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Semester: III

SMEX1015 - GAS DYNAMICS & JET PROPULSION

Part A

Unit I

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Unit II

1.

2.

Give the energy equation governing flow through an adiabatic diffuser. Show the

h-s diagram.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Determine the Mach number of an aircraft at which the velocity temperature of air

at the entry of the engine equals the static temperature.

7.

8.

9.

Write down the equation for the area ratio in terms of the Mach number and

represent the same graphically.

10.

Define terms under expansion and over expansion with reference to nozzles.

11.

Unit III

1.

2.

3.

4.

Show the normal shock in h-s diagram with the help of Raleigh line and Fanno

line

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Sketch the fanno line on the T-S plane. Explain the significance on it.

10.

Unit IV

1.

2.

3.

4.

State two practical situations where obliques shock waves are produced.

5.

6.

Differentiate between normal shock wave and oblique shock wave in a flow field.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Unit V

1.

2.

What are the main components of a gas turbine engine used for Turbo-jet

aircrafts?

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Why does a ram jet engine not require a compressor and a turbine?

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

PART B

Unit I

1. (a)Derive an expression for T/To in term of mach number.

(b)A stream of air flows with a velocity of 250m/s in a duct of 10cm diameter; its

temperature and pressure at that point are 5C and 40KPa. What will be its stagnation

pressure and temperature? What is the mass flow rate?

2.

A diffuser has an area ratio of 1.5 to 1. The inlet mach number is 0.8. The initial

pressure and temperature are 1 bar and 15C. Assuming the flow to be isentropic,

calculate the final pressure, exit temperature and exit mach number.

3. A sonic air jet ( = 1.4, R=287 J/kg K) has a static temperature of 280K. Determine:

(a) Stagnation temperature and Stagnation enthalpy of the jet, (b) Velocity of sound

and stagnation velocity of sound, (c) Stagnation to Static pressure ratio, (d) Critical

speed of sound , (e) Maximum isentropic speed and (f) Crocco Number.

4. Air at stagnation condition, has a temperature of 800 K. Determine the velocity of

sound and maximum possible fluid velocity. What is the velocity of sound when the

flow is at a velocity half of its Maximum velocity?

5. (a) What is the effect of Mach number on the compressibility?

Prove for = 1.4, (Po - P)/(0.5C2)

= 1 + 0.25 M2 + 0.025 M4 +

T 1 = 500 K flows with

a velocity of 200 m/s in a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate:(a) mass flow rate (b)

stagnation temperature (c) Mach Number (d) Stagnation Pressure values assuming the

flow as compressible and incompressible respectively.

6. Air at pressure 3 x 105 N/m2 and temperature 500K flows with velocity 200m/s in a 30

cm diameter Calculate (a) mass flow rate (b) stagnation temperature (c) mach number

(d) stagnation pressure values assuming the flow as compressible and incompressible

respectively.

7. Air (Cp = 1005 J/KgK, = 1.4) at P1 = 5 bar, T1 = 400K flows with a velocity of 200

m/s in a 30 cm diameter duct, calculate: (a) Mass flow rate, (b) stagnation temperature,

(c) Mach number, (d) stagnation pressure values assuming the flow as compressible

and incompressible respectively. (e) crocco number.

8. The pressure, temperature and Mach number at the entry of a flow passage are 2.45

bar, 26.5C and 1.4 respectively. If the exit Mach number is 2.5, determine for

adiabatic flow of a perfect gas ( = 1.3, R = 0.467 kJ/kg K)

(a) Stagnation temperature

(b) The temperature and velocity of a gas at exit

(c) The flow ratio per square meter of the inlet cross section.

9. (a) Derive the energy equation Stating the assumption used.

(b) An air jet ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kg K) at 400 K has sonic velocity. Determine.

(i) Velocity of sound of 400 K

(ii) maximum velocity of the jet.

(iii) Stagnation enthalpy.

10. Air (Cp = 1.05 KJ/kgK, r = 1.38) at P 1 = 3 x 103N/m2 and T1 = 500 k flows with a

velocity of 200 m/sec in a 30 cm diameter duct. Calculate

(a) mass flow rate

(b) stagnation temperature

(c) Mach number and

(d) stagnation pressure.

Assuming the flow as compressible and incompressible.

Unit II

1. A supersonic wind tunnel is designed for M=2 with the throat section of 890cm 2.

The air at 1.2 bar and 25C is supplied with negligible velocity. Find the mass

flow rate, the area of the test section and the fluid properties at the throat and test

section.

2. Air is discharged from the reservoir at Po = 6.91 and To = 325C through the

nozzle to an exit pressure of 0.98 bar. If the flow rate is 3600kg/hr, determine for

an isentropic flow throat area, pressure and velocity, exit area, mach number and

maximum velocity.

3. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section Mach number of 2. Air enters the

nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross sectional area of

the throat is 1000 cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for onedimensional isentropic flow: (a) Pressures, Temperatures and Velocities at the

throat and the test section. (b) Area of cross section of the test section. (c) Mass

flow rate in the test section.

4. Following quantities are given at the entry and the exit of a passage:

At the entry: P1=2.07 bar, T1=300K, M1=1.4 and at the exit: M2=2.5. Assuming

Isentropic flow of an ideal gas (=1.4, R=287 J/kgK), determine: Velocity of

sound at stagnation conditions, Maximum velocity Cmax, Temperature and pressure

at Exit.

5. A convergent-divergent nozzle is designed to expand air from a chamber in which

the pressure is 800 kPa and the temperature is 40C to give a Mach number of 2.6.

The throat area of the nozzle is 0.08 m2. Find (a) the exit area of the nozzle, (b)

mass flow rate through the nozzle when operating under design conditions, (c) the

design back pressure and (d) the lowest back pressure for which there is only

subsonic flow in the nozzle.

6. Pressure, velocity and temperature of air ( = 1.4, Cp=1.0 kJ/kg K) at the entry of

the nozzle are 2 bar, 145m/s and 330K. exit pressure is 1.5 bar.

(a) What is the shape of nozzle?

(b) Mach number at the entry and exit and

(c) flow rate and maximum possible flow rate. Assume isentropic flow.

7. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section mach number of 3. Air enters the

nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310K. The cross sectional area of the

throat is 500 cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one

dimensional isentropic flow:

(a) Pressures, temperatures and velocities at the throat and test sections.

(c) Mass flow rate

(d) Power required for diving the compressor.

8. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test section Mach number of 2.0 Air enters the

nozzle from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 325 K. The cross sectional area of the

throat is 1000cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one

dimensional isentropic flow (a) Pressure, Temperature and velocities at the throat

and test section. (b) Area of the cross section of the test section(c) Mass flow rate.

(d) Power required to drive the compressor

9. The Mach number and the pressure at the entry of a subsonic diffuser are 0.9 and 4.165

bar. Determine the area ratio required and the pressure rise if the Mach number at the

exit of diffuser is 0.20. Assume isentropic diffusion air.

10. The pressure velocity and temperature of air ( = 1.4, CP = 1kJ/kgK) at the entry of a

nozzle are 2 bar 145 m/s and 330K. The exit pressure is 1.5 bar. Determine for

isentropic flow

(a) the mach numbers at entry and exit

(b) the flow rate and maximum possible flow rate. Also determine the rate of flow.

Unit- III

1. Air enters a constant area duct with a mach number of 0.4. the length of the duct is

260mm and the diameter is 8cm. The coefficient is 0.008. The inlet stagnation

conditions are 3.5 bar and 37C. Determine the stagnation pressure loss, change in

temperature and change in entropy.

2. The stagnation temperature of air in a combustion chamber is increased to 3.5 times

its initial valves. If the air at entry is at 5 bar, 105C and a mach number 0.25.

Determine the mach number, pressure and temperature at the exit, stagnation pressure

loss and the heat supplied per kg of air.

3. A long pipe of 25.4 mm diameter has a mean coefficient of friction of 0.003. Air

enters the pipe at a Mach number of 2.5, stagnation temperature 310 K and static

pressure 0.507 bar. Determine for a section at which Mach number reaches 1.2,

(a) Static pressure and Static Temperature

(b) Stagnation Pressure and stagnation temperature

(c) Velocity of air and Distance of this section from inlet

(d) Mass Flow rate of air

4. In a certain combustion chamber of a jet engine, air enters with a velocity of 100 m/s,

a temperature of 60C and a pressure of 3.5 bar. If 460kJ/kg of heat is added, find:

(i) pressure and temperature after combustion

(ii) stagnation temperature and Mach number after combustion. Assume Cp=1005

J/kgK and = 1.4.

5. Consider compressible flow through a long well insulated duct with a diameter of 0.2

m at a flow rate of 800 m3/min. At the inlet to the duct the pressure and temperature

are 100 Kpa and 30C respectively. Assume that the flow is adiabatic and the pipe is

sufficiently long to ensure that the flow choked at the exit, find the velocity and

temperature at the pipe exit. Assume a friction factor of 0.003.

6. A circular duct passes 10 Kg/s of air at an exit mach number of 0.8. The entry

pressure and temperature are 4 bar and 50C respectively and coefficient of friction is

0.005. If the mach number at entry is 0.3, determine:

(a) the diameter of the duct and its length

(b) Pressure and temperature at the exit

(c) Stagnation pressure loss

(d) Change of entropy between inlet and exit sections

7. A long pipe of 25.4 mm diameter has a mean coefficient of friction of 0.002. Air

enters the pipe at a Mach number of 2.5, Stagnation temperature 310 K and Static

pressure 0.507 bar. Determine for a section at which the Mach number reaches 1.2

(a) Static pressure and temperature

(b) Stagnation pressure and temperature

(c) Velocity of air

(d) Distance of this section from the inlet.

8. The data for a combustion chamber employing a hydrocarbon fuel is given below:

Entry: Gas velocity = 180 m/s, pressure = 6 bar,

Temperature = 400K

Exit: Mach number = 0.8. Take = 1.4, cp = 1005J/KgK for products of combustion.

Calorific value of the fuel burnt = 100 MJ/kg. Determine:

(a) Entry Mach number

(b) Pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas at exit

(c) Stagnation pressure loss

(d) Air-fuel ratio required

9.

10.

60 m/s. Determine the Mach number, pressure, temperature and velocity at the exit if

the increase in Stagnation enthalpy of the gas between entry and exit is 1172.5 kj/kg.

Take Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg, = 1.4.

A circular duct passes 8.25 kg/sec of air at an exit Mach number of 0.5. The entry

pressure and temperature are 3.45 bar and 38C respectively and the coefficient of

friction 0.005. If the Mach number at entry is 0.15 determine

(a) The diameter of the duct

(b) length of the duct

(c) pressure and temperature at exit

(d) stagnation pressure loss.

Unit- IV

1. Air traveling at a mach number of 2.5, a pressure of 1 bar and a temperature of 15C

undergoes a normal shock. Find the velocity, the temperature and the stagnation

pressure after the shock.

2. Derive the Rankine Hugoniot relation for a normal shock.

3. The state of a gas (r=1.3, R = 0.469) upstream of a normal shock wave is given by the

following data. Mx = 2.5, Px = 200 Kpa, Tx = 275 K. Calculate the mach number,

pressure, temperature and velocity of the gas downstream of the shock.

4. An aircraft flies at a Mach number of 1.2 at an altitude of 1600 m where static

pressure

and temperature are 103m bar and 216.65K. The compression in its engine is partly

achieved by a normal shock wave standing at the entry of its diffuser. Determine

immediately downstream of the shock:

(a) Mach number

(b) temperature of air

(c) pressure of air

(d) stagnation pressure loss across the shock.

5. Derive the Prandtl Meyer relation for an Normal shock. What is its significance? Compare

the Normal shock with an oblique shock.

6. A turbojet engine works at a Mach number of 1.3 at an altitude of 15250 m. A normal

shock occurs ahead of the inlet diffuser. Determine the Mach number and stagnation

pressure after the shock. What is the percentage of stagnation pressure loss after the

shock (at z = 15250 m, T = 218 K, P=0.118 bar)

7. A normal shock wave occurs in air flow at a point where the velocity is 680 m/s the static

pressure is 80 kPa. Static temperature is 60C. Find the velocity, static temperature down

stream of the shock. Also find the stagnation pressure upstream and downstream of the shock.

8. An aircraft flies at a mach number of 3 at an altitude of 18000m (p = 3 bar, T = 300 K).

The compression in its engine is partly achieved by a normal shock wave standing at

the entry of its diffuser. Determine immediately downstream of the shock:

(a) Mach number

(b) temperature of air

(c) pressure of air and

(d) Stagnation pressure loss across shock.

9. A supersonic nozzle is provided with a constant diameter circular duct at its exit. The duct

diameter is same as the nozzle exit diameter. Nozzle exit cross section is three times

that of its throat. The entry conditions of the gas ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/KgK) are p 0 = 10

bar and T0 = 600K. Calculate the static pressure, Mach number and the velocity of the

gas in the duct:

(a) When the nozzle operates at its design condition

(b) When a normal shock occurs at a section in the diverging part where the area ratio

A/A* = 3.

10. An aircraft flies at a Mach number of 1.2 at an altitude of 16000 meters (P = .103 bar, T =

216.65K). The compression in its engine is partly achieved by normal shock wave

standing at the entry of its diffuser. Determine immediately downstream of the shock

(a) Mach number.

(b) Temperature of the air.

(d) Stagnation pressure loss across the shock

Unit- V

1.Explain with a neat sketch the principle of operation of turbo fan engine.

2.Derive the expressions for the following:

Thrust, propulsive efficiency, thermal efficiency, overall efficiency.

3.The effective jet velocity from a rocket is 2700m/s. the forward velocity is 1350m/s and the

propellant consumption is 78.6kg/sec. Calculate thrust, thrust power and propulsive

efficiency.

4. Describe the working of a Turbojet and Ramjet engines with neat sketches.

5. Describe six important properties, required for a chemical to be used as a solid propellant

in the rocket engine.

6. What is meant by:

(i) Monopropellants

(ii) Hypergolic propellants,

(iii) Specific Impulse and

(iv) Propulsive efficiency with reference to rocket propulsion

7.(a) Discuss the different methods to augment the thrust of jet engines.

(b) Explain the principle of operation of a pulse jet engine

8.(a) The effective jet velocity of a rocket is 2500 m/s, the flight speed is 1100 m/s and the

propellant consumption is 70 kg/s. Calculate thrust, thrust power and propulsive

efficiency.

(b) Bring out the differences between jet engine and rocket engines.

9. Explain the working of following air breathing engines with sketches:

(a) Turbo jet engine

(b) Pulse jet engine

10. (a) State briefly six important properties desired in a liquid propellant.

(b) Explain briefly the following terms:

(i) Hypergolic propellants

(ii) UDMH and RFNA

(iii) JATO and RATO

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