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1.1 1.

Classification of artificial light sources .......................................................................................... 2 Parameters and characteristics of light sources ........................................................................... 3 Fundamental parameters of light sources ............................................................................ 3 Luminous flux ............................................................................................................ 3

1.2.1 1.2.1.1 1.2.1.2 1.2.1.3 1.2.1.4 1.2.1.5 1.2.1.6 1.2.1.7 1.2.2 1.2.2.1 1.2.2.2 1.2.2.3 1.2.2.4 1.2.2.5 1.2.2.6 1.2.2.7 1.2.2.8 1.2.2.9

Luminous intensity (I)........................................................................................................ 3 Illminance (E)..................................................................................................................... 3 Luminance ......................................................................................................................... 3 Luminous efficacy ....................................................................................................... 3

Color temperature (Tc) ..................................................................................................... 3 Color rendering index (R) .................................................................................................. 4 Required conditions of light sources .................................................................................... 4 Total radiation spectral distribution ................................................................................. 4 Luminance ......................................................................................................................... 4 Luminous intensity distribution ........................................................................................ 4 Emitted radiation biological effect.................................................................................... 4 Appropriate color for each application ............................................................................. 4 Chromatic reproduction quality ........................................................................................ 5 Luminous flux constants ................................................................................................... 5 Average lifetime and service lifetime ............................................................................... 5 Stabilization of lamps with negative resistance characteristics ....................................... 6 Variations in power supply ........................................................................................... 6 Time needed until the luminous flux acquires the normal regime............................... 6 Possibility of immediate reignition ............................................................................... 6 Stroboscopic effect ....................................................................................................... 6 Working position ........................................................................................................... 6

1.2.2.10 1.2.2.11 1.2.2.12 1.2.2.13 1.2.2.14 1.3

Fluorescent lamps ......................................................................................................................... 6 Design ................................................................................................................................... 6 Basic principles of fluorescent lamps ............................................................................... 6 Design and construction of fluorescent lamps .................................................................. 7 Types of fluorescent lamps ................................................................................................... 8 Linear fluorescent lamps ................................................................................................... 8 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) .................................................................................. 9

1.3.1 1.3.1.1 1.3.1.2 1.3.2 1.3.2.1 1.3.2.2

1.1 Classification of artificial light sources

conventional incandescent lamps Thermal radiation incandescent lamps Wolfram halogen lamps

vacuum filled with gas

Fluorescent lamps Germicidal discharge lamps Compact fluorescent lamps Spectral lamps Low pressure sodium lamps Lighting tubes induction lamps

with electrodes

Arfiticial light sources


Low pressure discharge lamps

Luminesce from discharge gaseous column

without electrodes Luminesce from cathode neon lamps xenon electrodestabilized highpressure discharge lamps mercury halide

electric discharge

xenon mercury High pressure discharge lamps with electrodes halide Wall-stabilized electric highpressure gaseous discharge lamp without electrode halide LED and laser diode electroluminace electrolumin iscent panle sodium sulphuric

1.2 Parameters and characteristics of light sources


1.2.1 Fundamental parameters of light sources
1.2.1.1 Luminous flux Luminous flux () is radiated energy received by the human eye depending on its sensivity curve, and which is transformed into light for a second. Luminous flux is measured in lumens (lm). 1.2.1.2 Luminous intensity (I) Luminous intensity (I) is luminous output of a source of light in one specific direction equals the ratio between the luminous flux contained in whatever solid angle ( whose axis coincides with the considered direction. Luminous intensity is measured in candela (cd).

1.2.1.3 Illminance (E) Illminance (E) of a surface is the ratio between the luminous flux received by the surface to its area. Its unit is the lux (lx)

1.2.1.4 Luminance Luminance is the effect which produces a surface on the retina of the eye, both coming from a primary source which produces light, from a secondary source or surface which reflects light. It is measured in candela per square meter (cd/m2)

Where 1.2.1.5 Luminous efficacy Luminous efficacy of a source of light indicates the flux emitted by this source per unit of electrical output consumed to obtain it. It is measured in lumen/watt (lm/W)

Lifetime of light source is the total working time of that light source until it stop working or cannot be used longer. 1.2.1.6 Color temperature (Tc) Color temperature (Tc) is an expression used to indicate the color of a source of light by comparing it with a black body color.

1.2.1.7 Color rendering index (R) Color rendering index (R) offer and indication of the capacity of the source of light to reproduce normalized colors, in comparison with the reproduction provided by a light as reference pattern.

Table 1 Color temperature of some light sources

1.2.2 Required conditions of light sources


To be used in reality, every light source must satisfy some conditions about technical characteristics, effect to environment and economization. 1.2.2.1 Total radiation spectral distribution Lamps could be considered like high performance energy transformers, which transform almost all the energy absorbed into visible light. The light should be white like daylight and good chromatic reproduction. Base on eye sensitivity, the best solution for luminous performance is to obtain the highest percentage possible of radiation in the 555 nm zone. 1.2.2.2 Luminance For using outside light lamps must not have high luminance and the admissible luminance value depends on the type of application. Conversely, lamps used in luminaries may have great luminance, since they trimmer the glare effect. 1.2.2.3 Luminous intensity distribution Lamp radiation is not equal in all directions in the space. Light source with different luminous body, position, etc. will have a distribution typical of luminous intensity. Luminous distribution curves are necessary to design, installation of lighting system. 1.2.2.4 Emitted radiation biological effect Lamps must not emit any unnecessary or harmful radiation for human being, either immediately or in the long run. Specially, lamps with gas discharges, mainly mercury vapor, might emit ultraviolet radiation. To be avoided unexpected effect we use appropriate glass classes that absorb critical radiation. 1.2.2.5 Appropriate color for each application The light color of a lamp is determined by the spectral composition of its radiation. Incandescent lamps may only radiate a warm white color. Discharge lamps could radiate various light colors depend on gases or vapors chosen for them.

Table 2 Light groups established for lamps used in general lighting 1.2.2.6 Chromatic reproduction quality Chromatic reproduction refers to the aspect of the color illuminated surfaces have. The productive quality depends on incident light tone and spectral composition. Lamps have good chromatic reproduction, which means a spectral distribution different from the necessary one to obtain a high luminous performance. 1.2.2.7 Luminous flux constants It is impossible to maintain the luminous flux value at a 100% during all the life of the light source. Luminous flux indicated in catalogues refers, to completely new incandescent lamps and to 100 hours of working discharge lamps. 1.2.2.7.1 Luminous performance The maximum luminous performance to be achieved is 683 lm/W. Nowadays, lamps with a very high performance could be achieved that value. In many cases, we must decide which property is more important: whether a high luminous performance or a good chromatic reproduction. 1.2.2.8 Average lifetime and service lifetime Average lifetime is defined as the time duration beyond which, from an initially large number of lamps under the same construction and under controlled conditions, only 50% still function. Service lifetime is a measurement referred to practice, also given in hour, after which the luminous flux of certain lighting installation has decreased to such a value that the lamp is not profitable although the lamp may go on working. Often, 70% service life or 80% service lifetime is used. This is the number of operating hours after which, by a combination of lamp failure and lumen reduction, the light level of an installation has dropped to 70% or 80% compare to the initial value. Type of light source conventional incandescent lamps halogen lamps compact fluorescent lamps linear fluorescent lamps High pressure mercury lamps Metal halide lamps Induction lamps Power LED Average lifetime (h) 1000 2000-3000 15000 20000 16000-24000 10 000 60000 50 000 100 000 Service lifetime (h) 1000 2000-3000 6000-15000 10000-18000 10 000 20 000 4000 20000 25 000 50 000

Table 3 lifetime of some types of light sources

1.2.2.9 Stabilization of lamps with negative resistance characteristics Negative resistance will decrease resistant value as the intensity of the current circulating through it increase. In order to stabilize current in discharge lamps we put some inductive, capacitive and ohmic resistances in the lamp circuit. 1.2.2.10 Variations in power supply Variation in power supply influence the lighting engineering data of any lamps. In incandescent lamps, they affect duration and color temperature very much, and in discharge ones, relations of arc pressure and discharge conditions. 1.2.2.11 Time needed until the luminous flux acquires the normal regime Incandescent lamps immediately emitting their total flux. In case of fluorescent lamps, needed time is short or immediately depend on ignition state. The other discharge lamps require some minutes, until metal vapor acquires the necessary pressure and the luminous flux reaches it maximum value 1.2.2.12 Possibility of immediate reignition It is possibility that a lamp, after having been turned off, will be immediately reignited with full emission of the luminous flux. Incandescent lamps have this possibility. Gas discharge lamps usually cannot immediately reigniton but after some minutes and also need more time to reach the total luminous flux. 1.2.2.13 Stroboscopic effect In all artificial sources of light which work with alternating current their emission stops every time current goes through the zero point. That means for frequency 50Hz, there are 100 times light source stop emitting. Human eye cannot perceive such a slight descend of luminous emission of quick light variation from light source. But it may be the case, that lamps illuminate zones in which rapid movements are made, these being observed as if they move intermittently or even as if they do not move at all. This is called stroboscopic effect and it may be reduced by applying special power supply mounting or a threephased connection. 1.2.2.14 Working position Working position is position in which lamp has optimal working properties. In order to avoid premature depletion of lamp because of an inadequate working position, we need consider tolerance given in the lamp catalogues.

1.3 Fluorescent lamps


Low pressure mercury discharge lamps (fluorescent lamp) having the inside wall of the glass bulb or tube coated with fluorescent material so that the ultraviolet radiation from the discharge is converted to visible light. Since the first time fluorescent lamps were introduced for general lighting around 1940, it have been used universally in office, schools, hospitals and special in industrial. Advantages of fluorescent lamps include a wide variety of lumen outputs, shapes and colors while still having good or excellent life, luminous efficacy, maintenance and color rendering. 1.3.1 Design 1.3.1.1 Basic principles of fluorescent lamps The major process of light production in fluorescent lamp is:

electrical energy input from supply

Ultraviolet radiation from discharge

visible radiation from phosphor

The input energy heat the electrodes and causing them to emit electrons, which collide with mercury atoms contained within the discharge tube. Collisions may happen with such force to free electrons form mercury atoms, which is necessary to maintain the arc. Collisions may give mercury atoms energy and these atoms will have excited state. When the electron of an excited mercury atom returns to its ground state, a photon is released. Electrical energy dissipated in the electrical discharge is converted mainly into the ultraviolet (UV) region of the spectrum. A very small amount of the energy is converted directly into visible radiation in the discharge. The remainder of the input energy is wasted as heat in the form of losses. The ultraviolet radiation generated falls onto a phosphor coating, which is on the wall of the tube. The energy from the UV is absorbed by the phosphor material and some of this energy is converted to and emitted as visible radiation. [1] Because the mercury discharge has a negative volt-ampere relationship, fluorescent lamps must be operated in series with a current-limiting device, called ballast. A ballast limits the currents to the value for which the lamps is designed, provides the required starting and operating lamp voltages, and may provide dimming control. [4]

Figure 1 Fluorescent lamp 1.3.1.2 Design and construction of fluorescent lamps The main parts of fluorescent lamps are the glass tube, electrodes, gas fill, phosphors and bases. Auxiliary equipment maybe the ballast, starters, which depends on the type of lamp. 1.3.1.2.1 Glass tube The most commonly used type of glass in the construction of fluorescent lamps is soda-lime silicate glass doped with iron oxide to limit the emission of UV radiation, which may be harmful to human. For very highly loaded lamps such as compact fluorescent lamp (CFLs), we use low sodium content glasses. Diameter of glass tube is determined by the desired loading on the phosphors: higher loading increase lumen output per unit area and are associated with smaller tube diameters. Length is dictated by the luminous flux to be produced by the lamp. The diameter and the length dictate the lamp voltage. That means reducing the diameter or increasing the length increases the required lamp voltage. [4] 1.3.1.2.2 Electrodes Electrodes are hermetically sealed at the ends of the tubes. They conduct electrical power into the lamp and provide the electrons necessary to maintain the arc discharge within the tubes. Constructions vary, but

all are made of tungsten coated with a mixture of alkaline earth oxides. The tungsten is coiled to hold as much emitter material as possible. Electrodes maybe preheated, continuously heated or cold, which are controlled by the ballast. [4] 1.3.1.2.3 Phosphors (fluorescent covering) The phosphor is the main factor, which determines spectrum of fluorescent lamp. The thickness of the phosphor coating on the inside wall of the tube is optimized for maximum efficiency of conversion of UV to visible radiation. If the phosphor layer is too thick then some of the visible light produced will be lost by absorption in the phosphor and if it is too thin then some of UV will pass through the phosphor layer and will be lost without having a chance to be converted to visible light. The type and composition of the phosphorous determines characteristics of the light, such as color temperature, color reproduction index, luminous efficiency. [1] 1.3.1.2.4 Filling gas Filling gas of a fluorescent lamp consists in a mixture of saturated mercury and an inert gas trimmer (argon and krypton). Under normal working conditions, mercury is found in the discharge tube both as a liquid and as vapor. The best performance is achieved with a mercury pressure of about 0.8 Pa, combined with a pressure of the trimmer of about 250 Pa. Under these conditions, about 90% of the radiated energy is emitted in the ultraviolet wave of 253.7 nm. [3] 1.3.1.2.5 Bases The bases physically supports the lamps and provides a means of electrical connection. 1.3.2 Types of fluorescent lamps There are two main classifications of fluorescent lamps in common use today and these are Linear fluorescent lamps Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)

1.3.2.1 Linear fluorescent lamps Principle and construction of this type was described above in section 1.3.1. This type of fluorescent lamps can achieves luminous efficacy 100lm/W when CRI is 80. Life time of the lamp depends on how many time switch on and off. Normally the life time could be 1200 hours Fluorescent tubes are named by the diameter of the lamp. The major types include: T5. A fluorescent lamp that is 0.625 inch (16mm) in diameter. These are among the newer models, and they have high energy efficiency and light output. They must work with electronic ballast. They also tend to create more heat and have a shorter lifespan than other fluorescents. T6. A fluorescent lamp that is 0.75 inch (19mm) in diameter. These are the newest types of fluorescent tubes, and they benefit from high energy efficiency and light output but produce less heat and last longer than T5s. They also require electronic ballast. T8. A fluorescent lamp that is 1 inch (26mm) in diameter and 24 to 48 inches (1200mm) in length. These are more energy efficient than older T12s, but they produce less light than newer T5s and T6s. They also require an electronic ballast to operate. T10. A fluorescent lamp that is 1.25 inches (32mm) in diameter. These lamps arent very common.

T12. A fluorescent lamp that is 1.5 inches (38mm) in diameter and 24 to 48 inches (1200mm) in length. These lamps were very common until recently; now they have been largely superseded by more efficient versions. They work with magnetic or electronic ballasts.[2] Fluorescent Tube Nomenclature F / 40 / T12 / RE-735 / XL Lamp type (FB/FU is for U-bent, and FT is for twin-tube T5). Wattage (for slim line, high output [HO], very high output [VHO], and HOO lamps, this number corresponds to the length of the tube). Diameter of tube. Rare-earth phosphors. The first digit is the color rendering index (CRI), 70 in this example; the last two digits (optional) are color temperature (3,500 K in this example). Optional modifiers, XL or XLL represents extra life and extra-long life.

1.3.2.1.1

F 40

T12 RE -735

XL

1.3.2.2 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) Compact fluorescent lamp has been designed to replace regular incandescent bulbs in commonly used fixtures and fittings. There are two main parts of a CFL: - The gas-filled tube, which is also called the bulb or burner. - The ballast, which emits and moderates electric current. This is usually part of the bulb but may be separate.

Figure 2 Compact fluorescent lamp

The CFL tube is filled with an inert gas, typically argon but sometimes neon, as well as a small amount of mercury vapor, all at low pressure. As with larger fluorescent tubes, excited mercury atoms produce UV light, which strikes the phosphor coating on the inside of the glass, which emits visible light. In all fluorescents, the phosphor coating is a key part of the design and is constantly evolving. It is primarily this feature that governs light color and quality, and coatings are selected to balance cost, efficiency, and light characteristics. [2] There are three basic versions of CFLs: - Integral type CFLs or self-ballasted lamps - Separate tube with control circuitry in fixture - Separate tube with adaptor 1.3.2.2.1 Advantages of CFLs - CFLs are called energy-saving light bulbs - CFL has very long lives of around 8000-10000 hours. - CFL wattage range from 5 to 55W and rated lumen output ranges from 250 to 4800 lumens. Overall wavelength varies from 100 to 570mm. [1], [4] - CFL has very high efficiency, about 80% input energy is converted into light energy. - It has high CRI about 80-90 - Wide working temperature