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he CIebaI water Partnership (Cw) i an
international network whoe viion i lor a water
ecure world. he Cw miion i to upport the
utainable development and manaement ol
water reource at all level.
Cw wa created in 1996 to loter interated
water reource manaement (lwlV), and to
enure the coordinated development and
manaement ol water, land and related
reource by maximiin economic and ocial
wellare without compromiin the utainability
ol vital environmental ytem.
he Cw lobal network i open to all
oraniation involved in water reource
manaement: developed and developin
country overnment intitution, aencie ol the
United lation, bi and multilateral
development bank, proleional aociation,
reearch intitution, nonovernmental
oraniation and the private ector.
Vore inlormation about the Cw and acce to
the Catalyzin Chane handbook, olicy and
echnical 8riel, and LC 8ackround aper i
available at www.wplorum.or. he ool8ox on
lwlV can be acceed at www.wptoolbox.or.
Publlshed 2009 by the 6lcbal water Partnershlp (6wP) and the lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns (lh8U).
8cxes 2.8, 8.C, Fxample 6.1 and Flgure 1 are reprlnted frcm 8.P. Fccper (2005) lntegrated klver 8asln 6cvernance:
Learnlng frcm lnternatlcnal Fxperlence, pages 52, 67-68 and 120, wlth permlsslcn frcm the ccpyrlght hclders,
lnternatlcnal water Asscclatlcn, Lcndcn uK.
ueslgn and laycut by Scrlptcrla, www.scrlptcrla.cc.uk
Prlnted by Flanders, Sweden, 2009.
lS8h: 978-91-85321-72-8
Preparatlcn cf thls handbcck has been suppcrted by the Mlnlstry cf Fcrelgn Affalrs cf France
as part cf thelr suppcrt tc 6wP and lh8U.
he InternatienaI hetwerk eI asin
0rganizatiens (ll80), etablihed in 199/, i
an international network that upport the
implementation ol interated water reource
manaement in river and lake bain and
acuiler. lt link bain oraniation and other
overnment aencie reponible lor bain
manaement in order to promote the exchane
ol experience and develop uitable tool lor
better bain manaement at tranboundary,
national and local level.
ll80 i oranied by reional network ol bain
oraniation, in /lrica, Latin /merica, Central
and Latern Lurope, and the Vediterranean. lt i
alo coordinatin the letwork ol lnternational
Commiion and ranboundary 8ain
0raniation and the Luropell80 roup ol
Luropean 8ain 0raniation to lacilitate the
implementation ol the LU water lramework
Lirective.
ll80 i manain a multiyear action plan to
upport the creation and trenthenin ol bain
oraniation around the world.
Vore inlormation about ll80 activitie and
member i available at www.inbonew.or.
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C0h1h15
Ferewerd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
AcknewIedgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Acrenyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Part A Abeut this handbeek: why we need a practicaI guide and hew te use it . . . . . . .9
1 Intreductien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
1.1 Key ccncepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
1.2 Prcblems and challenges faclng water managers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10
1.3 Addresslng the challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
2 hew te use this handbeek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2.1 lntegrated water rescurces management ln baslns . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2.2 8asln management as an lteratlve prccess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
2.3 Fntry levels fcr lntegrated water rescurces management ln baslns . .19
Part key issues in integrating water reseurces management in basins . . . . . . . . . . .25
3 stabIishing basin management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.1 Pclltlcal wlll and basln management systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
3.2 Law and pcllcy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
3.3 water management framewcrk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
3./ lnternatlcnal agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
4 keIes and types eI basin erganisatiens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
/.1 kcles cf basln crganlsatlcns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
/.2 Types cf basln crganlsatlcns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
/.3 Ccmplementary rcles cf water management bcdles ln baslns . . . . . ./5
5 Finance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./7
5.1 uses cf flnance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./7
5.2 Scurces cf revenues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./9
5.3 Flnanclng transbcundary baslns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
6 InveIving stakeheIders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
6.1 ldentlfylng stakehclders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
6.2 6ettlng stakehclder partlclpatlcn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
6.3 Stakehclder advlscry grcups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
7 5trategic Ieng-term pIanning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
7.1 ldentlfylng lssues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
7.2 Settlng prlcrltles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
7.3 Mcdels and declslcn-suppcrt tccls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
7./ ldentlfylng management cptlcns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
7.5 Assesslng rlsks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
8 asin actien pIans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
8.1 uevelcplng basln actlcn plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
8.2 lmplementlng basln actlcn plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
9 asin inIermatien systems and menitering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
9.1 Urganlslng ccllabcratlve basln lnfcrmatlcn systems . . . . . . . . . . . . .8/
9.2 Technlcal aspects and practlcal lmplementatlcn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
9.3 Mcnltcrlng and evaluatlcn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
10 Cemmunicatien . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
10.1 kalslng awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
10.2 Fducatlcn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
10.3 Ccmmunlcatlcn tccls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
10./ Feedback and learnlng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
websites, reIerences and Iurther reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
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Lxample 1.1 Seneal liver bain: climate variability exacerbate water carcity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
Lxample 1.` lile, Lake Chad and lier bain: hared viion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1`
Lxample 1.3 /lrica: incorporatin lwlV principle in national policie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
Lxample 1./ 8razil: new water manaement policy and tructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1/
Lxample 1.5 Cw China Yellow liver artnerhip: lwlV at river bain level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Lxample `.1 \olta bain: applyin interated water reource manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1S
Lxample `.` Vekon liver bain: introducin lwlV at local, implementation and policy level . . . . .19
Lxample `.3 lndia: tartin interated water reource manaement at the ditrict level . . . . . . . . . . .`u
Lxample `./ Yucatan eninula, Vexico: interatin roundwater reource
manaement at the reional level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`1
Lxample `.5 lrance: national, river bain and local water committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .``
Lxample 3.1 Vatanza-liachuelo bain, 8ueno /ire, /rentina: the importance ol political will . . . .`6
Lxample 3.` 0rane-Sencu bain: roadmap lor water uer dialoue on bain manaement . . . . . . .`7
Lxample 3.3 iza bain: lontandin cooperation pave the way lor dialoue
between countrie on bain manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`7
Lxample 3./ Spain and ortual: lontandin dialoue on hared bain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`S
Lxample 3.5 lndia: larmada water Lipute ribunal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`S
Lxample 3.6 0ur Lr lbia liver bain aency, Vorocco: the leal lramework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`9
Lxample 3.7 \olta bain: etablihin the water manaement lramework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Lxample /.1 (uebec: miion and mandate ol bain oraniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3/
Lxample /.` Chanian water leource Commiion, China: miion and lunction . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Lxample /.3 Cono liver bain oraniation: evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Lxample /./ Vahaweli /uthority, Sri Lanka: evolution and chanin role . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Lxample /.5 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver: evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3S
Lxample /.6 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Cambia liver: leon lrom evolution . . . . . . .39
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8ox 1./ ranboundary bain in the live continent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
8ox `./ he learninbydoin manaement cycle ol plannin and implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
8ox `.8 8ain manaement lramework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`1
8ox 3./ Law and policy in bain manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`9
8ox 3.8 he three dimenion ol water manaement lramework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3u
8ox /./ /inin reponibilitie lor manain water, reulatin water
and providin water ervice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
8ox /.8 Vain lunction ol bain oraniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35
8ox /.C 0raniation ol water manaement in bain: ome international comparion . . . . . . . . . . . ./6
8ox 6./ Key point to conider in deinin takeholder involvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
8ox 6.8 Local participation in bain manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6`
8ox 7./ 8uildin a uccelul bain manaement tratey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
8ox 7.8 Settin prioritie, evaluatin and rankin water reource iue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6S
8ox 7.C Cuideline lor harin cot and benelit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
8ox 7.L /ein the rik poed by climate chane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
8ox 7.L Strateie to minimie rik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
8ox S./ Lein principle and main component ol a bain manaement plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
8ox S.8 Cuideline lor coordinatin bain manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7S
8ox S.C Coordination tool lor bain oraniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
8ox 9./ Cood practice in bain inlormation ytem and monitorin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S3
8ox 9.8 Characteritic ol a bain inlormation ytem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S/
8ox 9.C ype ol data in a bain inlormation inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .SS
8ox 9.L Key cuetion to ak when ettin up a monitorin ytem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
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Lxample /.7 he lnternational oint Commiion: a tranboundary monitorin,
invetiatin and coordinatin bain oraniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./u
Lxample /.S Vurray-Larlin 8ain /uthority: an authority replacin a commiion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./1
Lxample /.9 /pele lomane, the lomanian lational water /dminitration and
bain directorate and committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./1
Lxample /.1u /uthority lor the Sutainable Vanaement ol the Lake lzabal and liver Lulce 8ain,
Cuatemala: a conultative body with limited power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./`
Lxample /.11 Committee lor the lnteration ol the lydroraphical 8ain ol
liver araiba do Sul, 8razil: a bain oraniation in a lederal country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./3
Lxample /.1` luhr /ociation, Cermany: a bain aociation in a hihly developed bain . . . . . . . . ./3
Lxample /.13 Unidad de Cuenca del lio ena 8lanca, lntituto Cotarricene de Llectricidad:
a conultative committee et up by a ervice provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./5
Lxample 5.1 lrench water aencie: 'polluter}uer pay' and 'water pay lor water' principle . . . . . .51
Lxample 5.` /lerian lydroraphical 8ain /encie: water chare ytem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5`
Lxample 5.3 iracicaba, Capivari and undiai liver 8ain in 8razil:
water charin in a lederal country . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Lxample 5./ Cota lica: 'polluteruerpay' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Lxample 5.5 walloon leion, 8elium: application ol the cot recovery principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5/
Lxample 6.1 lamoi liver \alley, /utralia: identilyin takeholder in bain manaement . . . . . . . . .57
Lxample 6.` Luropean water lramework Lirective: takeholder conultation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59
Lxample 6.3 /ndhra radeh water \iion: atherin takeholder input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6u
Lxample 6./ lunary: public participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
Lxample 6.5 Comite do ltaai, Santa Catarina (8razil): public-private participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6`
Lxample 7.1 lier 8ain /uthority: a hared viion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Lxample 7.` /ral Sea 8ain: trateic lonterm plannin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
Lxample 7.3 Vekon liver Commiion: model and deciionupport tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7u
Lxample 7./ Valta: analyin the cot ellectivene ol way to protect roundwater . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Lxample 7.5 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver: benelit harin . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7`
Lxample S.1 luhr: a bain action plan to retore water coure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Lxample S.` Vancomunidad de la Cuenca del lio ubone, Lcuador:
a coordination aency in the ubone bain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7S
Lxample S.3 he win8ain
xn
proect: Cono/mazon twinnin areement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79
Lxample S./ Laartero river bain, Chiapa, Vexico: ocial participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Su
Lxample 9.1 oint Lanube Survey: a collaborative international water inlormation ytem . . . . . . . . . .S5
Lxample 9.` Sabarmati liver 8ain, Cuarat State, lndia: development ol an inlormation ytem . . . .S6
Lxample 9.3 Vexico: link between national and reional bain inlormation ytem . . . . . . . . . . . . .S7
Lxample 9./ 0nline cataloue ol data ource lor tranboundary,
national and local bain level manaement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .S9
Lxample 9.5 LuroVediterranean lnlormation Sytem on knowhow in the water Sector . . . . . . . . . . .9u
Lxample 9.6 lrtyh liver 8ain lnlormation Sytem, luia-Kazakhtan:
tranboundary water inlormation ytem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Lxample 9.7 an/lrican web portal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91
Lxample 9.S /lrica: perlormance indicator lor tranboundary bain oraniation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Lxample 1u.1 Lanube Lay: raiin awarene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
Lxample 1u.` (ueenland, /utralia: 8ribane liver 8ain lealthy waterway roramme . . . . . . . . .9S
Lxample 1u.3 lrance: public conultation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Lxample 1u./ Cheapeake 8ay bain: virtual inlormation hop lront . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1u1
Lxample 1u.5 ucar liver 8ain, \alencia, Spain: inlormation and monitorin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1u`
liure 1 Liarammatic repreentation ol macro, meo and microlevel natural
water reource ytem in a bain manaement lramework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .``
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water lssues tcuch all segments cf scclety and all eccncmlc sectcrs.
Pcpulatlcn grcwth, rapld urbanlsatlcn and lndustrlallsatlcn, the
expanslcn cf agrlculture and tcurlsm, and cllmate change all put water
under lncreaslng stress. 6lven thls grcwlng pressure lt ls crltlcal that thls
vltal rescurce ls prcperly managed.
The pressure cn water rescurces hlghllghts the hydrclcglcal, scclal, eccncmlc and
ecclcglcal lnter-dependencles ln rlver, lake and aqulfer baslns. These lnter-
dependencles demand mcre lntegrated apprcaches tc develcplng and managlng water
and land rescurces. There ls a dynamlc relatlcnshlp between basln stakehclders and
central gcvernments, whc have tc wcrk tcgether tc ensure the vlablllty cf thelr declslcns
ln meetlng sustalnable develcpment gcals.
Tc address the multl-faceted nature cf water management, many ccuntrles are ncw
lntrcduclng an lntegrated apprcach tc water rescurces management at the natlcnal and
basln level. Thls lncludes lmprcvlng lnstltutlcnal arrangements and wcrklng practlces.
Tc suppcrt thls prccess, the 6lcbal water Partnershlp (6wP) and the lnternatlcnal
hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns (lh8U) have |clntly prcduced thls handbcck tc prcvlde
guldance fcr lmprcvlng the gcvernance cf freshwater rescurces. ln partlcular, the fccus
ls cn effectlve lmplementatlcn cf the lntegrated water rescurces management (lwkM)
apprcach ln lake, rlver and aqulfer baslns.
Thls handbcck ls wrltten prlmarlly fcr basln managers and gcvernment cfflclals whc
need tc take declslcns related tc water management. Tcgether, they have tc put ln place
management systems that wlll mltlgate the lmpacts cf natural hazards, supply water fcr
prcductlve purpcses (agrlculture, lndustry, energy, transpcrt, tcurlsm, flshlng, etc.),
supply water fcr scclal purpcses (health and dcmestlc servlces) and prctect the
envlrcnment. They must, therefcre, manage ccnfllcts cn water rescurce lssues between
many dlfferent users. The handbcck ls alsc almed at ncn-gcvernmental actcrs whc are
lnvclved ln basln actlvltles. lt prcvldes guldance fcr lntegrated water rescurces
management that can be applled ln baslns regardless cf the ccntext (develcped cr
develcplng ccuntrles, humld cr arld ccndltlcns) cr the current state cf water gcvernance.
ln partlcular, the handbcck:
! artlculates the llnks between challenges and lwkM respcnses,
! suggests ways cf settlng up cr mcdernlslng basln crganlsatlcns tc facllltate
the adcptlcn cf the lwkM apprcach, and
! ls practlcal and user-frlendly wlth many examples cf experlences ln rlver,
lake and aqulfer management.
we hcpe thls handbcck wlll help tc catalyse pcsltlve change fcr sustalnable
develcpment. lt ls cne cutccme cf the ccllabcratlcn between the 6wP and lh8U
netwcrks tc facllltate the adcptlcn cf better and mcre sustalnable water rescurces
management. we expect the handbcck tc be a dynamlc dccument, updated frequently
wlth best practlces ln water management fcr baslns frcm all cver the glcbe.
Letitia A. 0beng LszI kthay
Chalr Chalr
6lcbal water Partnershlp lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns
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he handbook wa developed by a ak lorce cochaired by eanlranoi Lonzier (ll80)
and Vartin walhe (Cw). he ak lorce member included: lartmut 8ruhl (Cw echnical
Committee), 0car Le Vorae Cordeiro letto (Latin /merican letwork ol 8ain
0raniation), eodoro Ltrela (Vediterranean letwork ol 8ain 0raniation), /lan lall
(Cw Senior /dvior), \adim Sokolov (Cw leional water artnerhip lor Central /ia and
Caucau) and leinald ekateka (/lrican letwork ol 8ain 0raniation and Cw Southern
/lrica).
Contribution and comment came lrom 8ruce looper (Lanih lydraulic lntitute water 8
Lnvironment), Vadiodio liae, /xel Louroeanni, /xel ulie (Cw), Laniel \alenuela (ll80)
and Lanka halmeinerova (Cw). he Cw and ll80 network upplied practical example
and made valuable comment. Section ol the handbook draw heavily lrom looper (`uu5),
lnterated liver 8ain Covernance: Learnin lrom lnternational Lxperience, publihed by
lnternational water /ociation ublihin.
he handbook wa edited by Sandra Child (Scriptoria, www.criptoria.co.uk). /urelie \itry
(Cw) provided overall coordination and uperviion.
Cw and ll80 acknowlede that UlLSC0 i alo producin uideline on river bain
manaement. Cw}ll80 and UlLSC0 are coordinatin their ellort o that thi handbook
and the UlLSC0 uideline complement each other.
Cw and ll80 ratelully acknowlede the rant lrom the Vinitry ol lorein /llair ol lrance
that made the preparation ol thi handbook poible. he Cw i alo upported linancially
by Canada, Lenmark, the Luropean Commiion, linland, lrance, Cermany, the letherland,
lorway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kindom and the United State.
he handbook can be downloaded lrom the Cw webite (www.wplorum.or) and ll80
webite (www.inbonew.or), or recueted on a CLl0V lrom wp_wplorum.or and
inbo_inbonew.or.
/V/SUlLl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./utoridad para el Vaneo Sutentable de la Cuenca lidroralica del Lao
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .de lzabal y lio Lulce - /uthority lor the Sutainable Vanaement ol the
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lake lzabal and liver Lulce 8ain
/l80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./lrican letwork ol 8ain 0raniation
/wlS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./lrican water Locumentation and lnlormation Sytem
C/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Comprehenive /ement ol water Vanaement in /riculture
C/LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commiion on the /pplication and Levelopment ol the Convention
C/l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Corporacion /utonoma leional - leional /utonomou Corporation
CLLl80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Central and Latern Lurope letwork ol 8ain 0raniation
CLl\/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Committee lor the lnteration ol the lydroraphical 8ain ol
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liver araiba do Sul
ClC0S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commiion lnternationale du 8ain Cono0ubanuiSanha -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lnternational Commiion ol the Cono0ubanuiSanha 8ain
C0l/CU/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Comiion lacional del /ua - lational water Commiion
CSL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Commiion on Sutainable Levelopment
CwlC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chanian water leource Commiion
Lll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lanih lydraulic lntitute water 8 Lnvironment
LSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LeciionSupport Sytem
LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luropean Commiion
LVwlS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LuroVediterranean lnlormation Sytem on knowhow in the water Sector
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LU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luropean Union
Luropell80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Luropean 8ain 0raniation Croup lor the implementation ol the wlL
ClL8\ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cetion lnteree de l'Lau par 8ain \erant - lnterated water
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vanaement at 8ain Level
ClS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ceoraphic lnlormation Sytem
Cw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Clobal water artnerhip
Cw0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Clobal water artnerhip 0raniation
Cw C/CLl/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cw leional water artnerhip lor Central /ia and Caucau
Cw CLL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cw leional water artnerhip lor Central and Latern Lurope
Cw China . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cw leional water artnerhip lor China
Cw Southern /lrica . . . . . . .Cw leional water artnerhip lor Southern /lrica
Cw /C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cw echnical /dviory Committee
Cw LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cw echnical Committee
lCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntituto Cotarricene de Llectricidad - Llectricity lntitute ol Cota lica
lCLl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lnternational Commiion lor the rotection ol the Lanube liver
lCwC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lntertate Commiion lor water Coordination
lC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lnternational oint Commiion
ll80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lnternational letwork ol 8ain 0ranization
ll8lS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lrtyh liver 8ain lnlormation Sytem
lwlV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lnterated water leource Vanaement
LS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .oint Lanube Survey
L/l80}lLL0C}lLL08 . . . . . .Latin /merican letwork ol 8ain 0raniation - led Latinoamericana de
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0ranimo de Cuenca}lede Latino/mericana de 0ranimo de 8acia
LwC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Local water Commiion
V/SL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vahaweli /uthority ol Sri Lanka
VL8C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vurray-Larlin 8ain Commiion
VLl80 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vediterranean letwork ol 8ain 0raniation
VLl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .apanee Vinitry ol Land, lnlratructure, ranport and ourim
Vl/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Valta leource /uthority
VlC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vekon liver Commiion
Vwl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Vinitry ol water leource
l8/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lier 8ain /uthority
lC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lonCovernmental 0raniation
lSw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lew South wale
lwC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lational water Committee
lwlV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lational water leource Vater lan
0L/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0llicial Levelopment /itance
0LCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0raniation lor Lconomic Cooperation and Levelopment
0lLau}l0water . . . . . . . . . . . .0llice lnternational de l'Lau - lnternational 0llice lor water
0V\C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0raniation pour la Vie en \aleur du lleuve Cambie - 0raniation lor
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the Levelopment ol the Cambia liver
0V\S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0raniation pour la Vie en \aleur du lleuve Seneal - 0raniation lor
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver
0l/SLC0V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0rane-Sencu liver Commiion
0C/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0ranizaao do ratado de Cooperaao /mazonica - /mazon Co
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .operation reaty 0raniation
C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .iracicaba, Capivari and undiai river
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ublic articipation
l8C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .liver 8ain Committee
S/CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .water Levelopment and Vanaement lan
SL/CL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .water Levelopment and Vanaement Vater lan
SL/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sutainable Levelopment /ction lan
UCLl/SlCL . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Unidad de Cuenca del lio ena 8lanca - lCL Unit lor the liver ena
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8lanca 8ain
UlLSC0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .United lation Lducational, Scientilic and Cultural 0ranization
\8/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\olta 8ain /uthority
\8C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\olta 8ain echnical Committee
wlL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LU water lramework Lirective
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9
1 Intreductien
Part A Abcut thls handbcck: why we need
a practlcal gulde and hcw tc use lt
hi handbook i written lor bain manaer, overnment ollicial and all their partner
involved in water reource manaement. lt provide practical uidance lor improvin the
overnance ol lrehwater reource, in particular throuh ellective application ol the
interated water reource manaement (lwlV) approach in lake and river bain, and
acuiler. he handbook complement lwlV ellort already underway or planned at national
and international level.
Vuch academic work ha been done elewhere to examine dillerent concept reardin both
lwlV and bain manaement. lere our obective i to provide a practical uide to water
manaement in bain and illutrate the uideline with concrete example lrom bain
around the world. lt i not poible to cover all apect ol uch a complex ubect and thi
handbook complement other publication on bain manaement and lwlV. lowever, to
help the reader we outline ome key concept in bain manaement and lwlV (ee Section
1.1.1 to 1.1./ below), not a delinitive tatement but a a tartin point lor what lollow.
1.1 key cencepts
he world' ueable renewable lrehwater reource are lound in lake, wetland, river and
acuiler. / river or lake bain i the area bounded by the waterhed ol a ytem ol tream
and river that llow toward the ame outlet. ln the cae ol river thi i enerally the ea, but
may be an inland water body, uch a a lake or wamp. / roundwater bain or acuiler i a
dicrete body ol underround water.
he bain ha been reconied a a practical hydroloical unit lor water reource
manaement. Lillerent dicipline, and dillerent countrie, ue dillerent term, uch a bain,
catchment and waterhed, but in thi book we ue the term 'bain'.
/round the world there are `63 lare tranboundary river bain (8ox 1./) and hundred ol
tranboundary acuiler.
1.1.1 1he basin
Centinent humber eI transbeundary basins Percentage eI centinentaI area (%)
/lrica 59 6`
/ia 57 39
Lurope 69 5/
lorth /merica /u 35
South /merica 3S 6u
otal `63 /5
Scurce: lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns
ex 1.A. 1ransbeundary basins in the Iive centinents
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1.1.2 1he integrated water reseurces management appreach
1.1.3 asin management
he interated water reource manaement approach help to manae and develop water
reource in a utainable and balanced way, takin account ol ocial, economic and
environmental interet. lt reconie the many dillerent and competin interet roup, the
ector that ue and abue water, and the need ol the environment.
he interated approach coordinate water reource manaement acro ector and
interet roup, and at dillerent cale, lrom local to international. lt emphaie involvement
in national policy and law makin procee, etablihin ood overnance and creatin
ellective intitutional and reulatory arranement a route to more ecuitable and
utainable deciion. / rane ol tool, uch a ocial and environmental aement,
economic intrument, and inlormation and monitorin ytem, upport thi proce.
olicie lor the ue and protection ol water reource in a country are et by national
overnment. /lthouh the implementation ol thee policie i ellective at many cale,
where policie are implemented at the bain cale, there i the opportunity to deliver 'whole
bain' olution and to reolve uptreamdowntream (lor a river) and reiontoreion (lor a
lake or roundwater reource) controverie. he 'whole bain' approach allow the
aement ol impact at a ytem level. ln other word, national policie, a well a
international areement and reional convention lor tranboundary water, are applied to
natural bain. he relationhip between adminiterin water reource within a country and
manain water in bain thu become dynamic and more reponive to chanin
circumtance, whether environmental, ocial or economic.
1.1.4 asin erganisatien
we ue 'bain oraniation' a a eneric term to reler to all type ol intitution that manae
bain. hee may be lormal lare or mall oraniation or ut inlormal roup ol people.
8ain oraniation vary in lunction and purpoe, in accordance with the mandate and leal
arranement ued lor their etablihment. Chapter / lole and type ol bain oraniation
decribe the main type ol bain oraniation. lowever, a Chapter / make clear, we need
to remember that ome bain oraniation do not lit neatly into thee cateorie. hey alo
evolve a circumtance chane.
he handbook i mainly oriented toward trenthenin lormal bain oraniation that have
been et up by national law or international treatie.
Vuch ha been written elewhere about the water challene we lace. lere, we locu on the
main iue relevant to bain manaement.
lt i important to reconie both the poitive and neative apect ol water. 0n the one
hand, water i eential to human, animal and plant lile. water upport productive activitie,
ariculture, eneration ol hydropower, indutrie, lihin, tourim, tranport, lor example. 0n
the other hand, water can be extremely detructive, carryin dieae and lloodin vat
area. lnullicient water or proloned drouht can reult in widepread death and economic
decline. water can alo caue or ecalate conllict between communitie in a local or
national bain, or in tranboundary bain hared by more than one country.
we alo need to undertand the way in which ociety ue and pollute water, or modilie
the hydromorpholoy ol water coure. hee chane the cuantity and cuality ol water in
1.2 PrebIems and chaIIenges Iacing water managers
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ecoytem which, apart lorm their intrinic value, provide eential 'natural ervice' ol reat
value to human well bein. ln many developin countrie there i onoin deradation ol
lrehwater reource - in term ol both cuantity and cuality - and ol acuatic ecoytem.
hi mean lewer benelit, le lile upport and more waterrelated rik and hazard.
Clearly, lactor uch a population rowth, demoraphic chane, economic development
and climate chane have a critical impact on water reource. Lcually, water reource have
a inilicant impact on production and economic rowth, on health and livelihood, and on
national ecurity. / the preure on water reource row, it i vital that we manae
renewable lrehwater properly. 8ut, manain water i becomin increainly complex and
contentiou.
ln many reion, manain water ha alway been a maor problem becaue ol the natural
variability and uncertainty in weather pattern. with climate chane thi problem i likely to
et wore. ln ome bain, chane in climate will mean le rainlall and lower river llow,
while in other bain climate chane will mean more llood. hee chane will be
exacerbated becaue ol other variation uch a population and economic rowth,
urbaniation and riin demand lor lood, which increae the demand lor water, and
derade water coure and acuiler in bain where water i already carce. he chane in
the Seneal liver bain illutrate thi only too clearly (Lxample 1.1).
xampIe 1.1. 5enegaI kiver basin: cIimate variabiIity exacerbates water scarcity
Lue to climate variability, the annual llow in the Seneal liver ha lallen and i now a cuarter
ol what it wa in the 195u. Veanwhile the population ha rown and there are 3u more
people now than there were in the 195u. eople who live in the Seneal bain now have
about one lilth ol the amount ol water reource available per peron compared to thoe who
lived there ixty year ao.
Lconomic rowth, ellort to reduce poverty, and demoraphic and ocial chane drive
demand lor water inlratructure to upport lood production, enerate enery, and provide
ood and ervice. Such development have a bi impact on water reource. lor many
year, it wa aumed that there wa enouh water lor thee development and that natural
procee would deal with pollution. 8ut, althouh the contruction ol irriation cheme,
hydropower dam, naviable waterway and water upplie lor home, tourim and
indutrie have brouht hue benelit to million ol people, thee development have alo
brouht enormou chane to the hydroloical reime, ecoytem and landcape ol mot
ol the world' river, lake and acuiler.
/ water carcity increae and hydroloical variability become larer, dealin with chane
brouht about by development preent a lormidable challene. he bain manaer now
lace hue preure, rik and conllict in balancin economic development with
maintainin healthy water reource. 8ut, in order to prore, poorer reion ol the world
mut develop water inlratructure. he challene lor overnment and bain manaer i to
balance development with utainability. hi mean lindin marter way to develop and
manae water reource and lindin repone appropriate to the circumtance in each
particular bain.
8ain manaer alo have to addre pollution. / town and citie pread alon riverbank
and lakehore, water pollution lrom dometic and indutrial wate increae. /dvance in
ariculture mean that larmer ue more lertilier and peticide, which alo increae
pollution. he conecuence ol bioloical and chemical pollution, and the alteration ol river
and lake llow and diminution ol roundwater table, can be dire. liver become overrich in
nutrient and acuatic weed prolilerate.
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hi detruction or deradation ol ecoytem put many communitie that depend on
natural reource at rik. 8iodiverity i lot and liherie decline. lu, more and more
people are becomin expoed to waterrelated health hazard. Lven the mot conervative
etimate conider that waterrelated dieae are currently cauin between ` and 5 million
death every year and thi could increae to 59 and 135 million death a year by `u`u
1
.
lowever, reion ol the world where water reource are already hihly developed alo lace
eriou challene. lere, water reource are olten overexploited. 8ain manaer have to
manae hihly complex interaction between what i happenin uptream and what i
happenin downtream, and the ellect on hydroloical, biochemical and bioloical
procee. hey have to manae both urlace and roundwater, and balance manaement ol
water lor economic activitie and the ecoloical health ol river, wetland and lake. hey are
alo at the centre ol debate on inecuitable and inadecuate harin ol cot and benelit:
lor example the linancial cot ol invetment and maintenance, cot ol advere ocial and
environmental conecuence, and the imbalance in acce to the reource enerated, uch
a electricity, irriated land, and drinkin water. hee iue challene not only developed
countrie but alo increainly challene water manaer in rapidly rowin economie and
everely watertreed reion.
he interconnected nature ol water manaement within a bain directly impact on
communitie, adminitrative reion and political territorie (province, nation). hoe who
hare a bain are hihly interdependent. 8ain manaer mut lind way to addre thee
waterrelated challene in order to avert problem, uch a ocial unret, conllict between
tate, lowin ol economic development and deradation ol vital reource.
8ain that cover more than one country - tranboundary bain - preent particular
challene lor manaer. litorically, tranboundary bain have encouraed reional co
operation but, a reource dwindle and demand row, the potential lor conllict over hared
water alo row. o ollet thi, ome bain are uin a hared viion approach that
incorporate many ol the principle ol the lwlV approach, lor example, the ue ol
participatory procee to conider bain iue in the overall development context ol all the
riparian tate in the bain (Lxample 1.`).
1
6lelck 2002
xampIe 1.2. hiIe, Lake Chad and higer basins: shared visiens
he lile 8ain lnitiative i the reult ol a 'hared viion' approach that eek to hare the
benelit derived lrom ood water reource development and manaement between the
riparian countrie rather than locu pecilically on harin the water itell. he Shared \iion
roram alo build takeholder' capacity to participate in manain natural reource acro
boundarie, hare benelit and improve water elliciency in ariculture lor example, all ol which
are conitent with lwlV principle. Similar procee in the Lake Chad and lier bain have
led to the development ol lonterm action plan built on a hared viion.
Vany ol the challene lacin water manaer are not new. 8ut, becaue the nature and ize
ol the problem diller lrom one reion to another and lrom one bain to another, the
repone vary widely. here i not and there cannot be a blueprint olution to the problem.
lowever, addrein thee challene uually need repone in two key area: repone
that addre tructural iue, includin data accuiition, inlratructure and operation and
1.3 Addressing the chaIIenges
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xampIe 1.3. AIrica: incerperating IwkM principIes in natienaI peIicies
ln the early `uuu, everal countrie in /lrica interated the lwlV approach into lormal
overnment tructure. lor example, Chana et up a water leource Commiion with a
croectoral mandate. he Chana water /ct (199S), the South /lrican water /ct (199S) and
Vali' `uu7 water Code, amon other, all take an interated approach. 8urkina lao
completed an lwlV lan in `uu3. Kenya, Valawi, Vali, Seneal and Zambia completed plan
in `uuS, and 8enin, Cape \erde, Lritrea, Vozambicue and Swaziland are all in the proce ol
developin imilar plan.
maintenance; and intitutional repone (olten called 'olt' intervention) that cover iue
uch a policie and pricin, or knowlede and inlormation. 8oth kind ol repone are
important and interrelated.
he tructural intervention, becaue they provide ervice, tend to be viible, politically
attractive and hih cot. hey thu draw mot attention. he intitutional intervention are
low cot, ometime politically or ocially contentiou and olten le tanible. Unlortunately,
they thu have a much lower prolile.
ln thi handbook, we locu on the intitutional or 'olt' repone becaue there i plenty ol
cientilic and technical inlormation already available on tructural iue. here i lar le
inlormation available on intitutional iue but it i only by addrein intitutional iue
that we can enure that tructural intervention are appropriate, utainable and work a
planned, and that they erve thoe mot in need. Leviin appropriate intitutional
repone lie at the heart ol the lwlV approach and enable overnment and bain
manaer to make a inilicant contribution to manain reource ecuitably and
utainably.
Vany intitutional repone are bein applied (alone or alon with tructural repone) to
addre the challene in bain manaement. hee olution are baed on deviin
appropriate rule lor overnance and ettin up appropriate oraniational tructure.
he rule can be international treatie, norm, law, reulation, areement, convention or
policie, a well a common practice. he rule deline, lor example, acce to water
reource and how they will be ued and manaed, and may be lormal or inlormal, written,
oral or tacitly accepted practice.
0raniational tructure include international commiion or authoritie, lederal or
tate}province minitrie, bain council, aencie, multitakeholder roup, community or
proleional aociation and nonovernmental oraniation (lC0). hey may be lormal
or inlormal.
ln the lat lew decade, many countrie have made inilicant ellort to improve intitutional
and leal lramework lor water manaement. lational water law and policie adopted
recently have enerally taken into account ood overnance value and lwlV principle,
uch a participation, ender and ecuity iue, environment concern and economic
aement. /t the `uu` world Summit on Sutainable Levelopment, many countrie made
a commitment to develop national lwlV and water elliciency plan (Lxample 1.3).
he Ulwater lobal urvey ol national lwlV plan carried out a part ol the 16th eion ol
the Commiion on Sutainable Levelopment in `uuS, lound that 16 ol the `7 developed
countrie and 19 ol the 77 developin countrie urveyed had lully or partially developed
lwlV plan. he report concluded that 'there i a ood indication that the lwlV approach i
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bein incorporated into national plan and trateie and that tanible benelit are either
evident or are likely to be realied in the near luture'
`
.
8ut, now that national lwlV plan are bein developed, the challene i to enure that they
are implemented ellectively. ln thi, bain manaer will be at the lorelront. hey will be
workin in a variety ol context a water overnance lramework et up by overnment to
carry out the plan will diller. 8ain entirely within national boundarie will be much impler
to manae than thoe hared by two or more countrie.
8ainlevel water manaement i not new. Some countrie, Spain and lrance lor example,
have practiced bain water manaement lor decade. Spain ha had nine 'Conlederacione
lidroralica' (8ain /uthoritie) lor more than 75 year and, ince 196/, lrance ha had ix
'Comite de 8ain' (8ain Committee) and '/ence de l'Lau' (water /encie). ln Cermany,
the luhr /ociation (luhrverband), one ol 11 river bain oraniation in the tate ol lorth
lhinewetphalia, wa created a early a 1S99, a a voluntary alliance ol water work and
hydropower producer. lnternational commiion were created many year ao in Lurope,
lor intance lor the lhine, Veue, Scheldt, Voelle and Sarre river, and lor Lake Ceneva. ln
the US, the enneee \alley /uthority wa etablihed in 1933. ln /utralia, the 199` Vurray
Larlin /reement mandated the Vurray-Larlin 8ain Commiion to take reponibility lor
coordination, plannin and utainable manaement ol water, land and the environment. ln
19u9, the 8oundary water reaty between the overnment ol US/ and Canada etablihed
an lnternational oint Commiion lor hared water. ln South Lat /ia, the /reement on
cooperation lor the utainable development ol the Vekon liver bain wa ined in 1995
and led to the etablihment ol the Vekon liver Commiion. he lier 8ain /uthority and
the Lake Chad 8ain Commiion were etablihed in the early 196u, while the Seneal and
Cambia liver Levelopment 0raniation were created in the 197u. (uebec' `uu`
lational water Law etablihed interated water manaement at the bain level, tartin
with 33 priority bain. Vexico in 199`, 8razil in 1997 (Lxample 1./), and Vorocco and
/leria modilied their water law and introduced a bainoriented manaement approach. ln
the Luropean Union, the water lramework Lirective recuire all `7 member tate to develop
bain manaement plan.
xampIe 1.4. raziI: new water management peIicy and structure
Since 1997, when 8razil promulated it lational water Law, the overnment ha put in place
a new tructure to promote water manaement in an interated, decentralied and
participatory way. / water leource lational Council and a lational water leulatory /ency
were created, a well a liver 8ain Committee at the lederal and tate level.
raditionally, the main reponibility ol many bain oraniation ha been lor buildin
inlratructure. lowever, becaue ol the advere ocial and environmental impact that
inlratructure development can have, ome overnment and lundin aencie have
adopted policie to aleuard aaint neative apect. 8ecaue ol thi, in the late twentieth
century lundin aencie became reluctant to upport uch 'inlratructure only' proect.
lowever, it i poible to minimie neative impact while optimiin the benelit ol lare
water inlratructure proect. 8ut thi mean coniderin the impact ol inlratructure
development on the complex dynamic between ociety and ecoytem, conultin
enuinely with all relevant takeholder, and payin due attention to ecuity and
utainability iue.
he critical tak lor bain manaer i to et thi balance riht in the lon term. he way to do
it i by takin an interated water reource manaement approach. Linkin national lwlV
2
uh-water 2008
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xampIe 1.5. CwP China eIIew kiver Partnership: IwkM at river basin IeveI
ln repone to an invitation by the Vinitry ol water leource, Cw China wa etablihed in
lovember `uuu. China wa reviewin it water law and needed a neutral platlorm to conider
takeholder input and international water law experience. Cw' participation in thi proce
helped incorporate lwlV in the `uu` China water Law. lmplementin the law, however, i an
onoin proce.
8etween `uu` and `uuS Cw China etablihed lour water artnerhip in the province ol
luian, lebei, Shaanxi, lunan and one partnerhip lor the nine rovince ol the Yellow liver
8ain to brin takeholder lrom dillerent ector and dicipline toether.
Since `uu6 the Cw China Yellow liver artnerhip ha provided a platlorm lor takeholder
to collectively addre the iue ol retorin the health ol the Yellow liver. he artnerhip ha
oranied meetin, workhop and dialoue on important iue, and how bet to deal with
them when implementin the new water law in the liver 8ain. he meetin included ra
root dialoue with larmer and environmental lC0 lor example, on principle ol water
allocation and water cuality demand. he output lrom the conultation between key
takeholder were hared with the Yellow liver Conervancy Commiion and the Covernment
and helped lormulate appropriate policie and leilation.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.gwpchlna.crg and http:]]www.yrra.crg.cn (slte under ccnstructlcn)
policy ettin and plannin procee with bain manaement help lower rik and lead to
more utainability, promotin economic rowth and more ecuitable development while
protectin the environment. he interated approach reconie and tackle the dillicult
tradeoll that overnment policy maker and bain manaer need to make in the context ol
the reion' or country' overall trateic development aim. he Cw China Yellow liver
artnerhip provide an example (Lxample 1.5).
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16
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k P0Ih15
Chapters 3-10 cf thls handbcck respcnd tc scme cf the questlcns mcst
frequently asked abcut lntegrated water rescurces management at the
basln level:
! what pclltlcal and legal factcrs dc basln managers need tc
understand and take lntc acccunt! Chapter 3 Fstabllshlng basln
management systems.
! what are the functlcns and what are the dlfferent klnds cf
lnstltutlcnal and legal arrangements fcr basln crganlsatlcns! Chapter
/ kcles and types cf basln crganlsatlcns.
! what are the dlfferent ways ln whlch basln crganlsatlcns and basln
management can be flnanced! Chapter 5 Flnance.
! what type, level, structure and frequency cf stakehclder lnvclvement
shculd basln managers seek tc establlsh! Chapter 6 lnvclvlng
stakehclders.
! Fcw shculd basln managers gc abcut strateglc plannlng! Chapter 7
Strateglc lcng-term plannlng.
! what dc basln managers need tc ccnslder ln develcplng and
lmplementlng basln actlcn plans, and hcw can they get feedback cn
hcw plans are prcgresslng! Chapter 8 8asln actlcn plans.
! what data and lnfcrmatlcn management systems dc basln managers
need fcr lntegrated water rescurces management! Chapter 9 8asln
lnfcrmatlcn systems and mcnltcrlng.
! what are the key ccmmunlcatlcn lssues basln managers need tc
ccnslder! Chapter 10 Ccmmunlcatlcn.
2 hew te use this handbeek
hi handbook et out uetion, rather than delinitive anwer, and provide illutration
ol how prein challene in water reource manaement in bain are bein dealt with in
practice. he boxe throuhout the book uet uideline lor ood practice (lor example
8ox `./, 8ox 7.L). he example ive actual practice in bain (e.. Lxample 1.1, Lxample
/.6).
/cademic publication can be complex and too detailed to be uelul to practical manaer.
rainin manual are ood introduction, but they tend to overimplily complex iue. hi
handbook trie to bride the ap and build on exitin tool, manual and uidebook lor
applyin lwlV at the river or lake bain and acuiler level. lt draw heavily on the work
initiated by ll80, Cw and other on river bain manaement.
lor the many bain which lace, or will oon lace, eriou water manaement challene, and
where overnance ytem are weak, thi handbook oller uideline on etablihin
appropriate intitutional and oraniational arranement. he example how that it i not a
cuetion ol applyin imple recipe. we need to thorouhly undertand the intricacie ol how
all apect ol water are actually manaed at the bain level and work lrom there. we trut the
handbook will alo be uelul in aein exitin bain overnance lramework and
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xampIe 2.1. veIta basin: appIying integrated water reseurces management
he expert team taked by \olta 8ain riparian overnment to conceive the \olta 8ain
/uthority (\8/) wa explicitly mandated to rellect lwlV and ecoytem manaement concern
in the dein ol the bain authority. he convention etablihin \8/ i bein ratilied by the
\olta 8ain riparian countrie. (/lo ee Lxample 3.7.)
he Cw deline interated water reource manaement a a proce that 'promote the
coordinated development and manaement ol water, land and related reource, in order to
maximie the reultant economic and ocial wellare in an ecuitable manner without
compromiin the utainability ol vital ecoytem'
3
. /t the river or lake bain and acuiler
level, lwlV can be delined a a proce that enable the coordinated manaement ol water,
land and related reource within the limit ol a bain o a to optimie and ecuitably hare
the reultin ocioeconomic wellbein without compromiin the lonterm health ol vital
ecoytem.
he lwlV approach at the national level doe not conllict with the lwlV approach at the
bain level, in lact, they are complementary. / comprehenive national lramework lor lwlV
i eential lor both national and tranboundary bain manaement.
within the limit ol a bain, it i not an eay tak to interate land ue and water
manaement. hi i becaue land manaement, which cover plannin, loretry, indutry,
ariculture and the environment, i uually overned by policie not connected to water
policy and i manaed by many dillerent part ol an adminitration.
leverthele, we can draw practical leon lrom the experience ol bain manaer around
the world who are interatin water manaement in dillerent context. hi handbook draw
toether thee practical leon, illutrated where poible with concrete example, to hare
what ha been learned o lar. he \olta 8ain i an example ol where uch ellort are
underway (Lxample `.1).
2.1 Integrated water reseurces management in basins
2.2 asin management as an iterative precess
identilyin area where improvement are needed, epecially in bain where areement
and overnance tructure, uch a water charter and bain committee, have recently been
et up.
3
6wP TAC 2000
olicy makin, plannin and manaement miht be conidered a a erie ol ecuential
tep in bain manaement. he lirt tep i to draw up broad policy oal (where we want to
et to). he next tep are to pecily water manaement problem to be olved (identily
iue), lit potential trateie (how we are oin to et there), evaluate each ol thee,
elect a tratey or combination ol trateie, implement the tratey, evaluate the
outcome, learn lrom thee outcome and revie our plan to make it work better in the
luture. he tep lorm a cycle. 0l coure, in practice thi cycle may be interrupted by external
lorce, but the 'learninbydoin manaement cycle' (8ox `./) help u incorporate what we
learn in the proce ol plannin and manain water and take into account new inlormation
a it come to hand. hi mean we can adapt how we manae water to chanin
circumtance, lor example political chane, natural catatrophe and chane in
demoraphy.
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eveIepment 0bjectives
kegienaI er hatienaI CeaIs
water keseurces
Issues Assessment
water keseurces
PeIicy]5trategy
5trategic Leng-1erm
PIanning
IwkM
ImpIementatien PIan
asin Actien PIan
Actiens eI
ImpIementatien
Menitering and
vaIuatien eI
Pregress
ex 2.A. 1he Iearning-by-deing management cycIe eI pIanning and impIementatien
IMPLMh1A1I0h
nabIing nvirenment
InstitutienaI 5tructures
Management Instruments
InIrastructure eveIepment
2.3 ntry IeveIs Ier integrated water reseurces management in basins
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xampIe 2.2. Mekeng kiver basin: intreducing IwkM at IecaI, impIementatien
and peIicy IeveIs
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section_1_b.qxd 12/02/2009 09:18 Page 19
lt i important to reconie, thouh, that entry level will depend on the nature ol the pecilic
bain (Lxample `.3, `./), particularly:
! whether the bain i within one country or everal countrie;
! the cale ol plannin and manaement (tranboundary, national, local);
! the tae ol development ol the bain manaement oraniation;
! the tae ol development in the bain, lor example a reard the economy,
inlratructure;
! the main water manaement challene, lor example population preure, anitation,
lood production, health, llood and drouht protection; and
! the ocial, economic, political and intitutional environment.
lmplementation level
/t the proect level, VlC policie allow thoe who will be allected by a proect to inlluence
deciion on proect plan, implementation and monitorin.
/t the proramme level, plannin in the 8ain Levelopment roramme i participatory. /nd,
to monitor the overall work proramme, VlC invite partner (throuh a lormal Vemorandum
ol Undertandin) to participate a oberver at it oint Committee and Council meetin.
VlC development partner are alo actively enaed in VlC deciion makin throuh
overnance meetin.
olicy level
Vany actor in the Vekon leion wih to contribute to VlC oal and be proactive in
policymakin. ln `uuS, the VlC initiated a reional conultation to come up with eneral
principle lor takeholder involvement at the VlC level and a policy on takeholder
involvement in VlC Covernance 8odie. hi will broaden political deciion makin procee
and ownerhip, trenthen reional coordination between takeholder and the VlC, and
loter accountability.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.mrcmekcng.crg
xampIe 2.3. India: starting integrated water reseurces management at the district IeveI
ln lndia, Litrict Collector are Central lndian Covernment appointee in chare ol the
overnance ol a ditrict in a tate. /t thi level, there may be an opportunity lor a collector to
prepare a ditrict land and water manaement plan lor a bain in the ditrict. hi will pecily
what action will be taken acro the bain to interate water reource manaement. he
action will harmonie with tate and national water policie, an overall bain manaement
tratey, and development, poverty reduction, and health and irriation elliciency oal at
dillerent level.
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we alo need to reconie that, where they exit, bain oraniation are at dillerent tae
ol development. hey are alo contantly evolvin a new law are paed and
reponibilitie and mandate chane. hi handbook help bain manaer undertand
manaement lramework. 8ain manaer can work within thee lramework (8ox `.8, liure
1) to reoranie exitin bain oraniation or initiative to become more locued on the
lwlV approach.
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xampIe 2.4. ucatan PeninsuIa, Mexice: integrating greundwater reseurces
management at the regienaI IeveI
he Yucatan eninula i made up ol three tate, Campeche, (uintana loo and Yucatan. he
Vexican lational water Law `uu/ deinate the lational water Commiion (C0l/CU/) a
the lederal authority reponible lor water reource manaement. he Yucatan eninula
8ain 0raniation repreent the Yucatan eninula on C0l/CU/. he 8ain Council, in co
ordination with takeholder:
! develop a leional /ction lan lor the Yucatan eninula acuiler;
! network water inlormation ytem;
! enure participation ol water uer; and
! in coordination with the local authoritie, ha created /` water culture complexe in
municipalitie which encourae ellicient ue ol water and dicourae pollution.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ccnagua.gcb.mx
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ex 2.. asin management Iramewerk
PeIicy]hatienaI ImpIementatien 0peratienaI
Type cf basln
crganlsatlcn
Transbcundary (e.g.)
ccmmlsslcn
hatlcnal, lnter-state
basln (e.g.
ccmmlsslcn, authcrlty,
asscclatlcn)
Lccal (e.g. land and
water management
grcup)
8asln management
strategles and plans
Transbcundary basln
management
agreement cr plan,
transbcundary
ccmpact, natlcnal
basln management
plan
Sub-basln
management plan cr
strategy, large sub-
watershed cr sub-
aqulfer cr lake
management plan
Lccal land and water
management plan,
stcrm water
management plan,
lccal plannlng scheme
(admlnlstered by lccal
gcvernment)
Level cf declslcn-
maklng
Flghest pclltlcal
declslcn-maklng level,
transbcundary
agreements
Prcvlnce, state,
dlstrlct, terrltcry (cr
natlcnal ln small
states)
vlllage cc-cperatlve,
farm, factcry, fcrest,
lccal gcvernment,
water use dlstrlct
hatural rescurce
system (see Flgure 1)
Part cf a gecgraphlcal
zcne, such as a rlver,
lake cr aqulfer basln
keglcnal cr lccal
ecclcglcal system cf a
lake, rlver valley wlthln
a basln, cr sub-aqulfer
wlthln an aqulfer
prcvlnce
Areas wlth relatlvely
unlfcrm ecclcglcal and
hydrclcglcal
ccndltlcns
Scurce: Fccper 2005, p.120, adapted frcm hewscn 1992
section_1_b.qxd 30/01/2009 14:59 Page 21
Figure 1. iagrammatic representatien eI macre-, mese- and micre-IeveI naturaI water
reseurce systems in a basin management Iramewerk. / macrolevel ytem deal with
part ol a eoraphical zone, uch a a river, lake or acuiler bain. / meolevel ytem deal
with a reional or local ecoloical ytem ol a lake, river valley within a bain, or ubacuiler
within an acuiler province. / microlevel ytem deal with a relatively unilorm ecoloical
and hydroloical unit.
/ key iue i how the bain adminitration lit with and relate to other adminitrative
level - national, provincial, ditrict, community. hi need to be reolved in order to avoid
duplication and conluion ol reponibilitie with other adminitrative bodie.
what i needed i a clear leal lramework that pecilie the role and reponibilitie, riht
and obliation ol takeholder, the level ol decentraliation, and the procee and
mean lor ood water overnance. Lxample `.5 how how bain oraniation in lrance lit
in uch a lramework.
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Scurce: Fccper 2005
xampIe 2.5. France: natienaI, river basin and IecaI water cemmittees
ln lrance, water reource manaement and plannin i intitutionalied at three level:
national, bain and ubbain.
/t national level, a Vember ol arliament nominated by the rime Viniter chair a lational
water Committee (lwC). he lwC conit ol repreentative ol water uer, aociation,
local authoritie and overnment adminitration, a well a expert and the preident ol the
8ain Committee. he lwC i conulted on national water policy and ive advice on dralt
law and decree, relorm and dralt overnment action plan. he `uu6 water Law widened
the cope ol the lwC and created additional committee lor water price, public water upply
and anitation ervice, lihin and the water inlormation ytem.
ln each ol the ix lare river bain, a liver 8ain Committee (l8C), chaired by a local elected
ollicial, conit ol repreentative lrom local authoritie (/u), water uer and aociation
(/u) and the State (`u). he l8C prepare a water Levelopment and Vanaement Vater
lan (SL/CL) lor approval by the State. he SL/CL et the overall tratey and obective lor
water manaement in the bain. lt i a leal lramework. /ny deciion likely to allect water
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reource mut be compatible, or made compatible, with the SL/CL. SL/CL were lirt
developed lollowin the 199` water Law. Lach ha now been revied a a liver 8ain
Vanaement lan that complie with the Luropean water lramework Lirective.
/t the local level - tributary, ubbain or acuiler - Local water Commiion (LwC)
implement the SL/CL and prepare a water Levelopment and Vanaement lan (S/CL). LwC
conit ol repreentative ol local authoritie (5u), water uer and aociation (`5) and
the State (`5). / Local water Commiion can implement plan throuh a Local ublic 8ain
Ltablihment or other local roup. lntermunicipal bodie may alo undertake tudie or work
at the ubbain cale.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: www.gesteau.eaufrance.fr and http:]]www.lesagencesdeleau.fr
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3 stabIishing basin management systems
Part Key lssues ln lntegratlng water
rescurces management ln baslns
!"# %&'&(#%#') *+ ,&)#- -#.*/-0#. 0&' 1# & .#'.2)23# 4*52)20&5 2../#6 7#0&/.# *+ )"2.8 1&.2'
%&'&(#%#') '##9. )* "&3# & .)-*'( :3*20#: 2' '&)2*'&5 9#02.2*' %&;2'(6 !"2. %#&'. .#0/-2'(
92-#0) 52'#. *+ 0*%%/'20&)2*' )* %2'2.)#-. &'9 (*3#-'%#') 0*%%2))##. 0*'0#-'#9 ,2)"
'&)/-&5 -#.*/-0#. %&'&(#%#')6 <2';. )* "2(" 5#3#5. *+ (*3#-'%#') 4/) 1&.2' %&'&(#%#')
+2-%5= *' 45&''2'( &'9 #0*'*%20 9#3#5*4%#') &(#'9&.6 >2("?5#3#5 ./44*-) 2. ;#= )*
#.)&152."2'( )"# 5#(&5 +-&%#,*-;8 2'.)2)/)2*'. &'9 %&'&(#%#') .)-/0)/-#. )"&) &-# '##9#9 +*-
-*1/.) 1&.2' %&'&(#%#') .=.)#%.6
@"#-# )"#-# 2. 4*52)20&5 ,2558 2) 2. 4*..215# )* 4/) 2' 45&0# 4*5202#.8 5&,.8 +2'&'02'(
&--&'(#%#'). &'9 .)&15# 4/1520 2'.)2)/)2*'. +*- ,&)#- %&'&(#%#')6 @2)" 4*52)20&5 ,2558 )"#
-/5#. &'9 -#(/5&)2*'.8 &'9 2'.)2)/)2*'. )"&) %&'&(# ,&)#- &-# %*-# 52;#5= )* +/'0)2*'
#++#0)23#5=8 #3#' &) )2%#. *+ 02325 /'-#.) &'9 )"-*/(" 0"&'(#. *+ (*3#-'%#')6 !"# 2%4*-)&'0#
*+ 4*52)20&5 ,255 %#&'. )"&) 2) 2. 0-2)20&5 )* ,*-; ,2)" 9#02.2*' %&;#-. A )* #B45&2' ,"&)
2')#(-&)#9 ,&)#- -#.*/-0#. %&'&(#%#') 2. &'9 ,"= 2) 2. 2%4*-)&') A )* (#) )"2. "2("?5#3#5
./44*-) &'9 0*%%2)%#') CDB&%45# E6FG6
H5)"*/(" 4*52)20&5 5#&9#-."24 %&))#-.8 &' 2')#(-&)#9 &44-*&0" 0&''*) ,*-; 2+ ,&)#-
%&'&(#%#') 2. #')2-#5= )*4 9*,' &'9 4-#05/9#. .)&;#"*59#- 2'3*53#%#')6 I@JK 2%452#. )"&)
)"*.# ,"* &-# 2')#-#.)#9 2'8 *- ,"* ,255 1# &++#0)#9 1= 9#02.2*'. *' ,&)#- -#.*/-0#.8 ,255 1#
2'3*53#9 2' 1&.2' %&'&(#%#') &'9 )"&) 2'+*-%&)2*' ,255 1# #B0"&'(#9 +-##5=6 L-##9*% *+
2'+*-%&)2*' 2. 0-/02&5 2' +2'92'( (**9 .*5/)2*'.6 @"#-# )"#-# 2. '* )-&'.4&-#'0= *-
&00*/')&1252)=8 ,"#-# )"*.# &++#0)#9 &-# #B05/9#98 *- ,"#-# 0*--/4)2*' 2. #'9#%208 2) 2.
92++20/5) )* 4/) )"# I@JK &44-*&0" 2')* 4-&0)20#6
3.1 PeIiticaI wiII and basin management systems
k P0Ih15
! Pclltlcal wlll, hlgh-level ccmmltment and water user dlalcgues are
essentlal ln establlshlng basln management systems.
! 8asln management ls gcverned by natlcnal water pcllcles and
leglslatlcn, and lnternatlcnal agreements.
! 8asln crganlsatlcns cperate wlthln a three-dlmenslcnal framewcrk:
the enabllng envlrcnment, lnstltutlcnal arrangements (rcles and
respcnslbllltles), and management mechanlsms.
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8ut that doe not mean that, in hierarchical ocietie, the lwlV approach hould be
abandoned. he anwer in thee ituation i to take a tepbytep approach. lor example,
the lirt tep could be lor roup ol takeholder to meet (ee Section `.3 Lntry level lor
interated water reource manaement in bain) and lind common area ol concern where
action i needed. 0nce iue have been identilied, inlormation can be collected and hared,
and propoal put lorward lor endorement by overnment.
he approach to interation mut be both vertical - acro dillerent level ol authority - and
horizontal - acro dillerent water uer and allected roup. / key element ol horizontal
interation i brinin toether minitrie reponible lor activitie that impact on water -
minitrie ol linance, plannin, ariculture, tranport and enery - and thoe with ocial or
environmental reponibilitie - minitrie ol health and the environment. within any bain
there will inevitably be conllictin demand lor water, lor example lor dometic ue,
irriation, environmental protection, hydropower and recreation a well a iue uch a
pollution or modilication in the llow reime.
Viniterial coordination bodie, uch a cabinet committee, council ol miniter, are uelul
lor coordinatin action acro portlolio. lowever, they only work well when miniter are
committed and when they are backed up at the hihet level (e.. by the reident, rime
Viniter). hee miniterial coordination bodie need to be etablihed o that there are
clear line ol reportin both to enior executive in overnment and to bain oraniation,
local overnment and water uer oraniation.
when the iue allect more than one country, ummit or conlerence ol head ol tate may
be needed to brin toether leader to dicu and coordinate water iue in
tranboundary bain.
xampIe 3.1. Matanza-kiachueIe basin, uenes Aires, Argentina: the impertance eI
peIiticaI wiII
he Vatanza-liachuelo 8ain, in reater 8ueno /ire, i denely populated and the mot
urbanied and indutrialied bain in Latin /merica. wate dichared directly into the river or
the torm drainae ytem eriouly pollute the roundwater.
/ lirt attempt to tackle pollution by the Vatanza-liachuelo Lxecutive Committee lailed and,
in `uu6, it wa replaced by the Vatanza-liachuelo liver 8ain /uthority, which wa iven new
power. ll it i to avoid the lailure ol the pat, it i eential that the /uthority ue thee new
power to implement whatever plan i developed. lt lirt tak mut be to locu political will on
the problem, omethin no one ha yet been able to do.
here i reaon lor modet optimim. / recent deciion on a cae brouht by reident in the
bain claimin damae lor environmental contamination ol the Vatanza-liachuelo liver wa
reolved in their lavour. he /rentine Supreme Court determined that the lederal
Covernment, the rovince ol 8ueno /ire and the City ol 8ueno /ire were liable lor exitin
damae and hould prevent luture environmental damae in the river bain. he Court ordered
the /uthority to carry out the reponibilitie ained to it under law to clean up the bain
and will hold the /uthority liable il it lail to do o. ln addition, the Court intructed the
lational 0mbudman and the lC0 who participated in the cae to lorm a chartered body,
which will exercie control over the cleanup plan.
3.1.1 Inter-ministeriaI ce-erdinatien
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xampIe 3.2. 0range-5enqu basin: readmap Ier water-user diaIegue en basin
management
he 0rane-Sencu bain in outhern /lrica i hared by Leotho, South /lrica, 8otwana and
lamibia. he 0rane-Sencu liver Commiion (0l/SLC0V), etablihed in `uuu, recently
developed a 'roadmap lor takeholder participation'.
he roadmap et out how takeholder in the 0rane-Sencu liver bain will participate in
dialoue with 0l/SLC0V on the comanaement and utainable development ol the 8ain
and it reource to enhance livelihood. he obective ol the roadmap are to:
! develop and trenthen intitutional mechanim lor ellective takeholder participation in
the manaement ol the 0rane-Sencu liver bain;
! build and trenthen capacity in bain lorum to ellectively participate in deciion makin,
plannin and utainable comanaement ol the 0rane-Sencu liver bain; and
! develop and maintain open and ellective horizontal and vertical communication between
and amon the tructure ol 0l/SLC0V and bain takeholder by developin acceible,
timely and ood cuality inlormation and diemination mechanim to build trut, and
improve participation and deciion makin in the bain.
Vember ol the Commiion delined the core element ol the tratey durin an initial three
day workhop. he dralt wa lurther developed by repreentative drawn lrom reional
reearch oraniation, lC0 and the private ector in each bain tate and other countrie.
lollowin another workhop, where 0l/SLC0V' technical tak team provided lurther input,
the dralt wa revied and linalied and ha been adopted by 0l/SLC0V.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]craseccm.crg (slte under ccnstructlcn)
xampIe 3.3. 1isza basin: Ieng-standing ce-eperatien paves the way Ier diaIegues
between ceuntries en basin management
here i a lon tradition ol cooperation between lomania and neihbourin tate in
tranboundary water manaement throuh bilateral areement - lunary (19S6, `uu3),
Ukraine (1997), exYuolavia (1955), Voldova (1995) and 8ularia (1991). hee countrie
now coordinate tranboundary water manaement throuh the lnternational Commiion lor
the rotection ol the Lanube liver (lCLl).
low that ome riparian countrie are member ol the Luropean Union, they are reviin
areement to meet LU leal directive. he obective ol the reviion are to achieve ood
water tatu, to prevent deradation and control pollution, to prevent and limit the
tranboundary ellect ol llood, drouht and accidental pollution, to develop ytem lor
monitorin water tatu and to enure utainable ue ol water reource.
latlorm lor croectoral and uptreamdowntream dialoue are eential lor manain
water reource (Lxample 3.`). Chapter 6 lnvolvin takeholder dicue way to brin
appropriate takeholder repreentation into ettin prioritie and bain plannin. ln
tranboundary bain, exitin international areement and lontandin cooperation can
pave the way lor the etablihment ol cooperative bain overnance (Lxample 3.3 and 3./).
3.1.2 water user diaIegues
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lollowin the accidental pollution in 19`/ ol the iza, the main tributary ol the Lanube, co
operation between lunary and lomania wa trenthened. ln the Koro-Criuri ubbain,
the main ubbain ol the iza, coordination wa led by the lCLl. 8ottomup poolin ol the
ubbain plan led to an overall manaement plan lor the iza international river bain. hee
dialoue paved the way lor imilar arranement in all iza and Lanube riparian tate.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.lcpdr.crg
xampIe 3.4. 5pain and PertugaI: Ieng-standing diaIegue en shared basins
Spain and ortual have a lon tradition ol bilateral cooperation on the live tranboundary
bain they hare (Vino, Limia, Luero, au and Cuadiana). / treaty ined in 1S6/
etablihed international river boundarie and treed the importance ol uin tranboundary
water reource lor the benelit ol both countrie. 0ther bilateral treatie and areement, uch
a thoe in 1S66, 19u6 and 191`, lollowed the initial areement.
he /lbuleira areement, ined in 199S in line with the principle ol the water lramework
Lirective, eek to balance environmental protection with the utainable development ol
water reource in both countrie. he two countrie will coordinate their repective ellort to
manae water in hared bain.
he /lbuleira areement created two ecual bodie: the hihlevel Conlerence ol the artie,
and the deciionmakin Commiion on the /pplication and Levelopment ol the Convention
(C/LC). ln addition, a ermanent echnical Secretariat ol the Commiion will be et up to
enure that C/LC i ellective and to coordinate the development ol interated plan lor the
river bain in the next hydroloical plannin cycle.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.cadc-albufelra.crg
xampIe 3.5. India: harmada water isputes 1ribunaI
he Central Covernment ol lndia et up the larmada water Lipute ribunal in 0ctober 1969
to adudicate in the dipute between State about the larmada liver \alley Levelopment and
how water hould be hared. he ribunal at lor ten year and made the linal bindin /ward
in Lecember 1979.
he /ward pecilied water allocation to Cuarat, Vadhya radeh, Vaharahtra and
laathan, the lour lndian State that hare the larmada liver bain. he ribunal alo
ln certain, exceptional, cae, tribunal may be et up to deal with dialoue on water that
have reached an impae or on controverial water iue. / tribunal i an independent, but
uually temporary body, with udicial or cuaiudicial power to take maor deciion, uch
a on water harin, water pricin or modilyin river llow. hey lunction a pecial court
outide national civil and criminal udicial ytem. ribunal examine pecial problem,
make udement and reolve dipute between countrie, tate, province or water uer
(Lxample 3.5). \ery lew exit purely lor bain manaement. Stakeholder may participate
lormally at hearin.
3.1.3 water tribunaIs
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xampIe 3.6. 0ur r kbia kiver basin agency, Merecce: the IegaI Iramewerk
Vorocco' water Law ol 1995 (Law lo. 1u95) etablihe the leal intrument lor water
reource ue and conervation. he law call lor the creation ol bain aencie. lt et out the
leal tatu and role ol bain aencie, and ive them linancial autonomy.
8ain aencie have:
(i) reponibilitie lor water policin:
! the inventory ol water riht and conceion,
! monitorin urlace and roundwater cuality and cuantity,
! iuin new permit and conceion lor abtractin water,
! controllin ue ol water reource.
determined the heiht ol the Sardar Sarovar Lam and directed the Covernment ol Cuarat to
contruct the dam. he reponibilitie ol the ribunal were very preciely delined. lowever, a
wa common at that time, the ribunal did not involve takeholder or addre ocial or
environmental iue that aroe durin bain development. ll the ribunal had adopted ome
ol the idea and interated approach et out in thi handbook, the proce may have been
more incluive and had a wider remit.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]wrmln.nlc.ln (lnter-state water ulsputes sub-sectlcn)
ln eneral, national, provincial and local water law and policie are the rule ol the ame
that determine how all takeholder play their repective role in the development and
manaement ol water reource. 8ain oraniation that have been et up by law have a
tron mandate, a do thoe created within an international convention or treaty lor
tranboundary water. Law and water policie that pell out the role, reponibilitie and
accountability ol both the public and private ector et the cene - the water manaement
lramework - lor bain manaement a part ol the exitin national adminitrative ytem
(8ox 3./, Lxample 3.6). 8ain and national water policy manaement plan hould be
harmonied.
3.2 Law and peIicy
Law and policie etablih the lramework lor water manaement:
! Clearly identily the lunction, tructure and lundin ol bain oraniation
and bain manaement.
! Specily manaement role and uridiction.
! Lnure lairne and accountability in deciion makin.
! /void lramentation and overlap ol reponibilitie.
! Spell out reulatory and enlorcement procee lor harin water, abatin water pollution,
protectin ecoytem or lihtin aaint natural hazard, and determinin
entitlement to water.
ex 3.A. Law and peIicy in basin management
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(ii) reponibilitie lor river bain manaement:
! lormulatin and implementin the bain development plan which i to be interated into
the national water plan,
! levyin pollution and withdrawal lee which will be reinveted in pollution control,
! providin contractin authoritie with linancial aitance lor controllin pollution and
improvin water reource and llood manaement.
water manaement operate in a threedimenional lramework. he three part ol the
lramework, uually contructed at the national cale, are the enablin environment,
intitution and manaement (8ox 3.8). lowever, not all the element ol uch a lramework
may be in place.
hi mean that, to bein interatin water manaement in bain, it i important to et a
clear undertandin ol the water manaement lramework in which deciion about water are
made - the national water manaement lramework within a country, or the international
water manaement lramework that pan everal countrie.
lot all the element in a water manaement lramework have to be in place to etablih
interated water reource manaement at the bain level. ln lact, in mot cae it' unlikely
that they will be. Uually, ettin up and maintainin a bain oraniation i a tepbytep
proce that work with what already exit and, at the ame time, eek to trenthen
element ol the lramework that will help the bain oraniation lunction more ellectively.
lnitiative to et up new bain oraniation or chane exitin one need to determine to
what extent thee are, or are not, in place and allocate reource - time and money - to
ecure the political will to et them up and trenthen them (Lxample 3.7).
3.3 water management Iramewerk
ex 3.. 1he three dimensiens eI water management Iramewerks
nabIing envirenment Institutiens Management
Laws and pcllcles
! Frame water rescurces
management wlthln a
ccuntry and between
ccuntrles
water user dlalcgues
! Crcss-sectcral and
upstream-dcwnstream
dlalcgues
! 8asln ccmmlttee
8udgets
! Flnanclng crganlsatlcns and
lnvestment
Cc-cperatlcn
! wlthln lnternatlcnal
rlver baslns
kcles and respcnslbllltles
! Uf basln and cther water
sectcr crganlsatlcns at
dlfferent levels ln the
gcvernment, ncn-
gcvernment and prlvate
sectcrs
! Fffectlve cc-crdlnatlcn
mechanlsms
! Plannlng prccess
! Flnanclng
Structures tc
! Assess water rescurces
(avallablllty and demand)
! Set up ccmmunlcatlcn and
lnfcrmatlcn systems
! kesclve ccnfllcts ln
allccatlcn cf water
! Fstabllsh regulatlcns
! Fstabllsh flnanclng
arrangements
! Fstabllsh self-regulatlcn
(vcluntary actlcns)
! kesearch and develcp
! undertake develcpment
wcrks
! Fnsure acccuntablllty
! uevelcp crganlsatlcnal
capaclty
! Cc-crdlnate
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xampIe 3.7. veIta basin: estabIishing the water management Iramewerk
he ix riparian countrie ol the \olta 8ain, 8enin, 8urkina lao, lvory Coat, Chana, Vali and
oo, et up the \olta 8ain echnical Committee (\8C) in uly `uu/. hi interovernmental
committee wa mandated to etablih the enablin environment lor a \olta tranboundary
river bain oraniation lor interated water reource manaement. ln doin o, the \8C
conulted the water leource Coordination Unit ol the Lconomic Community ol wet /lrican
State, expert lrom each member country and the Luropean Union water lnitiative.
he \8C et out the tatute, oraniation chart, human and linancial reource, linancial
mechanim, intercountry coordination ytem and plannin procee needed to etablih
the bain authority. hee took into account the national trateie lor water reource
manaement ol the ix member tate. hey alo interated the proramme ol external
upport aencie, uch a the /lrican Levelopment 8ank, the world 8ank, the lond lranai
pour l'Lnvironnement Vondial and other donor, in order to enure ynery and develop an
appropriate action plan.
where the lramework lor water manaement i weak or element are miin, ome ol the
tep that miht be taken are:
! makin an inventory ol the tate ol water reource and ecoytem;
! doin an aement ol need and prioritie lor intervention;
! makin an inventory ol the actor involved in the broader water and development ector
who need to be contacted;
! lindin way to hare knowlede, data and inlormation;
! lindin way to coordinate deciion makin between level and actor;
! encourain dialoue between takeholder;
! etablihin water allocation mechanim;
! reducin water pollution and retorin ecoytem;
! handlin llood and drouht (climate variability); and
! developin linancin mechanim lor water manaement.
lot only do bain oraniation have to comply with national leilation (ee Section 3.` Law
and policy), but they alo have to comply with international or reional leal areement.
hi may apply even lor bain that do not pan national boundarie, lor example with
repect to human riht leilation or international tandard and norm in health or linance.
8ain oraniation thu need acce to expertie on international law to enure they
undertand and comply with international or reional leal areement where they exit.
here are many areement on water that involve more than one country. 8ut mot are very
limited in cope or only include a lew ol the riparian countrie in the bain covered by the
areement. leverthele, it i ometime poible to make coniderable prore on water
harin arranement and ood practice without lormal leal areement. akin a leal
approach i only poible once political prore ha paved the way.
erhap the bet known international leal lramework lor water i the Convention on the
rotection and Ue ol ranboundary watercoure and lnternational Lake. hi Convention
etablihed a lramework lor cooperation between the 56 member countrie ol the United
lation Lconomic Commiion lor Lurope to prevent and control pollution ol tranboundary
watercoure. he Convention i built on three principle:
3.4 InternatienaI agreements
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1. the precautionary principle: action to avoid the releae ol hazardou ubtance mut
not be potponed, depite the lack ol a proven caual link between the ubtance and
the tranboundary impact;
`. the polluter pay principle: the cot ol pollution prevention, control and reduction
meaure mut be borne by the polluter; and
3. water reource mut be manaed o that the need ol the preent eneration are met
without compromiin the ability ol luture eneration to meet their own need.
he Convention recuire that tate work toward enurin that tranboundary water:
! are manaed in a rational, environmentlriendly manner;
! are ued in a reaonable and ecuitable way; and
! enure conervation and retoration ol ecoytem.
he Convention encourae cooperation amon the riparian countrie throuh harmonied
policie, proramme and trateie to protect tranboundary water. lt locue on water
cuality. 8ut, althouh water cuality i a key iue lor the member tate ol the Ul Lconomic
Commiion lor Lurope it may not be the main priority lor developin countrie.
/nother important international leal lramework lor water i the Ul Convention on the lon
laviational Ue ol lnternational watercoure which wa adopted in 1997. lt i the only
lobal treaty univerally applicable to international lrehwater. he Convention need to be
ratilied or approved by thirtylive tate and to date thi ha not happened. Lepite thi, the
principle ol the Convention have been widely applied in developin reional and river bain
areement on water and play an important role in developin relationhip between
riparian tate.
8elore uch convention can be neotiated, there need to be prore on other tran
national areement, a well a ood political and adminitrative relationhip. ln many part
ol the world, reional political or economic oraniation, lor example the reional Ul
Commiion and bodie uch a the /ociation ol South Lat /ian lation, Southern
/lrican Levelopment Community, Lconomic Community ol wet /lrican State, the /mazon
Cooperation reaty 0raniation (0C/) and Vercour (Vercado Comun del Sur or Southern
Common Varket), are the bet placed to put in place an appropriate political lramework o
that reional protocol on water can be areed.
he Luropean Union (LU) ha enacted numerou directive relatin to water and the
environment that apply to all `7 LU member tate. he bet known i perhap the water
lramework Lirective (wlL) althouh other are ecually important. he LU wlL locue on
the river bain and recuire countrie to prepare plan lor all bain that et out the
obective lor the bain and the timecale lor achievin the obective. LU directive are
unicue to the particular political context in Lurope. lowever, they provide leon that are
uelul when preparin areement in other reion.
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4 keIes and types eI basin erganisatiens
4.1 keIes eI basin erganisatiens
4.1.1 Mandate
hi handbook ue the term 'bain oraniation' to reler to any lormal or inlormal entity that
manae water reource at the bain cale. 8ain oraniation are et up under dillerent
arranement dependin on the aim, the leal and adminitrative ytem, and human and
linancial reource. hey are uually, but not alway, lormal leal bodie. ln ome cae le
lormal arranement alo work. 8ut, whatever the et up, bain oraniation mut be public
ector oraniation becaue water reource manaement i a public ood.
/lthouh lormal bain oraniation are part ol the public ector, lor water to be manaed
ellectively, a wide rane ol takeholder, community roup, economical ector, non
overnmental oraniation and private enterprie, need to be involved (ee Chapter 6
lnvolvin takeholder).
ln eence, bain oraniation are umbrella oraniation lor bain manaement. heir
mandate i to take a 'bi picture' perpective and be the leadin voice on bainwide water
iue. hi mean keepin bain contituencie and deciion maker in all ector and at all
level, in both the public and private ector, lully inlormed and involved.
8ain oraniation can take many lorm: tatutory deciion makin and}or adviory bodie,
manaement bodie, development entitie and reulatory bodie. lrecuently, they operate in
conunction with other overnment aencie and adminitrative bodie. leponibilitie lor
manain water, reulatin water and providin water ervice hould be ained to
dillerent aencie to treamline operation and enure accountability (8ox /./ and ee
Section 5.1.` Levelopin and maintainin inlratructure and Chapter S 8ain action plan).
k P0Ih15
! The mandate cf basln crganlsatlcns ls tc be the 'leadlng vclce' cn
basln water management.
! 8asln crganlsatlcns have three maln functlcns:
1. mcnltcrlng, lnvestlgatlng, cc-crdlnatlng and regulatlng,
2. plannlng and flnanclng, and
3. develcplng and managlng.
leulatin (overnment minitry or other overnment authority):
! develop and implement pricin reulation;
! develop water cuality tandard and uideline;
! develop leilation lor tandard and policie;
! authorie and control withdrawal and dichare, and work modilyin river
llow and ecoytem;
ex 4.A. Assigning respensibiIities Ier managing water, reguIating water
and previding water services
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8ain oraniation lunction accordin to their pecilic mandate, uually determined at a
hih level by central overnment to alin with overnment oal and policie. he mandate
very much depend on the reaon the bain initiative wa tarted and rellect the critical
iue in the bain (Lxample /.1). lt i very important to clearly deline the boundarie ol the
mandate (by law lor lormal oraniation), the reportin line and to pell out who et the
'rule' lor makin deciion and participation.
xampIe 4.1. ubec: missien and mandates eI basin erganisatiens
he (uebec water olicy, adopted in lovember `uu`, created bain oraniation lor 33
maor watercoure to interate water manaement at bain level (ClL8\, Cetion lnteree de
l'Lau par 8ain \erant). he bain oraniation, a neutral conultation platlorm, oranie
interated water reource manaement at the bain level, in order to promote utainable
development.
Viion
heir miion i to mobilie local and reional water takeholder, to coordinate action likely
to impact water reource and aociated ecoytem, and enure public participation.
Vandate
ln order to lullil their miion, bain oraniation have the lollowin mandate:
! develop, and update a water Vater lan throuh public inlormation and participation;
! in bain contract with relevant water takeholder and monitor implementation;
! inlorm water takeholder and the eneral public ol bain iue;
! audit the perlormance ol the water ector lor compliance with tandard.
Vanain (natural reource manaer or bain manaement aency):
! undertake trateic water aement;
! develop policie and trateie to comply with reional or national obective and
tandard;
! develop and overee trateic water reearch;
! plan development ol water reource;
! allocate water;
! linance bain action plan;
! manae urlace water and roundwater cuantity and cuality;
! coordinate interaency and community action;
! develop proramme to build capacity in the water ector;
! promote public participation and awarene.
0peratin ervice (public, private or public-private utility):
! build and operate water upply, ewerae, wate water treatment plant, drainae and
irriation ytem;
! maintain inlratructure;
! provide technical advice and aitance;
! chare lor ervice;
! operate under ome lorm ol leal areement uually with the reulator lor operatin riht
and the reource manaer lor utiliation ol the water reource.
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! participate in the implementation ol the St. Lawrence interated manaement plan, in
order to enure a olid relationhip between the ClL8\ and St. Lawrence interated
manaement.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.rcbvq.qc.ca and http:]]www.mddep.gcuv.qc.ca
4.1.2 Cere tasks
/lthouh bain oraniation carry out many tak, they tend to locu on three main area:
! monitorin, invetiatin, coordinatin and reulatin,
! plannin and linancin, and
! developin and manain.
he Comprehenive /ement ol water Vanaement in /riculture (C/), toether with the
Clobal water artnerhip and the lnternational letwork ol 8ain 0ranization ha drawn up
a lit ol the main tak in interated water reource manaement in bain in thee three
area (8ox /.8). Lependin on the purpoe lor which the bain oraniation ha been
created, and the arranement lor manaement, it may cover ome or all ol thee lunction
(Lxample /.`). he critical iue lrom the interated water reource manaement
perpective are that, in carryin out thee tak, the bain oraniation hould be llexible,
work at all level and work collaboratively.
Vonitorin, invetiatin, coordinatin and reulatin
! Collectin data Collectin, manain and communicatin data reardin water availability,
water demand (includin environmental recuirement), and water cuality to upport
dillerent bain lunction.
! revention, monitorin and enlorcin Vonitorin and control ol water pollution, alinity
level and round water extraction - enurin that they remain within accepted limit; and
enlorcin relevant law and reulation to prevent deradation}overexploitation and to
retore ecoytem.
! Coordinatin larmoniin policie and action undertaken in the bain by tate and non
tate actor relevant to land and water manaement.
! leolvin conllict rovidin mechanim lor neotiation and litiation.
lannin and linancin
! /llocatin water Lelinin mechanim and criteria by which water i apportioned amon
uer ector, includin the environment.
! lannin lormulatin medium to lonterm plan lor developin and manain water
reource in the bain.
! Vobiliin reource Lnurin linancin, lor example, by collectin water uer lee or
water taxe.
Levelopin and manain
! Contructin lacilitie Leinin and contructin water inlratructure.
! Vaintainin lacilitie Vaintainin water inlratructure.
! 0peration and manaement Lnurin that dam, naviation and water ditribution
ex 4.. Main Iunctiens eI basin erganisatiens
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xampIe 4.2. Changjiang water keseurces Cemmissien, China: missien and Iunctiens
he Chanian (Yantze) water leource Commiion (CwlC) i a river bain authority
chared by the Vinitry ol water leource (Vwl) with water adminitration in the Yantze
liver 8ain and other river bain ol outhwetern China. lor more than hall a century, the
CwlC ha been reponible lor manain the bain, comprehenive bain plannin and the
Yantze liver 8ain Vater lan.
lollowin a period ol extenive inlratructure development, the reulation and development ol
the Yantze i enterin a new phae. ln thi context and laced with new tak and challene,
the CwlC i turnin to innovative approache to 'enure a healthy Yantze and promote
harmony between man and river'. lt vow to be the voice and teward ol the Yantze,
perpetuatin a healthy Yantze lor the benelit ol the eneration to come.
he miion and lunction ol the CwlC are to:
! oranie and upervie the enlorcement ol water Law and other relevant law;
! exercie the water adminitrative lunction a enacted in the water Law, authoried by
the Vwl;
! prepare a bain mater plan and pecialtheme plan and overee their implementation;
! deploy preparatory work and technical review lor planned proect;
! interate water reource manaement in the bain;
! uide, coordinate and upervie llood control and drouht reliel activitie in the bain;
! water reource protection in the bain;
! contruct and manae central overnment lunded water development proect;
! unily manaement ol river and extraction, includin uperviion, coordination
and uidance;
! oranie implementation ol oil conervation in priority area, includin oil lo control,
dynamic monitorin, uperviion and uidance;
! operate and manae tateowned aet ol water proect.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.c|h.ccm.cn]eng
inlratructure, and watewater treatment plant are properly operated; that allocated
water reache it point ol ue; and that urlace and round water are conunctively
manaed.
! reparin aaint water diater rotectin lrom llood and developin emerency
work, llood}drouht preparedne plan, and copin mechanim.
! rotectin and conervin ecoytem Lelinin prioritie and implementin action to
protect ecoytem, includin awarene campain.
8ased cn the Ccmprehenslve Assessment cf water Management ln Agrlculture 2008
4.1.3 veIutien
8ecaue reional and national context chane, bain oraniation alo evolve over time.
8ain oraniation need to adut to chane in political direction, adminitrative relorm, or
relation between riparian countrie. hi may recuire chane in their overnance ytem
and tructure, and chane in their mandate, lor example. hey alo need to be able to
adapt to emerin iue, uch a climate chane, ecoytem protection, amon other.
8ain oraniation very olten tart a 'commiion', particularly in the cae ol
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xampIe 4.3. Cenge kiver basin erganisatien: eveIutien
he lnternational Commiion ol the Cono0ubanuiSanha 8ain (ClC0S) wa created in
1999, by Cameroon, the Central /lrican lepublic, the Cono and the Lemocratic lepublic ol
the Cono, initially to deal with naviation. / a bain oraniation, ClC0S really ot under way
in `uu/. ln `uu7, the initial areement wa amended ivin ClC0S the mandate to interate
water reource manaement in the bain.
he oraniation i currently developin water reource inlormation ytem, action plan
and manaement capacity. /nola, at preent an oberver, and other riparian tate are likely
to oin ClC0S. Vember tate are creatin intermediary tructure. ln addition to the challene
poed by naviation, the Cono bain lace other inilicant challene, includin manain
loret reource and developin inlratructure, uch a the 0ubanui-Chad tranler and the
lna dam.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.clccs.lnfc]slteweb
xampIe 4.4. MahaweIi Autherity, 5ri Lanka: eveIutien and changing reIe
he Vahaweli /uthority ol Sri Lanka (V/SL) cover /u ol the iland. V/SL i reponible lor
hydraulic inlratructure, water torae, hydropower, reulatin water ditribution, irriation,
and collectin and procein aricultural product.
he overnment ol Sri Lanka, with upport lrom the world 8ank, i relormin the V/SL. he
relorm will ditribute and ubcontract many tak, decentralie deciion makin and brin in
chare lor water ervice. he Kala 0ya bain (in the northwet) wa elected a a pilot bain
lor the relorm. Leciion makin wa decentralied to the Kala 0ya 8ain 0raniation which
locue on environmental iue and involve civil ociety.
ln `uu3, an evaluation ol the pilot proect howed that:
! the dralt water law needed modilication to avoid conllict and dylunction;
! the reponibilitie ol each party and the coordination mechanim, particularly the
reponibilitie and power ol the 8ain Committee, hould be clearer;
! proect plannin and prorammin hould locu more on demand reulation, but thi i
hindered by weak economic indicator;
! communication about the bain oraniation activitie hould be improved.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.mahawell.gcv.lk
tranboundary bain. 0lten they are initially et up to addre one or two critical problem
rather than all waterrelated iue, but thi may chane over time. lor example, the need to
improve naviation and ecurity on the Cono liver triered the creation ol the lnternational
Commiion ol the Cono0ubanuiSanha 8ain (ClC0S) in 1999 by lour riparian tate.
8ut, ince then, the mandate ol ClC0S ha evolved and become much wider. low it
encompae interated water reource manaement in the bain (Lxample /.3) and i
likely to expand to include other riparian tate.
ln other cae, oraniation initially et up under the umbrella ol overnment may plit into
everal unit with ome evolvin into autonomou intitution (Lxample /./).
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/nother example ol how bain oraniation chane i the evolution ol the lrench water
/encie (ee Chapter 5 linance, Lxample 5.3). hee were initially created in 196/ to
linance a plan aaint pollution, and improve anitation ytem. 8ut, ince then, their role
ha chaned coniderably and they now locu more on environmental iue in plannin and
deciion makin within the implementation ol the Luropean water lramework Lirective.
Lven il the leal tatu remain the ame, the mandate and lunction ol a bain oraniation
very olten evolve in repone to political and adminitrative relorm, and new challene. /n
example ol thi i the hilt in approach in the 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the
Seneal liver (0V\S). Since `uu` the 0V\S ha moved lrom pure inlratructure
development to an approach that take lwlV into account in developin and manain
inlratructure (Lxample /.5).
8ain oraniation are uually et up to deal with iue which are not, or not lully, covered
by other intitution. Collectin and exchanin inlormation and data have olten been entry
point lor developin initial bain tructure. ln many cae, even welletablihed bain
oraniation did not initially involve takeholder. Since then, thi ha become more
common practice and they have had to et up mechanim to improve public participation.
/t a tranboundary level, the catalyt lor bain cooperation have been the need to reolve
conllict, to uarantee lree naviation, to deal with llood, and the need to cooperate in
deinin and contructin inlratructure (Lxample /.6). hen, when deciion maker
become aware ol the value ol involvin takeholder, the mandate ol bain oraniation
broaden. Sometime there i alo a chane in the cope ol the bain oraniation, lor
example in tranboundary bain which expand a more countrie become member.
xampIe 4.5. 0rganisatien Ier the eveIepment eI the 5enegaI kiver: eveIutien
when the 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver (0V\S) wa created in 197`,
the maor concern wa to develop inlratructure to addre water tre reultin lrom a cycle
ol drouht, develop ariculture, reduce the cot ol hydroelectricity and open up Vali by
improvin naviation. /t that time, 0V\S wa mainly dedicated to inlratructure
'development', althouh it played an important role in harin cot and benelit between
riparian countrie.
ln 199S, the roramme lor the Vitiation and Vonitorin ol Lnvironmental lmpact drew
attention to the lack ol manaement and the rik thi involved. he 0bervatory ol the
Lnvironment wa created in `uuu, a a tool to upport bain manaement.
ln `uu`, the Conlerence ol lead ol State and Covernment, meetin in louakchott,
hihlihted the need lor an interated bain manaement approach. he 0bervatory ol the
Lnvironment therelore became the 0bervatory ol Sutainable Levelopment, hiltin it locu
lrom manaement ol hared reource to the manaement ol inlormation and data lor
utainable development. lt i expected that a water Levelopment and Vanaement Vater
lan will be developed at bain level. art ol the plan will be lor interated water reource
manaement proramme at the local level.
ln `uu6, Cuinea oined the initial member, Vali, Seneal and Vauritania, and became a
member ol 0V\S.
oday, 0V\S i both an aency that contruct the inlratructure neceary lor the utainable
development ol the bain and one that lunction a an interated water reource
manaement aency.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.cmvs.crg
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here are many type ol bain oraniation and, a the example in thi ection how, the
term ued to decribe them vary lrom country to country. 8ain oraniation may be
created alreh, but are more likely to evolve lrom exitin entitie to lit local need and
practice. he intitutional et up ol bain oraniation will depend on local leal ytem
and leaderhip tyle, o that what i called a bain council in one country may be dillerent
in lorm and lunction lrom what i called a bain council in another. /ain, the example
illutrate thi point well.
8elow i a hort ummary ol the dillerent type ol bain oraniation that are commonly
lound around the world. he key ditinuihin leature are whether the bain oraniation i
a lormal overnment body enhrined in law, a temporary ollicial arranement but with
limited leal power, or an inlormal or nonovernmental body with no leal power. 0ther
ditinuihin leature are in the lunction ol bain oraniation: whether they own dam,
canal, water way, hydroelectricity power plant, dyke and irriation work and build,
operate and maintain uch water inlratructure, or, whether the bain oraniation are only
reponible lor olt water manaement tak.
xampIe 4.6. 0rganisatien Ier the eveIepment eI the Cambia kiver: Iessens Irem
eveIutien
he 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Cambia liver (0V\C) wa created in 197S by
Seneal and Cambia to develop and enhance the water reource ol the bain and interate
ocioeconomic development ol member tate.
he proramme initially dealt with the development ol inlratructure on the Cambia river
(bride and dam) and et up a lare lih Commiion. lor more than ten year, 0V\C wa
not very active, and had no concrete outcome. ln 1991 member tate, with a new wih lor
reional interation, areed to relorm the lih Commiion, dramatically cut tall - reducin
lrom /u to 1u - and chane the miion ol 0V\C.
ln 1997, 0V\C tarted two proect: buildin a bride and two hydropower dam on the
Cambia river.
leaibility tudie lor the hydropower dam are complete and the /lrican Levelopment 8ank i
workin to mobilie lund. Lonor have committed to provide almot 6u ol the invetment
needed.
Several leon can be learned lrom the evolution ol the 0V\C:
! tron political will i indipenable il cooperation in hared bain i to be ellective;
! the experience ol other i alway uelul, a lon a the recipe i adapted to the context ol
the particular bain; and
! contant dialoue between tate with dillerent linuitic and adminitrative culture i
eential il couraeou deciion are to be made, both lor intitution and proramme.
0V\C now leel the need to move lorward by implementin an interated manaement
approach that will:
! optimie the ue ol natural reource in order to ecure lood lor the population;
! improve livelihood; and
! achieve enery autonomy while payin more attention to the conervation ol the
environment.
4.2 1ypes eI basin erganisatiens
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he cot ol runnin a bain oraniation will depend on it mandate and intitutional et up
and thi ha to be conidered when decidin what type ol intitutional tructure i needed
(ee Section 5.1.3 0peration ol the bain oraniation).
lor many decade, international commiion or authoritie lor tranboundary bain and
acuiler have been created by bilateral or multilateral treatie, or convention between
riparian countrie. 8ain commiion may be olely adviory - providin uidance,
educatin and monitorin - but may alo overee activitie and work to lullil the oal ol a
overnment charter or international areement (Lxample /.7).
Commiion are normally etablihed by lormal overnment tatement or rulin and may
or may not have a permanent ecretariat. hey olten deline common rule (e.. lor naviation)
and, when neceary, decide on allocation ol the available reource between the cateorie
ol ue, reion and (lor tranboundary bain) lor the riparian countrie. hey may alo co
ordinate llood and drouht prevention, and meaure to reduce pollution, and prepare and
implement multiyear plan to coordinate and reinlorce activitie at the bain level.
ln /merica and /lrica, thee commiion and authoritie may own water inlratructure and
hydropower plant. ln the Luropean Union, international commiion are coordinatin the
implementation ol the water lramework Lirective in riparian LU member tate. ln lederal
countrie (e.. 8razil, /utralia), uch commiion can be etablihed by the central
overnment and tate, province or reion to coordinate policie and activitie on a
hared river or acuiler.
Similarly, repreentative ol dillerent minitrie concerned with water reource may come
toether under a national commiion to coordinate variou activitie on the ame river or
acuiler, and to exchane inlormation or data. ln ome cae, il a dillerent mandate i needed
to addre new policy directive, the overnment may chane the tatute o that a
commiion become an authority (Lxample /.S).
4.2.1 asin cemmissiens er autherities
xampIe 4.7. 1he InternatienaI [eint Cemmissien: a transbeundary menitering,
investigating and ce-erdinating basin erganisatien
Ltablihed by the 19u9 8oundary water reaty, the lnternational oint Commiion (lC) help
the overnment ol the United State and Canada to prevent and reolve tranboundary
dipute, primarily reardin water and environmental iue. he lC undertake
invetiation, and advie and licene certain work in boundary and tranboundary water.
he lC alo brin emerin tranboundary iue to the attention ol the overnment lor
early action.
he lC work throuh board ol control, invetiative and urveillance board, adviory
board, tak lorce and accredited ollicer. hee, created by the lC, alo ae
environmental cuality in the Creat Lake and other tranboundary waterhed and identily
emerin tranboundary air cuality iue.
he 8oundary water reaty provide that the Canadian and US overnment may reler
cuetion or matter ol dillerence to the lC. ln thee cae the lC uually appoint an
invetiative board or tak lorce to examine the lact and advie.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.l|c.crg
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/ bain directorate or aency make plannin deciion and ha tatutory reponibilitie.
hey may et and enact reulation, or have authority to ive conent lor development and
are uually lounded on civil ervice principle to erve the public with ome autonomy within
a national leal lramework (Lxample /.9). hey may have an arbitration role, which the
intereted partie reler to lor deciion makin on any conllict that arie. hey are uually in
chare ol carryin out tak lor mediumterm plannin and lor collectin taxe on water
abtraction and dichare to linance or upport the invetment needed to achieve et
obective. ln ome cae they can alo be reponible lor water policy, tudie, data
collection or production, inlormation harin and public awarene (Lxample /.1u and
/.11).
4.2.2 asin directerates er agencies
xampIe 4.8. Murray-arIing asin Autherity: an autherity repIacing a cemmissien
ln 19S6 /utralia' live State and the national overnment etablihed the Vurray-Larlin
8ain Commiion (VL8C). he VL8C wa a platlorm lor conultation on oint manaement ol
natural reource in the bain and power remained within the State. ln `uuS, the VL8C wa
replaced by the new Vurray-Larlin 8ain /uthority which ha troner, centralied power.
he new /uthority ha uridiction over a lare bain (1,u61,/69 km
`
) and will enure the
8ain' water reource are manaed in an interated and utainable way, by:
! preparin a 8ain lan lor adoption by the (national) Viniter, includin ettin
utainable limit on water that can be taken lrom urlace and roundwater ytem
acro the 8ain;
! adviin the Viniter on the accreditation ol tate water reource plan (thee were
previouly accredited by each State or erritory);
! developin a water riht inlormation ervice which lacilitate water tradin acro the
Vurray-Larlin 8ain;
! meaurin and monitorin water reource in the 8ain (previouly the role ol the State
and erritory);
! atherin inlormation and undertakin reearch; and
! enain the community in the manaement ol the 8ain' reource.
he new /uthority will et limit on the amount ol water (both urlace and roundwater) that
can be taken lrom 8ain water reource a a whole and lor individual water reource. lt will
identily rik to bain water reource, uch a climate chane, and trateie to manae
thoe rik. Compliance recuirement will be pecilied lor State water reource plan a well a
environmental obective, waterin prioritie and taret lor bain water reource. / water
cuality and alinity manaement plan will be developed and rule et lor tradin water riht.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.envlrcnment.gcv.au]water]mdba]lndex.html
xampIe 4.9. ApeIe kemane, the kemanian hatienaI waters Administratien and basin
directerates and cemmittees
he lomanian lational water /dminitration (/pele lomane) i the national authority in
chare ol water reource manaement and development. lt i an autonomou leal entity
under the Vinitry ol Lnvironment and Sutainable Levelopment. lt ha overall reponibility
lor water reource manaement in lomania, includin compliance with international and LU
leilation.
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Under the /pele lomane there are eleven 8ain Lirectorate, oranied a bain and roup
ol bain, and the lational lntitute ol lydroloy and water Vanaement. 8ain Lirectorate
are reponible lor the implementation ol the national water tratey in their bain territory.
8ain Committee were etablihed at the level ol each water Lirectorate throuh a 1996
water Law modilied and amended in `uu/. he rule reardin their oraniation and
operation were approved by the Covernment in `uuu. he 8ain Committee include
repreentative ol the Vinitrie in chare ol the environment and health, municipal and
county authoritie, water uer, lC0 and /pele lomane.
lunction ol the 8ain Lirectorate:
! elaborate, monitor and review the liver 8ain Vanaement lan;
! implement the LU Lirective to achieve a 'ood tatu' lor all water bodie;
! develop and maintain water inlratructure;
! enure development ol water inlratructure in the national public interet, new water and
llood protection work;
! monitor water cuality and cuantity;
! provide water manaement ervice accordin to demand;
! notily, authorie and control water ue;
! protect aaint llood;
! warn water uer and local adminitration authoritie about accidental water pollution.
lunction ol the 8ain Committee:
! aree on interated water manaement plan and develop proramme lor water
manaement work;
! aree on plan to prevent accidental pollution;
! propoe reviion ol water manaement norm and tandard;
! etablih pecial norm lor watewater dichare;
! recommend prioritie concernin water manaement invetment;
! enure inlormation collection, analyi and harin.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.rcwater.rc
xampIe 4.10. Autherity Ier the 5ustainabIe Management eI the Lake IzabaI and kiver
uIce asin, CuatemaIa: a censuItative bedy with Iimited pewers
he Covernment ol Cuatemala created the /uthority lor the Sutainable Vanaement ol the
Lake lzabal and liver Lulce 8ain (/V/SUlLl) in 199S to protect the tourit attraction ol Lake
lzabal and the Lulce liver. /V/SUlLl i a bain oraniation within the Vinitry ol the
Lnvironment, but with repreentation lrom other public aencie, municipalitie and the
private ector. Leciion made by /V/SUlLl are not bindin. lt i a conultative body with very
limited power.
/V/SUlLl provide a platlorm lor dicuin a wide rane ol manaement iue, includin
ariculture, lihin, minin, water pollution, extenion ol the larmin lrontier and naviation.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.marn.gcb.gt]dependenclas]amasurll.html
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xampIe 4.11. Cemmittee Ier the Integratien eI the hydregraphicaI asin eI kiver Paraiba
de 5uI, raziI: a basin erganisatien in a IederaI ceuntry
he araiba do Sul river bain, in the outheat ol 8razil, cover approximately 55,5uu km.
he bain pan part ol the tate ol Sao aulo, lio de aneiro and Vina Cerai, and 1Su
municipalitie - SS in Vina Cerai, 53 in lio de aneiro and 39 in Sao aulo.
he population ol the bain i about 5.5 million. ln addition, a bain tranler provide water to
S.7 million more people in metropolitan lio de aneiro. /bout 1u ol the Cro Lometic
roduct ol 8razil depend on water lrom thi bain.
he Committee lor the lnteration ol the lydroraphic 8ain ol liver araiba do Sul (CLl\/) i
made up ol 6u member, three lrom the lederal Covernment and 19 lrom each tate in the
araiba do Sul river bain. he 57 tate member repreent:
! water uer (/u);
! public - lederal, tate and municipal - intitution (35); and
! civil oraniation (`5).
Since 1997, CLl\/ ha:
! pioneered implementation ol water ue chare in 8razil;
! approved the liver 8ain lan, includin a roram ol lnvetment (to invet USL15
million received lrom water ue chare and USL3S million lrom other ource), to retore
water cuality and improve water availability in the bain;
! created the water /ency lor the bain; and
! implemented environmental education and ocial mobiliation proramme in
municipalitie.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]celvap.crg.br
/ bain council may be a lormal or inlormal roup, compriin overnment ollicial,
parliamentarian, lC0 worker and lay people who et toether to dicu water
manaement iue. Council are uually et up to advie overnment. / council, unlike a
commiion, which i alo a body ol expert, ha no reulatory power. 8ain aociation
(Lxample /.1`) or council (alo called yndicate) olten exit alonide the lormal
adminitration and repreent dillerent cateorie ol uer, lC0 or local community roup.
Such aociation or council can have a variety ol role, lor example providin advice,
raiin awarene, educatin and timulatin ownerhip ol bain natural reource
manaement and promotin exchane ol inlormation. hey can alo play a watchdo role.
hey are ometime et up to olve a pecilic problem or lor a pecilic bain. lor more on
thi type ol bain oraniation ee Chapter 6 lnvolvin takeholder.
4.2.3 asin asseciatiens er ceunciIs
xampIe 4.12. kuhr Asseciatien, Cermany: a basin asseciatien in a highIy deveIeped basin
he luhr i a maor tributary ol the lhine liver. he luhr /ociation i a ellovernin body,
ubect to lorth lhinewetphalia tate law. he 5/3 member ol the /ociation include
citie, municipalitie and countie located in the bain, indutrie and mall and mediumize
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enterprie, companie and other, uch a owner ol hydropower plant. Vember pay a
ubcription lee.
he /ociation erve a population ol 5.` million people and manae a wide rane ol
inlratructure lrom watewater treatment plant to reervoir, pumpin tation and
hydropower plant. lo new inlratructure i enviaed and plan are oriented toward
environmental meaure, operation, preventive maintenance and repair. he main tak lie in
retorin water coure to redre the neative ellect ol overdevelopment ol inlratructure.
lor example, plan include action to retore lih miration preently hampered by about
1,`uu river tructure (ee Lxample S.1).
he deciionmakin bodie ol the luhr /ociation are the aembly ol aociate, the
uperviory board and the executive board. he aembly i made up ol 15` deleate
elected lrom the member. he uperviory board ha 15 member and exercie
uperviory authority. he executive board i the leal repreentative ol the aociation and
take care ol daytoday operation.
he luhr /ociation /ct et water chare. he tructure ol the /ociation mean that:
! 8ein a tate controlled but elladminitered body uarantee lull participation in the
accomplihment ol tak and ive overeinty over lee.
! / the /ociation i reponible lor the luhr catchment area, it can orient it work
toward natural condition, unhampered by community boundarie.
! he uprareional oraniation enerate cotavin ynery ellect in the operation ol
it plant.
! he /ociation can ue municipal loan and other credit lrom the tate ol lorth lhine
wetphalia.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ruhrverband.de]ruhrverband_en]html]lndex.html
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ln addition to the type ol bain oraniation decribed above there are alo corporation or
companie that build inlratructure within a bain. hee companie are uually ranted a
lixedterm conceion by overnment to build inlratructure and manae it lor a pecilied
period. Cenerally they provide ervice, bulk water and can levy chare lor ue, uch a
naviation, llood control, irriation and hydropower production. hey are not bain
manaement oraniation. ln eneral they have a private tatute o they do not have a
tewardhip role in water reource manaement becaue thi could reult in a conllict ol
interet and miht not be in the interet ol the public. hey may, however, et up
committee to conult with takeholder (Lxample /.13). o enure an interated approach
and to addre policy and manaement reponibilitie in the public interet, a eparate
overnment body would have to be mandated to reulate uch corporation or companie a
they would be conidered a water uer rather than bain oraniation.
4.2.4 Cerperatiens er cempanies
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Lillerent kind ol bain oraniation may work in the ame bain but play complementary
role. lor example, in the lhone bain in lrance, the lnternational Commiion lor the
rotection ol Lake Ceneva (lrance}Switzerland), the lhone 8ain Committee and water
/ency (lor plannin, linancin and implementation ol the Luropean water lramework
Lirective) and the lational lhone Company (Companie lationale du lhone, lor dam,
dyke, hydropower, naviation, and bulk water) work toether. ln uch cae, the role and
mandate ol each oraniation mut be clearly delined by national law and international
treatie.
8ox /.C ive ome example ol the oraniation ol water manaement in bain in live
countrie.
xampIe 4.13. bnidad de Cuenca deI ke Peas Iancas, Institute Cestarricense de
Iectricidad: a censuItative cemmittee set up by a service previder
he Llectricity lntitute ol Cota lica (lCL) i the monopoly public electricity upplier. lCL et up
Unidad de Cuenca del lio ena 8lanca (UCLl/S) to carry out it environmental policie. o
do thi UCLl/S modernie manaement practice, undertake tudie, lormulate river
bain plan and develop upportin activitie in conunction with takeholder in the bain
concerned.
/lthouh there i conultation with minitrie, municipalitie and nonovernment
oraniation in the bain, executive power i clearly with lCL and, therelore, it i not a neutral
body. here are interminiterial areement and areement with the municipalitie and other
takeholder, but there i no repreentative committee.
he main tak ol UCLl/S i to reduce, a lar a poible, the environmental diruption
caued by the releae ol water lrom the ena 8lanca reervoir, a very popular tourit
detination. he neative ellect ol lluhin have undeniably been reduced. Studie carried
out by UCLl/S have improved knowlede ol the ecoloy and ol the aricultural economy ol
the bain and, il applied, will lead to more environmentally utainable development ol the
bain.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.grupclce.ccm]esp]ele]mane|c_cuencas]penas.html
4.3 CempIementary reIes eI water management bedies in basins
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46
ex 4.C. 0rganisatien eI water management in basins: seme internatienaI cemparisens
Functiens France 5pain raziI Mexice Merecce
water pcllclng
- authcrlsatlcn
(dlscharges,
wlthdrawals)
State servlces k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
Federal cr
State servlces
hatlcnal water
Ccmmlsslcn
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
Strateglc lcng-
term plannlng
(master plan)
k8U (8asln
Ccmmlttee)
k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
k8U (8asln
Ccmmlttee)
k8U
(8asln Ccuncll)
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
Manage
ccncesslcns tc
blg develcpers
(raw water
sales)
Prlvate
develcpers
k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
Prlvate
develcpers
hatlcnal water
Ccmmlsslcn
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
water charges
(pcllutlcn,
abstractlcn),
basln actlcn
plan
k8U
(water Agency)
k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
k8U
(water Agency)
k8U
(new basln
crganlsatlcn)
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
urlnklng water
supply and
sanltatlcn
(ccmmunlty)
Munlclpalltles Munlclpalltles
and
Autcncmcus
Authcrltles
Munlclpalltles
cr State
Munlclpalltles
cr State
Munlclpalltles
and urlnklng
water hatlcnal
Ufflce
Mcnltcrlng,
data
State servlces
water Agency
varlcus
(prlvate)
k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
Autcncmcus
Authcrltles
Federal
8asln Agency
State +
Munlclpalltles
hatlcnal water
Ccmmlsslcn
State
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
varlcus
(prlvate)
lrrlgatlcn
(ccmmunlty)
uevelcpers and
Asscclatlcns
Asscclatlcns State cr
Asscclatlcns
Asscclatlcns Mcrcccc
Agrlcultural
uevelcpment
Ufflce
keglstry
cf users
k8U
(water Agency)
k8U
(Ccnfederatlcn)
k8U (8asln
Ccmmlttee and
water Agency)
hatlcnal water
Ccmmlsslcn
k8U
(Fydrcgraphlcal
8asln Agencles)
l80: liver 8ain 0raniation
!"#$%&' )*+&$*,+-"*,. /&+0"$1 "2 3,4-* 5$6,*-7,+-"*4
4 k0L5 Ah 1P5 0F A5Ih 0kCAhI5A1I0h5
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5 Finance
8elore ettin up a bain manaement ytem, the lund recuired lor it operation mut be
cuantilied and ource ol lund identilied. he type ol bain manaement ytem that i to
be etablihed ha to be adecuately lunded o it can lullil it purpoe. /lthouh thi may
eem obviou, too olten a bain oraniation i et up with unrealitic obective compared
with the lundin allocated. lndeed, the linance lor bain manaement are olten iven cant
conideration. hi build underperlormance into the bain manaement ytem.
Vot bain oraniation have limited linancial autonomy and depend heavily on allocation
lrom central overnment budet. hee allocation olten lluctuate lrom yeartoyear and
accordin to other overnment prioritie. 8ut bain manaement i a 'public ood'. So,
irrepective ol whether or not a lormal bain oraniation exit, overnment would till
have to lund development and manaement ol water reource. 8ain manaement hould
not duplicate, but hould coordinate the activitie ol other aencie, or addre new
lunction not yet implemented. hi mean lund mut be clearly allocated to pecilic
lunction.
Levelopin and implementin an appropriate linancin ytem, baed on 'polluterpay' and
'uerpay' principle, i one ol ix loundin principle ol the lnternational letwork ol 8ain
0ranization and i a key element ol the lwlV approach a delined by the Clobal water
artnerhip.
linancin lor bain manaement cover three ditinct area:
1. Stewardhip ol the reource,
`. Levelopin and maintainin inlratructure, and
3. 0peration ol the bain oraniation.
/n interal part ol a bain action plan i the linancial plan that et out exactly how
implementation ol the plan will be lunded - where the money will come lrom and what it will
be pent on. without a linancin tratey, a bain action plan i uele. 8ut, ecurin lund
5.1 bses eI Iinance
5.1.1 water stewardship
k P0Ih15
! 8asln management systems need adequate, rellable and
sustalned flnanclng.
! Flnanclng suppcrts three maln functlcns:
1. stewardshlp cf the rescurce,
2. develcplng and malntalnlng lnfrastructure, and
3. cperatlng the basln crganlsatlcn.
! There are three baslc scurces cf revenues:
1. taxes,
2. tarlffs (and cther charges), and
3. transfers.
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linance lor eential water inlratructure can be either lor:
1. developin and manain water reource, uch a buildin torae dam and dyke lor
llood}drouht protection, bain manaement (includin land}oil manaement),
preventin pollution and protectin the environment; or
`. providin water ervice, uch a hydropower, irriation ytem, dometic and indutrial
water upplie, watewater treatment and naviable waterway lor river tranport.
he ditinction between developin and manain water reource and providin water
ervice i important when coniderin the role ol the bain oraniation. leponibility lor
the lormer - inlratructure related to manain the reource - i clearly a public ood.
lowever, the latter - ervice inlratructure - can be, and olten i, provided by a rane ol
public and private oraniation, lrom inide or outide the water ector, and earn income
lor the provider. he role ol the bain oraniation in relation to ervice inlratructure thu
ha to be clearly demarcated or there may be duplication and conluion with other role. lor
example, il the bain oraniation build an irriation ytem and, at the ame time,
aee the impact ol the irriation ytem on water reource and the environment, there
i a clear conllict ol interet.
0l coure, there are intance where thi ditinction i blurred and obective are 'bundled'
toether: when a multipurpoe dam erve both to prevent llood and tore water lor
irriation, or where bain manaement i combined with hydropower development lor
example. he point here i lor bain oraniation to undertand uch iue and, where
poible, avoid conllict ol interet.
he bain oraniation will lace dilemma il it manae 'reional development' lund to
provide inlratructure lor ervice whilt, at the ame time, receivin a budet lrom the public
pure lor tewardhip ol the bain. lnevitably, the latter role will be compromied. o avoid
uch conllict, a we noted in Chapter / lole and type ol bain oraniation, thee
lunction hould be eparated. Separatin the reponibilitie will minimie overnance
lailure and corrupt practice, and reduce rik (ee 8ox /./ /inin reponibilitie lor
5.1.2 eveIeping and maintaining inIrastructure
take time. linaliin a plan belore lindin the lund to implement it will almot certainly
mean that the plan i outoldate and may even have to be abandoned by the time lund
have been raied. Lxperience ha hown that when plan tate where lund are oin to
come lrom and how they will be pent they are more likely to be implemented uccelully
than when plan lail to do thi. ldentilyin linancin alo provide a reality check durin
development ol the plan.
linance i needed lor two apect ol water tewardhip. lirt, linancin lor intitutional or
nontructural activitie (olten relerred to a 'olt' intervention) that make thin happen -
oil the wheel ol prore. Such activitie are the eence ol an interated approach to water
reource manaement. /ctivitie that oil the wheel include addrein overnance,
includin mechanim lor accountability and tranparency, policy and plannin procee,
law makin, participation, monitorin, collection ol water chare, data collection and
analyi, reearch, capacity development, awarene raiin and communication activitie.
Second, linancin i needed lor the routine tak and maintenance - collectin hydroloical
and other data, land manaement, river retoration, preventin invaive veetation and
pollution, ediment manaement - that mut be done to keep the bain healthy.
hee water tewardhip activitie recuire ecure lonterm linancin. 8ain oraniation
mut cot thee activitie and include them in medium and lonterm - live or ix year -
linancial trateie, a well a in annual budet.
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5.1.3 0peratiens eI the basin erganisatien
manain water, reulatin water and providin water ervice). ll the bain oraniation i
reponible lor providin ervice, then the tewardhip role i better ained to a hiher
public authority.
he bain oraniation i likely to be one ol many actor involved in providin inlratructure
and will need to work with the other actor. Cotharin mechanim may need to be areed
to enure an interated approach. lnterbain tranler cheme poe pecial linancin iue.
Sharin cot between bain ha political implication and will probably need to be reolved
at the national or reional level.
ln ome countrie, bain oraniation are authoried to receive and manae rant lrom
donor or take loan lrom bank (local and international). ln other countrie, all linancin
mut pa throuh the central overnment. ln either cae, il bain oraniation are eekin
external donor linancin, they hould meet with donor durin the plannin tae ol any
proramme with a view to ecurin a commitment in principle, and addrein any donor
recuirement a early a poible.
ln the cae ol inlratructure proect, lund have to be identilied and allocated not only lor
contruction, but alo lor onoin operatin and maintenance cot once contruction ha
been completed. ll the bain oraniation i to be reponible lor operatin and maintainin
the inlratructure then thee cot have to be lactored into lonterm operatin budet (ee
Section 5.1.1 water tewardhip).
whatever the lorm ol the bain oraniation it will need an operatin budet. hi may be
cuite mall lor a bain committee that meet inlrecuently, but can be inilicant lor a lare
bain authority reponible lor proramme involvin inlratructure. 8udet mut cover
adminitration, linancial manaement and auditin, human reource and capacity
development ol tall.
8udet mut alo include um lor eential ecuipment, uch a computer and lield
intrument, modellin and eoraphic inlormation ytem (ClS) oltware and vehicle.
roviion lor maintainin and replacin ecuipment hould be included. 0lten bain
manaer cannot lullil their reponibilitie becaue their operatin budet are inadecuate.
/dminitrative cot can be inilicant. lund allocated mut be ued cotellectively to
minimie loe and avoid criticim ol prolliate ue ol public lund. ln ettin up a bain
oraniation the ize ol the budet allocated lor adminitration may be a decidin lactor in
determinin the role a bain oraniation can realitically play - a oppoed to the role it
could ideally play. lund may alo be needed to relorm intitution in line with new policie
to trenthen or relorm bain manaement.
5.2 5eurces eI revenues
8ecaue bain manaement i a public ood it will mainly be lunded lrom public ource.
here are only three ource ol lund: taxe, tarill (in the lorm ol chare, tarill and lee)
and tranler (the three )
/
. /ll lund have to come lrom a combination ol thee ource.
(water market are not conidered here a they are complex and rarely ued worldwide.)
lmportantly, lund have to be adminitered within a clear leal lramework and accountability
enlorced by tranparent external audit.
/
UFCu 2009
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axe are an indirect ource ol lund and may be raied in many dillerent way lrom citizen
and buinee. Central overnment make allocation lrom tax revenue to bain
oraniation. Sometime local overnment alo allocate ome ol their tax revenue to bain
oraniation. lor example, the Corporacion /utonoma leional (C/l) in Cundinamarca,
Colombia, and other Colombian C/l receive a percentae ol the land ownerhip taxe paid
to local overnment in the bain. he bain oraniation thu compete with other public
oraniation lor reource. hi mean the cae lor budet allocation mut be ound.
axe can alo take the lorm ol pecial levie. axe levied directly on the water ector are
not necearily allocated back to the water ector. lational, tate, reional or even municipal
overnment may allocate the revenue lrom water taxe to anythin lrom chool and road
to water inlratructure and water manaement. arill, on the other hand, are dedicated
chare that may only be ued lor pecilic purpoe tipulated by law or reulation.
5.2.1 1axes
he um overnment allocate to bain manaement lrom central budet are eldom
ullicient to cover all bain manaement cot. lncreainly, cot have to be recovered
directly lrom citizen and buinee that benelit lrom the ervice provided by the bain
oraniation.
5.2.2 1ariIIs
Uer olten pay chare directly to central overnment and payment are recycled throuh
budet allocation to the bain oraniation. lowever, in thee cae, there i a rik that
central overnment will ue the revenue lor other purpoe rather than plouh them back
into water manaement. /lthouh unpopular with linance minitrie, it i prelerable that
ervice chare are paid directly to the bain oraniation. o do thi, bain oraniation will
need to have tatutory power to raie revenue in thi way a well a the recuiite aleuard
and linancial overiht. he areement with central or reional overnment mut clearly tate
that chare lor pecilic ervice or pecial levie earmarked lor water reource
manaement will be made and retained by the bain oraniation.
lrance and Spain have national water law that et out uch chare, or 'redevance'. water
aencie or 'conlederacione' can directly determine chare at bain level. he chare are
mainly levied on withdrawal and dichare and apply the 'polluteruerpay' principle
(Lxample 5.1).
5.2.2.1 Charges
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1he 'peIIuter-user-pays' principIe
Abstractien charges
The water Agency's 8udget adcpted by the 8card cf ulrectcrs
wlth apprcval cf the 8asln Ccmmlttee
PeIIutien charges
Aid = 5-year pregramme
ig deveIepers
LecaI autherities
5tudies and research
0peratien
Measurement netwerks
Farmers
IndustriaIists
10% 90%
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.lesagencesdeleau.fr
xampIe 5.1. French water agencies: 'peIIuter-user-pays' and 'water-pays-Ier-water'
principIes
he 196/ lrench water Law (modilied in 199` and `uu6) et up a water /ency in each ol the
ix main river bain in lrance. he water /encie are adminitrative public intitution with
civil tatu and linancial autonomy.
/encie are linanced on the 'polluteruerpay' principle. Lach /ency levie water chare
('redevance') on withdrawal and dichare that allect water cuality and modily the water
reime. lor indutrie, the chare are calculated accordin to the type ol indutry and the
amount ol pollution they produce. lor dometic uer, the chare are calculated lor each
community accordin to both permanent and eaonal population, and are collected lrom
uer toether with payment lor metered water conumption.
he rate are determined by each /ency and are adapted accordin to the prioritie and
cuality obective delined lor each bain. hey mut be approved by the 8ain Committee, a
multitakeholder platlorm compoed ol repreentative lrom the State, local overnment and
uer (indutrialit, lare reional developer, larmer, water upply and anitation
companie, lihermen, and aociation lor the protection and conervation ol the
environment).
8aed on the 'waterpaylorwater' principle, 9u ol the lund collected by the water
/encie are then reallocated a loan and ubidie to local communitie, indutrie, larmer
and other roup to:
! abate pollution (contruct, extend or improve purilication plant and wate water
collection ytem, introduce cleaner production procee, etc.);
! develop and manae urlace water and roundwater; and
! retore and maintain the acuatic environment.
en percent ol the lund collected o to cover the cot ol the water /ency and liver 8ain
Committee. lor the current ixyear action plan the lund collected will amount to 11.6
billion, which will upport bain invetment or water reource activitie to the value ol 1u.`
billion.
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xampIe 5.2. AIgerian hydregraphicaI asin Agencies: water charges system
he principle ol charin indutrie lor water ue i well etablihed in /leria. lt wa initially
introduced in the 19Su baed on the idea that private ue ol a ood then conidered a tate
property (public water) needed to be paid lor.
with the adoption ol interated water reource manaement principle in the lirt hall ol the
199u, the chare, introduced by the 1996 linance Law, and reinlorced in the `uu7 linance
Law, rellected an important chane. Chare to pay lor interated water reource
manaement were extended to all ector. while thee law introducin chare have not, or
have only very partially, been implemented, they have led to:
! a better undertandin ol indutrial withdrawal, a well a ol obtacle to implementin a
charin ytem;
! prore in oraniational modalitie to calculate chare and in procedure to collect
them; and
! accuiition ol inlormation related to accountin: recovery cot, yield, reaon lor
nonpayment.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.abhahs.ccm (Alglers]Fcdna]Scumman)
0ther countrie, includin /leria, Vorocco, Vexico, 8razil, lomania and 8ularia, are
introducin imilar chare (Lxample 5.`). ln 8razil, the charin ytem wa adapted lrom
that ued in lrance and modilied to uit the lederal ytem in the country (Lxample 5.3).
1ransparency eI cests and 'peIIuter-pays' principIe
Cests eIinitien
5um = IuII cest
xampIe
ulrect ccst Capltal ccsts Prlnclpal and lnterest, depreclatlcn
Fnvlrcnmental ccst Ccsts cf the damage tc the
envlrcnment caused by a glven
actlvlty
Ccntamlnatlcn cf an aqulfer,
destructlcn cf wetlands
kescurce ccst value cf the alternatlve fcregcne by
chccslng a partlcular actlvlty
(= cppcrtunlty ccsts)
Ccst cf electrlclty that cculd have
been prcduced lf water wculd be
avallable lnstead cf belng pumped
fcr lrrlgatlcn
Uperatlng ccsts wages, electrlclty, malntenance cf
equlpment, analyses cf the quallty
cf water
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xampIe 5.3. Piracicaba, Capivari and [undiai kiver asin in raziI: adapting water
charges te a IederaI system
he iracicaba, Capivari and undiai liver 8ain (C) in 8razil cover an area ol 15,3`u km
`
.
/pproximately, 9` lie in the State ol Sao aulo and S in the State ol Vina Cerai.
ln 0ctober `uu5, alter more than a decade ol dicuion, the C liver 8ain Committee
approved a water ue chare. Chare are collected lrom water uer - anitation and water
upply utilitie, indutrie, and larmer - who extract and conume water and dichare
ewerae into the river and roundwater in the bain. he ytem ol chare wa initially
applied to the lederal river, but, i now bein applied to river in the State ol Sao aulo. he
liver 8ain Committee decided that the ame chare will apply to both lederal river and
tate water bodie.
he chare are USL5 per 1,uuu cubic meter ol water extracted, USL1u per 1,uuu cubic
meter ol water conumed, USL5u per ton ol dichare, and USL7.5u per 1,uuu cubic meter
tranlerred to another bain.
he water ue chare:
! reconie that water i an economic ood and ive an indication ol it real value;
! timulate the rational ue ol water; and
! collect reource to linance proramme and intervention et out in the lydroraphical
8ain lan.
/ll linancial reource collected are ued by the water /ency to retore water cuality and
improve water availability in the bain accordin to trateie etablihed in the liver 8ain
lan and approved by the Committee.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ccmltepc|.sp.gcv.br]
xampIe 5.4. Cesta kica: 'peIIuter-user-pays'
he Cota lica Lnvironmental wate 'Canon', `uu5, i baed on the principle that thoe who
contaminate hould pay. ayment are calculated accordin to the cuantity ol wate
enerated.
/ econd 'canon', the Lnvironmentally /duted 'Canon', `uu6, reconie that water i a
public ood, and promote the ellicient ue ol the water reource. lt include two
component:
Licence, 'canone' or 'water riht' are another lorm ol charin (Lxample 5./). hey are tool
to reulate water ue. 8ain oraniation hould recuire water uer, includin municipal
authoritie and utilitie whether public or privately operated, to pay lor licence to extract
water. Likewie, watewater dichare into a river or lake hould recuire a licence. lon
conumptive ue ol water, uch a minin, naviation and enery production, hould alo
recuire a licence. 8ain oraniation hould make ure they have the leal power to chare
uer lor thee ervice and retain the revenue to invet in bain manaement.
levenue lrom line lor pollution may alo be iven to bain oraniation to clean up polluted
area and prevent lurther pollution.
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! payment lor the riht to ue water reource lor activitie uch a ariculture, indutry,
tourim, human conumption, trade; and
! payment lor environmental water ervice to cover the cot ol conervation and the
cot ol retoration ol ecoytem.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.drh.gc.cr
arill and lee paid by uer lor ervice hould at leat cover all operatin cot and hould
alo cover renewal cot and the cot ol manain water reource lor the benelit ol citizen
(Lxample 5.5). arill rate lor dillerent cutomer may vary baed on their ability to pay.
lncome lrom lee may be put into a 'olidarity lund' which can be ued to balance the need
ol uptream and downtream uer, and to ubidie poorer ocial roup.
8ecaue cutomer are olten widely pread eoraphically, ytem to collect payment can
be cotly and complicated, epecially il the total revenue i mall. 0ne way to brin down
cot i to include bain manaement lee a a component ol the lee chared lor other
ervice, lor example electricity, a people are more willin to pay lor electricity than they are
lor water. /nother way i to arrane lor a component ol the lee collected by the other party
to be ued by them to carry out a water manaement tak. lor example, hydropower
companie may be willin to pay lor maintainin a bain uptream to enure adecuate llow
to a reervoir.
5.2.2.2 Tarlffs and fees
ranler include rant, and charitable and voluntary contribution. Crant include bi and
multilateral lund, uch a ollicial development aitance (0L/). 0ne remarkable example
i the water linancin roram ol the /ian Levelopment 8ank that include the introduction
5.2.3 1ransIers
xampIe 5.5. waIIeen kegien, eIgium: appIicatien eI the cest recevery principIe
he Luropean water lramework Lirective (wlL) recuire Vember State to etablih a cot
recovery pricin ytem by `u1u to promote ellective ue ol water reource and enure that
each ector (houehold, indutrie, ariculture) contribute appropriately to linancin water
ervice. Sytem hould be baed on the 'polluterpay' principle, amont other.
o comply with wlL, the walloon leion etablihed a new leilative lramework and
relormed water pricin. water pricin now take into account all the cot, lrom protection ol
water intake to watewater treatment. ln accordance with the 'water truecot' principle there
are no loner any ubidie. / inle pricin tructure i applied to all walloon uer
(houehold, larmer, indutrie and adminitration) baed on 'ervice truecot', 'water
upply truecot' and 'anitation truecot'.
he walloon leion alo improved tranparency in water ervice by introducin citizen
reulation ol water price and by tandardiin the accountin ytem ol water reource
operator.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]envlrcnnement.wallcnle.be
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he three baic ource ol revenue (dicued in Section 5.`.15.`.3) contitute a cah llow
lor the bain oraniation which can be ued to raie lurther repayable lorm ol linance,
particularly loan. Lare, olvent bain oraniation in ome countrie may alo be in a
poition to raie bond linance, uually with the backin ol tate or central overnment. here
may alo be cope lor raiin ecuity (rik linance) lor inlratructure proect, uch a multi
purpoe dam and, in ome cae, new irriation cheme.
5.2.4. kepayabIe seurces eI Iinance
ol lwlV in `5 river bain
5
. Conceionary loan lrom international linancin intitution,
uch a the world 8ank or reional or bilateral development bank, include a rant element,
but they are bet treated a a repayable ource ol lund (ee Section 5.`./ lepayable
ource ol linance). hee lund are uually directed to central overnment. Levelopin
countrie alo olten receive eneral budet upport - donor aid tranlerred directly to the
central treaury. o benelit lrom a hare ol thee type ol lund - a budet allocation or
loan - bain oraniation will need to preent propoal to central overnment a well a
dicu propoed pendin with donor durin plannin. hi mean makin ure that water
reource manaement i a priority in national development plan and poverty reduction
trateie.
Licuion on linancin olten locu on 0L/ and donor lundin. 8ut the lund lrom thee
ource are modet lor all but a lew developin countrie. Voreover, with donor lund
increainly channelled throuh central treaurie a direct budet or ector upport, there i
olten very little available lor directly lundin ol national bain oraniation and their
proramme. ln contrat, many tranboundary bain oraniation or international
commiion in developin countrie receive a inilicant amount ol rant or loan lrom
0L/.
8ecaue there i olten very little direct lundin available, it i important not to overlook the
lundin available lrom nonovernmental ource. Vany charitie, lC0 and volunteer
contribute cah or inkind reource lor pecilic proect, uch a environmental retoration,
monitorin water cuality and maintainin ecoytem habitat. lowever, thee lund remain
modet compared with other ource.
5
See www.adb.crg]water]wFP]basln.asp fcr mcre lnfcrmatlcn.
5.3 Financing transbeundary basins
linancin lor bain hared by more than one country i a pecial cae. Up to /u ol the
world' population live in bain hared by two or more countrie. Lxtraction and pollution ol
water reource in one country directly impact other countrie in the bain. Similarly llood
and drouht manaement activitie can have inilicant impact uptream or downtream,
allectin other countrie in the bain. hi poe challene in allocatin cot lor
tranboundary bain manaement.
leional bodie, uch a the Luropean Union and the Southern /lrican Levelopment
Community, and multi or bilateral aencie, uch a the Clobal Lnvironmental lacility, may
provide lund lor manain tranboundary bain. Countrie harin a bain may aree to
allocate budet and make tranler to the tranboundary bain oraniation under a leal
cotharin areement or treaty (ee Section 7./.1.` Sharin cot and benelit and
Lxample 7.5). lnlratructure proect may alo enerate revenue but, in thee cae, there
need to be check and balance to enure that thoe reponible lor the inlratructure do not
inlluence, unduly, deciion makin in the bain oraniation.
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6 InveIving stakeheIders
k P0Ih15
! Fnsure key stakehclders are represented ln basln management.
! ulstlngulsh between lnfcrmatlcn, ccnsultatlcn, partlclpatlcn and
empcwerment.
! Carefully ccnslder the balance between lnfcrmlng all and lnvclvlng a
few.
! Fnsure admlnlstratlve prccesses dc nct |ecpardlse real partlclpatlcn.
! Fnsure partlclpatlcn ls transparent.
! 8ccst cwnershlp cf basln actlcn plans by establlshlng and
malntalnlng ccmmunlty partlclpatlcn.
! Fnsure flnanclng fcr lnvclvlng stakehclders ls adequate.
! Fnsure ccmmunlcatlcn between thcse managlng lccal actlcn plans,
heads cf gcvernment water agencles and heads cf basln
crganlsatlcns.
! uevelcp the capaclty cf dlsenfranchlsed grcups sc they can
partlclpate ln plannlng and lmplementatlcn at apprcprlate levels.
8ain manaement recuire a clear undertandin ol takeholder: who i involved in makin
deciion on water and land reource manaement in a bain and who will be allected by
thoe deciion. 0nce thi i undertood, way ol ettin the riht mix ol takeholder
involved at appropriate level ol bain manaement can be oranied.
o identily who i involved and who i allected it i uelul to draw up a matrix ol
takeholder, and their role and reponibilitie. hi can be a uelul lirt tep in
undertandin deciion makin at dillerent level in bain manaement (Lxample 6.1).
6.1 IdentiIying stakeheIders
xampIe 6.1. hamei kiver vaIIey, AustraIia: identiIying stakeheIders in basin
management
ln the lamoi liver \alley, bain manaer laced a complex rane ol iue on lloodplain
manaement, alinity manaement and oil eroion on aricultural land. hey drew up a
'takeholder matrix' that identilied the type ol takeholder and the kind ol economic
activitie they purue in the bain.
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5caIe Private PubIic
Lccal
(cperatlcnal)
Farmers and grazlers
! estlmated at 165 famllles
kural buslnesses
! several farmers cperate cff-farm
buslness ventures,
! suppllers and extenslcn servlces
(supply agrcchemlcals, farm
machlnery, lrrlgatlcn equlpment
and fertlllsers, lncludes
ccnsultants and advlsers),
! transpcrt (prlvate stcck and graln
transpcrt ccmpanles).
Land Care 6rcups
! grcups suppcrted by gcvernment
grants, but malnly lccally cwned
and crganlsed by farmers.
Agrlcultural extenslcn agents
! extenslcn servlces cf rescurce
management agencles, prlmarlly
uepartments cf Agrlculture,
Ccnservatlcn and Land
Management (llmlted, and
decreaslng),
! ccnsultants (prcvlde lndependent
agrcncmlc and cn-farm flnanclal
advlce, based wlthln the reglcn),
! shlre cfflclals,
! three shlres (6unnedah, ulrlndl,
Murrurundl Shlre) lnfluence land
cwnershlp transfers, ccllect land
taxes, and requlre lccal
envlrcnmental management plans.
keglcnal]State
(lmplementatlcn)
8uslnesses
! banks (lncludes agrlcultural
develcpment banks, lcan
servlces),
! whclesalers,
! servlces (supply agrcchemlcals
and fertlllsers),
! transpcrt (prlvate stcck and graln
transpcrt ccmpanles).
Agrlcultural extenslcn and technlcal
cfflcers
! chemlcal ccmpanles,
! prlvate ccnsultants.
Urganlsatlcns
! keglcnal uevelcpment 8card
! Prlvate grcwer crganlsatlcns (hSw
Farmers, 6ralns Ccuncll cf
Australla).
Medla
! lccal and reglcnal newspapers,
televlslcn and radlc statlcns (prcflle
ma|cr rescurce management lssues,
lnfluence changes ln attltudes, market
prcducts and servlces).
State cfflclals (agrlcultural extenslcn
and technlcal cfflcers)
! lncludes Ccnservatlcn and Land
Management, uepartment cf water
kescurces, uepartment cf
Agrlculture, Fnvlrcnment Prctectlcn
Authcrlty, hatlcnal Parks and
wlldllfe Servlce, State kall, State
Fcrests, kural Lands Prctectlcn
8card,
! lncludes scme reglcnal pcllcy and
plannlng by gcvernment.
keglcnal basln management
crganlsatlcns
! hcrth west Tctal Catchment
Management Ccmmlttee,
! Llverpccl Plalns Land Management
Ccmmlttee,
Academlcs,
! scclal, eccncmlc and blcphyslcal
research sclentlsts frcm lccal and
reglcnal unlversltles, and research
fleld statlcns.
hatlcnal
(strateglc]pcllcy)
hatlcnal buslnesses
! banks (natlcnal pcllcy affects
bcrrcwlng capablllty, lnterest
rates),
! whclesalers (lmpact cn prcduct
values and lnput ccsts),
! servlces (prcvlde ccnsultancy
servlces),
! transpcrt (prcvlde natlcnal
lnfrastructure).
Phllanthrcplc crganlsatlcns
! Australlan Ccnservatlcn
Fcundatlcn,
! lnland klvers hetwcrk.
Ufflclals and prcgrammes ln federal
crganlsatlcns
! Murray-uarllng 8asln Ccmmlsslcn,
! Land and water kescurces
kesearch and uevelcpment
Ccrpcratlcn,
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6lcbal
(strateglc]
pcllcy)
lnternatlcnal agrlbuslnesses
! ncne thcught tc be lnfluentlal,
althcugh much agrlcultural
prcduce ls expcrted thrcugh
natlcnal crganlsatlcns tc
lnternatlcnal markets,
! glcbal markets lnfluence lccal
farmlng practlces (e.g. plantlng
declslcns).
Academlcs and researchers
! ncne thcught tc be lnfluentlal,
althcugh several lnternatlcnal
researchers wlll use the Llverpccl
Plalns as a ccmparatlve fleld slte
fcr research.
Treatles
! federal gcvernment requlres states
and reglcns tc ccmply wlth
natlcnal pcllcles derlved frcm
lnternatlcnal agreements, such as
the 6eneral Agreement cn Tarlffs
and Trade and the Asla-Paclflc
Fccncmlc Cc-cperatlcn, and glcbal
envlrcnmental lnltlatlves lncludlng
Fcclcglcally Sustalnable
uevelcpment treatles.
Phllanthrcplc crganlsatlcns
! ncne thcught tc be lnfluentlal.
5caIe Private PubIic
Urganlsatlcns
! Prlvate grcwer crganlsatlcns (hSw
Farmers, 6ralns Ccuncll cf
Australla),
! crganlc farmlng crganlsatlcns.
Medla
! natlcnal newspapers, televlslcn
and radlc statlcns (prcflle ma|cr
rescurce management lssues,
lnfluence changes ln attltudes,
market prcducts and servlces).
! kural lndustrles kesearch and
uevelcpment Ccrpcratlcn,
! hatlcnal Landcare Prcgram,
! hatlcnal uryland Sallnlty
Management Prcgram.
Medla
! as fcr prlvate stakehclders
(lncludes A8C Tv and kadlc).
Scurce: Fccper 2005, pp.67 and 68, adapted frcm Fccper 1995
here are many way to involve takeholder in bain manaement, both lormally and
inlormally. Stakeholder involvement depend on the mandate ol the bain oraniation (ee
Section /.1.1 Vandate) and takeholder (Lxample 6.`).
6.2 Cetting stakeheIder participatien
xampIe 6.2. urepean water Framewerk irective: stakeheIder censuItatien
0ne ol the obective ol the Luropean water lramework Lirective (wlL) i to make water
policy more tranparent throuh the active participation ol all takeholder. /ccordin to
article 1/, Vember State mut 'encourae the active involvement ol all intereted partie in
the implementation ol the[ Lirective, in particular in the production, review and updatin ol
the river bain manaement plan'.
he Lirective call on Vember State to 'enure that lor each river bain ditrict, they publih
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Vethod to involve takeholder depend on many lactor: how olten takeholder need to
be involved, the kind ol ociety, the nature ol inlormation the bain oraniation need lrom
them, the type ol repreentation that i appropriate, the political value ol enain preure
roup and acce to the bain oraniation and deciion maker. akin part in villae
meetin, 'town hall' meetin, urvey ol bain takeholder' opinion and bain adviory
roup, are ut ome ol the way takeholder can be encouraed to et involved. he
development ol the /ndhra radeh water \iion i a ood example ol how one overnment
involved villae takeholder (Lxample 6.3).
8ut, takeholder participation can be timeconumin and cotly, and may not have clear
outcome. here ha to be a balance between inlormin all and involvin a lew. o avert or
minimie thee problem, procedure lor involvin takeholder need to be deined
thouhtlully and implemented carelully. he Cw ool8ox indicate key point to conider
when deinin takeholder involvement (8ox 6./).
and make available lor comment lrom the public' the timetable and work proramme, the
identilication ol the main water iue in the ditrict, and the dralt river bain manaement
plan.
he Lirective provide the lramework lor public conultation, but each Vember State ol the LU
implement the Lirective in it own way. Cood public inlormation i a prerecuiite to public
conultation.
o enure conitency between ditrict, mot countrie et up a national lramework. ln
international river bain, countrie olten etablih coordination mechanim and, in ome
bain, the riparian countrie adopt a common tratey lor public participation. heir
experience how that conultation hould be a local a poible and take a bottomup
approach at the bain and ubbain cale.
he lirt public conultation enerated a better undertandin ol public expectation. he
experience ol Vember State howed that water i ol reat public interet. lt wa alo hown
that raiin the awarene ol deciion maker and enior adminitrator at local, reional and
national level i eential. Communicatin appropriately, uin imple lanuae tailored to
the eneral public, proved crucial. Vot important ol all, deciion makin procee mut be
tranparent. here mut be way to explain the deciion made and to account lor the reult.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]eurcpa.eu]scadplus]leg]en]lvb]l28002b.htm
http:]]ec.eurcpa.eu]envlrcnment]water]water-framewcrk]lndex_en.html
xampIe 6.3. Andhra Pradesh water visien: gathering stakeheIder input
ln the development ol the /ndhra radeh water \iion in lndia, takeholder 'water meae'
were collected lrom over 6uu people in villae meetin. / local nonovernment oraniation
that pecialie in collectin 'local voice' athered the opinion ol people who normally have
very little, il any, acce to overnment deciion maker. hi made ure that the voice ol
roup in remote location were heard. he material athered in thi way wa a key input to
the /ndhra radeh water \iion.
8ut the proce wa limited, in that it wa a 'one way' proce. he Covernment need to put
more ellort into communicatin what will happen once the water \iion et underway. hi
ha not really happened, o the daner i that the people who participated may become
lrutrated and wonder about the value placed on their input.
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ln addition to ettin up way to involve takeholder there i alo a need to be pecilic
about the cope ol any conultation, what deciion procee each roup ol takeholder are
oin to be involved in and how thee deciion are to be made (Lxample 6./, 8ox 6.8).
'Stakeholder' i a very eneral term and it would be wron to ive the impreion that they
'make deciion'. lather than 'makin deciion' they are 'involved in deciionmakin
procee'. Specilyin who decide what help identily any ap in the bainwide deciion
makin proce. lt i important to lill thee ap to enure that deciion makin i adecuately
coordinated.
xampIe 6.4. hungary: pubIic participatien
he lirt ublic articipation () tratey lor river bain manaement in lunary wa
developed in `uu6 baed on the Lanube liver 8ain Stratey. he tratey tree that
river bain manaement plan mut harmonie with all other development proramme that
allect water reource manaement.
he tratey wa piloted in the Upper iza durin the lirt hall ol `uu7 on the lour maor
interet roup: central and local overnment oraniation, lC0, water uer, proleional
and academia. o enure meaninlul public involvement, the tratey recommended
etablihin the lollowin bodie:
! twelve SubCommittee ol exitin leional water Vanaement Council,
! lour SubCatchment water Vanaement Council,
! a lational water Vanaement Council.
hee bodie are chared with canvain public opinion and input to develop the liver 8ain
Vanaement lan. Lach body upervie the proce at their own level and, lollowin
review and amendment, endore or return the plan lor lurther improvement. he lational
water Vanaement Council i reponible lor adviin the miniter on adoption ol the plan.
he core compoition ol the council i: /u repreentative ol overnmental oraniation,
`u repreentative ol lC0, `u repreentative ol water uer and `u repreentative ol
proleional and academia.
0ther member ol the national and ubcatchment committee may be included to enure
bottomup repreentation. Leilation i bein modilied to etablih the council.
! Lnure all relevant roup ol water uer are repreented.
! /void 'capture' ol the proce by minority or particularly articulate roup.
! Subidie il neceary to enure a 'balance' ol public and private participation.
! Ltablih 'rule' to reolve dipute.
Scurce: 6wP Tccl8cx
ex 6.A. key peints te censider in designing stakeheIder inveIvement
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/n independent roup, uch a a takeholder adviory roup that advie on key water
iue, can make bain manaement more ellective. Stakeholder adviory roup are
overnmentprivate ectorcommunity roup made up ol repreentative ol bain
landowner, relevant tate overnment aencie, local overnment council, local water
upply authoritie and other utilitie, economic ector uch a ariculture and enery, and
other roup with an interet in land and water manaement.
he role ol the adviory roup i to advie the bain oraniation on maor bain problem
and poible olution. he roup can voice local concern, provide local knowlede, help
cuantily and prioritie iue, a well a identily option to addre thee iue and provide
a reality check on how option are likely to work in practice. /nother important role i to
advie on developin and implementin a monitorin ytem.
workhop and lield trip can help both takeholder and bain oraniation appreciate the
array, ize and extent ol land and water reource iue in bain manaement, a well a
how local action impact other part ol the bain. he adviory roup may be upported by a
technical committee that advie on the enineerin, ecoloical, economic and ocial
apect ol manaement.
here are alo many opportunitie lor the private ector to be involved in bain manaement,
epecially at the local level. Some way ol doin thi are throuh oint venture and proect,
and cotharin arranement. rivate ector water utility provider are the obviou partner
lor thee type ol arranement. lowever, uch arranement in emerin economie and
lowincome countrie need to be ure ol repreentation by the inlormal water ector and
private ector roup, a well a local oraniation and aencie (Lxample 6.5).
xampIe 6.5. Cemit de Itaja, 5anta Catarina, raziI: pubIic-private participatien
he Comite do ltaai, etablihed in 1996 in the Santa Catarina reion ol 8razil, i an example
ol a bottom up oraniation lor interated water reource manaement. Local intitution,
includin municipalitie, indutrial and commercial oraniation and univeritie, came
toether initially to olve llood problem. hi led to the ettin up ol a water leource
Vanaement Committee lor the bain.
he Committee i lormally reconied by the tate overnment a a partner ol the State water
ex 6.. LecaI participatien in basin management
! /ree on cutomary 'rule' rather than reulation (it i meaninle to et up reulation
lor water ue when there are vat number ol mallcale uer who are not linked with
public intitution).
! Vake ure ubbain manaement plan pecily how local water reource manaement
deciion are made (conenu, votin, lor example).
! Spell out a 'cuality aurance' procedure to enure that local deciion harmonie with the
overall bain manaement plan.
! /dvie local overnment oraniation to enact zonin mechanim, control pollution, and
ue plannin tool to manae local natural reource, cononant with overall bain
manaement oal (by trainin, chanin attitude and throuh coordination
mechanim, uch a tatutory plannin power).
6.3 5takeheIder advisery greups
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Vany deciion in bain manaement will involve tradeoll, with both winner and loer.
he participation ol takeholder mean that an optimum - rather than a perlect - olution
i more likely to be reached. Stakeholder adviory roup can alo encourae the dein ol
mitiatin meaure lor the lew who may be diadvantaed lor the benelit ol the many.
leource Council. lt i chared with manaement ol the water reource ol the ltaai bain, co
ordinatin the action ol reponible aencie in the bain and uperviin implementation to
meet the planned oal. ln addition, it ha been iven the authority to et chare lor water
ue.
he Committee i a public-private partnerhip with 5u member: 1u repreentin lederal and
tate aencie, `u repreentin water uer, 1u repreentin the municipalitie, and 1u
repreentin nonovernmental oraniation. / overnance ytem ha evolved with a
Ceneral /embly that appoint enior manaement and approve the water manaement and
llood manaement plan. he Committee report to and communicate with the eneral public
throuh an annual water week. hi include event in each municipality in the bain.
ublic participation ha built upport and cooperation lrom the population in the bain a well
a developin conenu amon thoe involved in the public and the private ector. he main
reult obtained o lar by the Committee include:
! tudy ol water demand and availability in the bain and a urvey ol almot 9,uuu water
uer;
! approved criteria lor conceion;
! recovery ol more than 6uu hectare ol loret;
! increae in the number ol municipal council with environmental activitie and promotion
ol municipal anitation;
! reater clarity about environmental cuetion and their relationhip to water reource;
! reater public involvement and participation throuhout the bain.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ccmltelta|al.crg.br
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7 5trategic Ieng-term pIanning
he bain manaement tratey et out the lonterm oal and apiration lor water
reource manaement, and how thee oal are to be realied. / tratey uually cover a
ten to twentyyear period. he tratey determine the overall direction lor bain
manaement and i the bai lor developin detailed three to ixyear bain manaement
plan or action plan (ee Chapter S 8ain action plan). Sometime plan can be derailed
by unloreeen event or chane in political prioritie or peronalitie. lt i therelore
adviable to build ome reilience into the plan to cope with uch external hock or
preure.
he tratey hould take into account the lollowin baeline inlormation at national level, or
reional level in the cae ol tranboundary bain:
! water manaement policie and intitutional lramework;
! context, type, cale and everity ol water and land reource manaement problem;
! eneral and waterrelated development oal;
! level ol economic development ol the bain;
! capacity ol water manaer and intitution to manae natural reource problem; and
! linancial reource available durin the trateic period.
/lthouh trateie are a manaement tool, they are bet developed with the involvement ol
the lull rane ol takeholder (ee Chapter 6 lnvolvin takeholder). 8ox 7./ ive
uideline lor buildin a uccelul bain manaement tratey.
ln ome countrie, a leal lramework lor bain lonterm plannin ha been etablihed. ln
the Luropean Union, the water lramework Lirective recuire the `7 member tate to
develop a bain manaement plan lor each Luropean international and national bain belore
`uu9.
k P0Ih15
! Strateglc plannlng lnvclves settlng lcng-term gcals fcr water
management ln a basln.
! ln develcplng the strategy, key areas tc ccver are lssues, prlcrltles,
management actlcns, ccsts and beneflts, and rlsk assessment.
! Strateglc basln plannlng llnks basln level actlcns tc reglcnal and
natlcnal develcpment gcals, pcllcles and plannlng prccesses.
! The strateglc plan needs tc be flexlble encugh tc ad|ust tc new
lnfcrmatlcn and changlng clrcumstances as they emerge.
ex 7.A. uiIding a successIuI basin management strategy
! lave a clear view ol the actual ituation ol water reource in the bain.
! /ree on oal and taret.
! ropoe cenario to be dicued with takeholder.
! Coordinate prioritie and action ol all takeholder.
! Lay down a lramework lor makin deciion.
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here are live main element in developin a bain tratey. hee may or may not be taken
in ecuence dependin on circumtance:
1. identilyin the iue;
`. ettin prioritie;
3. identilyin manaement option;
/. analyin cot and benelit; and
5. aein rik.
lor each element, it i neceary and ood practice to oranie dialoue between
takeholder and conult with intereted partie and}or the eneral public.
he outcome ol the trateic plannin proce hould be a clear tatement ol the 'viion' ol a
bain oraniation or bain initiative ettin out unambiuou oal and explainin how,
when and where the oal will be achieved (Lxample 7.1).
! Link the bain tratey to broader development oal, and national and reional
development plannin procee.
! /nticipate the need to trenthen capacity and lund capacity buildin.
! lnvolve and ain the upport ol takeholder, includin women and the poor.
! /llocate human and linancial reource to the trateic plannin proce.
! Set a timetable with miletone and taret.
! Vake ure the tratey include lundin recuirement and lundin ource.
! ut in place monitorin and evaluation ytem that leed back into the plannin proce.
Adapted frcm 6wP TFC 200/
xampIe 7.1. higer asin Autherity: a shared visien
ln `uu3, the nine member tate ol the lier 8ain /uthority (l8/), 8enin, 8urkina lao,
Cameroon, Chad, lvory Coat, Cuinea, Vali, lier and lieria, lormulated a 'clear and hared
\iion' lor the lier 8ain. he viion i to create an enablin environment lor cooperation
baed on a Sutainable Levelopment /ction lan (SL/).
he Leclaration ol ari on the 'principle ol manaement and ood overnance lor
utainable and hared development ol the lier 8ain' wa ined in /pril `uu/ by the nine
lead ol State and Covernment.
he LU water lacility provided lund to l8/ to:
! dralt a water Charter;
! make the Sutainable Levelopment /ction lan conitent with national and reional
interated water reource manaement procee; and
! prepare invetment proramme and method lor implementin proect.
with the lormulation ol the SL/, the development ol the invetment proramme at the end ol
`uu7, and the Summit ol the lead ol State and Covernment and loundtable ol Lonor held
in `uuS, the l8/ will be able to achieve practical and latin outcome lor lier 8ain uer
and citizen.
Mcre cn the h8A at: http:]]www.abn.ne
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he lirt tep in developin a trateic plan i to et a clear idea ol the water and land
reource manaement iue and onoin activitie in a bain. 0ne uelul method lor
identilyin iue i copin, but other method, uch a initial impact aement, can alo
be ued. he obective i to ain an overview ol the iue, how critical they are, who they
allect and the chance ol bein able to achieve reult in the hort term. Lxample 7.`
decribe how countrie harin the /ral Sea 8ain are workin out a bain tratey.
7.1 IdentiIying issues
xampIe 7.2. AraI 5ea asin: strategic Ieng-term pIanning
Lurin the Soviet period, the /ral Sea 8ain wa manaed a an interated economic unit.
with independence the interated economic ytem broke down. / countrie bean to deline
their own economic prioritie they became acutely aware that their repective oal
conllicted. hee conllictin oal et the cene lor intene competition lor water.
ln lebruary 199`, Kazakhtan, Kyryztan, aikitan, urkmenitan and Uzbekitan ined an
areement on Cooperation in the oint Ue and rotection ol water leource ol lntertate
Sinilicance, reconiin that they had a common interet in the /ral Sea and lormin an
lntertate Commiion lor water Coordination (lCwC). hi ubumed the two exitin bain
water oraniation (/mudarya and Syrdarya). he lCwC lormulated the tratey lor water
development:
leional approach to ownerhip and utainability
! Lnure the tability and the ecurity ol the countrie ol the reion.
! romote cloer reional cooperation within Central /ia.
! 8uild upon achievement already made in the countrie.
! Vake donor aitance conditional upon reional cooperation.
! Lncourae reional political and linancial commitment.
! /llow tron leaderhip ol reional intitution by local, not donor.
Creative approache to neotiation
! /pply iuelinked trateie, lor example, water lor enery, water lor the environment.
! 0ller incentive to contituencie who may loe lrom cooperation.
! Carry out baic dipute reolution lunction: inlormation llow, lair treatment and
utainable procee.
! /llow local olution to tranboundary activitie.
! Lncourae publication ol water manaement cot - a a tep toward ettin new
linancial mechanim.
letwork and authority lor manain proramme
! Commit to coordination and knowlede harin.
! Vake conllict prevention meaure interal to proramme and proect.
! Support exitin intitution in croectoral activitie.
! Lncourae cooperation with lobal knowlede network.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.cawater-lnfc.net
he tratey document hould prelerably take the lorm ol a lormally approved ollicial
manaement plan indicatin how the initiative ol all takeholder involved (public and
private) will be coordinated and pecilyin the rule and reulation that will be
implemented in the bain. he tatement hould be made eaily acceible to all
takeholder in a lormat that can be undertood by all.
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Scopin i a way ol makin ure all apect ol an iue are conidered. 8ain manaer can
do thi in many way, throuh takeholder workhop, urvey, or by akin lor report lrom
dillerent roup, lor example. uttin the reult ol the copin exercie toether will deline
the cale and extent ol the problem, the rane ol iue to be addreed, the environmental
policie and reulation that allect the iue and will probably indicate poible manaement
olution. Lelinin problem in thi way help bain manaer and takeholder map out the
boundarie ol the problem in term ol what i within the power ol bain manaement to
chane and what i outide their authority. when done uplront, copin i uelul both lor
makin trateic lonterm plan and lor developin hortterm action plan.
he matrix method i another way ol aein and prioritiin the importance, cope and
the context ol water manaement iue with repect to the overall bain. Lerived lrom the
creenin and rankin method ued in rapid impact aement lor environmental
aement, it help in rankin dillerent iue aaint each other (8ox 7.8).
ex 7.. 5etting prierities, evaIuating and ranking water reseurces issues
! Specily and prioritie natural reource manaement iue clearly and within national
plannin and development oal.
! Specily how each iue will be addreed in the plannin proce.
! Check each priority iue aaint the contraint and opportunitie ol the bain'
hydroloy.
! lelate prioritie to linancial reource.
! Lo what i mot prein lirt!
0nce the iue have been identilied the next tep i to et prioritie. 0lten it i better to
tackle the more leaible development and reource manaement problem lirt, rather than
to attempt to reolve more complex problem or addre all problem imultaneouly.
Vodel and deciionupport tool can be helplul in ettin prioritie (ee Section 7.3
Vodel and deciionupport tool below).
lmportantly, local prioritie mut be interated with reional and national prioritie lor water
manaement, linkin them to overall interated water reource manaement trateie and
plan.
hee prioritie will alo rellect the linancial reource available to addre the iue. 8y
pickin the 'low hanin lruit' lirt a bain oraniation can cuickly achieve ubtantial
ain and credibility with the bain' takeholder.
7.2 5etting prierities
/dvance in computer technoloy, particularly eoraphic inlormation ytem (ClS) and
deciionupport ytem (LSS), have inilicantly improved the bai lor deciion makin in
river bain manaement in many countrie. hee tool are particularly uelul lor ettin
prioritie and developin manaement option. lowever, it i important to reconie that
uch tool are a mean to an end and complement, rather than replace, killed welltrained
manaer and conultation procee.
Vodel and deciionupport tool draw on data et in bain inlormation manaement
ytem (ee Chapter 9 8ain inlormation ytem and monitorin). ClS interate and
7.3 MedeIs and decisien-suppert teeIs
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analye data et, lor example ecoloical and environmental data, and preent the reult
patially. LSS look at dillerent cenario and how what happen when parameter are
chaned. hee tool can be ued by roup or individual in ollice, workhop or, when
they can be acceed on the lnternet, even in the home. /nother advantae ol thee tool i
that they promote tranparency.
Ceoraphic inlormation ytem are widely ued in developed countrie to oranie
eoraphicallyrelerenced data about the bain - electronic atlae in other word. Vot
ytem allow uer to earch, lor example, by land type, land ue, manaement option,
ettlement pattern, land ownerhip or plannin zone. Vany are uerlriendly, available on
the lnternet and include dillerent kind ol viualiation technoloie that diplay the reult
ol deciionupport model.
7.3.1 Ceegraphic inIermatien systems
Leciionupport tool are uelul in predictin the outcome ol alternative plan and
proramme. hey are uually, but not necearily, computeried ytem. hey ait in day
today operational and lonrane trateic deciion makin. where more complex deciion
model are recuired, expert ytem can play an important role in predictin outcome.
Lxpert ytem are commonly ued lor onoin manaement problem. 8ut, they can alo
be ued to develop dillerent cenario lor policie and manaement plan, lor example lor
irriation ditrict with riin water table, trateie lor tree plantin and landue option
lor hihland river bain.
7.3.2 ecisien-suppert teeIs
Vodellin tool are uelul lor interatin ocial, economic and biophyical data - uually in a
eoraphic inlormation ytem - and diplayin manaement option. Croup ol uer -
bain manaer, indutrialit, larmer, aribuine manaer, water uer aociation,
overnment aency policy maker, local committee, overnment planner - can interroate
model to ee what the impact ol dillerent water manaement practice would be. Uer
can olten ut pointandclick on a map.
Vodel can illutrate important concept, lor example that acuiler or lake take a lon time
to recover lrom pollution or deradation and that prevention i much more ellective than
tryin to retore them. Vodel are alo uelul lor indicatin olution. lor example, model ol
water cuality manaement option miht how that water cuality i more important in ome
part ol a bain than in other. 8aed on thee model, bain manaer miht decide that,
where water cuality i important, people miht be more willin to pay lor water cuality
manaement - or chane the way they manae water - than where water cuality i not o
important.
0ptimiation and imulation model are other way ol examinin certain problem.
0ptimiation implilie problem, lor example, by areatin patial decription ol a
particular problem. Simulation model can then be ued to enerate, lor example, dynamic
cenario (Lxample 7.3). Such model are only tool to lacilitate, and not to replace,
dialoue between deciion maker.
7.3.3 MedeIs
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xampIe 7.3. Mekeng kiver Cemmissien: medeIs and decisien-suppert teeIs
/ LeciionSupport lramework ha been developed by the Vekon liver Commiion (VlC) a
an analytical tool lor aein the manitude ol chane and impact caued by natural and
manmade intervention. hi tool help to build trut amon member countrie. lt how the
behaviour ol the river ytem under a rane ol intervention. he model can be ued lor a
number ol year (hydroloical data i available ince 19S5 in the Lower Vekon 8ain) or a
inle year or eaon. Simulation enable planner to look at what miht happen to a rane ol
ocioeconomic and environmental indicator.
he choice ol ocioeconomic iue that are aeed will depend on how the planner
tructure their analye. hi in turn depend on the data that i available. Lnvironmental
indicator have been identilied in relation to the tranboundary iue identilied by the lour
bain member tate.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.mrcmekcng.crg
7.4 IdentiIying management eptiens
0nce prioritie lor bain manaement have been areed, the next tep i to determine what
manaement action i neceary to addre thee prioritie. ln thi tep, identilyin and
taretin action need to take place at everal level:
! at the local level, lor pecilic larm, propertie or neihbourhood, municipalitie and
indutrie, tourim area, or lraile ecoytem, uch a ite manaement plan;
! at the ubbain level, where there are crocuttin iue which recuire a broader cale
ol manaement, uch a torm water manaement plan, pollution control;
! at the whole bain level, where overnment and other intitution need to take action, on
lor example cotharin, tax incentive, law to abate pollution, poverty reduction,
buildin the capacity ol water uer roup.
/t the local level, the bet manaement option will be tareted at larmer, producer
oraniation, local overnment planner, provincial overnment reource manaer,
extractive indutrie and manulacturin indutrie, nature conervation manaer and
recreation manaer. he option need to complement ubbain manaement plan and the
overall bain manaement plan. Coordination mechanim, uch a national plannin
leilation, are needed to link bottomup and topdown action.
lmportantly, the tratey hould how how bain action plan will be linanced (ee Chapter 5
linance). weihin up cot and benelit i a critical part ol developin the bain tratey
and decidin on the bet option. hi alo mean identilyin who will benelit and who will
be diadvantaed.
0nce water manaement option have been identilied, the next tep are:
! to elect the mot cotellicient et ol option reardin elected prioritie, that i the et
ol action that will addre the prioritie (obective) at the lowet cot;
! to ae the cot and benelit ol the elected et ol option (and how thee cot will
be divided between dillerent ector).
o do thi, economic analyi tool, uch a cotellectivene analyi and cot-benelit
analyi, can be ued.
7.4.1 bsing ecenemic anaIysis teeIs
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xampIe 7.4. MaIta: anaIysing the cest eIIectiveness eI ways te pretect greundwater
he Valta leource /uthority (Vl/) developed an inventory ol meaure likely to help
protect roundwater throuh reducin abtraction. he Vl/ conidered a wide rane ol
option (includin the revere omoi ol ea water) and ranked each option accordin to a
cotellective ratio that compared the cot ol implementin the option (capital, operation and
adminitrative cot) with the expected volume aved or created, a hown below. hi cot
ellectivene analyi helped to decide which meaure hould be included in the proramme
to implement the Luropean water lramework Lirective (wlL). he analyi helped the Valtee
water authoritie to decide on meaure with a hih potential lor avin water veru the
development ol revere omoi (with hih and increain enery cot).
lt alo enerated a tron economic arument that could be put lorward in dialoue with
water takeholder and the public conultation recuired by the Luropean wlL.
latio ol cot to volume ol water expected to be aved
Litribute water avin device to houehold: `.5u VL}m
3
Levelop water avin practice lor the ariculture ector: u.u1 VL}m
3
/btraction taxe lor indutry: u.1u VL}mv
/btraction taxe lor houehold: `.5u VL}m
3
/btraction taxe lor ariculture: /.Su VL}m
3
lncreae rainwater harvetin livetock larm: 5.uu VL}m
3
lncreae rainwater harvetin in indutry: 6.5u VL}m
3
lncreae rainwater harvetin lor 3 tar hotel: ``.uu VL}m
3
MTL: Maltese Llra, apprcx. 2.3
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.mra.crg.mt
o achieve the obective et a prioritie, there may be everal alternative (option). Cot
ellectivene analyi examine the cot (i.e. invetment, operatin cot) and benelit ol
each alternative. hi ive bain manaer a rankin ol the option accordin to the ratio ol
cot to ellectivene (Lxample 7./).
7./.1.1 Tccls tc analyse ccst effectlveness
8enelit harin locue on the value derived lrom water ue and ecoytem. lt take into
account water cuality and rik, rather than the more contentiou and le uelul allocation
ol pecilic amount ol water to dillerent partie (8ox 7.C).
!"#"$"% '()*+,- ./010 ),2 34,45+10
ex 7.C. CuideIines Ier sharing cests and beneIits
! (uantily the benelit and cot ol water manaement.
! /ddre ecuity.
! Link the ize ol water allocation to the benelit derived.
! work out multiple benelit tepbytep belore makin areement on water harin and
who pay.
! Leline benelit hare initially at a ubbain level then areate them up to the whole
bain (includin acro international border).
! Ue a third party to promote harin arranement, uch a lundin aencie (world 8ank)
or environmental oraniation.
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! leconie the link between water policie and tranboundary water iue.
! Vonitor, evaluate and report to all riparian partie to promote learnin and build
conenu.
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8enelit harin in the Seneal 8ain i an example ol how the cot and benelit ol maor
water inlratructure proect can be hared (Lxample 7.5). he concept ol value derived lrom
water ue i applicable in a wide rane ol economic, ocial, political and environmental ue,
between recreation or biodiverity and commercial lihin lor example.
xampIe 7.5. 0rganisatien Ier the eveIepment eI the 5enegaI kiver: beneIit sharing
he 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver (0V\S) ha had tron political
upport lor more than thirty year at the hihet level (the upreme overnin body ol the
oraniation i the Conlerence ol lead ol State and Covernment). hi political upport i
baed on a benelit harin ytem between riparian tate and the implementation ol
concrete activitie in lavour ol reional development.
wo maor hydraulic inlratructure proect (the Vanantali dam in Vali and the Liama dam on
the SenealVauritania border) and an enery ditribution network will timulate reional
development.
ln the early 19Su the 0V\S received loan and rant lrom variou lundin aencie to
linance thi maor inlratructure proramme. he contribution it would make to irriation,
enery production and naviation wa calculated a well a the overall benelit to each
member country.
8enelit Vali Vauritania Seneal
lrriation 11 31 5S
Lnery production 5` 15 33
laviation S` 1` 6
0verall 35 `3 /`
he debt repayment i hared pro rata amon the three countrie accordin to the benelit
that will accrue to each.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.cmvs.crg
7.5 Assessing risks
0ne ol the key iue in developin lonterm bain manaement trateic plan i to ae
rik, uch a thoe poed by llood, drouht or other natural diater, and to devie
meaure to alleviate thee rik. lor example, it i becomin increainly important to plan
lor the rik poed by chane in climate (8ox 7.L).
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8ecaue more and more data i becomin available and model ol climate chane are
contantly bein updated, bain oraniation need to make ure that their trateic plan
are not et in tone, but can take thi new inlormation on board and 'autoadapt'. lannin
ytem need to be et up o that new data and inlormation can be led in immediately a it
become available. ln thi way, bain manaement trateie can be rapidly adapted to new
prediction. here are uually no imple technical lixe lor ome ol the cenario and bain
manaer will uually need to mix hard and olt trateie in their plan to minimie thee
rik (8ox 7.L).
ex 7.. Assessing the risks pesed by cIimate change
! Levelop water lootprint under dillerent climate chane cenario.
! Levelop procedure to rapidly update water manaement trateie and plan with the
latet hydroloical data and chane in water ue, and preent thee a water lootprint
cenario.
! Ue rik aement to evaluate water reource manaement option under dillerent
climate chane cenario.
ex 7.. 5trategies te minimise risk
lard trateie - inlratructure and technoloy:
! traditional water torae ytem;
! llood proolin;
! torae manaement;
! early warnin ytem;
! interated water ytem and upply ecurity;
! water reue and dealiniation.
Solt trateie - intitution, technoloie and manaement ytem:
! demand manaement;
! ellicient technoloie;
! etablihin a culture ol conervation;
! manain water carcity throuh trade;
! interated llood manaement;
! land ue plannin;
! education and communication.
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8 asin actien pIans
0ne ol the critical tak in bain manaement i to develop (and then implement) the bain
action plan. hi involve ettin up procedure to identily option lor water reource
manaement and decide which option to ue, and then implementin thoe option. lt alo
involve 'adaptive learnin' or makin ure that, a the plan i implemented, the leon
learned are led back into the plannin proce (ee Section `.` 8ain manaement a an
iterative proce, 8ox `./ he learninbydoin manaement cycle ol plannin and
implementation). /ll thi mut be done with the participation ol the bain' water
takeholder.
hi Chapter outline procedure lor developin a bain action plan and harnein
ownerhip throuh involvement ol takeholder. Chapter 9 8ain inlormation ytem and
monitorin hould be read in conunction with thi Chapter a it dicue the role ol
inlormation in lormulatin and implementin bain action plan.
he bain action plan et out the oal, obective and proramme lor manain water
reource lor a pecilic period, uually between three and ix year. hi plan i brokered by
deciion maker in the bain - overnment aencie, local authoritie, municipalitie, private
lirm, larmer, individual and community oraniation - and 'ined oll' by the bain
oraniation. he areed plan will pecily reponibilitie lor action, how cot will be hared,
line ol accountability and channel lor exchanin and ditributin inlormation. he plan will
mot likely contain a mix ol inlratructure, maintenance and nontructural tak uch a
chane to law and procedure, reulation, pricin, intitutional development, trainin and
other 'olt' intervention - it i not a wih lit ol proect.
he action plan i the bain oraniation' blueprint lor water manaement acro the bain
(8ox S./). he Cw oolbox provide uelul principle lor developin a bain manaement
plan. he plan hould clearly identily who doe what but it i important to undertand that
the bain oraniation itell will not undertake all the tak in the plan (ee Section /.1 lole
ol bain oraniation). he role ol the bain oraniation i to coordinate the variou tak
carried out by other. lor example, a plan to reduce pollution in a bain miht recuire a
combination ol action by local council, wate dipoal indutrie, larmer, local
8.1 eveIeping basin actien pIans
k P0Ih15
The basln actlcn plan:
! Sets cut the gcals, cb|ectlves and actlcns tc be taken ln the shcrt
term (3 tc 6 years) tc lmplement the lcng-term strategy.
! uetalls the rescurces needed tc lmplement the plan and the scurces
cf flnanclng.
! Spells cut hcw actlcns wlll be cc-crdlnated.
! States hcw regulatlcns wlll be enfcrced under current leglslatlcn.
! Speclfles ccst-sharlng arrangements.
! Spells cut hcw management cutccmes wlll be repcrted tc
stakehclders.
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he bain manaement plan hould be developed in uch a way that it cannot be put on the
hell and inored. o enure thi doen't happen a reportin and accountin ytem hould
be built into the plan. lor example, national and tranboundary bain manaement plan
hould tipulate what hould be reported to national overnment and how olten thee
report will be made. he bain oraniation hould alo be audited by an independent
authority. he audit hould examine the outcome ol the bain manaement plan and, il
warranted, recommend chane to improve outcome in the luture.
overnment planner, overnment reource manaer, extractive and manulacturin
indutrie, nature conervation manaer and recreation manaer. ln thi cae, the tak ol
the bain oraniation would be to coordinate action and et areement on who will be
reponible lor doin what, and where and when they will do it.
Lein principle
! Leline the boundarie ol the bain (river bain or ubbain, acuiler, lake bain;
national or tranboundary).
! Ltablih operational rule which rellect the technical and biophyical characteritic ol
water ecoytem.
! Lnure collectivechoice arranement that enae villae and ditrict takeholder a well
a neutral overnment water policy people in deciion makin.
! Vonitor the outcome ol plannin and policie throuh water audit.
! Lmploy raduated anction.
! 8uild in conllict reolution mechanim.
! Levelop clearly delined property riht.
! Separate the role ol water provider lrom that ol the reulator, to avoid conllict.
! Levelop both demand manaement and upply manaement option, and encourae
waterue elliciency throuh nonreulatory and reulatory mechanim, particularly to
increae elliciency in irriated and dryland area.
Vain component ol an action plan
! Lecription ol the tate ol bain natural reource, trend, and how chane will be
monitored.
! lnventorie ol land ue, ecoytem, current water availability and demand, pollution
ource.
! /ement ol acuatic and terretrial ecoytem need, vulnerability to llood, drouht
or extreme meteoroloical event, implication ol chanin land ue.
! /nalye ol takeholder, takeholder need and mechanim lor participation.
! /nalye ol priority iue.
! 8ain and ubbain oal, both hort and lonterm.
! water allocation and water cuality obective.
! 8enelit hare.
! waterrelated development cenario, aement ol luture water demand, rik
aement.
! Stratey, meaure and action plan lor the achievement ol oal, includin ubbain
manaement plan and implementation uideline.
! linancin arranement lor water ue and manaement, includin detail ol cotharin
proramme lor proect and other action.
! leponibilitie and chedule lor implementation.
! Letail ol the monitorin proramme.
! /ppendice decribin particular bain manaement iue, area and manaement
technicue, and pecilic tudie uch a ol area ol environmental inilicance.
ex 8.A. esign principIes and main cempenents eI a basin management pIan
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xampIe 8.1. kuhr: a basin actien pIan te restere water ceurses
he bain action plan ol a lully developed river bain, uch a the luhr bain, will be
lundamentally dillerent lrom the bain action plan lor a bain that i ut tartin to develop or
i le developed.
he luhr /ociation water (uality diviion manae 77 watewater treatment plant, 5/u
torm water torae lacilitie, 5 reervoir, 1u7 pumpin tation and 3 hydropower plant.
he water (uantity diviion manae S dam and reervoir with an overall torae capacity ol
/6/ million m
3
, 7 repumpin tation and 13 hydropower plant. lo maor new inlratructure
need to be built. he action plan i, therelore, oriented toward operation, preventive
maintenance and repair, and retorin water coure to their natural condition.
he action plan lor repairin the neative ellect ol exitin inlratructure and retorin water
coure mean takin meaure to allow lih to mirate. hi mean dealin with about 1,`uu
tructure that prevent lih miration, uch a dam, weir and ill, alon 1,S7u km ol the
bain' watercoure.
he plan lor the next 5 to 1u year concentrate on clearin miration route alon the main
river and it larer tributarie, a well a in maller watercoure in certain ubbain, to allow
lih to bypa weir and ill. /n example ol a pecilic proect in the plan i the contruction ol
a lih pa to bypa a hydropower plant at the larkortee reervoir near Lortmund.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ruhrverband.de]ruhrverband_en]html]lndex.html
/ practical way ol makin bain manaement plan dynamic document i to enure they are
updated a new inlormation emere (audit, new cientilic dicoverie, takeholder input)
o that they repond to chanin circumtance. / bain manaement plan mut be a livin
document which manaer ue, update and adapt a they put the plan into practice. lor the
plan to be uccelul, takeholder and the eneral public mut become involved. Leon
learned a proect and proramme et underway mut be led back into the plan o that
uccee can be repeated and mitake avoided.
Lxample S.1 decribe a bain action plan to retore water coure in the hihly developed
luhr bain. he Cw oolbox ha many example ol other bain action plan: the Vountain
liverLake interated development proramme, ianxi, China (=11S), the urumi liver 8ain
water Vater lan, apan (=3u`), the liver 8ain lan lor Viddenlolland, the letherland
(=165) and the Lanube liver 8ain (=`19). he Luropean water lramework Lirective
Common lmplementation Stratey alo provide uidance document lor developin bain
action plan. hee are available on the water lnlormation Sytem lor Lurope webite
6
.
6
http:]]water.eurcpa.eu
o implement the bain plan, a bain oraniation mut coordinate the action ol many
partie with dillerent role and reponibilitie. ake irriation lor example: lor irriation
water to et to the larmer, the action ol the reervoir manaer, the water ditribution
manaer, the larmer themelve and perhap the environmental reulator, il there i one,
need to be coordinated. 8ut the reponibilitie lor thee action olten lie with dillerent
overnment department or, epecially in developin countrie, even outide overnment
uridiction. lrecuently, the link in the 'action' chain may not communicate with each other.
ln lare bain, ome link in the chain may not even be aware ol the exitence ol the other,
let alone coordinate with them. what happen then i that aencie develop dicrete local
olution that do not take into account impact and improvement acro the bain. o avoid
8.1.1 Ce-erdinate actien
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xampIe 8.2. Mancemunidad de Ia Cuenca deI ke [ubenes, cuader: a ce-erdinatien
agency in the [ubenes basin
he Vancomunidad de la Cuenca del lio ubone i a bain aency, created by local
overnment, province and municipalitie, to coordinate and manae the water reource ol
the ubone bain. he aency aim to evolve and take on more activitie. hee include
identilyin common development trateie lor the bain with an emphai on interated
water reource manaement and alinin provincial and municipal development plan with
bain plan. he aency encourae community manaement ol natural reource, the
protection ol water ource and enurin lood ecurity.
/ key tak ol the bain aency i to educate and train municipal tall and member ol Sub
bain Committee in development and water bain manaement. he aency will alo
introduce environmental education in chool, aain with the emphai on an interated
approach.
he meaure to boot inlormation and knowlede will trenthen the capacity ol municipal
tall in municipalitie that are member ol the Vancomunidad to make deciion about
environmental protection and develop appropriate meaure.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.cuencadel|ubcnes.gcv.ec
thi lramentation, bain manaer need to build coordination into the bain plan (8ox S.8).
hey alo need to enure that the people ained to carry out tak have the capacity to
work in team, and plan acro ector and dicipline. hi may mean workin to trenthen
kill and capabilitie (Lxample S.`).
where bain council or committee exit they can play a trateic role in coordinatin bain
action plan. hi role i troner where uch council or committee have been et up by
law.
! Lncourae a 'learn by doin' approach and create way ol learnin lrom pat experience.
! Ltablih 'rule' lor coordination (who i involved), whether it i bindin or permiive
(what can be done) and the bai lor involvement (law, policy, inlormal areement).
! Ltablih interated action acro all natural reource iue in the bain.
! Lnure bainwide plannin procedure balance all uer need, enhance water cuality,
provide protection lrom water related hazard, enure areement on commitment within
the bain, and monitor areement.
ex 8.. CuideIines Ier ce-erdinating basin management
Vany bain manaer trule to lind the bet way to coordinate the action ol overnment
aencie and other takeholder. 8ox S.C ive example ol ome uelul coordination tool.
8ain manaer need to elect thoe that they believe will et political and adminitrative
upport and can be readily ued. / ood route i to try what appear to be a viable option
and evaluate it ellectivene throuh trial and error. 8ut bain manaer can alo learn lrom
experience in other bain oraniation. winnin arranement between imilar bain
oraniation encourae learnin and harin ol what work and what doen't (Lxample S.3).
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xampIe 8.3. 1he 1winasin
xn
preject: Cenge-Amazen twinning agreement
he win8ain
xn
proect brin toether the two laret river bain in the world, the /mazon
8ain and the Cono 8ain, to hare their experience under a twinnin arranement. he
water reource ol each bain are hared by everal countrie. Lach bain ha an etablihed
interovernmental oraniation reponible lor promotin interated water reource
manaement.
he lnternational Commiion lor the Cono0ubanuiSanha 8ain (ClC0S) wa recently
created by lour riparian countrie to manae a bain which ha not been tudied or manaed
ex 8.C. Ce-erdinatien teeIs Ier basin erganisatiens
1eeIs Ier jeint pIanning and management 1eeIs Ier reseIving cenIIict 1eeIs Ier cemmunicating
}clnt fcrecastlng cr scenarlcs.
}clnt mcdels cr |clntly used
gecgraphlc lnfcrmatlcn
systems.
Cc-lccatlcn cf perscnnel cr
creatlcn cf ccmmcn
|urlsdlctlcnal bcundarles.
}clnt revlew cf plans cr
envlrcnmental lmpact
statements.
Fcrmal revlew cf clearance
prccedures.
Supervlscry cverslght.
}clnt budgetlng prccess.
Cc-crdlnatlcn ccmmlttees.
}clnt stafflng cr |clnt staff wcrk
grcups.
}clnt revlews cf permlts cr
ccmmcn standards fcr revlew.
}clnt plannlng prccess
(lncludlng envlrcnmental
lmpact assessments).
Ccst-sharlng arrangements fcr
flnanclng basln management
wcrks.
}clnt plans cf actlcn (prc|ects,
prcgrammes, pcllcles).
Addltlcnal research cr analysls.
lnterperscnal cr lnter-grcup
ccmmunlcatlcn.
Appeal tc hlgher authcrlty,
cutslde party, thlrd party
(facllltatlcn, medlatlcn).
Speclal meetlngs cf ccmmlttees
cr cther grcups such as 8asln
Ccunclls cr Ccmmlttees.
hegctlatlcn]bargalnlng wlthln
the grcup.
Ccmmunlty advlscry
ccmmlttees.
Transbcundary water
agreements.
vlllage meetlngs and trlbal
custcmary law.
lnfcrmatlcn and data sharlng
prccedures.
Ccmmcn database cr data
gatherlng.
kegular ccmmunlcatlcn
(newsletters, e-mall).
Scheduled meetlngs.
lntranet fcr |clnt develcpment
cf plans, papers.
lnfcrmal ccmmunlcatlcn, scclal
cccaslcns, wcrd cf mcuth
netwcrks.
Scurce: Fccper 2005, p.52, adapted frcm Margerum and 8crn 2000, Margerum and whltall 200/
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xampIe 8.4. Lagartere river basin, Chiapas, Mexice: seciaI participatien
he Laartero ubbain lie on the coatal plain ol Chiapa State, Vexico. Social participation
in the interated bain manaement proramme involved dialoue, communitybaed
workhop with water uer, and overnmental and nonovernmental intitution to eek
olution lor utainable manaement and development ol the bain' natural reource and
reduce threat to water availability.
o lormalie participation the Laartero liver 8ain Committee wa created in `uu3 with
upport lrom the lational water Commiion (C0l/CU/). he 8ain Committee i an auxiliary
body ol the Chiapa Coat 8ain Council, created under the Vexican lational water Law.
Social participation lacilitated the coordination ol activitie. he participative plannin
proce developed nine plan lor the Conervation ol microvalley, an Lcoloical lan lor the
leion and a Citizen' /ction lan lor latural Liater.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ccnagua.gcb.mx
ln many countrie, both in developin and developed economie, there i both lormal and
inlormal uridiction over the water ector. ln the inlormal ector, the way lorward may be to
tart at the ra root, lor example by ettin takeholder toether to eek olution and
aree on 'rule' lor water reource manaement (Lxample S./). hee rule, or way ol doin
buine, don't have to be law but can be community practice or other accepted norm. ln
countrie where local and reional plannin capacity i welldeveloped, local plannin law
may be the way to coordinate local, ubbain water manaement.
lor the lat lorty year. he /mazon Cooperation reaty 0raniation (0C/) on the other hand
wa etablihed by the eiht /mazonian countrie to promote the utainable development ol
the bain, lollowin etablihment ol the /mazon Cooperation reaty in 197S. 8oth ClC0S and
0C/ are workin toward reional interation.
he politician ol the countrie in thee two bain are aware ol the importance ol reconcilin
conervation and ue ol natural reource with development obective. he two oraniation
are aware ol the threat ol human intervention on lraile ecoytem and how thee could
adverely allect renewable water reource and the poor in the two bain.
hrouh the win8ain
xn
proect, upported by the Luropean Commiion and coordinated by
ll80 and l0water, 0C/ and ClC0S are ointly addrein the intitutional, technical,
economic, linancial and ocial iue related to the ue, manaement and protection ol water
reource. lntitutional oraniation, monitorin, harin water reource between variou
ue, plannin, mechanim lor uer' participation, prevention and mitiation ol extreme
event, public awarene and ecotourim are all covered under the twinnin arranement.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.twlnbasln.crg
8.1.2 Ce-erdinate at grass reets
ln developin an action plan variou tool can be ued to evaluate option. hi i dicued
lurther in Section 7.3 Vodel and deciionupport tool.
8.1.3 bse decisien-suppert teeIs
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8.2 ImpIementing basin actien pIans
linancin a bain action plan i critical to it implementation and lonterm utainability.
he plan hould be lully coted and the linancin tratey hould identily ource ol linance
(ee Section 5.` Source ol revenue). /nnual work plan and budet hould alo be
developed to accompany the plan o that implementation bein immediately alter the plan
i approved.
8.1.4 Finance impIementatien eI the pIan
water i everybody' buine. lt' vital that inlormation about the bain manaement plan
and how it i bein implemented i hared with takeholder. ln countrie with ood acce
to the lnternet, webite (ee Section 1u.3.1 webite) linked to the bain inlormation ytem
allow takeholder to keep up to date on uccee and lailure a and when they wih.
hee kind ol ytem not only encourae a twoway llow ol inlormation, but alo expand
the array and lormat ol inlormation in the bain inlormation bank. lor example, reource
manaer, a well a uploadin conventional report, can pot video or audio anecdote.
0lten, uer can acce detailed data and inlormation on trend and the reult ol
environmental audit ut by clickin on interactive map. ln mot countrie acce to the
lnternet i very limited and more traditional technicue have to be ued. ln many rural area,
or where there i a hih level ol illiteracy, radio and local meetin are important ource ol
inlormation and thee hould be ued by bain oraniation to hare inlormation and
inlorm the public.
8.2.1 5hare inIermatien
ln implementin plan it i important to provide a leedback loop to enure leon learned
are taken on board by the bain oraniation and ued to improve manaement. hi
encourae a continuou cycle ol renewal and improvement in bain manaement (ee
Section 1u./ leedback and learnin).
8.2.2 Cet Ieedback
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9 asin inIermatien systems and menitering
Lay acce to inlormation on the tatu ol water reource and ecoytem and the trend
in water ue and pollution underpin uccelul water manaement. water reource
manaer need to be able to et hold ol reliable, uptodate and relevant inlormation when
they need it and in a lorm that they can ue.
Lata and inlormation i olten dipered, heteroeneou and incomplete, and i rarely
comparable or uited to obective deciion makin. Vany public, paratatal and even private
oraniation produce and manae data but lack the mean and uideline to exchane,
aemble, tandardie, ummarie and capitalie on the data they and other have.
So, bain water inlormation ytem mut enhance exitin data and inlormation ytem.
hey mut benelit all takeholder and upport water reource manaement. Settin up a
bain water inlormation ytem mean workin on two lront: lirt on intitutional and
oraniational iue, and then on the technical iue aociated with buildin an
inlormation ytem.
ldeally, bain water inlormation ytem and monitorin proramme hould be et up in
parallel. he bain inlormation ytem can then be oranied to enerate data and indicator
on water reource and water ue that will allow ellective aement ol water manaement
(8ox 9./).
k P0Ih15
! Make sure there ls an lnteractlve, accesslble, affcrdable, apprcprlate
and equltable basln lnfcrmatlcn system.
! Ccllect and crganlse a ccmprehenslve set cf physlcal, blclcglcal,
scclal and eccncmlc data and lnfcrmatlcn cn the basln.
! Make sure data and lnfcrmatlcn relate tc the basln management
strategy and actlcn plan.
! Fnsure stakehclders can access and use the data and lnfcrmatlcn ln
ways whlch sult thelr needs.
! use gecgraphlc lnfcrmatlcn systems and cther user-frlendly means tc
present the status cf basln rescurces and mcnltcr changes.
! Set up a basln mcnltcrlng prcgramme that cc-crdlnates lnfcrmatlcn
frcm reglcnal, state, natlcnal and lccal levels, and publlc, prlvate and
ncn-gcvernment crganlsatlcns.
! leconie that bain inlormation ytem are an important tool lor water reource
manaement.
! ldentily inlormation need.
! Vake ure that inlormation i lreely acceible to all takeholder (open hop policy).
! Levelop a network ol partner and workin roup to lacilitate the collaboration ol
intitution in bain water data manaement.
ex 9.A. Ceed practices in basin inIermatien systems and menitering
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ln order to manae water reource at the bain level, it i important lor deciion maker to
have eay acce to comprehenive, repreentative and reliable inlormation, at all relevant
level, on:
! the cuality and cuantity ol both urlace and roundwater reource, a well a eaonal
and yearly lluctuation;
! biotope and acuatic environment, and their deree ol enitivity;
! water ue (withdrawal), particularly lor irriation, indutry and drinkin water, and
pollution ource (dichare), whether point or nonpoint;
! the rik ol recurrent extreme phenomena, uch a llood, drouht and accidental
pollution; and
! ocial and economic indicator, lor example cot, price, taxe.
8ain oraniation need to create a bain inlormation ytem that will meet their own
particular need, both lor manain the data they collect and lor deliverin inlormation to
dillerent roup ol uer in lormat they can undertand and make ue ol.
ln order to develop uch inlormation ytem it i important to have tron upport lrom
deciion maker. Sound overnance ol water depend on ellective inlormation ytem. lt i
therelore very important to make deciion maker aware that a bain inlormation ytem i a
priority tool lor water reource overnance.
8ain inlormation ytem are alo important lor participatory manaement ol the river
bain. hey provide takeholder with eay acce to relevant inlormation (8ox 9.8) and a
way lor water uer and reource manaer to interact. / bain inlormation ytem allow
inlormation on bain manaement to be hared clearly and tranparently, on prore made
(or the lack ol it) lor example.
9.1.1 stabIishing basin inIermatien systems Ier geed gevernance
! Vake an inventory ol exitin data and inlormation ource. lind out how they are
produced and whether or not they are acceible.
! Leline a tratey, reponibilitie and rule lor producin and manain data, procein
and dieminatin inlormation, and repectin conlidentiality.
! /dopt common rule, tandard and nomenclature, o that data i comparable and inter
operable.
! Levelop human capacitie and inlratructure to collect, manae and proce data, produce
and dieminate inlormation. Ue the technical inlratructure ol partner where poible.
! roduce and dieminate inlormation lor deciion makin, water manaement and public
inlormation}participation.
! Set up bain monitorin proramme lor water reource and water ue, and develop
indicator (proce indicator, outcome indicator, impact indicator) to ae water
manaement.
9.1 0rganising ceIIaberative basin inIermatien systems
! Lecribe condition and trend ol the bain' natural reource.
! lihliht critical water manaement iue and where they occur.
! Cive acce to community inlormation and knowlede about reource manaement.
! lnlorm the bain community about the manaement proce.
ex 9.. Characteristics eI a basin inIermatien system
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9.1.2 eveIeping an apprepriate Iramewerk Ier ceIIaberatien
! Lxchane inlormation to help pecily bet manaement option.
! Share inlormation between bain manaement practitioner.
8ain inlormation ytem do not have to be ophiticated. ln developin countrie, an
inlormation ytem may be cuite imple. what i important i that it hould be allordable
and work lor the bain in cuetion. what a bain inlormation ytem hould not be, thouh,
i a databae houed in a overnment department and inacceible to bain takeholder.
he inlormation ytem need to be interactive, acceible, allordable, appropriate and
ecuitable.
lnlormation need to be appropriate to the tak in hand, proven throuh reearch and
development, teted in the lield and pitched to the capacity ol intitution, practitioner and
takeholder to undertand and ue it. lnlormation need to be allordable, prelerably lree, o
that there i no dicrimination between inlormation provider and uer becaue ol lack ol
lund. lnlormation need to be acceible to all practitioner throuh the channel they
normally ue, not dependent on maor uprade ol technical inlratructure. /nd, inlormation
procee hould be ecuitable. hi mean that inlormation ytem hould repect cultural
need, ender iue and embrace takeholder ditanced lrom deciion makin becaue ol
their location, or economic or ocial tatu.
he inlormation ytem hould be deined to lit the linancial and human reource
available to the bain oraniation. oo olten lare initial invetment are made, olten with
external linancial upport, to etablih ophiticated ytem that are then not utainable
due to a lack ol lund or lack ol human reource. herelore, belore decidin what type ol
ytem hould be ued, it i adviable to etimate the runnin cot and clearly indicate the
ize ol budet available to enure the initial invetment will not be wated.
/ddrein water iue enerally involve collaboration at variou level (local, reional,
national and international). hi mean uin data produced by many dillerent intitution.
Civen the many actor who produce, manae and ue data, it i bet il they work
collaboratively, a in the oint Lanube Survey lor example (Lxample 9.1).
xampIe 9.1. [eint anube 5urvey: a ceIIaberative internatienaI water inIermatien
system
he oint Lanube Survey (LS) wa launched under the aupice ol the Convention on Co
operation lor the rotection and Sutainable Ue ol the liver Lanube (Lanube liver rotection
Convention).
he LS invetiate pollution in the Lanube bain. Collaboratin countrie collect data on
water, ediment, river llora and launa, a well a pollutin ubtance. he data et, collected
by the bet laboratorie in the Lanube liver 8ain, i helpin to identily and conlirm pecilic
pollution ource and pollution pathway. articipation ol all countrie harin the Lanube
liver mean that there are excellent opportunitie to exchane experience, harmonie
amplin and monitorin procedure and, to a certain extent, harmonie analytical
methodoloie.
LS data i ued to develop the oint Lanube /ction roramme and lnterated liver 8ain
Vanaement lan, and to prepare the Luropean water lramework Lirective (wlL) lool
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xampIe 9.2. 5abarmati kiver asin, Cujarat 5tate, India: deveIepment eI an inIermatien
system
ln many lndian reion there i a rik that carce water will limit economic and ocial
development in the near luture. he main problem are not technoloical but intitutional and
linancial.
he Sabarmati liver 8ain (Cuarat State) wa choen by local and lederal lndian authoritie a
a 'pilot bain' to tet new procee lor interated water reource manaement lrom 1999 to
`uu1. he oal were to:
! oranie an inlormation ytem lor the Sabarmati liver 8ain, baed on exitin databae
and collaboratin cloely with other proect;
! prepare a lonterm development cheme lor the Sabarmati liver 8ain, takin into
account the State' ocioeconomic development plan;
! deline a priority action proramme.
he inlormation ytem lor the Sabarmati liver 8ain wa developed and include:
! tructurin the river bain inlormation ytem,
! oraniin data collection,
! identilyin exitin data ource and databae,
! modalitie lor data exchane,
! aein the ituation,
! identilyin the main challene.
9.1.3 stabIishing a strategy and actien pIan Ier the inIermatien system
ln many cae the need lor collaboration lead, in the lirt intance, to the creation ol an
interintitutional network ol partner willin to work toether on data manaement. he next
tae i the creation ol thematic workin roup to implement an action plan lor the
development ol the bain inlormation ytem.
he bain inlormation ytem i a tool lor inlormation uer. heir need lor inlormation - to
olve the priority iue ol water reource manaement in the bain - mut therelore uide
the development ol the ytem. Uer' inlormation need determine the overall tratey lor
oraniin and ettin up the inlormation ytem (Lxample 9.`).
leport. he LS i alo the bai lor plannin lnternational Commiion lor the rotection ol
the Lanube liver (lCLl) activitie, epecially:
! meaure to decreae nutrient input lrom ariculture;
! buildin watewater treatment plant to remove nitroen and phophoru;
! introducin phophatelree deterent;
! meaure to decreae heavy metal pollution lrom minin and metallury;
! teppin up cooperation with the Lanube laviation Commiion to reduce oil pollution
lrom hippin;
! etablihin ediment cuality taret; and
! improvin the Lanube ranlational Vonitorin letwork.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.lcpdr.crg
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9.1.4 Adepting ruIes that aIIew data te be shared
he problem related to availability, acceibility and harin ol water data and inlormation
are widepread and occur at all level (reional, national, local).
Solvin thee problem mean that thoe involved in water reource manaement need to
adopt rule lor harin, accein and uin data and data ervice (Lxample 9.3). Common
meaure and rule pecilically concern:
! Sharin reponibility lor producin, atherin, procein and dieminatin data and
inlormation (who doe what and acce rule) in order to avoid duplication and create
ynerie.
! Sharin data. ublic authoritie hould have eay acce to data and data ervice
related to water reource manaement. hi acce can be hindered when it depend on
ad hoc neotiation between public authoritie each time data i recuired. artner
hould remove practical obtacle to data harin by ettin up, lor example, areement
between public authoritie.
! lnteroperability ol inlormation ytem and the oraniation ol network ervice to
lacilitate, lor example, data identilication, conultation and downloadin.
8aed on the inlormation need aement and on an analyi ol the exitin ituation
(leilation, actor, datallow, exitin inlormation ytem), the oraniational and technical
apect ol the water inlormation ytem can be pecilied. he next tep i to develop a multi
year action and linancial plan which indicate what will be done, how much it will cot and
where the money will come lrom.
xampIe 9.3. Mexice: Iinks between natienaI and regienaI basin inIermatien systems
he leal and intitutional context in Vexico (i.e. water law, law on tatitical, eoraphical
and environmental tatitic, a well a role ol variou intitution) inlluence the link between
the Vexican lational water lnlormation Sytem and the reional water inlormation ytem.
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Vakin an inventory hould be a collaborative activity. when inventorie are oranied in an
online metadata cataloue, uer benelit lrom immediate acce to data. hee metadata
cataloue mean that partner can input the data they manae directly. hey can alo pecily
the acce riht to metadata and data erie lor pecilic uer roup. Uer can:
he ytem wa et up by:
! identilyin ynerie and creatin a lederal water opical Croup;
! ettin up and trainin ubroup in the common data exchane lanuae in Vexico;
! delinin the work proramme lor the lational water lnlormation Sytem; and
! pecilyin, lor example, the document inlormation ytem, tool, multilinual
reearch enine.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at www.ccnagua.gcb.mx
he lirt tak in ettin up a bain data and inlormation ytem i uually to take an
inventory ol available data at bain level. hi inventory hould cover variou type ol data
(8ox 9.C). he time wated and expene involved in earchin lor water data, and then
etablihin how uelul it i, are maor obtacle to uin what data there i lully. hu,
makin an inventory ol exitin data erie and inlormation i eential to:
! identily exitin data and inlormation and whether or not it i acceible;
! determine the rule lor producin and accein data; and
! check that the cuality ol available data meet uer' need.
9.2 1echnicaI aspects and practicaI impIementatien
9.2.1 Inventery and characterisatien eI data
8ain inlormation inventorie include data and inlormation relevant to bain manaement, lor
example:
! biophyical characteritic
oil
toporaphy
water yield
wetland;
! bain hydroloy and hydroeoloy;
! land ue;
! anticipated chane in land ue;
! bet manaement practice;
! water cuantity and cuality data;
! ecoytem;
! nutrient;
! point and non point ource ol pollution;
! reource ue, withdrawal and dichare;
! demoraphy;
! population;
! ocial and economic indicator.
ex 9.C. 1ypes eI data in a basin inIermatien inventery
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! earch and identily data throuh imple multilinual interlace by keyword and}or
throuh a eoraphical interlace; and
! download data, or acce interactive map, accordin to the acce riht they have been
ranted by data producer.
hu, intead ol producin a erie ol report, data producer can put their data on line, and
authoried partner can immediately conult, update metadata and download the
inlormation they need (Lxample 9./).
xampIe 9.4. 0n Iine cataIegues eI data seurces Ier transbeundary, natienaI and IecaI
basin IeveI management
0n line cataloue ol data ource help partner collaborate, repect the conlidentiality ol data
and help uer lind exitin data:
! Cataloue ol water data ource in Koovo
(http:}}www.kov.net}mmph} in lolder 'Lepartment', chapter 'water department')
! Cataloue ol data ource lor the leaibility tudy ol the 'Vediterranean water data network'
(http:}}www.emide.net}medwip}tool}metadatacataloue}cataloue)
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he bain inlormation ytem mut be tructured o that it can enerate inlormation lrom
data provided by the variou data producer. Levelopin uch a ytem mean accuirin or
reinlorcin the bain water inlormation ytem platlorm (erver, oltware) to manae data
ellectively. o make collaboration between partner eaier thi platlorm hould, a lar a
poible, build on the exitin inlormation inlratructure ol each partner. he bain
inlormation ytem platlorm hould reinlorce their capacitie to produce, manae and
provide inlormation lor water reource manaement.
he platlorm hould be capable ol manain all type ol inlormation: eoraphic,
alphanumeric, text and multimedia. he main component are uually:
! a databae and eoraphic inlormation ytem (ClS): thee are vital tool lor manain
data and tranlatin them into, lor example map, raph, indicator and perlormance
chart;
! tool to manae a cataloue ol data ource on line;
! deciionupport and modellin tool; and
! a web portal lor harin and dieminatin inlormation (Lxample 9.5, ee Chapter 1u
Communication).
9.2.2 eveIeping inIrastructure te manage inIermatien
/part lrom the platlorm itell, the bain inlormation ytem may alo include:
! the development ol mater dataet and procedure allowin technical interoperability
between partner;
! delinition ol model and lobal data dictionarie ol the water ector or on pecilic topic
(e.. urlace water cuality);
! production ol common relerence lrame (adminitrative and hydroloical relerence
lrame, ClS layer ol river bain, water bodie, acuiler, codin ol parameter) (Lxample
9.6);
! the development and networkin ol ervice on the lnternet lor data and inlormation
identilication, conultation and harin accordin to the riht ranted to the variou
uer; and
! the development ol toolboxe, uide and tool (oltware, application oltware).
xampIe 9.5. ure-Mediterranean InIermatien 5ystem en knew-hew in the water 5ecter
he LuroVediterranean lnlormation Sytem on knowhow in the water Sector (LVwlS) i a
tool lor exchanin water inlormation and etablihin cooperation proramme in the water
ector, lor Vediterranean countrie.
LVwlS help Vediterranean artner Countrie to develop their own interated water
inlormation ytem (lor example intranet) and allow lor more coherent water plannin.
LVwlS collect inlormation and promote inlormation exchane and diemination. lt tak i
to make an inventory, ather all available inlormation and provide eay acce to inlormation
lor all, a well a to work collectively on common product and cooperation proramme.
he main tool i a webite in Lnlih, lrench and /rabic that lacilitate inlormation exchane
and dicuion.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.emwls.net
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/ bain inlormation ytem need trained people to run it. rainin hould be baed on a
need analyi, hould locu on data adminitration method and tool, and be very hand
on (Lxample 9.7). / trainin proramme miht include:
! eneral trainin on environmental data adminitration (lor example data production,
dahboard concept, indicator, data cuality);
! technical trainin on oltware or technicue nonpecilic to the water and environment
ector, lor example manain databae, eoraphic inlormation ytem, exchane
lormat, web ervice; and
! trainin on method and tool pecilic to water data adminitration at the national and
reional level.
9.2.3 eveIeping human expertise
xampIe 9.6. Irtysh kiver asin InIermatien 5ystem, kussia-kazakhstan: transbeundary
water inIermatien system
he lrtyh bain tretche lrom the /ltai Vountain in the eople' lepublic ol China to luia.
ln `uuu, luia and Kazakhtan ined an areement protocol lor the tranboundary
manaement ol the lrtyh liver bain. he main obective wa to et up a lramework lor better
international water manaement by:
! collectin data and monitorin,
! developin the lrtyh liver 8ain lnlormation Sytem (ll8lS),
! modellin water cuantity accordin to water ue, and
! ettin up the lrtyh lnternational Commiion.
he ll8lS ytem allow each country to interate their data, while uin common lrame ol
relerence baed on:
! an alphanumeric databae,
! a eoraphic inlormation ytem to enhance data mappin, and
! a web erver (developed in lrench and luian) to dieminate inlormation.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.eccmsk.ru
xampIe 9.7. Pan-AIrican web pertaI
lt i not eay to acce inlormation in /lrica and there i no oranied, common inlormation
manaement ytem. he /lrican water Locumentation and lnlormation Sytem (/wlS),
created by partner lrom developed and developin countrie, wa launched in /pril `uu7 to
promote and lacilitate the proviion ol inlormation and knowlede on water in /lrica via a an
/lrican web portal.
/wlS i led by the 0raniation lor the Levelopment ol the Seneal liver (0V\S). lt i takin a
twotep approach:
(i) Levelopin and providin a mechanim lor knowlede and inlormation exchane, and
(ii) 8uildin takeholder capacity throuh the creation ol an /lrican network atherin
toether oraniation that produce inlormation (bain oraniation, reource
manaement centre, documentation centre, nonovernmental oraniation, etc.).
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ll the water inlormation ytem i to be uelul, it mut allow all cateorie ol uer to retrieve
data in a lorm they can eaily undertand.
/ lar a poible, the inlormation ytem hould be tructured to allow uer to retrieve
inlormation and accomplih routine tak eaily. lor example, uer may want to tudy
trateie, mater plan lor water manaement and development, action proramme,
budet imulation or the bai lor ettin water taxe. hey may want to iue
authoriation, reulate public work, et up warnin ytem, evaluate the reult ol policie
or inlorm the eneral public.
9.2.4 ata precessing and inIermatien management
here are olten inilicant knowlede ap in our undertandin ol biophyical procee
and natural reource manaement in bain. hi mean that bain oraniation may need
to commiion reearch to lill thee ap.
/rea where reearch olten need to be done are in analyin procee and link within and
between ecoytem, and in developin model to predict ecoloical and hydroloical
chane, uch a under dillerent climate chane cenario. 8ain manaer then need to ue
the reearch lindin to develop practical option lor reource ue.
he lwlVlet proect
7
(`uu6`u1u) i a Luropean proect which aim to improve the tranler
ol reearch reult on lwlV toward deciion maker, elected repreentative, manaer,
proleional and local authoritie, throuh a network ol cientit involved in lwlV.
Compriin `u proramme manaer lrom 1/ LU member tate, the proect alo allow the
ettin up ol oint activitie at trannational and tranreional level.
9.2.5 kesearch
Vany people aociate monitorin with collectin data. /lthouh collectin data and
inlormation are important, what i ut a important i to undertand how the inlormation
athered i oin to be ued in makin deciion. hi mean ettin out plainly how it will
be analyed, communicated and ued by bain manaer, takeholder, overnment,
lundin aencie and ociety at lare (8ox 9.L). Vonitorin ytem need to enerate
inlormation howin the deree and extent to which bain manaement plan, trateie and
/wlS intend to lacilitate:
! Lxperience harin and acce to inlormation on knowhow in the /lrican water ector.
! ranlation ol key document lrom lrench, Lnlih and ortuueepeakin countrie.
! Liemination ol reearch reult to enduer. 8etter dialoue between takeholder and
reearcher will be oranied, a well a better interation ol reearch reult to meet the
need and recuet lrom people in the lield.
/wlS i deined to link to exitin inlormation ytem and lacilitate wider acce to the
inlormation they manae.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.sadleau.crg
9.3 Menitering and evaIuatien
7
http:]]www.lwrm-net.eu
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what do we need or have to monitor
low will we ather and oranie inlormation
low will we make ue ol the inlormation athered
low and to whom do we need to communicate about what i happenin
what do we need to do to make ure the monitorin ytem work (lor example, do we need
to train people in inlormation atherin, oraniin data)
what lund do we have available lor the monitorin ytem
ex 9.. key questiens te ask when setting up a menitering system
here are two main type ol monitorin proramme at bain level. he lirt produce data to
ae the tatu ol water reource, and the current and potential drivin lorce and
preure on the reource in term ol water intake and pollution. he econd monitor and
aee bain manaement to ae prore to meet tratey aim and to learn leon
lor improvin the ellectivene ol the bain oraniation.
he key iue in deinin a proramme to monitor the tatu ol water reource and water
ue are to determine what to monitor, where, when and how olten. he anwer to thee
cuetion depend on:
! the obective() ol monitorin (e.. to determine the chemical tatu ol a water body, or
to determine a trend);
! the preciion and conlidence recuired; and
! the type and manitude ol variability exhibited by the water body or bodie to be
monitored.
he obective will determine the dein ol the monitorin proramme and pecily:
! the hypothee to be teted;
! realitic and meaurable oal}taret; and
! the acceptable level ol rik, preciion and conlidence.
Vonitorin proramme need to conider the type ol bain - river, lake, roundwater - and
parameter to be meaured - cuantitative or cualitative (e.. bioloical, hydromorpholoical,
phyicochemical, pecilic pollutant).
/n undertandin ol the ytem i the bai lor developin appropriate cuetion to be
aked. hee can be lormalied uin a conceptual proce model linkin the drivin lorce,
preure and current tate ol the ytem. he aumption underlyin the model can be
reviewed and validated a more inlormation become available.
emporal and patial heteroeneity, both natural and anthropoenic, will inlluence the
location and number ol water bodie monitored, the location and number ol monitorin
tation and the lrecuency ol ample collection.
he level ol rik, preciion and conlidence that are et will determine the level ol uncertainty
(ariin lrom natural and anthropoenic variability) that will be tolerated. 0nce acceptable
level ol rik, preciion and conlidence have been delined, a monitorin proramme can be
developed uin a rane ol tatitical tool. hee tool will enure that the proramme:
9.3.1 Menitering water reseurces
proramme are chanin the tate ol water reource, and economic, ocial and ecoloical
condition in the bain.
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Vonitorin and evaluatin bain manaement activitie i a key component ol bain
manaement. he oal ol monitorin i to help bain manaer and takeholder learn
toether in order to improve plannin and the implementation ol plan. Vonitorin i alo
important lor upward and downward accountability on expenditure, activitie, outcome
and impact.
/ ytem to monitor bain manaement will:
! et out what impact chane in manaement are expected to have;
! how how prore and impact will be meaured;
! et out method lor atherin and analyin the inlormation that will be neceary lor
trackin prore and impact; and
! et out how the inlormation collected will be ued to explain the reaon lor ucce and
lailure, and how the undertandin ained will be ued to improve manaement in the
luture.
ln other word, monitorin bain manaement i a way ol lindin out whether plan,
proramme, trateie and proect are on track and, il not, pointin to where corrective
action need to be taken to et them back on coure. ldeally, monitorin will relate to both
water manaement oal in the bain, and to hiher level national or tranboundary oal.
whether at the local, national or tranboundary cale, it i ood practice to et up the
manaement monitorin ytem at the outet o that tate, lederal, commercial, non
overnment and other takeholder produce the inlormation recuired a a routine activity,
not a a eparate exercie. / ood monitorin ytem hould enerate uelul inlormation lor
manain bain reource, but, at the ame time, be traihtlorward in practice.
ractical example ol ytematic aement ol monitorin bain manaement are the
'erlormance 8enchmarkin roram' ol the /ian Levelopment 8ank ointly with the
letwork ol /ian liver 8ain 0raniation
9
and the Caplet 'erlormance and Capacity ol
liver 8ain 0ranization' tudy
1u
.
9.3.2 Menitering basin management
8
http:]]ec.eurcpa.eu]envlrcnment]water
9
See www.adb.crg]water]narbc]benchmarklng.asp fcr mcre detalls.
10
Caphet February 2008
! meet the obective;
! monitor a ullicient number ol ite at a lrecuency that provide the recuired preciion
and conlidence in the reult; and
! i cot ellective and cientilically robut.
when coniderin the cot ol monitorin proramme, it hould be remembered that,
althouh the initial invetment cot lor obtainin appropriate inlormation (tation,
laboratorie, teletranmiion, automation, etc.) are hih, trainin and operatin cot are, by
lar, in the medium and lon term, the mot inilicant and recurrin cot. hu, it i unwie
to invet in a monitorin proramme without enurin onoin, appropriate linancial
reource.
/ practical example ol ound bain monitorin i the monitorin ytem implemented lor the
lollow up ol the Luropean water lramework Lirective. Cuidance document have been
produced by the Luropean Strateic Coordination Croup
S
.
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xampIe 9.8. AIrica: perIermance indicaters Ier transbeundary basin erganisatiens
ln `uu7, the lnternational letwork ol 8ain 0ranization (ll80), throuh the /lrican letwork
ol 8ain 0raniation (/l80), launched a proect to develop, tet and compare perlormance
indicator that could be adapted to the particular context ol tranboundary /lrican bain. he
perlormance indicator mut be:
! tool to ae, lorecat and ait in deciion makin,
! in compliance with predelined obective,
! cuantitative to meaure trend (eay to update), and
! complemented by cualitative inlormation and comment.
ropoed indicator are in two cateorie:
! 'Covernance' indicator, decribe how the tructure reponible lor implementin a
tranboundary lwlV approach deal with the lwlV principle and lunction.
! 'echnicue' indicator, related to concrete outcome, are obervable in the lield and reult
lrom an interated bain manaement approach.
he lit ol indicator wa teted in lier, Cono, Seneal, Lake \ictoria and 0rane bain in
`uu7. /nother tet in `uu9 in 1u tranboundary bain will reline the indicator and come up
with a linal lit.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.aquacccpe.crg]PlT8
8aeline and indicator lor monitorin both the tate ol water reource and bain
manaement will be related to the oal and taret in the bain action plan. lndicator to
report on, lor example, prore in applyin interated water reource manaement, could
be devied to how:
! chane in procee, lor example completed documentation,
! relorm in interated water reource manaement, lor example that lwlV practice are
bein adopted,
! impact}outcome ol interated water reource manaement and better water
manaement, and
! utainability.
8ut care i needed in chooin and uin indicator. oo many indicator or the wron type
ol indicator make it dillicult or impoible to track chane in reource tatu or meaure
manaement perlormance. ln the cae ol water manaement, what hould be remembered i
that many thin that allect water manaement in a bain are outide the mandate ol the
bain oraniation, lor example, the contruction ol hihway, urban prawl, or the
emerence or decline ol indutrie. hi mean that, a lar a poible, indicator hould be
carelully choen to relate to the context, oal and taret (Lxample 9.S). Voreover,
monitorin can be cotly and the level ol monitorin poible with the budet available will
uually mean that the ideal ytem i not leaible. ouh deciion have to be made to
decide what i eential and allordable.
Ceoraphic inlormation ytem can be uelul tool lor collectin and preentin data on
indicator, lor example lor comparin the preent ituation in the bain to the baeline.
Similarly, raph chartin the trend in the indicator compared with baeline and taret
are another way ol howin pattern ol chane. Vodel can illutrate how link and
relationhip are chanin. /nd analye ol what helped and hindered prore toward
taret can uide deciion on the prioritie lor the next period.
9.3.3 5etting baseIines and indicaters
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10 Cemmunicatien
8ain manaement uin lwlV involve many dillerent takeholder. ln Chapter 9 8ain
inlormation ytem and monitorin we treed the importance ol a bain inlormation
ytem to hare critical data and knowlede about water reource manaement between
key takeholder. ln thi Chapter we look at the broader rane ol takeholder, includin the
eneral public.
8ain public awarene campain and education proramme keep thoe who live and
work in a bain inlormed about bain iue and how the bain i bein manaed (Lxample
1u.1). he taret audience are many and varied, and include thoe who live in the bain,
buinee (includin water utilitie, indutrie, tourim reort, lihermen and larmer),
reearcher, and overnment department operatin inide and outide the bain. hee
proramme upport bain manaement by communicatin clear meae about iue,
action and prore.
0lten, new bain oraniation need to build their capacity to communicate and educate. /t
lirt, they may need to brin in communication pecialit to make ure meae are clear.
Likewie, they may need education pecialit to tailor education proramme to meet the
k P0Ih15
! 6ccd ccmmunlcatlcn bccsts cwnershlp cf basln management.
! Publlc awareness campalgns and educatlcn prcgrammes enccurage
suppcrt fcr basln management.
xampIe 10.1. anube ay: raising awareness
Lvery year on Lanube Lay, `9 une, over S1 million people in 1/ countrie celebrate one ol
Lurope' reatet river ytem. he lnternational Commiion lor the rotection ol the
Lanube liver coordinate thi annual event to mark the international cooperation that ha
made the Lanube a cleaner, aler river.
lue letival on the riverbank, public meetin and lun educational event pay tribute to
the Lanube, it people and the prore that ha been made. Lanube Lay trenthen
'Lanube olidarity' and hihliht that, in pite ol dillerent culture and hitorie, all Lanube
bain citizen hare the deire and reponibility to protect their preciou reource.
lnternational and bainwide event lor Lanube Lay `uuS included:
! a Lanube /rt Vater chool competition;
! a Lanube hoto Competition;
! collaboration with the lnternational \ukovar lilm letival, Croatia, on the 'Lanube hoto
Lxhibition: lrom Source to Lelta';
! a 'Creet the Lanube horn blat', unitin Lanube worker throuhout the bain a hip
horn were ounded at ` pm in tribute to the Lanube river; and
! participation in world water Lxpo in Zaraoza, Spain.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.danubeday.crg]en]hcme
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pecilic need ol their particular bain. 8ain oraniation plannin maor public awarene
and education campain may alo need to enae pecialit.
ublic awarene and education proramme cot money. /dvertiin, oraniin event,
ettin up and operatin public inlormation ervice incur both oneoll and onoin cot.
8ain manaement budet need to include budet line lor capital, operatin and tall
cot lor communication proramme. Strateie and plan lor communication hould be
part ol overall bain plannin and manaement.
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laiin awarene ol the complex and olten contentiou iue in bain manaement i vital.
0ver time, public awarene campain can brin about a chane in thinkin and encourae
ownerhip ol bain manaement plan to improve livelihood, ue water more elliciently and
improve the environment.
Vany bain oraniation run public awarene campain in newpaper, on televiion and
radio, and throuh the lnternet to create interet in bain manaement, and chane attitude
and behaviour. / ood example i the campain in the 8ribane liver bain in /utralia
(Lxample 1u.`).
rinted material are another tried and teted way ol raiin awarene, lor example
newletter, tate ol the bain report and bain corecard. hee can complement public
awarene campain and, a well a inlormin the eneral public, can be particularly uelul
lor taretin particular roup ol takeholder.
Stron workin relationhip with local media can alo erve bain oraniation well. 8ain
oraniation that contact ournalit reularly uually et ood coverae and raie their
prolile inilicantly. 0ne excellent example ol the value ol ood media contact i the
coverae iven to the Crand liver Conervation /uthority in 0ntario, Canada, by local
newpaper. hee run multipae thematic ection on, lor example, pollution and bain
manaement which inlorm and educate reader, and boot buyin lor action.
10.1 kaising awareness
10.1.1 PubIic awareness campaigns
xampIe 10.2. ueensIand, AustraIia: risbane kiver asin heaIthy waterways
Pregramme
he lealthy waterway roramme in the 8ribane liver bain run an onoin public
awarene campain in the local media. 0ver the lat ten year, thi ha led to a much reater
awarene ol the need to improve water cuality. he campain locue on reducin ediment
load lrom aricultural and urban runoll, and upradin ewae treatment plant to reduce
nitroen and phophoru contamination ol downtream etuarie and Voreton 8ay.
he lealthy waterway webite (www.healthywaterway.or) and the awarene campain
not only provide inlormation about water cuality manaement but alo ive practical
uetion lor manain water cuality and water ue. hee are backed up by proramme,
uch a water by Lein, and annual award lor bet practice implementation and reducin
litter.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.healthywaterways.crg
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Vany bain oraniation arrane education proramme and everal, the lnternational
Commiion lor the rotection ol the Lanube (www.icpdr.or), Cheapeake 8ay roram
(www.cheapeakebay.net) and the Crand liver Conervation /uthority (www.randriver.ca)
lor example, make them available on their webite.
\iual preentation are uelul in helpin people learn about bain manaement. he Creat
Lake lnlormation letwork, 'a partnerhip that provide one place online lor people to lind
inlormation about the binational Creat Lake leion ol lorth /merica', ha yntheied a
hue amount ol inlormation and put it on imple and viually appealin web pae
(www.reatlake.net).
Lducation work bet ol coure when it i interactive. workhop, meetin and webite
encourae twoway communication and learnin. Stakeholder learn, and exchane
10.2 ducatien
8ain oraniation alo conult with the public to collect their view on water reource
iue and to eek potential olution (Lxample 1u.3).
10.1.2 PubIic censuItatien
xampIe 10.3. France: pubIic censuItatien
he Luropean water lramework Lirective recuire member ol the Luropean Union to conult
takeholder (ee Lxample 6.`).ln lrance, the miniter in chare ol the environment and the
liver 8ain Committee arraned a national public conultation, 'water i lile - ive u your
opinion', to eek public opinion on the luture ol water reource in bain.
he public conultation in `uuS ouht public opinion on the environmental obective ol
the water Levelopment and Vanaement Vater lan propoed by the bain committee, a
well a on the action that are planned to achieve thoe obective.
/ cuetionnaire wa ditributed to all houehold in each bain. (uetion related to the
environmental obective and the maor meaure to achieve them. eople could alo make
eneral comment about the Vater lan. Citizen could participate in the conultation
throuh the lnternet. he media (radio and reional media) encouraed people to take part in
the conultation. artner aociation alo oranied event to encourae participation.
he averae rate ol participation wa 1.3 (/uu,uuu repondent), althouh participation
varied lrom one bain to another (rain lrom u.7 to /.3). he repone addreed the
main concern ol the bain committee. 0verall, the public cuetioned the propoed
obective and expreed reluctance to pay more. he public' maor concern were the rik
related to toxicity and health (dichare, and indutrial and aricultural pollution) and the
cot ol water. Citizen reaerted their commitment to the polluterpay principle, tranparent
deciion, to meaure that protect water reource and to outcome that aleuard the
luture ol water reource.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.eaufrance.fr
eleviion and radio are other ellective communication channel. he Corporacion /utonoma
leional in Cundinamarca, 8oota, Colombia, produce it own \ proramme. he
Corporacion ha an areement with the Colombian national \ channel to broadcat thee
proramme weekly.
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inlormation more lreely, il they meet lacetolace, learn lrom each other, lrom mentor or
champion, and dicu iue onetoone or in interet roup. Such interaction are ideal
lor bain oraniation, reident and takeholder to ain new knowlede and kill and, at
the ame time, keep in touch with what i happenin in the bain.
0pen or retricted acce webite are common tool lor bain manaer and takeholder
to hare and acce inlormation. lor thoe without lnternet connection, the ame et ol
inlormation can be hared on CLl0V.
0ther tool, uch a online dicuion, encourae reular interaction and leedback amon
bain takeholder. Licuion topic can be cataloued and earchable, eneratin an
archive ol comment lor luture relerence.
lnteractive webite can put a vat rane ol inlormation in a variety ol media, uch a voice,
raphic, movie, photo and data, a well a text, at takeholder' linertip. Vany bain
webite pot inlormation about bet manaement practice, the reearch the practice are
baed on, and the contact detail lor people who can dicu the pro and con ol each.
Some webite provide uerlriendly deciionupport and modellin tool.
/lthouh the lnternet i ellective lor inlormation harin it may not be the mot uitable tool
lor inlormation harin in bain where rural and poor communitie do not have acce to
uch technoloy (ee Section 9.1.1 Ltablihin bain inlormation ytem lor ood
overnance). 8ain oraniation thu need to conider dillerent option includin
newletter in local lanuae, radio proramme and lacetolace meetin.
10.3 Cemmunicatien teeIs
10.3.1 websites
ln developed countrie, depoitin bain inlormation in public librarie make it eaily
acceible to takeholder. 0lten, librarie have pecial reional collection that are ideal lor
keepin report, trateie and plan related to bain manaement. Vany have climate
controlled torae lacilitie. lmportantly too, librarian are expert in catalouin and can
oranie bain manaement material ytematically.
Univerity librarie in both developed and developin countrie, a repoitorie ol reearch,
collect and preerve a wide rane ol material, lrom pecialit international publication to
anecdotal inlormation. 8ecaue ol thi, univerity librarie are olten valuable partner in
bain inlormation exchane proramme.
lrom the uer' perpective, bain document loded in librarie are eay to conult and
borrow in hard copy. 0lten, epecially in the cae ol univerity librarie, individual and bain
manaement oraniation can alo in up to acce material electronically - a very
imple and cuick way ol ettin inlormation. Vany bain oraniation have developed their
own documentation centre which are open to the eneral public, tudent and cientit.
8ain phonein ervice are common in developed countrie and capitalie on the power ol
the poken word lor exchanin inlormation. honein ervice cater lor people with limited
readin and writin kill, limited acce to the lnternet, and to thoe who ut preler to ive
and receive inlormation verbally. lor example, buine people are olten in a hurry and want
inlormation cuickly. hey uually have little time lor lormal education or trainin
10.3.2 Libraries
10.3.3 asin phene-in service
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/ communitybaed inlormation ervice typically hold collection ol inlormation on the
bain and provide a rane ol other ervice. hee centre may operate a phonein ervice
lor water manaer, maintain mailin lit lor ditribution ol report and update by lax or
email, develop and maintain webite, run community education proramme, and develop
and implement conervation partnerhip areement.
ln eneral, uch centre are located in the headcuarter ol the bain oraniation. hey are
excellent 'hop lront' lor local takeholder and, in lare bain where there are ood
lnternet connection, uch a Cheapeake 8ay, may be virtual (Lxample 1u./).
8ain manaement i a learnin cycle (ee Section `.` 8ain manaement a an iterative
proce). 0nce a plan i put into action and monitorin bein, manaer and takeholder
can tart to ee what i workin and what in't. hey can then ue what they learn to
improve. /daptive manaement, or learnin by doin, work bet when takeholder are
involved in an appropriate manner and when manaement i llexible and adaptive. 8ut thi
learnin mut be led back to relevant taret roup in a uitable manner.
8ain oraniation need to make ure that they report appropriately on prore, or lack ol
it, to takeholder. / ood way to think about reportin i a a 'threeway' ytem that cover
outcome, return on invetment and takeholder interet.
leportin 'outcome' mean reportin to the bain public on the reult ol bain
manaement activitie and invetment. hi cover apect uch a the health ol the bain
ecoytem and the tatu ol water reource. leport mut be imple, clear and to the point,
publihed a 'bain report', or 'bain tate ol health' card lor example.
hen aain, report lor thoe who pay lor bain manaement proramme and upport the
bain oraniation, olten national overnment, mut how how lund have been pent,
10.4 Feedback and Iearning
10.3.4 Cemmunity-based inIermatien service
proramme. what they want are cuick anwer to their cuetion about reource
manaement lrom a reliable ource.
honein ervice provided by bain oraniation ive caller advice and inlormation on, lor
example, developin and implementin land and water manaement plan, the tate ol
natural reource in the bain, cotharin, bet manaement option lor larmer, bain
manaement oraniation and bain overnance.
xampIe 10.4 Chesapeake ay basin: virtuaI inIermatien shep Irent
he Cheapeake 8ay lnlormation letwork developed a ateway to a vat array ol lnternet
reource, uch a decription ol ubcatchment, inlormation on lederal and tate
overnment proramme, calendar ol event, contact inlormation lor environmental
network and other oraniation, and lundin opportunitie (www.cheapeakebay.net).
he webite ive uer acce to a library ol inlormation on the bain, includin report card
on the health ol the 8ay. when inlormation i lreely available like thi, bain manaement i
more tranparent.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.chesapeakebay.net
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102
return on invetment, proramme outcome and achievement.
leportin to other bain takeholder uch a local overnment, private companie (water
utilitie), overnment department, and nonovernment oraniation mut how how co
ordinated plannin and manaement ha worked and where there i room lor improvement
(Lxample 1u.5). hi may be a twoway proce. he bain oraniation, lor example may
provide water utilitie with report that enable them to improve water ervice in the bain
while water utilitie, lor their part, can report to the bain oraniation on improvement in
waterue elliciency.
xampIe 10.5. [car kiver asin, vaIencia, 5pain: inIermatien and menitering
he Spanih Ceneral Lirectorate lor water elaborated a 'ublic articipation roect' in `uu6
in accordance with the LU water lramework Lirective. hi uide activitie related to public
inlormation and participation in the Spanih river bain ditrict. ln the ucar liver 8ain
ditrict, the public ha been actively involved in river bain manaement. / Citizen lnlormation
0llice ha been et up to inlorm and to addre any water related public concern. lnlormation
i alo ditributed throuh the bain webite and the diemination ol brochure.
he ucar liver 8ain 0raniation ha created an lnlormation and Vonitorin Committee (or
ublic articipation Committee), which evaluate technical apect ol liver 8ain
Vanaement lan and proect. lt i compoed ol /S oraniation lrom dillerent ector -
local, reional and national overnment, buine and trade union, uer, and lC0. lt ha
an adviory nature, and it enerate propoal and coordinate the public participation
proce. hi Committee i part ol the ublic articipation lorum, which repreent over 3uu
oraniation, all intereted partie and takeholder related to water. / conultation period
ol lat ix month allow review and contribution to document and comment are included
in the river bain manaement plan annexe.
Mcre lnfcrmatlcn at: http:]]www.ch|.es
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103
websites
Afrlcan hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlsatlcns: http:]]www.cmvs-
sce.crg]racb.htm
Caphet, an lnternatlcnal netwcrk fcr capaclty bulldlng ln lwkM:
www.cap-net.crg
Central and Fastern Furcpe hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlsatlcns:
http:]]ceenbc.mcblus.rc]
6lcbal water Partnershlp: www.gwpfcrum.crg
6wP Tccl8cx: www.gwptcclbcx.crg
lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns: www.lnbc-
news.crg
lnternatlcnal Ufflce fcr water: www.cleau.fr]anglals]lndex.htm
Latln Amerlcan hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlsatlcns:
www.ana.gcv.br]relcb]!lang=es and www.rebcb.crg.br
Medlterranean hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlsatlcns: www.remcc.crg
hetwcrk cf Aslan klver 8asln Urganlsatlcns: www.narbc.|p
keglcnal and natlcnal research prcgrammes netwcrk cn lwkM:
http:]]www.lwrm-net.crg
keIerences
Caphet (February 2008). Perfcrmance and Capaclty cf klver
8asln Urganlzatlcns. Crcss-case Ccmparlscn cf Fcur k8Us.
uhuP]Caphet.
6lelck, P. F. (2002). ulrty water: Fstlmated ueaths frcm water-
kelated ulseases 2000-2020. Paclflc lnstltute fcr Studles ln
uevelcpment, Fnvlrcnment, and Securlty.
6wP TAC (2000), 8ackgrcund Paper hc. /. lntegrated water
kescurces Management. 6lcbal water Partnershlp, Stcckhclm,
Sweden.
6wP TFC (200/). Catalyzlng Change: a Fandbcck fcr uevelcplng
lntegrated water kescurces Management (lwkM) and water
Ffflclency Strategles. 6lcbal water Partnershlp, Stcckhclm,
Sweden.
Fccper, 8. P. (1995). Adcptlcn cf 8est Management Practlces
fcr uryland Sallnlty. The heed fcr an lntegrated Fnvlrcnmental
Management Apprcach. kesults cf a Study ln the 6cran
Catchment. Centre fcr water Pcllcy kesearch, h.S.w. unlverslty
cf Fngland, Armldale, Australla.
Fccper, 8. P. (2005). lntegrated klver 8asln 6cvernance:
Learnlng frcm lnternatlcnal Fxperlence. lwA Publlshlng, Lcndcn,
unlted Klngdcm.
Margerum, k. u. and 8crn, S. M. (2000). A Cc-crdlnatlcn
ulagncstlc fcr lmprcvlng lntegrated Fnvlrcnmental
Management. }curnal cf Fnvlrcnmental Plannlng and
Management. /3|1[, 5-21.
Margerum, k. u. and whltall, u. (200/). The Challenges and
lmpllcatlcns cf Ccllabcratlve Management cn a klver 8asln
Scale. }curnal cf Fnvlrcnmental Plannlng and Management.
/7|3[, /07-/27.
Ccmprehenslve Assessment cf water Management ln
Agrlculture (2008). uevelcplng and Managlng klver 8aslns: the
heed fcr Adaptlve, Multllevel, Ccllabcratlve lnstltutlcnal
Arrangements. water fcr Fccd, water fcr Llfe. lssue 8rlef #12.
Ccmprehenslve Assessment cf water Management ln
Agrlculture, 6lcbal water Partnershlp and lnternatlcnal hetwcrk
cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns.
hewscn, M. (1992). Land, water and uevelcpment. klver
8asln Systems and thelr Sustalnable Management.
kcutledge, hew Ycrk, uSA.
UFCu (2009). Strateglc Flnanclal Plannlng fcr water and
Sanltatlcn. Parls, France.
adduml, F. (2008). Practlcal Apprcaches tc
Transbcundary water 8eneflt Sharlng. wcrklng Paper 292.
Uverseas uevelcpment lnstltute, Lcndcn, unlted Klngdcm.
uh-water (2008). Status kepcrt cn lwkM and water
Ffflclency Plans fcr CSu16. unlted hatlcns, hew Ycrk,
uSA.
Further reading
8ank-hetherlands water Partnershlp Prcgram (2002).
lntegrated klver 8asln Management: Frcm Ccncepts tc
6ccd Practlce. 8rleflng hcte Serles. The 8ank-hetherlands
water Partnershlp Prcgram.
Caphet (}une 2008). lntegrated water kescurces
Management fcr klver 8asln Urganlsatlcns: Tralnlng
Manual. uhuP]Caphet.
Caphet (}une 2008). lndlcatcrs: lmplementlng lntegrated
water kescurces Management at klver 8asln Level.
uhuP]Caphet.
ucurc|eannl, A. (2001). water Management at the klver
8asln Level: Challenges ln Amerlca. unlted hatlcns,
Santlagc, Chlle.
6wP CFF (2007). Tccl 8cx: lnstltutlcnal Settlng cf water
lnstltutlcns ln uevelcpment, Fnfcrcement and
lmplementatlcn cf Future water Management Plans.
6lcbal water Partnershlp Central and Fastern Furcpe,
8ratlslava, Slcvakla.
6wP TFC (2008). 8ackgrcund Paper 12. water Flnanclng
and 6cvernance. 6lcbal water Partnershlp, Stcckhclm,
Sweden.
lh8U (200/). Partlclpatlcn cf users ln Sustalnable water
kescurces Management. lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln
Urganlzatlcns. Parls, France.
lh8U (2005). Flnanclng cf Sustalnable water kescurces
Management. lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln
Urganlzatlcns. Parls, France.
lh8U (2006). Fcrmulatlcn cf water Plans fcr water
uevelcpment and Management. lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf
8asln Urganlzatlcns. Parls, France.
lh8U (2006). lnfcrmatlcn hecessary fcr ueclslcn Maklng.
lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns. Parls,
France.
lh8U (2006). Tcward a hew lntegrated Management cf
Transbcundary 8aslns: examples ln Furcpe. lnternatlcnal
hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns. Parls, France.
Lentcn, k. and Muller, M., eds (2009). lntegrated water
kescurces Management ln Practlce: 8etter water
Management fcr uevelcpment. Farthscan, Lcndcn, unlted
Klngdcm.
Mclle, F., wester, P., Flrsch, P. and cthers (2007). klver
8asln uevelcpment and Management, ln water fcr Fccd,
water fcr Llfe: a Ccmprehenslve Assessment cf water
Management ln Agrlculture (Chapter 16). lnternatlcnal
water Management lnstltute. Farthscan, Lcndcn, unlted
Klngdcm.
w5I15, kFkhC5 Ah Fbk1hk kAIhC
section_4_b.qxd 30/01/2009 15:03 Page 103
6lcbal water Partnershlp
urcttnlnggatan 33
SF-111 51 Stcckhclm, SwFuFh
Phcne: + /6 8 522 126 30
Fax: + /6 8 522 126 31
F-mall: gwp[gwpfcrum.crg
web: www.gwpfcrum.crg
lnternatlcnal hetwcrk cf 8asln Urganlzatlcns
lnternatlcnal Ufflce fcr water
21, rue de Madrld
75008 Parls, FkAhCF
Phcne: + 33 1 // 90 88 60
Fax: + 33 1 /0 08 01 /5
F-mall: lnbc[wanadcc.fr
web: www.lnbc-news.crg
lS8h: 978-91-85321-72-8
Thls handbcck prcvldes guldance fcr lmprcvlng
the gcvernance cf freshwater rescurces, ln
partlcular thrcugh eIIective impIementatien eI
the integrated water reseurces management
(IwkM) appreach in Iake, river and aquiIer
basins. lt artlculates the llnks between
challenges and lwkM respcnses, suggests ways
cf settlng up cr mcdernlslng basln
crganlsatlcns tc facllltate the adcptlcn cf the
lwkM apprcach, and ls a practlcal and user-
frlendly gulde wlth many examples cf
experlences ln rlver, lake and aqulfer
management.
The handbcck has been develcped by the
CIebaI water Partnership and the InternatienaI
hetwerk eI asin 0rganizatiens as an cutccme
cf the ccllabcratlcn between the twc netwcrks
tc facllltate the adcptlcn cf better and mcre
sustalnable water rescurces management. The
hcpe ls that the handbcck wlll help tc catalyse
pcsltlve change fcr sustalnable develcpment.
The handbcck wlll be a dynamlc dccument,
updated wlth best practlces ln water
management fcr baslns all cver the glcbe.
The CIebaI water Partnership ls an
lnternatlcnal netwcrk whcse vlslcn ls fcr a
water secure wcrld. The 6wP mlsslcn ls tc
suppcrt the sustalnable develcpment and
management cf water rescurces at all levels.
6wP was created ln 1996 tc fcster lntegrated
water rescurces management and tc ensure the
cc-crdlnated develcpment and management cf
water, land and related rescurces ln crder tc
maxlmlse eccncmlc and scclal welfare ln an
equltable manner wlthcut ccmprcmlslng the
sustalnablllty cf vltal envlrcnmental systems.
The InternatienaI hetwerk eI asin
0rganizatiens, establlshed ln 199/, ls an
lnternatlcnal netwcrk that suppcrts the
lmplementatlcn cf lntegrated water rescurces
management ln rlver and lake baslns and
aqulfers. lt llnks basln crganlsatlcns and cther
gcvernment agencles respcnslble fcr basln
management ln crder tc prcmcte the exchange
cf experlences and develcp sultable tccls fcr
better basln management at transbcundary,
natlcnal and lccal levels.
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