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ABSTRACT In the experiment to produce biodiesel from palm oil, the method that was used is transesterification.

It is the process of transforming one ester into another ester. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used as a catalyst and methanol as a solution. called as base"catalyst techni!ue. his techni!ue is he chemical e!uation that in#ol#ed in forming

methoxide is CH3OH + NaOH H2O + CH3ONa+ . Sodium methoxide is a dangerous chemical. So, full safety precautions must be considered before running the experiment li$e wearing safety goggles, protecti#e glo#es and clothing, and ha#e running water nearby. In this experiment, %.& gram NaOH is added to '( ml pure methanol in a bea$er. )eanwhile, *(( ml palm oil is heated to a constant temperature ranged +(, - to ++, -. he purpose of this heating process is to initiate the transesterification process as well as brea$ the bonds of free fatty acids. he higher temperature will causes negati#e impact on the ester yield due to the acceleration of the saponification of triglycerides. Saponification is a process that formed during base"cataly.ed transesterification when sodium ions combine with free fatty acids. he soap diminishes the yield because they bond the methyl esters to water. hen, the dissol#ed mixture is poured into palm oil and blended for /( minute at the constant temperature of ++ -. Next, the mixture was poured into a separating funnel. 0fter /( minute, three layers formed. of biodiesel produced is +& m1and the con#ersion is 23.34 5. he top yellowish is biodiesel. he bottom layer of dar$er colour is glycerin and soapstoc$ mixture. he mass

1.0 INTRODUCTION Nowadays, biodiesel is becoming a de#eloping area of high concern. In %&2*, 6r. 7udolf 6iesel created the first diesel engine by using #ariety of fuels including #egetable oils. he purpose of this in#ention is in order to help in the de#elopment of the agriculture sector. It has been for %(( years. he cheap a#ailability of petroleum fuel has made the diesel engine choice for diesel fuel. 0ctually, biodiesel can be defined as mono"al$yl esters of long chain fatty acids deri#ed from #egetable oils or animal fats. It is predominantly %3 and %& carbons in length. he characteristic of the biodiesel are light to dar$ yellow li!uid, ha#e a #iscosity similar to petrodiesel, practically immiscible in water, has a high boiling point and low #apor pressure, essentially free of sulphur and aromatic and has significantly fewer emissions than petroleum"based diesel when burned. Nowadays, biodiesel is widely used for many purposes. -urrently, it is used in primarily three mar$ets, which are mass transit, marine industry and on farm. 8esides that, biodiesel is used in compression" ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. here are many ad#antages and disad#antages of the biodiesel. he ad#antages are simple to use, biodegradable, non"toxic, domestic and so on while the disad#antages are currently the biodiesel is more expensi#e, more nitrogen oxide emissions and so on. he standard reference for biodiesel is technical regulations 9N %'*%' or 0S ) 6 34+%. It is important to produce the biodiesel with high !uality. 0n alternati#e to diesel fuel that is made from #egetable oil through a simple chemical reaction called transesterification. ransesterification is a reaction of the triglycerides with an alcohol to produce ester and remo#e the glycerin, which is a by" product. 0 catalyst is added to the reaction. 0 strong base li$e sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or potassium hydroxide (:OH) is added. 6uring the reaction of triglycerides and alcohol by added catalyst, molecules of #egetable oil are composed of three esters bonded to a molecule of glycerin. ;egetable oil used is relati#ely thic$ and stic$y. It reduce #iscosity whereby brea$ the molecule apart, remo#e the glycerin molecule, bond each indi#idual ester with a molecule of alcohol while catalyst will brea$ the #egetable oil

molecule apart. he substance that is re!uired for a reaction to occur is between other substances but itself is unchanged in the reaction. In this experiment, biodiesel is formed by using base"cataly.ed compared to acid" cataly.ed techni!ue because although acid cataly.ed can produce high yield in esters, but the reaction is #ery slow, and re!uiring almost more than one day in order to complete the experiment. <enerally, methanol is used to produce the methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol that a#ailable. he optimum temperature that is used in this experiment is not higher than 3(, -. 1.1 Objective of Stu ! he ob=ecti#e of this experiment is to produce biodiesel from the palm oil by using base catalyst, sodium hydroxide, NaOH and methanol as solution. In order to produce the biodiesel, the suitable methodology and preparations techni!ues should be studied.

2.0 TH"OR# In this experiment to produce biodiesel, palm oil and methanol is used with the presence of NaOH as base catalyst.





ransesterification process he e!uations abo#e show the general e!uation for the transesterification process. he product shows that the ester that produced is the biodiesel but is not pure. his is because, after this process, there is some additional process that should be conducted li$e the washing or separation process in order to get the pure biodiesel. 8esides that, other product is also obtained which is a glycerin as a by"product and also some substances that occurred from the saponification process. >rom the experiment, there are three different layers are present and some test is done to recogni.e which one is biodiesel li$e odor test which has #egetable or fruity smell and also miscibility test whereby biodiesel sample is mixed with water and two layers will form and also other tests.

3.0 $et%o o&o'! here are plenty method to produce biodiesel. Some of the method needed the whole day or one night to complete the reaction. he other method is using the distilled water but the temperature of the palm oil before reaction needed is too high such '((o-. (a)a*ete)+ a, $o&a) )atio of t%e *et%a-o& to t%e t)i'&!ce)i et%e Stoichiometrically, complete transesterification should occur at a molar ratio of /?% (methanol to triglyceride) yielding / mol of ester and % mol of glycerol. >rom =ournal or study, ester yield increased as the molar ratio of methanol to palm oil increased although the reaction did not proceed to completion. So, the highest molar ratio needed to achie#e complete methylation. b, T%e -atu)e a- t%e a*ou-t of cata&!+t 0l$ali"cataly.ed reactions are one"step reactions and proceed faster when the acid #alue is low. 0 high >>0 deacti#ates al$ali catalysts, and the addition of excess amount of al$ali as compensation gi#es rise to the formation of emulsion, which increases #iscosity, leads to the formation of gels and to problems associated with glycerol separation and loss in ester yield. 9ster yield increased as the acid concentration increased. c, T%e )eactio- te*.e)atu)e 0cid"cataly.ed methylation is energy"intensi#e because it is usually conducted at high temperature.

C%e*ica&+ %'m1 )ethanol 3( m1 @alm Oil NaOH 235 pure ((.+(g) A :OH 225 pure ((.3%*+g) A..a)atu+ Heatproof glass bottle with a narrow nec$ Separating funnel *+("ml screw"capped bottles 8ea$er )agnetic stirrer $et%o o&o'! (.+g NaOH and %'m1 methanol were mixed in the bea$er. his will gi#e sodium methoxide. he mixing processes were let about %+ minutes. ++"3(( he content of the oil were stirred. he sodium methoxide wes added to the oil. he mixtures were stirred during the reflux for %+ to *( minutes.

3( m1 of new oil was warmed in a heatproof glass bottle with a narrow nec$ at

(Notes B the temperature maintained at +(,- to ++,-) 0fter reaction is complete, the material will be transfer to separating funnel and both the phases will be separate. Cpper phase is biodiesel and lower part is glycerin. 0lcohol from both the phases is distills off under #acuum.

Cpper phase i.e. methyl ester (biodiesel) was washed with the water twice to remo#e the traces of glycerin, unreacted catalyst and soap formed during the transesterification. he residual product will be $ept in *+("ml screw"capped bottles under #acuum to get rid of residual moisture Te+ti-' a, $i+cibi&it! Te+t " 8iodiesel sample is mixed with water. " he mixture is sha$en. " wo layers form. b, O o) Te+t " It has #egetableAfruity smell

/.0 DISCUSSION 8iodiesel is produced by a process called transesterification. In this experiment, the first thing that needs to be ta$en into account is to ma$e sure that all the apparatus was in dry condition. he reason here is to a#oid emulsion reaction from occurring because the existence of water will contribute to this process. he temperature for this experiment needs to be $ept around +(- to ++-, because this is an optimum range of temperature for the reaction. If the temperature is not around this range, it will gi#e a significant effect to the reaction and the product will be not pure enough. >or example the product formed will be in the form of =elly rather that li!uid that we supposed to ha#e if the time ta$en is too long. 0ctually, each of the steps in this experiment has its own ob=ecti#e that will contribute to an optimum reaction. he solid of NaOH needs to be crush into powder form to gi#e faster reaction with methanol. his related to the accessibility of the catalyst to react with the oil. If solid in pellet form, the time ta$en will be too long because the surface of reaction is really small compared to when itDs in powder form. It is also really important to mix NaOH with methanol !uic$ly because if the NaOH is being exposed to the atmosphere it will absorb the water from atmosphere. stir plate is to ma$e sure that the mixture was perfectly mixed. ime ta$en to let the mixture separated is about %("%+ minutes and this length of time considered as the best time to get the products. If the time ta$en is too short, the mixture will not separated to fully three layers, but if time to let it separate is #ery long it will contribute to the formation of gel. he product of biodiesel for this experiment is the top layer in separation funnel with dar$ brown color. he second layer was the soap and the bottom layer was glycerin. In order to confirm that the product of this experiment is biodiesel, two tests were done. >irst test was to shows the miscibility of the product by mixing it with water. he two layers were formed and it shows that the product is his will contribute to the emulsion of the biodiesel product. he stirring process of the mixture by using magnetic

biodiesel. Second test is odor test which the smell of product that gets from this experiment is fuel"li$e odor. So, it really shows that this experiment successfully done and the product was biodiesel. In our case, we managed to get the biodiesel only after the third trial. >or the first one, we got the mixture of methanol and palm oil in the form of gel. hat is not considered as biodiesel as biodiesel supposed to be in li!uid form. he first experiment was failed due to the #ery long period of stirring of the mixture. 0t the middle of the stirring, we can see that the two forms of biodiesel and glycerin were almost formed but unfortunately we extended the times and the mixture turned to a gel. his shows that the reaction time is worth important for biodiesel production. Next, we tried to do it for the second time by reducing the time ta$en for the stirring part. Howe#er, this time we finished it too fast and as a result, the reaction was not going to completion yet and for the second time we got the wrong biodiesel. 1i!uid form of products was produced but the colour is =ust the same with the original oil. his is because of the non"complete reaction of the oil and NaOH. Similar to the first one, reaction time was crucial for the reaction. >inally, we did the experiment again with the proper method and timing and we managed to get a high !uality and clear biodiesel with the two layers were ob#iously formed. his time we did it #ery carefully and with cautions. Our high spirit and patience to not to gi#e it up and $ept on trying finally ga#e credits to us. It doesnDt matter how fast we can get it, but how we learned from the mista$es that we did.

"))o) a) he sodium hydroxide used in pellets form. crushed the pellets. c) e) he sodium hydroxide was bare to atmosphere. he insufficient time while waiting the mixture of palm oil and sodium methoxide to separate into two layers. d) O#er heating while stirring the mixture of palm oil and sodium methoxide.

b) It is hard to crush the pellets and some weight of sodium hydroxide lose during

f) Eet apparatus used in the experiment. g) he palm oil used in the experiment is not pure which containing water.

()ecautio- a- )eco**e- atioa) he reagent such as )ethanol, Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium )ethoxide is a dangerous chemical. Safety precautions should be ta$enF wear safety goggles, glo#es and apron and eye protection. Ha#e running water nearby. 6o not inhale fumes. b) NaOH should be )easured !uic$ly because it was #ery rapidly absorbs water from the atmosphere and water interferes with the biodiesel reaction. c) he NaOH must crush into powder form to ma$e sure all the NaOH dissol#e and react completely with methanol. d) Cse range of temperature of +(,- to ++ ,- while heating and stirring process, higher temperature decreases the #iscosities of the oil and increases the rate of transesterification and shortening the reaction time e) Sufficient reaction time should be allowed to ensure completion of the reaction. Howe#er, excess reaction time could not promote the con#ersion but fa#ors the re#erse reaction of transesterification, resulting in a reduction in the product yield. f) he apparatus that use in experiment must dry to a#oid water because it will cause the formation of soaps and the soaps diminish the yield. g) Cses the pure oil which is free from water to get the maximum yield.

0.0 Co-c&u+io-

>rom this experiment, it shows that the small scale production of biodiesel can be done by using a simple material such as NaOH, methanol and palm oil. he tranesterification process of palm oil with methanol will produced the biodiesel and the reaction must be done in dry apparatus to a#oid the existence of water that will contribute to emulsion. 1.0 Refe)e-ce+ i) :usdiana, 6., Sa$a, S., *((', 9ffects of water on biodiesel fuel production by supercritical methanol treatment? 8ioresource echnology, # 2%, p. *&2"*2+. ii) 1awrence, 7., 8iodiesel 9xperiment? ransesterification of methyl"estes from

triglycerides, or )a$ing a diesel oil alternati#e from #egetables oil, p. %"3 iii) )archetti, G.)., )iguel, ;.C., and 9rra.u, 0.>., *((4, @ossible methods for biodiesel production? 7enewable and Sustainable 9nergy 7e#iews, #. %%, p. %/(( H %/%%. i#) @eterson, -.1., -ru., 7., @er$ins, 1., :orus, 7., and auld, 6.1., ransesterification of #egetables oil for use as diesel fuel, p. %"*( #) :im, H.G., :ang, 8.S., :im, ).G., @ar$, I.)., :im, 6.:., 1ee, G.S., and 1ee, :.I., *((', ransesterification of #egetable oil to biodiesel using heterogeneous base catalyst? -atalysis oday, #. 2/H2+, p. /%+H/*( #i) )inami, 9., Sa$a, S., *((3, :inetics of hydrolysis and methyl esterification for biodiesel production in two"step supercritical methanol process? >uel, # &+, p. *'42" *'&/


>igure %? Sample of 8iodiesel which is sitting on the top.

>igure *? he first diesel engine in#ented by 6r. 7udolf 6iesel in %&2*