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Chemical Equilibrium

B. C. D.C. Binag, R. K. L. Serapio Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Enginnering, College of Engineering University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines
Date performed: July 9,2013 Instructors Name: Sharine Noelle Bendulo

METHODOLOGY In the experiment, the students are tasked to determine the direction of the equilibrium reaction by adding certain compounds that will either move the reaction forward or backward. For the Iron (III)-Silver Ions System, 1 mL each of 0.10 M FeSO4 and 0.10 M AgNO3 were mixed in a 4-inch test tube and then placed in a centrifuge. After 2-3 minutes, the solution was decanted into a test tube and then tested with several drops of 0.10 M K3Fe(CN)6, 0.10 M KSCN, and 1.00 M HCl separately on a spot plate. For the Copper (II)-Ammonia System, 1 mL of 0.1 M CuSO4 was transferred into a test tube. 1.00 M NH3 was added dropwise while mixing the contents after each drop. The number of drops needed to form precipitate was counted. Additional drops of 1.00 M NH3 were counted until the precipitate was dissolved and the color of the solution changed. For the Chromate-Dichromate System, a clean spot plate is prepared and labelled four wells. 5 drops of 0.10 M K2CrO4 into each of wells 1 and 2, and 5 drops of 0.10 M K2Cr2O7 were added into each of wells 3 and 4. 2 drops of 2.0 M H2SO4 each into wells 1 and 3, and 2 drops of 2.0 M NaOH were added each into wells 2 and 4. For the Iron (III) ChlorideThoicyanate System, a stock solution is prepared by the addition of 1 mL of 0.1 M FeCl3, and 1mL of 0.1 M KSCN to 50 mL distilled water in a 100-mL beaker. 4 labelled test tubes with numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 are prepared and then 2 mL of stock solution was placed in each of the test tubes. Test tube 1 served as the control set-up. 10 drops of 0.10 M FeCl3, 10 drops of 0.10 M KSCN, and 3 drops of 2.0 M NaOH were placed into test tubes 2, 3, and 4, respectively. For the Cobalt (II) Ions System, two test tubes were prepared, as well as a water bath. Test tube one served as the control setup. 1.00 mL of 0.10 M CoCl2 were placed in both test tubes. Concentrated HCl was added dropwise into test tube 2 until the color of the solution changed. Test tube 2 is then immersed into the boiling water bath. Test tube 2 is then cooled down and placed in a tap water bath, then in an ice bath. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION The formation of Prussian blue complex, blood red complex, and white precipitate when K3Fe(CN)6, KSCN, and HCl were used to test the supernate, these observations show that the system reached equilibrium. The pale blue color formed when HCl is added and the deep blue complex when excess HCl is added shows that the reaction shifted to the product side and then reached equilibrium. The formation of yellow chromate and orange dichromate shows that

the addition of H+ or OH- can affect the equilibrium of the Chromate-Dichromate system. The change in color in the Iron (III) Chloride-Thiocyanate System shows the shift in equilibrium in each of the test tubes. Lastly, the importance of temperature in shifting equilibrium is emphasized in the Cobalt (II) Ions System. The experiment can be considered a success because the observations made is similar to the expected results. REFERENCES Petrucci, R. H. et. al. 2011. Chemistry: Principles and Modern Applications 7th ed. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Singapore. Brown, T.; LeMay, H. E., et. al. 2009. Chemistry: The Central Science, 11th ed.; Pearson Education, Inc.: Singapore. 2011. General Chemistry II Laboratory Manual. Institute of Chemistry, University of the Philippines Diliman.