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Judith Chatka Wilkie Berger. (b. c.

The first permanent settlers of Spring Creek now Lewistown, ontana were etis. The etis establishe! Lewiston in 18"#. $ierre %&itikaniapnatch' (erger1 (b. 181)) an! his wife *+!ith %Chatka, -ilkie are cre!ite! with being the fo+n!ers of Lewistown. (erger, along with his wife *+!ith -ilkie (erger, son .sa!ore (erger, .saie (erger, *ean (aptiste (erger an! *ac/+es (erger, some 25 families ma!e the trek into the Lewistown area in 18"#. 0rancis *anea+1 came with the secon! gro+p. *anea+1 fo+n!e! the first p+blic school ho+se in 1882. This !ate is consi!ere! the official %fo+n!ing' of Lewistown. *+!ith -ilkie was the !a+ghter of *ean (aptiste -ilkie (b. 1832) an! 4mable 5lise (4nnabelle) 46+re (b. 1838). Some of her noteworth7 siblings were8 4le1an!re -ilkie (b. 1821) marrie! to Lo+ise 9ariep7: (etse7 -ilkie (b. 182)) marrie! to 4ntoine 0le+r7: a!eleine -ilkie (b. 182") marrie! to 9abriel ;+mont an! 4ntoine -ilkie (b. 18<") marrie! to 5sther 9la!+. =n 4+g+st ), 1883 Lo+is >iel petitione! for a etis reser?e in ontana in a letter sent to 9eneral @elson 4. iles. artha 0oster has pointe! o+t that man7 of the signatories were members of the Spring Creek etis (an!. %( an7) ha! settle! on Spring Creek the s+mmer before. =ther signatories were their frien!s an! relati?es, most of whom e?ent+all7 settle! to the north in the ilk >i?erABa?reACortman area, or to the west at St. $eter,s ission near the present !a7 Casca!e an! along the 0ront >ange of the >ock7 o+ntains.'2 4 n+mber of famil7 patriarchs le! this gro+p, namel7: 0rancois 4m7otte Sr. (b. 181#), $ierre (erger Sr. (b. 181)), -illiam ;a?is Sr. (b. 182<), Lo+is 9ariep7 (b. 1828), Salomon Bamelin (b. 1813), an! $ierre La?er!+re (b. 181#). Signing the >iel petition for a ontana >eser?e were8 $ierre (erger Sr. an! his brotherD inDlaw 4le1an!re -ilkie as well as the sons of $ierre (erger an! *+!ith -ilkie8 (ernar! (erger, .saie 0rancois (erger, .si!ore (erger, *ac/+es (erger, *ean (aptiste (erger, an! $ierre (erger *r. Chil!ren of *+!ith -ilkie an! $ierre (erger8 $ierre, born circa 18<1 or <2 at >e! >i?er. .saie, born @o?ember 8, 18<<, marrie! Clemence 9o+rnea+, the !a+ghter of the !a+ghter of T+rtle o+ntain Chief *oseph 9o+rnea+ an! *+!ith ;elorme. .si!ore, born 18<), marrie! ;omitil!e Laframboise, the !a+ghter of *oseph Laframboise an! arie 4nne Ca!otte.

The son of *ac/+es (erger ((ergis) an! arie Cecile ;+mont. The chil!ren of Cecile ;+mont an! *ac/+es (erger are $ierre (b. 181)) an! Lo+ise (erger who marrie! Benr7 +nroe 0isher then marrie! *ean (aptiste $atena+!e. Cecile s+bse/+entl7 marrie! *oseph Laframboise (b. 1822) an! then *oseph ;esmarais. $ierre is (an! member E 1<8 on the $embina 4nn+it7 >oll, -a7 ke ge ke 6hick,s (an!, in 18)8.

artha 0oster, We Know Who We Are: Metis Identity in a Montana Community. @orman8 Fni?ersit7 of =klahoma $ress, 233)8 #).

*ean (aptiste, born circa 18<#, marrie! (ets7 &eplin, the !a+ghter of $a+l %$ishk' &eplin an! arg+erite 9o+rnea+. *ac/+es, born =ctober 1", 1851, marrie! $hilomene =+ellette, the !a+ghter of .si!ore =+ellette an! arie (ottinea+. 4mable 46+re, born arch ", 1852. (ernar!, born *+ne 12, 1855, marrie! Caroline ;epo+sse (Laprose), the !a+ghter of Thomas Laprose. arie, born a7 13, 185", marrie! 0rancois 46+re, the son of 4ntoine 46+re Gictoire Lari?iere, then marrie! $ierre 9ra?eline, the son of $ierre 9ra?eline an! Gictoire 9irar!. 4!ele, born185# at $embina, marrie! Gital T+rcotte the son of *ean (aptiste T+rcotte an! 4ngeli/+e $ac/+in. Catherine2, born circa 18)2, marrie! -illiam Laframboise the son of 0rancois Laframboise an! arie Trottier. She then marrie! o!este >ochelea+, the son of *ean (aptiste >ochelea+ an! arie 4nne Carriere. o!este, Hborn at St. @orbert on 0ebr+ar7 18, 185<I an! his brother of *eanD(aptiste were members of Captain Corbet 0lamant,s compan7, one of the 1# dizaines le! b7 9abriel ;+mont !+ring the 1885 etis >esistance. 4fter the 1885 >esistance o!este mo?e! so+th to ontana. Be then marrie! Catherine (erger, the !a+ghter of $ierre (erger an! *+!ith -ilkie at Lewistown, ontana on 4+g+st 22, 188).

$ierre (erger, the son of *ac/+es (erger an! CJcile ;+mont, was born in >e! >i?er Settlement an!, in 18<5, mo?e! to $embina (@orth ;akota). $ierre marrie! *+!ith -ilkie, the !a+ghter of *ean (aptiste -ilkie an! 4mable 46+re. $ierre, *+!ith, an! three of their chil!ren applie! for lan! as $embina BalfD(ree!s +n!er the 185< treat7 with the Lake S+perior an! ississippi Chippewa. @ine 7ears later, +n!er a treat7 with the Chippewa of >e! Lake an! $embina (18)2D18)<), the F. S. go?ernment iss+e! $ierre an! his son, $ierre *r., scrip, again as $embina BalfD(ree!s. Later in the 18)3s, $ierre, *+!ith, an! their famil7, as well as *+!ith,s brother,s famil7 (4le1an!re -ilkie) were h+nting on the ilk >i?er. -hen the F. S. go?ernment an! reser?ation agents p+she! the etis o+t of the ilk >i?er area, $ierre le! a gro+p of families to Spring Creek in the *+!ith (asin of ontana where the7 fo+n!e! the town of Lewistown. < The (erger,s applie! for homestea! lan! in 1882. Their cabin was locate! three miles east of the tra!er,s establishments along what was later calle! %Fpper (ree! Creek.' $ierre an! his brotherDinDlaw 4le1an!re -ilkie hel! the ch+rch ser?ices in their homes.

(erger, Catherine (>ochelea+)(b. 18)<) Spo+se,

o!este >ochelea+ !it Gi?ier (b. 185<)

Catherine,s h+sban! o!este, was born at St. @orbert on 0ebr+ar7 18, 185<. o!este was a member of Captain Corbet 0lamant,s compan7, one of the 1# dizaines le! b7 9abriel ;+mont !+ring the 1885 etis >esistance. The $ro?isional Co+ncil min+tes of 4pril 1), 1885 show an or!er for Solomon (o+cher, o!este >ochelea+ an! 0ranKois Germette to go an! h+nt +p men, arms an! amm+nition as far as the c.ntosh farm an! its neighborhoo!. < See artha Barro+n 0oster, %,-e &now -ho -e 4re,8 +ltiethnic .!entit7 in a ontana etis Comm+nit7' ($h.;. !iss., Fni?ersit7 of California Los 4ngeles, 2333, an! artha 0oster, We Know Who We Are: Metis Identity in a Montana Community. @orman8 Fni?ersit7 of =klahoma $ress, 233)8

5li6abeth Swan gi?es the following acco+nt85 4long the ilk >i?er between Barlem an! Chinook, ontana, was a large settlement of >e! >i?er BalfD(ree!s, as the7 were known at the time, who ha! come from the >e! >i?er Co+ntr7 of @orth ;akota, an! Cana!a, following the b+ffalo trails, at the same time in search of a permanent location, which after a soLo+rn of eight 7ears or so their li?elihoo! was !iminishing fast. Then the7 began to think serio+sl7 abo+t their f+t+re knowing the7 co+l! not their wa7 of life fore?er. 4fter some !isc+ssion the7 began to break +p into gro+ps. Some went back to @orth ;akota an! Cana!a an! to !ifferent points of ontana. $ierre (erger an! his famil7 of ele?en chil!ren were amongst the settlement. =ne of these chil!ren, a !a+ghter), an! her h+sban! 0rank 46+re, an! the 9la!ea+ families, with others went to St. $eter,s ission, ontana, where the el!er 46+res were alrea!7 locate!. r. (erger ha! been thinking, then he ma!e +p his min! to tell his relati?es an! frien!s how he was ?er7 m+ch intereste! an! an1io+s to come f+rther west to look for a certain localit7 he ha! hear! abo+t from an .n!ian frien!, where there was an ab+n!ance of wil! game, an! other goo! chances of goo! prospects. Be ha! also been !irecte! as near as possible to the location. Conse/+entl7, it was consi!ere! a goo! i!ea for him to go. 4 (an! of abo+t (25) twent7Dfi?e families, incl+!ing the (ergers agree! to follow $ierre (erger to his new a!?ent+re. The chil!ren who accompanie! their parents were $eter, (arne7, Catherine an! 0rances. The marrie! chil!ren with their families were .saie, .si!ore, *ake an! *ohn (. (erger. rs. M4!ele, Gital T+rcotte an! rs. 4mable 0rank =+elette: 4le1an!er -ilkie an! 4ntoine 0le+r7 two brothersDinDlaw of $ierre (erger. Their frien!s, (enLamine &line", the Lafo+ntains, ;one7,s, 0a7ants, T+rcottes, Le!o+1 9a7ions an! rs La/+oit, an el!erl7 wi!ow known to all as =l! 5llen.

.t is noteworth7 that after the 1885 >esistance 9abriel ;+mont settle! temporaril7 three miles east of Lewistown with his wife,s brother 4le1an!re -ilkie an! his wife,s sister *+!ith -ilkie (erger.

5li6abeth Swan, %4 (rief Bistor7 of the 0irst. Catholic $ioneers of Lewistown, ontana,' file. 5<1, errill 9. (+rlingame Special Collections, ontana State Fni?ersit7 Librar7, an! in the *oseph &inse7 Bowar! $apers, C 2", ontana Bistorical Societ7, Belena, ontana. 5li6abeth Swan was a gran!D !a+ghter of $ierre (erger an! *+!ith -ilkie. ) arie (erger, b. 185", marrie! 0ranKois 46+re on *an+ar7 2#, 18"8 at ilk >i?er. " (enLamin &l7ne. (18<"D1#22) (en &line was born on =ctober 12, 18<" at what is now known as 0ort Totten, near ni -akan (now calle! ;e?il,s Lake), @orth ;akota. Bis father ichel &l7ne *r. was born in 1811 at 5!monton, a BalfD (ree! !escen!ent of ichel &l7ne Sr. an! S+6anne Lafrance a Jtisse. Bis mother was a!eleine illet dit (ea+chemin, whose father was a 0rench Cana!ien, 4n!re illet dit (ea+chemin who ha! marrie! a BalfD(ree! Crow woman Charlotte $elletier. (enLamin,s parents mo?e! to $embina from >e! >i?er in the late 18<3s. =n 4+g+st ), 1883, he signe! Lo+is >iel,s petition to aLor 9eneral @elson iles re/+esting lan! for the ontana etis.

4 note on 4le1an!re -ilkie. (b. ca. 1821) 4le1an!re, the son of *ean (aptiste -ilkie an! 4mable 46+re, 4le1an!re -ilkie marrie! Lo+ise 9ar!epie (9ariJp7). Be applie! for lan! +n!er the 185< Chippewa Treat7, an!, b7 the 18"3s was h+nting on the ilk >i?er. -ith members of his e1ten!e! famil7, 4le1an!re mo?e! the *+!ith (asin in 18"#. 4 7ear later he signe! Lo+is >iel,s petition to aLor 9eneral @elson iles re/+esting lan! for the ontana etis. .n the compan7 of his sister,s (*+!ith (erger) an! !a+ghters, (La0o+ntains) families, 4le1an!er -ilkie tra?ele! with the first etis to settle near Spring Creek an! fo+n! what wo+l! become Lewistown, ontana (18"#). Bis twoDroom cabin was the largest in the area, ha?ing one room that meas+re! twent7 b7 thirt7 feet. This was /+ite a l+1+rio+s si6e for that place an! time, b+t -ilkie planne! ahea!, knowing that the families wo+l! nee! a large room in which ?isiting missionaries co+l! con!+ct ser?ices. 4 fi!!ler an! singer, he ha! learne! lit+rgical m+sic in $embina an! Saint (oniface. .n his new home, he organi6e! a ch+rch choir, which sang the ol! h7mns in 0rench or %Cree' (probabl7 ichif). Gisiting priests, !isco+rage! b7 what the7 consi!ere! to be !epra?e! beha?ior in li?el7 tra!ing towns s+ch as 0t. (enton an! Carroll, were please! to fin! an or!erl7 an! welcoming comm+nit7 in Lewistown. .n 188) 4le1an!er -ilkie, with a part7 of frien!s an! relati?es, mo?e! back to (elco+rt, @. ;. to be with his aging parents an! to take part in negotiations for the propose! T+rtle o+ntain reser?ation. 4le1an!er, like his father Jtis lea!er *ean (aptiste -ilkie, was concerne! abo+t Jtis rights to lan! that the7 ha! h+nte! on for generations. Be belie?e! that he co+l! not effecti?el7 fight for the recognition of T+rtle o+ntain aboriginal lan! rights from ontana. (See8 artha Barro+n 0oster, %,-e &now -ho -e 4re,8 +ltiethnic .!entit7 in a ontana etis Comm+nit7' ($h.;. !iss., Fni?ersit7 of California Los 4ngeles, 2333).

5!ite! an! Compile! b7 Lawrence (arkwell Coor!inator of etis Beritage an! Bistor7 >esearch Lo+is >iel .nstit+te