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File and Disc Utility A file is a collection of data. Folder or Directory is a collection of files.

File Name Extension: type of data and program required File Archival (packing): Program that combines files into one archive file. Unarchiving (unpacking, extracting): Reconstructing original files from the archive. Compression Utility: Reduction in size of data or file in order to save space and transmission time. (WinZip and WinRAR) Disk Compression: Increases free space in the hard disk to store more data by reducing file size, deleting unused space and unfrequented data. Lossless Compression: Reduces file size without a loss of information in the process. (Zip compression) Lossy Compression: Reduces file size by eliminating bits of information. Encryption: Algorithm that protects data from unauthorized people. Data is converted into cipher or non-readable text. Decryption: Converting encrypted text or cipher text back into its original form. Fragmentation: A situation when an individual program or file stored on a disk are not contiguous but are broken up in pieces scattered around the disk. It causes performance problems in reading files. Defragmentation: It rearranges the files or programs and gives large number of contiguous free space on storage devices and increases the performance of storage devices. Firewall: It protects the computer by preventing hackers or malicious software from gaining access to it. It is a wall of partition between

internal and external network to protect out data from unauthorized access. It is a part of the computer system or network designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. Virus Protection: Antivirus software protects computer against viruses, worms, and other security threats. Spyware and other malware protection: Antispyware software helps protect your computer from spyware and other potentially unwanted software. Threat is a potential occurrence malicious or otherwise, that may harm an asset. Top five external threats to corporate IT systems: 1. Viruses 2. After-effects of viruses 3. Hacks 4. Phishing or Identity theft 5. Blended Attacks Other threats: 1. Spoofing user identity 2. Tampering with data 3. Repudiation 4. Information disclosure 5. Denial of Service 6. Elevation of privilege

Viruses and Malicious Software Computer Viruses: Spread from computer to computer; corrupt/delete data Resident Viruses: dwells in the RAM memory; corrupts files and programs (eg. Randex, CMJ, Meve, MrKlunky) Direct action Viruses: Replicates andcomes into action on execution; affects files in the folder it is in Overwrite Viruses: Deletes information contained in the files that it infects; file has to be deleted completely (eg. Way, Trj.Reboot, Trivial.88.D Boot Virus: Affects the boot sector of a floppy or hard disk (eg. Polyboot.B, AntiEXE) Macro Virus: Infect files that are created using applications or programs containing macros; automate series of operations (eg. Relax, Melissa.A, Bablas, O97M/Y2K) Directory Virus: Change the paths that indicate the location of a file; original files cannot be located. Polymorphic Virus: Viruses encrypt or encode themselves in a different way; create a large number of copies of themselves (eg. Elkern, Marburg, Satan Bug, Taureg) File Infectors: Infects programs and executable files; virus is activated when the program is running Companion Viruses: Virus accompanies other files that already exist; virus is activated when a program is running or acts immediately by replicating (eg. Asimov.1539, Terrax.1069) File Allocation Table (FAT) Virus: Prevents access to certain sections of the disk where important files are stored; results in information losses from individual files to entire directories

Worms: Self-replicate; similar to virus; detected and eliminated by ant viruses (eg. PSWBugbear.B, Lovgate.F, Trile.C, Sobig.d, Mapson) Trojans or Trojan Horses: do not reproduce by infecting other files nor do they self-replicate like worms Logic Bombs: Not viruses as they do not replicate; camouflaged segments of other programs; destroy data on the computer once certain conditions have been met

Phishing Phishing is the act of attempting to acquire information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication. Spoofing A spoofing attack is a situation in which one person or program successfully masquerades as another by falsifying data and thereby gaining an illegitimate advantage. War Driving Wardriving is the act of searching for Wi-Fi wireless networks by a person in a moving vehicle, using a portable computer, smartphone or personal digital assistant (PDA). Denial of Service A denial-of-service (DoS) attack is an attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users Salami Attack A salami attack is a series of minor attacks that together results in a larger attack. Computers are ideally suited to automating this type of attack. Tampering

Hacking

Email bombing An email bomb is a form of net abuse consisting of sending huge volumes of email to an address in an attempt to overflow the mailbox or overwhelm the server where the email address is hosted in a denial-of-service attack. Mass mail Cross site scripting Cross-site scripting enables attackers to inject client-side script into Web pages viewed by other users. Spam Electronic spamming is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages (spam), especially advertising, indiscriminately. Examples for each virus( textbook)