.

Define stagnation state of a fluid.

7.

Define the various regimes of flow in detail.

8.

What is the basic difference compressible and incompressible flow?

9.

Define Mach angle and Mach cone.

10.

Define the terms (a) Supersonic flow , (b) Crocco number

Unit II
1.

State the advantage of using M* instead of M is some cases.

2.

Give the energy equation governing flow through an adiabatic diffuser. Show the
h-s diagram.

3.

When will divergent passage act as nozzle?

4.

What do you mean by chocked flow?

5.

How the Mach number varies with respect to area?

6.

Determine the Mach number of an aircraft at which the velocity temperature of air
at the entry of the engine equals the static temperature.

7.

A subsonic nozzle can act as a supersonic diffuser Substantiate this statement.

8.

Describe the function of nozzle and diffuser.

9.

Write down the equation for the area ratio in terms of the Mach number and
represent the same graphically.

10.

Define terms under expansion and over expansion with reference to nozzles.

11.

What is the type of nozzle required to achieve supersonic velocity?

Unit III
1.

Differentiate between fanno flow and Rayleigh flow.

2.

What are the applications of Rayleigh flow?

3.

State the assumptions used in the analysis of Rayleigh process.

4.

Show the normal shock in h-s diagram with the help of Raleigh line and Fanno
line

5.

Give practical examples where Fanno flow occurs.

6.

In Rayleigh flow heating beyond M = 1 is not possible-True/false.

7.

Explain briefly friction choking in a fluid flow passage.

8.

What are the assumptions made in the Fanno flow?

9.

Sketch the fanno line on the T-S plane. Explain the significance on it.

10.

What is thermal choking?

Unit IV
1.

Mach number downsteam of normal shock is Subsonic justify.

2.

Define Normal shock.

3.

Write down prandtl Meyer relation.

4.

State two practical situations where obliques shock waves are produced.

5.

Define strength of a shock wave.

6.

Differentiate between normal shock wave and oblique shock wave in a flow field.

7.

Distinguish between Mach wave and normal shock.

8.

What is Oblique shock?

9.

How do properties change across a normal shock?

10.

Why are shock waves not developed in subsonic Flow?

Unit V
1.

List the different types of Jet engines.

2.

What are the main components of a gas turbine engine used for Turbo-jet
aircrafts?

3.

State five important properties desired in a propellant.

4.

Define specific impulse for a rocket.

5.

When Ramjet engine is preferred?

6.

What are the different types of rocket engine?

7.

Give two important differences between Ramjet and Pulse Jet.

8.

Define specific impulse for a Rocket.

9.

Why does a ram jet engine not require a compressor and a turbine?

10.

What is a monopropellant? Give an example.

11.

What is thrust coefficient?

12.

Define propulsive efficiency.

13.

Define: thrust power and propulsive power for jet engines.

14.

What is effective jet velocity of rocket engines?

15.

What is thrust augmentation?

16.

Compare solid and liquid propellants

PART B
Unit I
1. (a)Derive an expression for T/To in term of mach number.

(b)A stream of air flows with a velocity of 250m/s in a duct of 10cm diameter; its
temperature and pressure at that point are 5C and 40KPa. What will be its stagnation
pressure and temperature? What is the mass flow rate?
2.

A diffuser has an area ratio of 1.5 to 1. The inlet mach number is 0.8. The initial
pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 15C. Assuming the flow to be isentropic,
calculate the final pressure, exit temperature and exit mach number.

3. A sonic air jet ( = 1.4, R=287 J/kg K) has a static temperature of 280K. Determine:
(a) Stagnation temperature and Stagnation enthalpy of the jet, (b) Velocity of sound
and stagnation velocity of sound, (c) Stagnation to Static pressure ratio, (d) Critical
speed of sound , (e) Maximum isentropic speed and (f) Crocco Number.
4. Air at stagnation condition, has a temperature of 800 K. Determine the velocity of
sound and maximum possible fluid velocity. What is the velocity of sound when the
flow is at a velocity half of its Maximum velocity?
5. (a) What is the effect of Mach number on the compressibility?
Prove for = 1.4, (Po - P)/(0.5C2)

= 1 + 0.25 M2 + 0.025 M4 +

(b) Air ( = 1.4, Cp=1.05 kJ/kgK) at P1 = 3 x 105 N/m2 and


T 1 = 500 K flows with
a velocity of 200 m/s in a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate:(a) mass flow rate (b)
stagnation temperature (c) Mach Number (d) Stagnation Pressure values assuming the
flow as compressible and incompressible respectively.
6. Air at pressure 3 x 105 N/m2 and temperature 500K flows with velocity 200m/s in a 30
cm diameter Calculate (a) mass flow rate (b) stagnation temperature (c) mach number
(d) stagnation pressure values assuming the flow as compressible and incompressible
respectively.
7. Air (Cp = 1005 J/KgK, = 1.4) at P1 = 5 bar, T1 = 400K flows with a velocity of 200
m/s in a 30 cm diameter duct, calculate: (a) Mass flow rate, (b) stagnation temperature,
(c) Mach number, (d) stagnation pressure values assuming the flow as compressible
and incompressible respectively. (e) crocco number.
8. The pressure, temperature and Mach number at the entry of a flow passage are 2.45
bar, 26.5C and 1.4 respectively. If the exit Mach number is 2.5, determine for
adiabatic flow of a perfect gas ( = 1.3, R = 0.467 kJ/kg K)
(a) Stagnation temperature
(b) The temperature and velocity of a gas at exit
(c) The flow ratio per square meter of the inlet cross section.
9. (a) Derive the energy equation Stating the assumption used.
(b) An air jet ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kg K) at 400 K has sonic velocity. Determine.
(i) Velocity of sound of 400 K
(ii) maximum velocity of the jet.
(iii) Stagnation enthalpy.

10. Air (Cp = 1.05 KJ/kgK, r = 1.38) at P 1 = 3 x 103N/m2 and T1 = 500 k flows with a
velocity of 200 m/sec in a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate
(a) mass flow rate
(b) stagnation temperature
(c) Mach number and
(d) stagnation pressure.
Assuming the flow as compressible and incompressible.
Unit II
1. A supersonic wind tunnel is designed for M=2 with the throat section of 890cm 2.
The air at 1.2 bar and 25C is supplied with negligible velocity. Find the mass
flow rate, the area of the test section and the fluid properties at the throat and test
section.
2. Air is discharged from the reservoir at Po = 6.91 and To = 325C through the
nozzle to an exit pressure of 0.98 bar. If the flow rate is 3600kg/hr, determine for
an isentropic flow throat area, pressure and velocity, exit area, mach number and
maximum velocity.
3. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section Mach number of 2. Air enters the
nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross sectional area of
the throat is 1000 cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for onedimensional isentropic flow: (a) Pressures, Temperatures and Velocities at the
throat and the test section. (b) Area of cross section of the test section. (c) Mass
flow rate in the test section.
4. Following quantities are given at the entry and the exit of a passage:
At the entry: P1=2.07 bar, T1=300K, M1=1.4 and at the exit: M2=2.5. Assuming
Isentropic flow of an ideal gas (=1.4, R=287 J/kgK), determine: Velocity of
sound at stagnation conditions, Maximum velocity Cmax, Temperature and pressure
at Exit.
5. A convergent-divergent nozzle is designed to expand air from a chamber in which
the pressure is 800 kPa and the temperature is 40C to give a Mach number of 2.6.
The throat area of the nozzle is 0.08 m2. Find (a) the exit area of the nozzle, (b)
mass flow rate through the nozzle when operating under design conditions, (c) the
design back pressure and (d) the lowest back pressure for which there is only
subsonic flow in the nozzle.
6. Pressure, velocity and temperature of air ( = 1.4, Cp=1.0 kJ/kg K) at the entry of
the nozzle are 2 bar, 145m/s and 330K. exit pressure is 1.5 bar.
(a) What is the shape of nozzle?
(b) Mach number at the entry and exit and
(c) flow rate and maximum possible flow rate. Assume isentropic flow.
7. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section mach number of 3. Air enters the
nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310K. The cross sectional area of the
throat is 500 cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one
dimensional isentropic flow:
(a) Pressures, temperatures and velocities at the throat and test sections.

(b) Area of cross section of test section


(c) Mass flow rate
(d) Power required for diving the compressor.
8. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section Mach number of 2.0 Air enters the
nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 325 K. The cross sectional area of the
throat is 1000cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one
dimensional isentropic flow (a) Pressure, Temperature and velocities at the throat
and test section. (b) Area of the cross section of the test section(c) Mass flow rate.
(d) Power required to drive the compressor
9. The Mach number and the pressure at the entry of a subsonic diffuser are 0.9 and 4.165
bar. Determine the area ratio required and the pressure rise if the Mach number at the
exit of diffuser is 0.20. Assume isentropic diffusion air.
10. The pressure velocity and temperature of air ( = 1.4, CP = 1kJ/kgK) at the entry of a
nozzle are 2 bar 145 m/s and 330K. The exit pressure is 1.5 bar. Determine for
isentropic flow
(a) the mach numbers at entry and exit
(b) the flow rate and maximum possible flow rate. Also determine the rate of flow.
Unit- III
1. Air enters a constant area duct with a mach number of 0.4. the length of the duct is
260mm and the diameter is 8cm. The coefficient is 0.008. The inlet stagnation
conditions are 3.5 bar and 37C. Determine the stagnation pressure loss, change in
temperature and change in entropy.
2. The stagnation temperature of air in a combustion chamber is increased to 3.5 times
its initial valves. If the air at entry is at 5 bar, 105C and a mach number 0.25.
Determine the mach number, pressure and temperature at the exit, stagnation pressure
loss and the heat supplied per kg of air.
3. A long pipe of 25.4 mm diameter has a mean coefficient of friction of 0.003. Air
enters the pipe at a Mach number of 2.5, stagnation temperature 310 K and static
pressure 0.507 bar. Determine for a section at which Mach number reaches 1.2,
(a) Static pressure and Static Temperature
(b) Stagnation Pressure and stagnation temperature
(c) Velocity of air and Distance of this section from inlet
(d) Mass Flow rate of air
4. In a certain combustion chamber of a jet engine, air enters with a velocity of 100 m/s,
a temperature of 60C and a pressure of 3.5 bar. If 460kJ/kg of heat is added, find:
(i) pressure and temperature after combustion
(ii) stagnation temperature and Mach number after combustion. Assume Cp=1005
J/kgK and = 1.4.

5. Consider compressible flow through a long well insulated duct with a diameter of 0.2
m at a flow rate of 800 m3/min. At the inlet to the duct the pressure and temperature
are 100 Kpa and 30C respectively. Assume that the flow is adiabatic and the pipe is
sufficiently long to ensure that the flow choked at the exit, find the velocity and
temperature at the pipe exit. Assume a friction factor of 0.003.
6. A circular duct passes 10 Kg/s of air at an exit mach number of 0.8. The entry
pressure and temperature are 4 bar and 50C respectively and coefficient of friction is
0.005. If the mach number at entry is 0.3, determine:
(a) the diameter of the duct and its length
(b) Pressure and temperature at the exit
(c) Stagnation pressure loss
(d) Change of entropy between inlet and exit sections
7. A long pipe of 25.4 mm diameter has a mean coefficient of friction of 0.002. Air
enters the pipe at a Mach number of 2.5, Stagnation temperature 310 K and Static
pressure 0.507 bar. Determine for a section at which the Mach number reaches 1.2
(a) Static pressure and temperature
(b) Stagnation pressure and temperature
(c) Velocity of air
(d) Distance of this section from the inlet.
8. The data for a combustion chamber employing a hydrocarbon fuel is given below:
Entry: Gas velocity = 180 m/s, pressure = 6 bar,
Temperature = 400K
Exit: Mach number = 0.8. Take = 1.4, cp = 1005J/KgK for products of combustion.
Calorific value of the fuel burnt = 100 MJ/kg. Determine:
(a) Entry Mach number
(b) Pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas at exit
(c) Stagnation pressure loss
(d) Air-fuel ratio required
9.

10.

The conditions of a gas in a combustor at entry are P 1 = 0.343 bar, T1 = 350 K, C1 =


60 m/s. Determine the Mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity at the exit if
the increase in Stagnation enthalpy of the gas between entry and exit is 1172.5 kj/kg.
Take Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg, = 1.4.
A circular duct passes 8.25 kg/sec of air at an exit Mach number of 0.5. The entry
pressure and temperature are 3.45 bar and 38C respectively and the coefficient of
friction 0.005. If the Mach number at entry is 0.15 determine
(a) The diameter of the duct
(b) length of the duct
(c) pressure and temperature at exit
(d) stagnation pressure loss.

Unit- IV
1. Air traveling at a mach number of 2.5, a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 15C
undergoes a normal shock. Find the velocity, the temperature and the stagnation
pressure after the shock.
2. Derive the Rankine Hugoniot relation for a normal shock.
3. The state of a gas (r=1.3, R = 0.469) upstream of a normal shock wave is given by the

following data. Mx = 2.5, Px = 200 Kpa, Tx = 275 K. Calculate the mach number,
pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas downstream of the shock.
4. An aircraft flies at a Mach number of 1.2 at an altitude of 1600 m where static
pressure
and temperature are 103m bar and 216.65K. The compression in its engine is partly
achieved by a normal shock wave standing at the entry of its diffuser. Determine
immediately downstream of the shock:
(a) Mach number
(b) temperature of air
(c) pressure of air
(d) stagnation pressure loss across the shock.
5. Derive the Prandtl Meyer relation for an Normal shock. What is its significance? Compare
the Normal shock with an oblique shock.
6. A turbojet engine works at a Mach number of 1.3 at an altitude of 15250 m. A normal
shock occurs ahead of the inlet diffuser. Determine the Mach number and stagnation
pressure after the shock. What is the percentage of stagnation pressure loss after the
shock (at z = 15250 m, T = 218 K, P=0.118 bar)
7. A normal shock wave occurs in air flow at a point where the velocity is 680 m/s the static
pressure is 80 kPa. Static temperature is 60C. Find the velocity, static temperature down
stream of the shock. Also find the stagnation pressure upstream and downstream of the shock.
8. An aircraft flies at a mach number of 3 at an altitude of 18000m (p = 3 bar, T = 300 K).
The compression in its engine is partly achieved by a normal shock wave standing at
the entry of its diffuser. Determine immediately downstream of the shock:
(a) Mach number
(b) temperature of air
(c) pressure of air and
(d) Stagnation pressure loss across shock.
9. A supersonic nozzle is provided with a constant diameter circular duct at its exit. The duct
diameter is same as the nozzle exit diameter. Nozzle exit cross section is three times
that of its throat. The entry conditions of the gas ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/KgK) are p 0 = 10
bar and T0 = 600K. Calculate the static pressure, Mach number and the velocity of the
gas in the duct:
(a) When the nozzle operates at its design condition
(b) When a normal shock occurs at a section in the diverging part where the area ratio
A/A* = 3.
10. An aircraft flies at a Mach number of 1.2 at an altitude of 16000 meters (P = .103 bar, T =
216.65K). The compression in its engine is partly achieved by normal shock wave
standing at the entry of its diffuser. Determine immediately downstream of the shock
(a) Mach number.
(b) Temperature of the air.

(c) Pressure of the air.


(d) Stagnation pressure loss across the shock
Unit- V
1.Explain with a neat sketch the principle of operation of turbo fan engine.
2.Derive the expressions for the following:
Thrust, propulsive efficiency, thermal efficiency, overall efficiency.
3.The effective jet velocity from a rocket is 2700m/s. the forward velocity is 1350m/s and the
propellant consumption is 78.6kg/sec. Calculate thrust, thrust power and propulsive
efficiency.
4. Describe the working of a Turbojet and Ramjet engines with neat sketches.
5. Describe six important properties, required for a chemical to be used as a solid propellant
in the rocket engine.
6. What is meant by:
(i) Monopropellants
(ii) Hypergolic propellants,
(iii) Specific Impulse and
(iv) Propulsive efficiency with reference to rocket propulsion
7.(a) Discuss the different methods to augment the thrust of jet engines.
(b) Explain the principle of operation of a pulse jet engine
8.(a) The effective jet velocity of a rocket is 2500 m/s, the flight speed is 1100 m/s and the
propellant consumption is 70 kg/s. Calculate thrust, thrust power and propulsive
efficiency.
(b) Bring out the differences between jet engine and rocket engines.
9. Explain the working of following air breathing engines with sketches:
(a) Turbo jet engine
(b) Pulse jet engine
10. (a) State briefly six important properties desired in a liquid propellant.
(b) Explain briefly the following terms:
(i) Hypergolic propellants
(ii) UDMH and RFNA
(iii) JATO and RATO