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New York State

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

BRIDGE MANUAL
(US CUSTOMARY EDITION) Andrew M. Cuomo Governor Joan McDonald Commissioner

Bridge Manual
New York State Department of Transportation Office of Structures 4th Edition (1st US Customary Edition) April 2006

Key for Revisions: January 2008; April 2010; May 2011; same revisions as Addendum #1 to the metric edition and conversion to US Customary units Addendum #1 (USC) Addendum #2 (USC)

BRIDGE MANUAL LIST OF SECTIONS

Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Title Introduction Geometric Design Policy for Bridges Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams Bridge Decks Bridge Railing Utilities Structural Steel Prestressed Concrete Timber Substructures Bridge Bearings Approach Details Bridge Plan Standards and Organization Concrete Reinforcement Estimate of Quantities Standard Notes Special Specifications Bridge Rehabilitation Projects Quality Computer Programs Maintenance Aesthetics Glossary

Table of Contents
Foreword Acknowledgments 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 INTRODUCTION Purpose ........................................................................................................................ 1-1 Applicability ................................................................................................................... 1-1 Policy ............................................................................................................................ 1-2 Referenced Standards, Manuals and Documents ........................................................ 1-3 GEOMETRIC DESIGN POLICY FOR BRIDGES Purpose ........................................................................................................................ 2-1 Geometric Design Policy Glossary ............................................................................... 2-1 Clear Roadway Width Standards for Bridges ............................................................... 2-5 2.3.1 General ........................................................................................................... 2-5 2.3.2 Railroad Bridges ............................................................................................. 2-5 2.3.3 Miscellaneous Bridge Width Considerations .................................................. 2-7 Vertical Clearances..................................................................................................... 2-10 2.4.1 Over Highways, for Highway, Pedestrian, and Overhead Sign Structures ... 2-10 2.4.2 Railroad Grade Separations ......................................................................... 2-12 2.4.3 Waterways .................................................................................................... 2-12 2.4.4 Navigable Waterways ................................................................................... 2-13 2.4.5 Miscellaneous Vertical Clearance Criteria .................................................... 2-13 Horizontal Clearances: Under Bridge Features .......................................................... 2-14 2.5.1 Highway ........................................................................................................ 2-14 2.5.2 Navigable Waterways ................................................................................... 2-16 2.5.2.1 Navigation Lights ......................................................................... 2-19 2.5.2.2 Additional Navigation Aids ........................................................... 2-19 2.5.3 Railroads ...................................................................................................... 2-22 2.5.4 Miscellaneous Corridors ............................................................................... 2-27 Live Loading Requirements ........................................................................................ 2-28 2.6.1 New and Replacement Bridges .................................................................... 2-28 2.6.2 Bridge Rehabilitation .................................................................................... 2-29 2.6.3 Temporary Bridges ....................................................................................... 2-29 2.6.4 Pedestrian Bridges ....................................................................................... 2-30 2.6.5 Railroad Bridges ........................................................................................... 2-30 Alignment, Profiles and Superelevation ...................................................................... 2-30 2.7.1 Horizontal Alignment .................................................................................... 2-30 2.7.2 Profile ........................................................................................................... 2-30 2.7.3 Superelevation .............................................................................................. 2-31 Appendix 2A Appendix 2B Appendix 2C Bridge Roadway Width Tables One Lane Bridge Policy Vertical Clearance over the NYS Thruway, I-90 and Revised 16 Clearance Network

2.4

2.5

2.6

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual Appendix 2D Appendix 2E 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Required Coordination with the Department of Defense on Non-Standard Vertical Clearances over Interstate Routes Coast Guard Jurisdiction Checklist

PLANNING NEW AND REPLACEMENT BRIDGE TYPES Scoping ........................................................................................................................ 3-1 Preliminary Engineering ............................................................................................... 3-2 Site Data ...................................................................................................................... 3-3 Hydraulics .................................................................................................................... 3-3 3.4.1 Hydraulic Design ............................................................................................ 3-3 3.4.2 Hydraulic Table .............................................................................................. 3-4 3.4.3 Slope Protection Criteria ................................................................................ 3-5 3.4.4 Scour Monitoring Devices .............................................................................. 3-5 3.4.5 Stream Crossing Permit Requirements.......................................................... 3-8 Structure Selection Process ......................................................................................... 3-8 3.5.1 Establishing Span Lengths............................................................................. 3-8 3.5.2 Bridge Type Based on Span Lengths ............................................................ 3-9 3.5.2.1 Span Lengths Less than 40 ft ........................................................ 3-9 3.5.2.2 Span Lengths Between 40 ft and 100 ft ...................................... 3-10 3.5.2.3 Span Lengths Between 100 and 200 ft ..................................... 3-10 3.5.2.4 Span Lengths Between 200 ft and 300 ft .................................... 3-11 3.5.3 Multiple Span Arrangements ........................................................................ 3-11 3.5.4 Spans over 300 ft ......................................................................................... 3-12 3.5.5 Selection Guidelines .................................................................................... 3-12 Substructures ............................................................................................................. 3-14 3.6.1 Substructure Location .................................................................................. 3-14 3.6.2 Foundation Assessment............................................................................... 3-14 3.6.3 Foundation Selection ................................................................................... 3-15 3.6.3.1 Water Crossings ....................................................................... 3-15 3.6.3.2 Grade Separations ..................................................................... 3-15 3.6.4 Orientation, Configuration, and Details ....................................................... 3-16 3.6.4.1 Skew ............................................................................................ 3-16 3.6.4.2 Water Crossings .......................................................................... 3-16 3.6.4.3 General Details ............................................................................ 3-16 Work Zone Traffic Control .......................................................................................... 3-17 3.7.1 General ........................................................................................................ 3-17 3.7.2 Off-Site Detour ............................................................................................. 3-18 3.7.3 Stage Construction....................................................................................... 3-18 3.7.4 On-Site Temporary Bridges ......................................................................... 3-19 3.7.5 Alternative Alignments ................................................................................. 3-20 Alternate Designs ....................................................................................................... 3-21 Hazardous Materials .................................................................................................. 3-21 Environmental Initiative .............................................................................................. 3-22 3.10.1 Introduction .................................................................................................. 3-22 3.10.2 Types of Project Enhancements .................................................................. 3-22 3.10.3 When to Identify Enhancements .................................................................. 3-24 3.10.4 Summary ...................................................................................................... 3-24 Final Preliminary Bridge Plan ..................................................................................... 3-24 3.11.1 General ........................................................................................................ 3-24 3.11.2 Format ......................................................................................................... 3-25

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3.6

3.7

3.8 3.9 3.10

3.11

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Table of Contents 3.12 3.13 3.14 Structure Justification Report...................................................................................... 3-25 Hydraulic Justification Report ..................................................................................... 3-26 Accelerated Bridge Construction ................................................................................ 3-26 Appendix 3A Appendix 3B Appendix 3C Appendix 3D Appendix 3E Appendix 3F Appendix 3G Appendix 3H 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Bridge Data Sheet Part 1 Bridge Data Sheet Part 2 Project Monitor Sheet Preliminary Plan Development Procedure for New and Replacement Bridges Preliminary Bridge Plan Work Process Structures Division Design Structures Preliminary Plan Check List Preliminary Plan Tear Sheet Notes Structure Justification Report

STRUCTURE EXCAVATION, SHEETING, AND COFFERDAMS General Guidelines for Structure Excavation Protection and Support .......................... 4-1 Unclassified Excavation and Disposal .......................................................................... 4-2 Structure, Trench and Culvert, and Conduit Excavation ............................................... 4-3 Removal of Substructures ............................................................................................ 4-3 Excavation Protection System ...................................................................................... 4-4 Interim Sheeting............................................................................................................ 4-4 4.6.1 Interim Steel Sheeting .................................................................................... 4-4 4.6.2 Interim Timber Sheeting ................................................................................. 4-5 Temporary Sheeting ..................................................................................................... 4-6 4.7.1 Temporary Steel Sheeting .............................................................................. 4-6 4.7.2 Temporary Timber Sheeting ........................................................................... 4-6 Permanent Sheeting ..................................................................................................... 4-7 4.8.1 Permanent Steel Sheeting .............................................................................. 4-7 4.8.2 Permanent Timber Sheeting ........................................................................... 4-7 Cofferdam and Waterway Diversion Guidelines ........................................................... 4-8 BRIDGE DECKS Concrete Deck Slabs .................................................................................................... 5-1 5.1.1 Composite Design .......................................................................................... 5-1 5.1.2 Monolithic Decks for Spread Girders .............................................................. 5-2 5.1.2.1 History ........................................................................................... 5-2 5.1.2.2 Current Practice ............................................................................ 5-2 5.1.3 Monolithic Decks for Adjacent Concrete Beams............................................. 5-3 5.1.4 Two Course Decks ......................................................................................... 5-3 5.1.5 Deck Reinforcement Design ........................................................................... 5-4 5.1.5.1 Isotropic Decks............................................................................... 5-4 5.1.5.2 Traditional Deck Slab Reinforcement ............................................. 5-6 5.1.5.3 Reinforcement of Decks for Adjacent Concrete Beams ................. 5-8 5.1.5.4 Deck Overhangs ............................................................................ 5-8 5.1.6 Haunches ..................................................................................................... 5-10 5.1.7 Forming ........................................................................................................ 5-13 5.1.8 Continuous Structure Deck Slab Placements ............................................... 5-13 5.1.9 Stage Construction Deck Slabs .................................................................... 5-18

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4.8

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual 5.1.9.1 General Considerations ............................................................... 5-18 5.1.9.2 Steel Superstructures .................................................................. 5-19 5.1.9.3 Stage Construction Deflection Calculations for Steel Structures . 5-20 5.1.9.4 Prestressed Concrete Superstructures ....................................... 5-20 5.1.10 Deck Sealers ................................................................................................ 5-20 5.1.11 Aggregate Requirements for Concrete Decks and Approach Slabs ............ 5-21 Jointless Decks at Abutments .................................................................................... 5-23 Other Deck Types ...................................................................................................... 5-24 Deck Drainage ........................................................................................................... 5-25 Deck Expansion Joints ............................................................................................... 5-27 5.5.1 Transverse Expansion Joints ....................................................................... 5-27 5.5.1.1 Armorless Joint Systems ............................................................. 5-27 5.5.1.2 Armored Joint Systems ............................................................... 5-28 5.5.1.3 Modular Joint Systems ................................................................ 5-28 5.5.2 Longitudinal Joints ....................................................................................... 5-29 Sidewalk and Brush Curb Overlays ........................................................................... 5-29 BRIDGE RAILING Introduction .................................................................................................................. 6-1 Types of Railing ........................................................................................................... 6-1 Railing and Barrier Design for New and Replacement Bridges.................................... 6-2 6.3.1 Service Levels ................................................................................................ 6-2 6.3.2 Railing/Barrier Design Alternatives ................................................................ 6-3 6.3.3 Railing/Barrier Selection................................................................................. 6-5 6.3.3.1 Interstate and Controlled Access Highways .................................. 6-5 6.3.3.2 Other Highways ............................................................................. 6-5 6.3.4 Weathering Steel Bridge Railing .................................................................... 6-6 6.3.5 Transitions...................................................................................................... 6-7 6.3.6 Modifications .................................................................................................. 6-7 Precast Concrete Barrier .............................................................................................. 6-7 Pedestrian Fencing ...................................................................................................... 6-7 Permanent Snow Fencing ............................................................................................ 6-8 Railing/Parapet Design Dead Loads ............................................................................ 6-9 Guidelines for Railing Treatments on Rehabilitation Projects ...................................... 6-9 6.8.1 Background .................................................................................................... 6-9 6.8.2 Purpose .......................................................................................................... 6-9 6.8.3 Warrants....................................................................................................... 6-10 6.8.4 Identified Work Strategies ............................................................................ 6-11 6.8.4.1 Long Term Work Strategy ........................................................... 6-11 6.8.4.2 Short Term Work Strategy ........................................................... 6-11 6.8.4.3 Monolithic Deck Work .................................................................. 6-12 6.8.5 Actions to be Taken ..................................................................................... 6-13 6.8.5.1 Replacing the Bridge Railing/Barrier ........................................... 6-13 6.8.5.2 Upgrading the Bridge/Railing Barrier ........................................... 6-13 6.8.5.3 Retaining the Bridge Railing ........................................................ 6-14 6.8.5.4 Anchorage of Steel Bridge Railing ............................................... 6-15 6.8.6 Responsibilities and Authorities ................................................................... 6-15 Bridge Railing/Transition Shop Drawing Requirements ............................................. 6-16

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

5.6 6 6.1 6.2 6.3

6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

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Table of Contents Appendix 6A Appendix 6B 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 8 8.1 UTILITIES Criteria for Utility Placement on Bridges ....................................................................... 7-1 Design Information Furnished by Utilities ..................................................................... 7-1 Utility Locations............................................................................................................. 7-1 Design Criteria for Utilities and Supports ...................................................................... 7-2 Utility Shares................................................................................................................. 7-3 STRUCTURAL STEEL Design........................................................................................................................... 8-1 8.1.1 Design Methods .............................................................................................. 8-1 8.1.2 Analysis Methods ........................................................................................... 8-2 8.1.3 Design Considerations ................................................................................... 8-2 Steel Types ................................................................................................................. 8-3 8.2.1 Unpainted Weathering Steel ........................................................................... 8-3 8.2.2 Drip Bars for Unpainted Weathering Steel ..................................................... 8-4 8.2.3 Painted Steels ................................................................................................ 8-4 8.2.4 HPS Steel ....................................................................................................... 8-4 8.2.5 Other Steels .................................................................................................... 8-5 8.2.6 Combination of Steel Types ........................................................................... 8-5 8.2.7 Steel Item Numbers ........................................................................................ 8-5 Redundancy - Fracture Critical Members ..................................................................... 8-6 8.3.1 Primary and Secondary Members .................................................................. 8-6 8.3.2 Redundancy ................................................................................................... 8-7 8.3.3 Fracture Critical Members .............................................................................. 8-7 Economical Design ....................................................................................................... 8-8 8.4.1 Girder Spacing ................................................................................................ 8-8 8.4.2 Girder Proportioning for Plate Girders ............................................................ 8-8 8.4.2.1 General .......................................................................................... 8-8 8.4.2.2 Depth.............................................................................................. 8-9 8.4.2.3 Flanges .......................................................................................... 8-9 8.4.2.4 Webs ............................................................................................ 8-10 8.4.2.5 Stability During Erection ............................................................... 8-10 8.4.3 Rolled Beams ............................................................................................... 8-11 Metal Thicknesses ...................................................................................................... 8-13 Connections ................................................................................................................ 8-13 8.6.1 General ......................................................................................................... 8-13 8.6.2 Bolts .............................................................................................................. 8-14 8.6.2.1 Bolt Types .................................................................................... 8-14 8.6.2.2 Bolt Sizes ..................................................................................... 8-14 8.6.2.3 Bolt Spacing ................................................................................. 8-15 8.6.3 Welding ......................................................................................................... 8-15 8.6.3.1 Weld Sizes ................................................................................... 8-15 8.6.3.2 Weld Detailing .............................................................................. 8-16 8.6.4 Copes ........................................................................................................... 8-17 8.6.5 Connection Design ....................................................................................... 8-18 1987 Bridge Railing Crash Test Report Railing Treatments on Rehabilitation Projects

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual 8.7 Stiffeners .................................................................................................................... 8-19 8.7.1 Bearing Stiffeners......................................................................................... 8-19 8.7.2 Intermediate Stiffeners and Connector Plates ............................................. 8-19 8.7.3 Longitudinal Stiffeners.................................................................................. 8-20 Designation of Tension Zones ................................................................................... 8-20 Camber ...................................................................................................................... 8-21 8.9.1 Sag Camber ................................................................................................. 8-21 Moment, Shear, and Design Load Tables .................................................................. 8-22 Splices ....................................................................................................................... 8-22 8.11.1 Girder Splices............................................................................................... 8-22 8.11.2 Rolled Beam Splices .................................................................................... 8-25 Framing Plans ............................................................................................................ 8-25 Curved Girders ........................................................................................................... 8-26 Trusses ...................................................................................................................... 8-26 8.14.1 General Considerations ............................................................................... 8-26 8.14.2 Truss Design Guidelines .............................................................................. 8-27 8.14.3 Truss Detailing Guidelines ........................................................................... 8-28 Miscellaneous Details ................................................................................................ 8-28 8.15.1 Bolsters ........................................................................................................ 8-28 8.15.2 Safety Handrail............................................................................................. 8-30 Railroad Structures .................................................................................................... 8-31 8.16.1 General Considerations ............................................................................... 8-31 8.16.2 Design ......................................................................................................... 8-31 8.16.3 Details ......................................................................................................... 8-31 Movable Bridges ........................................................................................................ 8-31 Pedestrian Bridges .................................................................................................... 8-32 8.18.1 General ................................................................................................ 8-32 8.18.2 Design Guidelines ........................................................................................ 8-32 8.18.3 Detailing Guidelines ..................................................................................... 8-33 PRESTRESSED CONCRETE Introduction .................................................................................................................. 9-1 9.1.1 Pretensioning ................................................................................................. 9-1 9.1.2 Post-Tensioning ............................................................................................. 9-1 Adjacent Prestressed Units .......................................................................................... 9-2 9.2.1 Unit Width....................................................................................................... 9-2 9.2.2 Unit Depth ...................................................................................................... 9-2 9.2.3 Deck Overhangs ............................................................................................ 9-2 9.2.4 Longitudinal Joints ......................................................................................... 9-3 9.2.5 Skew .............................................................................................................. 9-3 9.2.6 Diaphragms and Transverse Tendons ........................................................... 9-3 Spread Precast Concrete Beam Superstructures ........................................................ 9-4 9.3.1 Spread Prestressed Box Beams .................................................................... 9-4 9.3.2 Prestressed I-Girders ..................................................................................... 9-4 Segmental Precast Box Girders ................................................................................... 9-5 9.4.1 Long Multi-Span Bridges ................................................................................ 9-5 9.4.2 Long Span Bridge on High Curvatures .......................................................... 9-5 9.4.3 Aesthetics....................................................................................................... 9-5 9.4.4 Durability ........................................................................................................ 9-5 Bearings for Prestressed Concrete Structures ............................................................. 9-6

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8.17 8.18

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Table of Contents 9.6 9.7 9.8 Concrete Strength......................................................................................................... 9-6 Prestressing Strand Type ............................................................................................. 9-6 Strand Pattern for Pretensioned Elements ................................................................... 9-7 9.8.1 Precast Box and Slab Units ............................................................................ 9-7 9.8.2 Precast I-Girders ............................................................................................ 9-7 Tensile Stresses Due to Pretensioning ......................................................................... 9-7 Prestress Losses .......................................................................................................... 9-8 Allowable Stresses ....................................................................................................... 9-9 9.11.1 Temporary Stresses ....................................................................................... 9-9 9.11.2 Final Stresses ................................................................................................. 9-9 Reinforcement .............................................................................................................. 9-9 9.12.1 Shear Stirrups ................................................................................................. 9-9 9.12.2 Composite Design Reinforcement ................................................................ 9-10 9.12.3 Anchorage Zone Reinforcement ................................................................... 9-10 Camber ....................................................................................................................... 9-10 Stage Construction Camber Differences .................................................................... 9-11 Simple Spans Made Continuous Design .................................................................... 9-11 Corrosion Inhibitors and Sealers ................................................................................ 9-12 Post-Tensioned Spliced Girder Designs ..................................................................... 9-12 TIMBER Introduction ................................................................................................................. 10-1 Characteristics and Properties of Wood as a Construction Material .......................... 10-1 Types of Construction ................................................................................................. 10-1 Selection Criteria ........................................................................................................ 10-2 Superstructure Components ....................................................................................... 10-3 10.5.1 General ......................................................................................................... 10-3 10.5.2 Railing ........................................................................................................... 10-3 10.5.3 Decking and Deck Bridges ........................................................................... 10-3 10.5.4 Laminated Beam Sections ............................................................................ 10-3 10.5.5 Special Types - Arches, Frames, and Trusses ............................................. 10-6 10.5.6 Timber Decks with Steel Beams ................................................................... 10-6 Substructures.............................................................................................................. 10-6 Wearing Surfaces ....................................................................................................... 10-7 Maintenance and Repairs ........................................................................................... 10-7 Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 10-7 SUBSTRUCTURES Foundations ................................................................................................................ 11-1 11.1.1 General ......................................................................................................... 11-1 11.1.2 Spread Footings on Soil ............................................................................... 11-1 11.1.3 Spread Footings on Rock ............................................................................. 11-1 11.1.4 Pile Foundations ........................................................................................... 11-2 11.1.4.1 Pile Types .................................................................................... 11-2 11.1.4.2 Pile Spacing and Placement Details ............................................ 11-2 11.1.4.3 Numbering and Tabulation of Piles .............................................. 11-3 11.1.4.4 Pile Splices................................................................................... 11-3 11.1.5 Drilled Shafts ................................................................................................ 11-4

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9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 10 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual 11.1.6 Pilasters ....................................................................................................... 11-4 11.1.7 Design Footing Pressures and Pile Capacities ............................................ 11-4 11.1.8 Footing Depth............................................................................................... 11-4 11.1.9 Stepped Footings ......................................................................................... 11-5 11.1.10 Tremie Seals ................................................................................................ 11-5 11.1.11 Footing Thickness ........................................................................................ 11-6 Forming Considerations ............................................................................................. 11-6 Substructure Joints .................................................................................................... 11-7 11.3.1 Contraction Joints ........................................................................................ 11-7 11.3.2 Construction Joints....................................................................................... 11-7 11.3.3 Expansion Joints .......................................................................................... 11-8 Concrete for Substructures ........................................................................................ 11-8 Retaining Walls .......................................................................................................... 11-8 11.5.1 Retaining Wall Types ................................................................................... 11-9 11.5.1.1 Cantilevered Retaining Wall..................................................... 11-10 11.5.1.2 Counterfort Retaining Wall ....................................................... 11-10 11.5.1.3 Buttressed Retaining Wall........................................................ 11-10 11.5.1.4 Crib Wall .................................................................................. 11-10 11.5.1.5 Gabions .................................................................................. 11-10 11.5.1.6 Gravity Retaining Wall ............................................................. 11-11 11.5.1.7 Semi-Gravity Retaining Wall .................................................... 11-11 11.5.1.8 M.S.E.S. Retaining Walls ......................................................... 11-11 11.5.1.9 Cantilevered Sheet Pile Retaining Wall ................................... 11-11 11.5.1.10 Tied Back Sheet Pile Retaining Wall ....................................... 11-12 11.5.1.11 Soldier Pile and Lagging Retaining Wall .................................. 11-12 11.5.1.12 Tied Back Soldier Pile and Lagging Retaining Wall ................. 11-12 11.5.2 Proportioning of Cantilevered Retaining Walls........................................... 11-12 11.5.3 Wingwall Type and Considerations ............................................................ 11-13 Abutments ................................................................................................................ 11-14 11.6.1 Abutment Type and Considerations ........................................................... 11-15 11.6.1.1 Cantilevered Abutment .............................................................. 11-16 11.6.1.2 Isolated Pedestal Stub Abutment .............................................. 11-16 11.6.1.3 Spill Through Abutment ............................................................. 11-16 11.6.1.4 M.S.E.S. Abutments .................................................................. 11-17 11.6.1.5 Gravity Abutments ..................................................................... 11-18 11.6.1.6 Integral Abutments .................................................................... 11-18 11.6.1.7 Semi-Integral Abutments ........................................................... 11-22 11.6.2 Abutment and Wall Details ......................................................................... 11-23 11.6.2.1 Stem Thickness ......................................................................... 11-23 11.6.2.2 Pedestal Dimensions ................................................................. 11-24 11.6.2.3 Drainage .................................................................................... 11-24 Bridge Piers .............................................................................................................. 11-25 11.7.1 Pier Types .................................................................................................. 11-25 11.7.1.1 Solid Pier .................................................................................. 11-25 11.7.1.2 Hammerhead Pier ..................................................................... 11-26 11.7.1.3 Multi-Column Pier ...................................................................... 11-26 11.7.1.4 Pile Bents .................................................................................. 11-26 11.7.2 Pier Protection............................................................................................ 11-27

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Table of Contents 12 12.1 BRIDGE BEARINGS Bearing Types............................................................................................................. 12-1 12.1.1 Steel Rocker Bearings (Type S.R.) .............................................................. 12-1 12.1.2 Steel Sliding Bearings (Type S.S.) ............................................................... 12-1 12.1.3 Elastomeric Bearings .................................................................................... 12-1 12.1.3.1 Plain Elastomeric Bearings (Type E.P.) ....................................... 12-2 12.1.3.2 Steel Laminated Elastomeric Bearings (Type E.L.) ..................... 12-2 12.1.3.3 Steel Laminated Elastomeric Bearings with Sole Plate (Type E.B.)12-2 12.1.4 Multi-Rotational Bearings (Type M.R.).......................................................... 12-3 General Design Considerations .................................................................................. 12-3 12.2.1 Design Method ............................................................................................. 12-3 12.2.2 Live Load on Bearings .................................................................................. 12-3 12.2.3 Minimum Loads on Bearings ........................................................................ 12-3 12.2.4 Uplift ............................................................................................................. 12-4 12.2.5 Bearings for Curved Girders ......................................................................... 12-4 Bearing Selection Criteria ........................................................................................... 12-4 Painting of Bearings.................................................................................................... 12-5 Standard Bearing Designs .......................................................................................... 12-5 Rehabilitation Projects ................................................................................................ 12-7 12.6.1 New Bearings on Existing Pedestals ............................................................ 12-7 12.6.2 New Bearings on New Pedestals ................................................................. 12-7

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13 13.1

APPROACH DETAILS Approach Slabs .......................................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.1 Purpose ........................................................................................................ 13-1 13.1.2 Length Determination ................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.3 Width Determination ..................................................................................... 13-1 13.1.4 Skewed Approach Slabs .............................................................................. 13-2 13.1.5 End of Approach Slab Details ....................................................................... 13-2 Approach Drainage Details ......................................................................................... 13-3 13.2.1 Purpose ........................................................................................................ 13-3 13.2.2 Superstructures with Curbs or Barriers ........................................................ 13-3 13.2.3 Superstructures without Curbs or Barriers.................................................... 13-3 BRIDGE PLAN STANDARDS AND COMMUNICATION OF DESIGN Overview ..................................................................................................................... 14-1 Bridge Model Management......................................................................................... 14-1 14.2.1 General ................................................................................................ 14-1 14.2.1.1 CADD Files Types........................................................................ 14-2 14.2.1.2 Workflow Continuity ..................................................................... 14-2 14.2.2 Bridge Design File ........................................................................................ 14-2 14.2.3 Bridge Front File ........................................................................................... 14-4 14.2.4 Personal Work Files ..................................................................................... 14-4 14.2.5 Bridge Drawing Files .................................................................................... 14-5 14.2.5.1 Drawings With Hidden Lines ........................................................ 14-6 14.2.5.2 Drawings With Cross Sections ..................................................... 14-6

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual Bridge Estimate File ..................................................................................... 14-6 Three-Dimensional Solid Models ................................................................. 14-7 14.2.7.1 2-D vs. 3-D ........................................................................ 14-7 14.2.7.2 Substructures ........................................................................ 14-8 14.2.7.3 Superstructures ........................................................................ 14-9 14.2.7.4 Earthwork ........................................................................ 14-9 14.3 Detailing Standards .................................................................................................. 14-11 14.3.1 Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets .......................................................................... 14-11 14.3.2 Title Blocks ................................................................................................. 14-11 14.3.3 Scales and Scale Bars ............................................................................... 14-11 14.3.4 Dimension and Table Value Rounding....................................................... 14-12 14.4 Bridge Plan Organization ......................................................................................... 14-13 14.5 Bridge Plan Content ................................................................................................. 14-14 14.6 Professional Engineer Stamping .............................................................................. 14-18 14.7 Resolving Reviewer Comments ............................................................................... 14-18 14.8 Amendments and Field Revisions ............................................................................ 14-18 14.9 Design Phase Record Plan Sets .............................................................................. 14-19 14.10 Project Archiving ...................................................................................................... 14-19 14.11 Electronic Data Transfer .......................................................................................... 14-20 Appendix 14A Appendix 14B 15 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 Contract Plan Review Checklist Checklist for Constructability Review 14.2.6 14.2.7

CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT

Introduction ................................................................................................................ 15-1 Spacing ...................................................................................................................... 15-1 Cover .......................................................................................................................... 15-1 Reinforcing Bar Guidelines ........................................................................................ 15-2 15.4.1 Maximum Bar Length ................................................................................... 15-2 15.4.1.1 Deck Slab Bars ............................................................................ 15-2 15.4.1.2 Abutment and Pier Bars .............................................................. 15-3 15.4.2 Reinforcement Splicing ................................................................................ 15-3 15.4.2.1 General Splicing Guidelines ........................................................ 15-3 15.4.2.2 Splicing Vertical Reinforcement in Walls ..................................... 15-3 15.5 Minimum Anchorage, Lap and Embedment ............................................................... 15-3 15.5.1 Basic Development Length for Bars............................................................. 15-4 15.5.2 Length of Splices for Tension Bars .............................................................. 15-7 15.5.3 Length of Splices for Compression Bars .................................................... 15-11 15.6 Marking of Bars for Bar Lists .................................................................................... 15-12 15.7 Footing Reinforcement ............................................................................................. 15-13 15.8 Abutment Reinforcement ......................................................................................... 15-13 15.9 Column Reinforcement ............................................................................................ 15-13 15.10 Pier Cap Reinforcement ........................................................................................... 15-14 15.11 Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement ............................................................ 15-14

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Table of Contents 15.12 Protecting Reinforcement from Corrosion ................................................................ 15-15 15.12.1 Epoxy-Coated Reinforcement .................................................................... 15-17 15.12.2 Galvanized Reinforcement ......................................................................... 15-17 15.12.3 Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement ........................................................... 15-19 15.12.4 Solid Stainless Steel Reinforcement .......................................................... 15-19 15.12.5 Protection of Reinforcement in Substructures ............................................ 15-19 15.13 Reinforcing Bar Lists................................................................................................. 15-20 15.14 Drilling and Grouting ................................................................................................. 15-20 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 17 17.1 17.2 17.3 ESTIMATE OF QUANTITIES General ....................................................................................................................... 16-1 Precision Versus Practicality ...................................................................................... 16-1 Utility Share of Bridge Estimate .................................................................................. 16-2 Lump Sum Price Analysis ........................................................................................... 16-2 Alternate Bid Procedure.............................................................................................. 16-3 STANDARD NOTES Introduction ................................................................................................................. 17-1 Standard Proposal Notes............................................................................................ 17-1 General Notes Sheet/Superstructure Slab Sheet ..................................................... 17-23 Appendix 17A 18 18.1 19 19.1 Bridge Removal

SPECIAL SPECIFICATIONS Introduction ................................................................................................................. 18-1 BRIDGE REHABILITATION PROJECTS Introduction ................................................................................................................ 19-1 19.1.1 Project Scoping ............................................................................................ 19-1 19.1.2 Preliminary Design ....................................................................................... 19-3 19.1.3 Final Design .................................................................................................. 19-4 Existing Structure Evaluation ...................................................................................... 19-6 19.2.1 In Depth Inspections ..................................................................................... 19-6 19.2.2 Bridge Rehabilitation vs Replacement Selection Guidelines ........................ 19-7 Concrete Rehabilitation ............................................................................................ 19-13 19.3.1 Concrete Scaling ........................................................................................ 19-14 19.3.2 Concrete Spalling ....................................................................................... 19-14 19.3.3 Concrete Cracking ...................................................................................... 19-14 19.3.4 Concrete Sealers ........................................................................................ 19-15

19.2

19.3

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual 19.4 Steel Rehabilitations ................................................................................................ 19-16 19.4.1 Deck Replacements ................................................................................... 19-16 19.4.2 Structure Widening/Stage Construction ..................................................... 19-16 19.4.3 Painted vs. Unpainted ................................................................................ 19-17 19.4.4 Fracture Critical Member (FCM) Work ....................................................... 19-17 19.4.5 Rehabilitation of Riveted Structures ........................................................... 19-17 19.4.6 A7 Steel Retrofits or Replacement ............................................................. 19-20 19.4.7 Fatigue ....................................................................................................... 19-20 Continuity Retrofit ..................................................................................................... 19-20 19.5.1 Feasibility ................................................................................................... 19-20 19.5.2 General Design Considerations ................................................................. 19-21 19.5.2.1 Full Continuity vs Continuous for Live Load .............................. 19-21 19.5.2.2 Fatigue Considerations .............................................................. 19-23 19.5.2.3 Detail Verification ....................................................................... 19-23 19.5.3 Design Guidelines ...................................................................................... 19-24 Truss Rehabilitation ................................................................................................. 19-26 Seismic Rehabilitation .............................................................................................. 19-27 Appendix 19A 20 20.1 20.2 QUALITY Introduction ................................................................................................................ 20-1 Technical Quality Actions ........................................................................................... 20-1 20.2.1 Quality Control ............................................................................................. 20-1 20.2.2 Technical Progress Reviews ........................................................................ 20-2 20.2.3 Quality Assurance Monitoring Reviews........................................................ 20-6 COMPUTER PROGRAMS Guidelines on Use ...................................................................................................... 21-1 Hydraulics Programs .................................................................................................. 21-1 Structures Programs .................................................................................................. 21-2 21.3.1 In-House Programs ...................................................................................... 21-2 21.3.2 Commercial Programs ................................................................................. 21-5 MAINTENANCE Introduction ................................................................................................................ 22-1 Geometrics ................................................................................................................. 22-1 Deck Joints and Drainage .......................................................................................... 22-1 Approach Drainage .................................................................................................... 22-2 Superstructure ............................................................................................................ 22-2 22.5.1 Material Type ............................................................................................... 22-2 22.5.2 Steel Details ................................................................................................. 22-3 Bridge Inspection and Maintenance Access Considerations ..................................... 22-3 Movable Bridges ........................................................................................................ 22-3 Rehabilitation Preliminary Checklist

19.5

19.6 19.7

21 21.1 21.2 21.3

22 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5

22.6 22.7

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Table of Contents 23 23.1 AESTHETICS Appearance in Design ................................................................................................ 23-1 23.1.1 Location and Surroundings ........................................................................... 23-2 23.1.2 Horizontal and Vertical Geometry ................................................................. 23-3 23.1.3 Superstructure Type and Shape ................................................................... 23-3 23.1.4 Pier Shape and Placement ........................................................................... 23-8 23.1.5 Abutment Shape and Placement ................................................................ 23-16 23.1.5.1 Skew .......................................................................................... 23-17 23.1.5.2 Wingwalls and Curtainwalls ....................................................... 23-18 23.1.6 Parapet and Railing Details ........................................................................ 23-19 23.1.7 Colors ......................................................................................................... 23-21 23.1.8 Textures ...................................................................................................... 23-22 23.1.9 Ornamentation ............................................................................................ 23-24 Appendix 23A Glossary

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List of Figures

Figure Number 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2A.1 3.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5

Page No. Curved Alignment Layout ................................................................................... 2-9 Schematic of a Median Berm ........................................................................... 2-15 Typical Canal Channel Sections....................................................................... 2-20 Canal Pier Details ............................................................................................. 2-21 Railroad Clearance Diagram ............................................................................ 2-23 Track on Embankment ..................................................................................... 2-24 Track in Cut ...................................................................................................... 2-25 Typical Railroad Rock Cut Section ................................................................... 2-26 Typical Thru Girder Railroad Bridge ................................................................. 2-28 Banking Simple Curve ...................................................................................... 2-33 Banking Spiral Curve ........................................................................................ 2-34 Banking Details for Bridge Decks ..................................................................... 2-35 Usable Shoulder Details .................................................................................. 2A-5 Shoulder Break Area .......................................................................................... 3-8 Overhang Form Bracing ..................................................................................... 5-9 Haunch Table ................................................................................................... 5-12 Haunch Detail (Cracking Problem) ................................................................... 5-12 Slab Placement Sequence - A ......................................................................... 5-17 Slab Placement Sequence - B ......................................................................... 5-17 Slab Placement Sequence - C ......................................................................... 5-17 Cover Plate Connections .................................................................................. 8-12 Reinforced Cope Detail .................................................................................... 8-17 Blocked Flange Detail ...................................................................................... 8-18 Low Bolster Detail ............................................................................................ 8-29 High Bolster Detail ............................................................................................ 8-30 Longitudinal Stress Laminated Deck ................................................................ 10-4 Parallel Chord Truss ......................................................................................... 10-4 'T' Section Bridge ............................................................................................. 10-5 Box Section Bridge ........................................................................................... 10-5 Typical Retaining Wall Types ........................................................................... 11-9 Suggested Proportions of Retaining Wall ....................................................... 11-13 Typical Abutment Types ................................................................................. 11-15 Bridge Seat Width .......................................................................................... 11-23 Typical Pier Types .......................................................................................... 11-25

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual Figure Number 15.1 19.1 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 23.5 23.6 23.7 23.8 23.9 23.10 23.11 23.12 23.13 23.14 23.15 23.16 23.17 23.18 23.19 23.20 23.21 23.22 23.23 23.24 23.25 23.26 Page No. Hooked Dowel .................................................................................................. 15-4 Typical Retrofit Details ................................................................................... 19-22 Beam Depth Comparison ................................................................................. 23-4 Visual Effect of Slenderness Ratios ................................................................. 23-4 Slender Superstructures ................................................................................... 23-5 Continuous Girder Depth .................................................................................. 23-5 Overhang Shadowing ....................................................................................... 23-6 Avoid Stiffeners on the Exposed Side of the Fascia Girders ............................ 23-6 Haunched Girders ............................................................................................ 23-7 Haunch Details ................................................................................................. 23-7 Fishbellied Girders ........................................................................................... 23-8 Pier Height ........................................................................................................ 23-8 Pier/Column Thickness .................................................................................... 23-9 Alternate Column Treatments......................................................................... 23-10 Pier Layout Details ......................................................................................... 23-11 End View of Capbeam .................................................................................... 23-12 Overhang Alternatives .................................................................................... 23-13 Solid Pier Shapes ........................................................................................... 23-14 Battered Solid Piers ........................................................................................ 23-15 Tall Pier Configurations .................................................................................. 23-15 Pier Groupings ............................................................................................... 23-16 Abutment Details ............................................................................................ 23-17 Abutments on a Skew .................................................................................... 23-18 Wingwall Configuration ................................................................................... 23-19 End of Barrier Detail ....................................................................................... 23-20 Concrete Barrier Treatments .......................................................................... 23-20 Fencing Alternatives ....................................................................................... 23-21 Wingwall Stone/Brick Treatment .................................................................... 23-23

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List of Tables

Table Number 2-1 2-2 2-3 R N X 3-1 3-2 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 6-1 6-2 8-1

Page No. Clear Bridge Roadway Width Standards ............................................................ 2-6 Vertical Clearance over Highways (Travel Lane and Paved Shoulders) .......... 2-11 Lateral Offset from Centerline of Tracks........................................................... 2-27 Minimum roadway Widths for and Replacement ............................................. 2A-2 Maximum width of Traveled Way and Shoulder .............................................. 2A-3 Minimum Roadway for Rehabilitations ............................................................ 2A-4 Hydraulic Data Table .......................................................................................... 3-4 Multiple Span Arrangement Ratios ................................................................... 3-11 Soil Design Parameters ...................................................................................... 4-5 Excavation Requirements ................................................................................ 4-11 Support and Protection System Requirements ................................................ 4-12 Cofferdam Requirements ................................................................................. 4-13 Deck Thickness Requirements ........................................................................... 5-1 Traditional Transverse Deck Slab Reinforcement .............................................. 5-7 Design Haunch Depth Table ............................................................................ 5-11 Aggregate Type Selection ................................................................................ 5-23 Railing and Barrier Selection .............................................................................. 6-4 Railing/Barrier Design Dead Loads .................................................................... 6-9 Steel Plate Thicknesses ................................................................................... 8-13

12-1 12-2 12-3 14-1 14-2 15-1 A B C D E F G H I

Bearing Nomenclature ...................................................................................... 12-5 Bearing Design Standard Type EL Elastomeric ............................................ 12-6 Bearing Design Standard Type EB Elastomeric ............................................ 12-6 Suggested Sheet Scales ................................................................................ 14-12 Dimension Rounding Guidelines .................................................................... 14-12 Minimum Reinforcement Cover ........................................................................ 15-1 Standard Reinforcing Bar Properties ................................................................ 15-2 Basic Development Length (BDL) for Compression Bars ................................ 15-4 BDL of Hooked Dowels in Tension ................................................................... 15-4 BDL for Straight Uncoated Dowels & Tension Bars (Not Top Bars)................. 15-5 BDL for Straight Uncoated Dowels & Tension Bars (Top Bars) ....................... 15-5 BDL for Straight Epoxy Coated Dowels & Tension Bars (Not Top Bars) ......... 15-5 BDL for Straight Epoxy Coated Dowels & Tension Bars (Top Bars) ................ 15-6 BDL Reduction Requirements .......................................................................... 15-6 Length of Splices for Tension Bars................................................................... 15-7

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual Table Number 15-2 J K L M N O P Q R 15-3 15-4 15-5 16-1 19-1 19-2 19-3 20-1 Page No. Lap Splice Selection Guidelines ....................................................................... 15-8 Class B Splice Uncoated (Not Top Bars) ...................................................... 15-9 Class B Splice Uncoated (Top Bars) ............................................................. 15-9 Class C Splice Uncoated (Not Top Bars) ...................................................... 15-9 Class C Splice Uncoated (Top Bars) ........................................................... 15-10 Class B Splice Epoxy Coated (Not Top Bars) ............................................. 15-10 Class B Splice Epoxy Coated (Top Bars) .................................................... 15-10 Class C Splice Epoxy Coated (Not Top Bars) ............................................. 15-11 Class C Splice Epoxy Coated (Top Bars).................................................... 15-11 Length of Splices for Compression Bars ........................................................ 15-11 Approximate Reinforcement Cost Comparison .............................................. 15-16 Expected Service Life ..................................................................................... 15-17 Hooks for Galvanized Bars ............................................................................. 15-18 Precision for Estimate of Quantities ................................................................. 16-2 Current Bridge Standards ................................................................................. 19-9 Bridge Rehabilitation vs. Replacement Worksheet ........................................ 19-12 Concrete Cracking Treatments....................................................................... 19-15 Bridge Plan Technical Progress Reviews......................................................... 20-4

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Foreword

This Bridge Manual is intended to serve as an aid to those planning and designing bridges in New York State. It is an accompaniment to the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. It is hoped that it will serve as a guide to good bridge engineering practice.

George A. Christian Jr., P.E. Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures)

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xx

Acknowledgments

This manual started as an update of the old Standard Details for Highway Bridges. However it became evident that a number of new topics needed to be included and a greater commentary on both detailing and design practice for bridges was needed. An attempt has also been made to compile and incorporate as many of the outstanding Structures Divisions Engineering Instructions as possible. It is hoped that this will assist engineers and drafters by having a concise reference source. The result of this effort is the NYSDOT Bridge Manual. This manual is the product of the work of many contributors over the last 10 years without whose efforts this project would not have been possible. My thanks to all who dealt with compiling and sifting mountains of information, writing text, resolving numerous comments and completing endless rewrites. Appreciation is also given to the many individuals in the regions and main office that reviewed drafts of this manual. Their many insightful comments have done much to improve its content.

James H. Flynn III, P.E. Editor January 2008

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Section 1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose

This Bridge Manual has been prepared to provide policies, guidance and procedures for bridge project development and design for the New York State Department of Transportation. This manual provides guidance for decisions in the bridge project process, documents or references policies and standards that need to be considered, and provides a commentary discussing good bridge engineering practice. One of the primary goals of this manual is to provide assistance to designers to ensure that quality bridges are constructed. Quality bridges are durable, economical, aesthetically pleasing, and environmentally sound. Although this manual provides guidance on design procedure, many subjects presented only highlight criteria and practice. A complete analysis and design to produce a safe, economical and maintainable structure is the responsibility of the designer.

1.2

Applicability

This manual applies to all bridges constructed under contracts with the New York State Department of Transportation. Designers are required to consult the manual for policies, guidance, details and interpretation of the design specifications. In addition, its use is encouraged for all bridges in New York State. Highway and pedestrian bridge design are governed by the design specifications contained in the most recent issuance of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or the New York State Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002. This manual does not replace the provisions of these specifications. It is intended to supplement the design specifications in areas that are not addressed or fully covered. Additional information on the design of facilities for pedestrians, bicycles, and persons with disabilities may be found in Chapters 17 and 18 of the Highway Design Manual. Major long span bridges are special cases for bridge design. They typically need special design criteria which go beyond the provisions of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications do not have an explicit span limitation, however, the commentary states that spans in excess of 600 feet were not considered in its development.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Major long span bridges should have specific bridge design criteria developed once the bridge type has been selected and before final design begins. If during preliminary development it is determined that the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications do not cover all aspects of the structure design appropriate supplemental design criteria should be developed by researching design criteria for similar structures in the US and Canada.

1.3

Policy

NYSDOT has officially adopted the AASHTO Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Bridge Design Specifications for use in New York State. The AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and the LRFD Blue Pages constitute the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The adoption of these specifications continues a process in which NYSDOT has been transitioning from the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002 to full adoption of the LRFD specifications. The NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002 consists of the 17th edition of the AASHTO Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges together with the New York State Blue Pages. The NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specification is mandatory for the design of all new and replacement bridges by NYSDOT and Consultant designers. The FHWA mandated a full implementation date on October 1, 2007 for all State-initiated Federal-aid funded projects. For locally administered Federal-Aid projects see Chapter 9 of the NYSDOT Procedures for Locally Administered Federal-Aid Projects Manual. The existing NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002 are now archived and used when necessary for the repair and rehabilitation of structures. The design specifications that may be used for rehabilitation and repair projects include the LRFD Specifications, the Standard Specifications or the specifications used in the original design. Load Ratings Currently, NYSDOT overload permitting and bridge posting policies require that new and replacement bridges be load rated using the Load Factor Design (LFD) or Allowable Stress Design (ASD) methods. For this reason, load ratings will continue to be computed by the LFD or ASD method. The load ratings for all new or replacement bridges will also be computed by the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. Load rating for both methods shall be shown on the Contract Plans. LRFR ratings shall be shown at the inventory and operating levels as rating factors of the AASHTO HL-93 load. Once overload permitting and bridge posting policies are revised to accommodate LRFR, load ratings using LFD and ASD methods will be discontinued. Buried Structures Buried structures include box culverts, three-sided frames, and pipes. Any buried structure designs begun in October 2010 or later shall be designed by LRFD. For designs begun before October 2010 designers may continue to use either the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002 or the LRFD specifications for the design of buried structures.

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Introduction

1.4

Referenced Standards, Manuals and Documents

The following references contain material that is relevant to bridge project development and design. They contain provisions that pertain to a particular type of bridge or part of the bridge project process. Instead of reproducing them in full in this manual, they are incorporated by reference. Bridge designers need to consider their provisions where applicable. The NYSDOT references can be found at https://www.nysdot.gov/publications. The Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets referenced below contain standard details and, occasionally, instructions to designers on material that is to be incorporated into the Contract Plans.

American Railway Engineering & Maintenance of Way Association Manual for Railway Engineering (AREMA) NYSDOT Bridge Deck Evaluation Manual NYSDOT Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets NYSDOT Bridge Inspection Manual NYSDOT Bridge Inventory Manual NYSDOT Bridge Safety Assurance Vulnerability Manuals NYSDOT CADD Standards and Procedure Manual NYSDOT Structures Division Cell Library NYSDOT Project Development Manual NYSDOT Environmental Procedures Manual/The Environmental Manual NYSDOT Highway Design Manual NYSDOT Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices NYSDOT Prestressed Concrete Construction Manual (PCCM) NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges (Blue Book) NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual (SCM) NYSDOT Procedures for Locally Administered Federal Aid Projects NYSDOT Survey Manual FHWA Seismic Retrofitting Manual for Highway Bridges AASHTO Guide Specification for Bridge Railing (1989) AASHTO LRFD Guide Specifications for Design of Pedestrian Bridges, December 2009 AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications AASHTO Maintenance and Management of Roadways and Bridges Manual AASHTO Manual for Bridge Evaluation (Second Edition, 2011) AASHTO Guide Specification for Fatigue Evaluation of Existing Steel Bridges AASHTO Roadside Design Guide AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities AASHTO Guide Specification and Commentary for Vessel Collision of Highway Bridges AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware

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Section 2 Geometric Design Policy for Bridges


2.1 Purpose

This policy provides the minimum requirements for bridge roadway and facility widths, vertical under-clearances and design live loads for NYSDOT projects. These standards have been developed to provide minimum safe geometrics for each application; primarily based on providing a level of geometric consistency between the bridge and the approach roadway and recognizing the highway functional classification and traffic that the bridge serves. This policy serves as the Department's standard for bridge widths on both Federal- and non-Federal aidfunded-projects and recognizes certain Federal approval requirements for bridges on the National Highway System. 1

2.2

Geometric Design Policy Glossary

The following terms are specific to the Geometric Design Policy. For a more complete glossary, see the end of this manual.

Approach Roadway Width

The uniform width of the roadway on either end of the bridge. When determining the existing approach roadway width, measurements should be taken no closer than 100 ft. from the ends of the bridge. Provision of space on a structure for the use of bicyclists, generally in the form of a usable shoulder, wide curb lane or striped bike lane. See Chapter 17 of the Highway Design Manual. A structure, including supports, erected over a depression or an obstruction such as water, highway, or railway and having a track or passageway for carrying traffic or other moving loads, and having an opening measured along the center of the roadway of more than 20 ft. between undercopings of abutments or spring lines of arches, or extreme ends of openings for multiple boxes. Multiple pipe configurations will qualify as bridges where the clear distance between openings is less than half of the smaller adjacent opening, and the total length along the center of the roadway is greater than 20 ft.

Bicycle Facility

Bridge

Refer to the NYSDOT Project Development Manual Exhibit 4-2 for the Approval Matrix for projects on the NHS.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Bridge Rehabilitation

That type of work that is intended to enhance or restore the structural capacity, operational efficiency and/or serviceable life of an existing bridge. Rehabilitation will usually be accomplished by contract, although occasionally the same result will be achieved by the intensive efforts of maintenance forces. A bridge rehabilitation may include a varying degree of structural repair and/or restoration, including a complete deck replacement, or replacement of the entire bridge superstructure and portions of the substructure. A construction project whose primary objective is to construct a new bridge or to replace, rehabilitate, or remove an existing bridge, or to repair the deck of an existing bridge. Some incidental highway work may be included on the approaches to the bridges, as a necessary transition between the bridge and the untouched existing highway. A vague term that should be avoided, but if that is impossible, it should be interpreted as that type of rejuvenation of an existing bridge that would include either replacement or rehabilitation. That type of work where an existing bridge is removed and is fully replaced at the same site, or at an adjacent location, by a substitute bridge, as part of the same project. A type of rehabilitation where the primary purpose is to provide additional traffic lanes on a bridge. Under this policy, bridge widening projects shall be subject to the same clear roadway width provisions as a new bridge. That type of work where an existing bridge, whether open to traffic, or closed, or collapsed, is fully or substantially removed from the site, without a substitute bridge being constructed as part of the same project. A bridge removed and replaced by a culvert or fill should be classified as bridge removal, as would the removal of a bridge and its substitution by the restoration or introduction of a grade crossing.

Bridge Project

Bridge Reconstruction

Bridge Replacement

Bridge Widening

Bridge Removal

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Bridge Deck Repair

That type of work that is intended to return the structural deck of an existing bridge to a condition of suitable ride quality and/or safe wheel load capacity. The deck may be composed of concrete, steel or other material, and the type of construction may include monolithic decks as well as separate wearing surfaces over a slab. The restorative work may include overlay or separate wearing surfaces (with or without a waterproof membrane) over the whole deck area of the bridge or over substantial areas. For purposes of this policy, a complete bridge deck replacement should be classified as a bridge rehabilitation. Under this policy, bridge deck repair done in conjunction with other superstructure or substructure restoration work also should be classified as a bridge rehabilitation. A bridge deck repair project may include some incidental structure repair work that is related to the deck repair work (e.g., header or backwall repair). The clear distance between inside faces of bridge railing, or the clear distance between faces of curbs, whichever is less. The typical Department 5-inch wide brush curb (introduced at the bridge only) shall not be considered to reduce the rail-to-rail dimension. A speed used to determine the physical features of a highway. It may or may not be equal to the statewide limit or to the posted speed limit at the bridge site. The design speed is determined according to Chapter 2 of the Highway Design Manual. A bridge or highway project that is to be funded, either entirely or partially, with Federal-aid funds. A construction project whose primary objective is to construct a new highway, or to reconstruct, or to restore and preserve, an existing highway. The project may include bridge work of any type that is incidental to the primary objective. A bridge carrying two-way traffic, but less than 18 ft in clear width between railing or curbs, or a one-way ramp less than 12 ft. wide. A network of major roads that were designated by the Federal Highway Administration in consultation with the individual states and signed into law in November 1995. 2

Clear Roadway Width of Bridge

Design Speed

Federal-Aid Project Highway Project

Narrow Bridge

National Highway System (NHS)

A list of designated NHS Highways is contained in the National Highway System Route Listing and is maintained by the Highway Data Services Bureau of the Office of Technical Services.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

New Bridge

A bridge constructed to serve a new or relocated highway that is not intended to serve as a substitute for an existing bridge being removed as part of the same project. It shall be considered a new bridge when a bridge is constructed to ultimately become a substitute for an existing bridge which will be removed in a subsequent project. A particular type of narrow bridge, carrying two-way traffic but less than 16 ft. in clear width between railing or curbs. A structure provided specifically for the travel of bicyclists and pedestrians, frequently as part of a shared use path facility. Improvements to the roadway width projected within a 20-year planning horizon. They do not necessarily need to be programmed. These are, however, documented plans the Department or local municipality hopes to accomplish when funding becomes available and when it fits into the Region's or local agency's capital program. Whether or not there are planned improvements shall be addressed in the scoping documentation used to establish the project design criteria. Refer to the Project Development Manual for requirements on addressing planned improvements in project scoping and development. That portion of a highway, including all through traffic lanes, auxiliary lanes, and shoulders, suitable for vehicular use. Also referred to as "surfacing" or "pavement." That portion of the roadway, graded but not necessarily paved or surfaced, for accommodation of stopped vehicles, for emergency use and for lateral support of subcourses and surface courses. For purposes of this policy, the shoulder shall refer to the usable shoulder (see Appendix 2A for illustrations of shoulders). For applying this policy, the existing approach shoulders should be measured no closer than 100 ft. from the ends of existing bridges. If the approach shoulder width varies, a determination must be made of what the most typical shoulder width is for that section of highway. Be aware that providing the typical width may cause the project limits to be extended slightly to widen the varying shoulder. Space provided on a structure exclusively for the use of pedestrian travel, generally separated from the roadway by a raised curb. See Chapter 18 of the Highway Design Manual. A roadway shoulder that is paved, or stabilized and maintained with a bituminous or other similar surface treatment. That portion of the roadway exclusive of shoulders, designed for the movement of vehicles.

One Lane Bridge

Pedestrian/Bicycle Bridge Planned Improvements

Roadway

Shoulder

Sidewalks

Surfaced Shoulder

Traveled Way

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.3 2.3.1

Clear Roadway Width Standards for Bridges General

Unless specifically noted in the provisions, the geometric design standards provided in this section shall apply to all projects, whether or not the project is a Federal-Aid Project. For purposes of this policy the "AASHTO Policy" shall refer to the AASHTO A Policy for Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004. Bridge Approach Widths: Bridge widths shall be established consistent with Table 2-1, Clear Bridge Roadway Width Standards. For bridge replacements or rehabilitations that are not part of a highway project, the bridge widths determined from this policy shall also be used for the widths of any highway reconstruction work necessary on the bridge approaches. Approach widths for bridges that are part of a highway project shall be determined according to Chapter 2 of the Highway Design Manual. Policy Exceptions: Unless there is a clear safety issue involved, bridge widths greater than the minimums described below should not be used, except where extenuating circumstances exist. The final decision for such policy exceptions will be made by the Regional Director responsible for design approval and documented accordingly. Bridges with adjacent prestressed box beams may have a greater width because of economic considerations as discussed in Section 9.2.1. The use of bridge widths for a particular project that do not meet the minimum requirements of this policy shall be documented as a nonstandard feature; approval must be requested from the Regional Director and/or FHWA and/or the Deputy Chief Engineer where required. Refer to the Highway Design Manual for requirements for justification of nonstandard features.

2.3.2

Railroad Bridges

Each individual railroad will be responsible for providing a trackage section showing horizontal offsets and clearance diagrams for the bridge. The distance between the centers of multiple tracks shall also be set by the railroad. The Rail Agreements Section in the Design Quality Assurance Bureau should be contacted to assist in obtaining these design parameters. Also, see Section 2.5.3 for more details.

January 2008

2-5

Facility Carried by the Bridge Interstate Non Interstate Freeways

Type of Bridge Work All All New

No Planned Improvement

Planned Improvement

Full approach roadway width, but not less than the AASHTOs Interstate Standards, 2005, unless approved by FHWA. See Approval Matrix in the Project Development Manual. Generally match the approach roadway width, but no less than Chapter 8 of AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004. Full approach roadway width. If on the NHS, HDM Chapter 2 roadway widths shall be met. Wider of existing approach roadway or existing travelled way plus 4 ft. clearance on each side. If NHS, wider of full approach width or approach plus 4 ft. clearance on each side. Full approach roadway width. Match approach traveled way with shoulders not exceeding Table N of Appendix 2A nor less than 4 ft. on each side. Match approach traveled way with shoulders not less than 2 ft. on each side. Where cost-effective, match approach roadway section. Full approach roadway width. If on the NHS, HDM Chapter 2 roadway widths shall be met. Full approach roadway width, but never less than Table R of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Desirable is to match full approach roadway width, but never less than Table X of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Regional Director may approve existing width. Full approach roadway width, but never less than Table R of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Desirable is to match full approach roadway width, but never less than Table X of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Regional Director may approve existing width. Full width of planned roadway. Nonstandard if does not comply with HDM Chapter 2 roadway widths with the exception of long bridges. A minimum 4 ft. shoulder applies to long bridges (over 200 ft. in length).

Rural Arterial (Principal) (Minor - NHS)

Replace Rehab New Replace

Full width of planned roadway. If on the NHS, HDM Chapter 2 roadway widths shall be met with the exception of long bridges. A minimum 4 ft. shoulder applies to long bridges (over 200 ft. in length).

Rural Minor Arterial (NonNHS)

Rehab New Urban Arterial (All) Replace Rehab New Replace Rural Local and Collector Road and Street

Full width of planned roadway. If on the NHS, HDM Chapter 2 roadway widths shall be met. Full approach roadway width, but never less than Table R of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Desirable is to match full approach roadway width, but never less than Table X of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Full approach roadway width, but never less than Table R of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A. Desirable is to match full approach roadway width, but never less than Table X of Appendix 2A or greater than Table N of Appendix 2A.

Rehab

New Replace Urban Local and Collector Road and Street

Rehab

Pedestrian

Minimum clear width should be 8 ft. Recommended clear width of 12 ft. for structures with multiple usage such as bicycle and pedestrian traffic.

Notes: 1. Clear bridge roadway width measured between curb faces or when uncurbed, the bridge rails. 2. Approach roadway includes travel lanes and surfaced shoulders. Parking lanes on the approaches are not included in the approach roadway width. However, they may be considered on bridges less than 50 ft. in length. 3. Approach sidewalks should be carried across the bridge if they are proposed on both sides of the bridge. The minimum width of sidewalk is 5N-7O measured from the face of curb to the inside of the bridge rail. 4. When determining the appropriate width for a bridge on a local road or collector that has a different approach cross section at each end of the bridge, consider neither the larger or smaller section as the control. Rather, determine the bridge width using both sections and select the one that provides the most economy, consistency, and safety. 5. See Appendix 2B for the One-Lane bridge replacement policy. 6. The accident experience and other operational conditions must be analyzed before determining that there are no planned improvements or that the existing width can be retained.

Table 2-1 Clear Bridge Roadway Width Standards 2-6 April 2010

Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.3.3

Miscellaneous Bridge Width Considerations

Curbs: For curbed highways and streets, the full curb-to-curb width and the curbing should generally be carried across the bridge. The full shoulder dimension or curb offset dimension will be measured to the face of curb. If a concrete barrier is used, a separate stone curb is not used on the bridge and the offset dimension is taken to the inside edge of the barrier. On structures that introduce a curb where one is not present on the highway approach, a minor curb encroachment is allowed into the shoulder for structures with steel railing systems. Railing systems will be allowed a 5 inch encroachment, with the full shoulder dimension being measured to the face of railing. On structures with sidewalks, the minimum sidewalk width does not include the width of the curb. The standard dimension from face of rail or barrier to face of curb is 5N-7O. This dimension assumes the minimum 5 ft. sidewalk width and includes all curbs up to 7 inches in width on the highway approach. The dimension from face of rail or barrier to face of curb may be reduced or increased to match a curb width varying from the assumed 7 inch curb. For example if there is a 5 inch stone curb on the approach the dimension from face of rail or barrier to face of curb may be reduced to 5N-5O. The face of curb on the bridge and the highway approach should line up. It is no longer recommended that encroachments be allowed on concrete barriers in determining the curb to curb width of the bridge. Stage Construction: In order to maintain minimum traffic lane widths during construction, it is sometimes necessary to build a wider structure than required for the permanent condition. Depending upon the magnitude of the widening, wider permanent shoulder or sidewalk widths may result. The railing/barrier line should normally be placed at the fascia with a transition to the highway section taking place on the approach. For projects that must accommodate truck traffic during staging, the minimum recommended temporary travel lane width is 11 ft. Where low volumes of passenger vehicles traveling at low speeds are anticipated, temporary travel lanes as narrow as 9 ft. may be considered although a 10 foot travel lane would be recommended. The use of temporary structures for the maintenance of pedestrian traffic should be considered prior to making a new structure much wider than necessary. Twin Structures: Many major highways have medians that vary in width from some minimal dimension to distances in excess of 100 ft. When building new, widening existing, or rehabilitating existing structures, the joining of the structures between these opposing alignments should be considered. Two factors are used as evaluation criteria: 1. If the distance between the median edges of the two opposing travel lanes is less than 24 ft., the median should be closed. However, once the total bridge width exceeds 100 ft., the use of a longitudinal open joint at the center line of the median is recommended. 2. If the work zone traffic control scheme is best addressed by the closure of a median larger than the previous identified 24 ft. dimension, then the median should be closed and the use of a longitudinal joint considered.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Curved Alignments: There are four possible configurations to consider when a curved highway alignment is to be carried on a bridge (See Figure 2.1). The relationship of the beam, fascia line and railing or parapet would fall into one of the following cases: Case I Straight beams Straight fascia line Straight railing/fascia line Straight beams Straight fascia line Curved railing/parapet line Straight beams - variable overhang Curved fascia line Curved railing/parapet line Curved beams Curved concentric fascia line Curved concentric railing/parapet line

Case II

Case III

Case IV

Steel girders will usually follow Case III or Case IV depending on the radius of curvature. Prestressed concrete slab and box unit structures will normally be built in accordance with Case I or II. Case I will allow the anchorage for the railing/barrier to be located at a fixed location. Case II will require varying the anchorage location. Prestressed concrete I-beams or Bulb-tee units would be fabricated straight and could follow Case I, II, or III, with Case III the preferred option. When Case III is selected, consideration must be given to the width of the top flange and the width of the concrete deck slab overhang. For bridges with sidewalks, the curb should follow the curved alignment and the railing/barrier should follow the fascia line. Provisions must be made on the approach to properly transition the railing/barrier line on the structure to the typical highway railing system. In circumstances where a sharply curved roadway is carried by a straight bridge the railing/barrier should follow the curve of the roadway to avoid confusion to the motorist. When using a straight fascia and a curved railing/barrier, consideration should be given to the deck area that would be exposed behind the back of the railing/barrier. If this area gets too large it can become a safety concern.

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January 2008

Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Figure 2.1 Curved Alignment Layout

April 2010

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Miscellaneous: A reduction in shoulder widths may be considered for long viaduct type structures. For these structures consideration may be given to reducing the 10 ft. or 8 ft. right shoulder to a minimum of 6 ft. The possibility of vehicle breakdowns should be accommodated with minimum shoulder widths of 4 ft. left and 6 ft. right. In urban areas, parking lanes are not normally carried across bridges and shall only be considered for bridges less than 50 ft. In urban areas sidewalk widths greater than the minimum may be carried across the structure.

2.4 2.4.1

Vertical Clearances Over Highways for Highway, Pedestrian, and Overhead Sign Structures

Minimum vertical clearance requirements over highways help accommodate the movement of large vehicles for maintenance operations, utility work, and the transport of people, products, construction equipment, military equipment for national defense, etc. To facilitate the movement of large vehicles, the Federal government established a 16 ft. vertical clearance network that consists of the National Highway System (NHS), with a few exceptions. The NHS includes: C C All routes on the Interstate System. The Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) and its highway connectors to major military installations. The STRAHNET includes highways important to the United States strategic defense policy and which provide defense access, continuity, and emergency capabilities for the movement of personnel, materials, and equipment in both peace time and war time. Other major routes, as established by the 1995 NHS Act.

The following portions of the NHS are exempted from the 16 ft. vertical clearance route: C C C Parkways. Portions of the New York State Thruway, I-90, and I-190 (See Appendix 2C.) All NHS routes within an urban area which has a federally approved 16 ft. vertical clearance routing (For a list of the routes contact the appropriate Regional Program and Project Manager.) Note that portions of the STRAHNET within the urban area must still have a 16 ft. vertical clearance.

The Regional Planning and Program Management Group should be contacted to determine if the route is part of the 16 ft. vertical clearance network. Vertical clearances shall be established consistent with Table 2-2 Vertical Clearance Over Highways (Travel Lane and Paved Shoulder). If the minimum vertical clearance cannot be met, a nonstandard feature justification, prepared in accordance with the Highway Design Manual, Chapter 2, Section 2.8, is required. Appendix 2C of the Bridge Manual describes the substitute 16 ft. network for the New York State Thruway for which no exception to the 16 ft. vertical clearance can be entertained. Appendix 2D contains the special procedures for nonstandard vertical clearances over the Interstate System.

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April 2010

Highway System Crossed

Type of Work on Bridge Over Highway New, Replacement & Rehabilitation w/structural deck replacement

Functional Classification / Designation3 of Highway Crossed Rural Freeway, Urban Freeway where there is no designated route, or part of the 16-ft. designated route for urban area.

16 ft. Exemption Nonexempt Exempt

Vertical Clearance Minimum 16 ft 14 ft. or existing, whichever is greater 14 ft. or existing, whichever is greater 14 ft Desirable 16N-6O 14N-6O or existing, whichever is greater 14N-6Oor existing, whichever is greater 14N-6O

Interstate NHS

Urban Freeway Principal Arterial not part of the 16-ft. designated route for that urban area. Rehabilitations w/o structural deck replacement New, Replacement & Rehabilitation w/structural deck replacement All

N/A

N/A

NHS Routes where there is no designated route, or part of the 16-ft. designated route for urban area. Where there is a designated route, Urban NHS Routes not part of the 16-ft. designated route for that urban area. Parkways (except Region 10 Parkways North of Route 27) Parkways in Region 10 north of Route 27 All (except Region 10 Parkways north of Route 27) Parkways in Region 10 north of Route 27

N/A

16 ft.

16N-6O

N/A

14 ft

14N-6O

NHS

N/A N/A N/A

14 ft 12N-6O 14 ft

14N-6O 13 ft. 14N-6O

Rehabilitations w/o structural deck replacement New, Replacement & Rehabilitations w/o vertical clearance posting Non-NHS Rehabilitation w/ vertical clearance posting

N/A

12N-6O

13 ft.

All

N/A

14 ft

14N-6O

All

N/A

As approved by Regional Director

N/A

Notes: 1. The minimum vertical clearance for all pedestrian bridges is 1 foot over the minimum vertical clearance determined using this table. An additional 6 inches is desirable for future resurfacing. 2. The minimum vertical clearance for overhead sign structures is 1 foot over the minimum vertical clearance determined using this table. An additional 6 inches is desirable for future resurfacing. Note that bridge mounted signs shall have a minimum vertical clearance equal to the bridge. 3. The federally approved 16 ft. vertical clearance routes through urban areas were distributed by G. Cohens 12/11/97 memo to the Regional Program and Project Managers. 4. Refer to Appendix 2C for bridges over the Thruway, I-90, I-190, I-290 and I-81 that are exempt from the16 ft. vertical clearance network. A minimum vertical clearance of 14 ft shall be used for these bridges. Additionally, a nonstandard feature justification for using less than 16 ft. vertical clearance shall be prepared. The justification is to be based on the exempt list and approved in accordance with the SAFETEA-LU matrix to satisfy FHWA administrative requirements. Note that per FHWA, a vertical clearance of less than 14 ft cannot be justified.

Table 2-2 Vertical Clearance Over Highways (Travel Lane and Paved Shoulders) 1,2 April 2010 2-11

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

2.4.2

Railroad Grade Separations

The standard minimum vertical clearance above operating mainline railroad tracks shall be 22 ft. On occasion, a higher clearance may be justified for certain corridors where existing clearances are higher. See Chapter 23, Section 23.10.1 of the Highway Design Manual for additional discussion. For track other than mainline and where clearance is restricted by other bridges, a minimum less than 22 ft. may be allowed. Additional information is contained in the NYSDOTs Branchline Vertical Clearance Policy issued June 10, 1993. The Office of Structures will provide guidance, with the cooperation of the Office of Design. Vertical clearances over superelevated railroad tracks may need to be increased because of the effect of the superelevation. Because of superelevation, the clearance diagram is rotated so that its base is on a plane passing through both rails. The necessary increase in vertical clearance is small but needs to be accounted for. The typical railroad clearance diagram is shown in Figure 2.5. Specific requirements of a railroad shall be determined prior to final design.

2.4.3

Waterways

A thorough hydraulic design is required for all new and replacement stream bridges to assure that an adequate hydraulic opening is provided for a 50 year design flood and for the passage of ice and debris. Any stream structure that provides a minimum freeboard of 2 ft. for the 50 year flood shall be considered as satisfying normal hydraulic clearance requirements. However, where that 2 ft. minimum freeboard is difficult or costly to provide, an analysis and evaluation should be accomplished to determine whether a minimum allowable freeboard of less than 2 ft. may be appropriate. Items to be investigated should include: history of debris, changes in water surface elevations, consequence of debris clogging, potential damage, and the degree of difficulty or the amount of extra cost necessary to provide the full 2 ft. freeboard. In an extreme case, negative freeboard could be accepted for a replacement of an existing bridge that is already inundated by the 50 year design flood, but in no case shall the proposed negative freeboard exceed the existing negative freeboard. Note that 23 CFR 650.115 (a) (2)) requires that the design flood for encroachments by through lanes of Interstate highways shall not be less than the flood with a 2-percent chance of being exceeded in any given year (50 year design flood). Therefore overtopping for Interstate highways or structures is not acceptable for the 50 year design flood. Except as noted above, there is no absolute minimum freeboard requirement or standard which must be met to satisfy a specification or regulation. Whatever minimum allowable freeboard is finally chosen, in accordance with accepted practice and application of these guidelines, should be considered as meeting all State requirements and standards.

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April 2010

Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.4.4

Navigable Waterways

The only waterway in New York State that has prescribed requirements for vertical clearances is the New York State Barge Canal System. The minimum requirements are as follows: C Champlain Canal, Cayuga-Seneca Canal, and Erie Canal (west of Three Rivers) have a minimum vertical clearance of 15N-6O above maximum navigable pool elevation. The channel depth shall be no less than 12 ft. from normal pool elevation. Oswego Canal and Erie Canal (from Waterford west to Three Rivers) have a minimum vertical clearance of 20 ft. above maximum navigable pool elevation. The channel depth shall be no less than 14 ft. from normal pool elevation.

NOTE: Variances for reductions will not be granted for channel depth or vertical clearance standards. Bridges undergoing replacement or major rehabilitation that do not currently provide these minimum requirements shall be designed to comply with the prescribed vertical clearances. In some instances, the existing bridge exceeds the minimum clearances. This does not always mean that a replacement or rehabilitation project may reduce the existing vertical clearance. Coordination with the N.Y.S. Canal Corporation in early project development is required to determine the acceptable vertical clearance. Other navigable waterways such as the Hudson River (south of Albany), St. Lawrence River/Seaway, etc., may fall under the jurisdiction of other local, state and federal agencies, commissions, and /or authorities. These agencies may have their own requirements for vertical clearance to be provided or may desire to increase or decrease the existing vertical clearance. In instances that involve a state owned bridge, coordination between all the interested parties is necessary to achieve the most appropriate vertical clearance. Vertical clearance for other navigable waterways may be determined in many ways; i.e. existing, upstream and downstream clearances, type and size of vessels utilizing the waterway, etc. This information is also valuable in considering the need to provide pier protection (refer to Section 2.5 - Horizontal Clearances: Under-Bridge Features). Ordinary High-Water elevation for nontidal or Mean High Water for tidal areas will be used when determining minimum vertical clearance. Water depth will be determined from Normal Pool Elevation in nontidal waters or Mean Sea Level in tidal areas.

2.4.5

Miscellaneous Vertical Clearance Criteria

Thru-Truss - The end portals of all newly designed highway trusses shall allow for 16 ft. of vertical clearance plus an additional 6 inches to accommodate oversize vehicles and future overlays. Flood Control Project - Where a bridge project crosses an established or proposed flood control project, the responsible agency (e.g., U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) will establish the desired vertical clearance over the Floodway Project Design Elevation. The Hydraulics Unit of the Office of Structures will provide assistance in obtaining the criteria.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Trails/Bikeways/Bridle Paths - Structures crossing over existing or proposed recreational trails shall provide a minimum of 8 ft. vertical clearance with 10 ft. preferred. The minimum vertical clearance over a bridle path is 10 ft. with 12 ft. preferred. Canal Trails - Along all sections of the canal system, access corridors are being established. This system of trails on the banks parallel to the canal should also provide, when possible, 10 ft. of vertical clearance. At locations with a trail on each side, a vertical clearance of at least 13 ft. should be provided, if possible, on at least one side. This will allow access for maintenance equipment such as small cranes and dump trucks. Early coordination with the Canal Corporation is recommended. Extended Berm (Bench) - In places where an abutment has a larger than standard berm in front of the bridge seat a minimum clearance of 3 ft. is desired between the bottom of the low beam elevation and the top of the bench. This provides access for inspection of the underside of the superstructure. Parkways - Table 2-1 shall be followed for vertical clearance requirements. However, many structures crossing parkways are required to be of certain configuration, i.e., arches, frames, etc. These configurations can significantly affect horizontal and vertical clearances. If there are considerable constraints on profile adjustments and if the required minimum vertical clearance is 14 ft., it shall be provided over at least one lane. The remaining lanes may provide a lower minimum of 12N-6O. Up to an additional 6 inches should be added to the vertical clearance for future resurfacing. Where the under roadway has previously been overlaid, some relief in the amount of vertical profile adjustment can be obtained by considering a reduction in the future overlay allowance. Existing pavement elevations near the bridge should be compared to the record plans and an existing thickness of overlay should be determined. This value should be compared to the normal 6 inch overlay allowance, and appropriate reduction in the future allowance be considered. Pavement overlay projects will require milling or removal of the existing overlay once the thickness approaches 6 inches. If the existing vertical clearance is nonstandard, the need for improvement in the vertical clearances should be investigated during major rehabilitation (as defined in Section 19.1) or replacement projects involving the existing highways and structures.

2.5 2.5.1

Horizontal Clearances: Under-Bridge Features Highway

Whenever possible, a substructure unit should be located to minimize the potential of vehicle impact as well as to lessen the effects of a hostile environment such as salt laden road spray and snow. The desired roadside horizontal clearances to fixed objects and recommended roadside clear areas shall be provided in accordance with the current AASHTO Roadside Design Guide and Chapter 10 of the Highway Design Manual. Piers located in narrow medians should be made parallel to the roadway whenever possible to allow for the possible future widening of the under roadway. In wider medians, a graded earth berm treatment should be used in the pier area. (See Figure 2.2 for details.)

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Figure 2.2 Schematic of a Median Berm

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

In urban areas, a minimum setback of 10 ft. from the face of curb to the face of any substructure unit should be provided. This corridor allows for sidewalk and utility placement independent of the roadway. Design speeds and class of highway may require greater setback distances. Refer to the Highway Design Manual for the recommended clear zone. Horizontal stopping sight distance is also a critical design element. See Chapter 2 and Chapter 5 of the Highway Design Manual for more information.

2.5.2

Navigable Waterways

Waterways in New York State vary in type from intermittent streams to large lakes and rivers which can support navigation involved in interstate or foreign commerce. Actual navigation on these waterways may be nonexistent, strictly recreational (rafts/canoes) or mixed recreational and commercial. Jurisdiction for approval of work in these waterways may rest with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, New York State Department of State, Adirondack Park Agency, Office of Parks and Recreation and Historic Preservation, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries, National Park Service, or New York City Department of Environmental Protection. In the early phases of project development, all projects involving a waterway should be evaluated by the NYS Department of Transportations Regional Environmental Coordinator. Procedures to be followed for locally administered projects can be found in Chapter 8 of the Procedures for Locally Administered Federal Aid Projects Manual (LAFAP). Table BTA-1, Appendix 8-2 of the LAFAP manual indicates the need to include a Coast Guard Jurisdiction Checklist. A copy of the Coast Guard Jurisdiction Checklist can be found in Appendix 2E of this manual. Bridge projects that require fill and/or excavation in or adjacent to surface waters, including wetlands and special aquatic sites, or that impact state and federal rare, threatened or endangered species require early coordination with the Regional Environmental Contact. Regulatory permit conditions may influence the type of work performed. For example, replacing an existing single span with a precast reinforced concrete box requires prior approval from the Department of Environmental Conservation and the Corps of Engineers. For further information on permitting issues relating directly to the disturbances of surface waters and associated riparian areas, please refer to Chapter 4 of the Environmental Procedures Manual and Chapter 8 of the Highway Design Manual. Waterways that support commercial navigational traffic typically require a formal Coast Guard Permit. The Coast Guard Compliance Unit of the Office of Structures will help determine the need, and normally prepare the paperwork, for a Coast Guard permit for state administered projects. For locally administered projects, it shall be the responsibility of the project sponsor or his designee to assemble the necessary permit documents and submit them to the appropriate Coast Guard District for their action. Access to the Coast Guard Bridge permit Application Guide is provided on the Internet through the Bridge Administration Web Page (http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-o/g-opt/g-opt.htm)

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Rivers that are designated for inclusion in the State or Federal Wild, Scenic and Recreational Rivers systems may have restrictions on the placement of piers within the banks of the river. Contact should be made with the appropriate Regional Environmental Coordinator prior to establishing span lengths. The location of piers and pier protection systems for structures in the New York City/Long Island Region, the Lower Hudson River area, the Great Lakes Region, and the St. Lawrence River/Seaway should be handled on a case by case basis. Coordination with the appropriate Coast Guard District is required. Early attention should be paid in determining the various types of permits needed and required supporting documentation. If identified too late, the permit process can become the critical path for a project. The only waterway in New York State that has prescribed requirements for horizontal clearances is the New York State Barge Canal System. The following guidelines should be considered binding in designing new or replacement bridges over the canal system. Minor variances to the stated criteria may be granted on a case by case basis. Final decisions on variance requests will rest with the N.Y.S. Canal Corporation and N.Y.S. Dept. of Transportation. 1. Horizontal Clearance: Consideration should be given to hydraulic/hydrologic factors, canal curvature and local navigation conditions. Adverse site conditions which may merit an increase in horizontal clearance standards should be identified early in project development and all subsequent design reports. Adequate documentation must be provided (accident records, groundings, etc.) for considerations that will increase project cost due to required increases in the minimum stated criteria. 2. Access Trails: The lands adjacent to the Barge Canal System are being developed for recreational use by the public. Where appropriate, the placement of a new substructure shall accommodate an access trail beneath the structure. The elevation of this trail should be kept above ordinary high water whenever possible. Adequate vertical clearances shall also be provided (See Miscellaneous Vertical Clearance Criteria, Canal Trails). Minimum trail widths can be found in AASHTOs Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. 3. Defined Channel: The edge of channel is defined as the outside edge of the theoretical bottom angle. Therefore, in a typical earth section of 75 ft., the channel is 75 ft. wide. Figures 2.3 and 2.4 show typical channel sections and minimum requirements for the location of a pier and pier protection system. All substructures, including cofferdams and fender systems, shall be placed a minimum of 5 ft. outside of channel limits. Encroachment upon earth or rock section channel limits will not be allowed. Please note that typical sections are subject to transition areas which will vary from the stated widths.

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4. Pier Protection: Where barge traffic exists, all new or replacement substructures located in water depths exceeding 2 ft. shall have an impact attenuator system around the pier(s). A typical system shall consist of a permanent steel sheeting cofferdam with a tremie seal and filled with screened gravel (a heavy-duty galvanized gabion cover in river sections is required). The minimum gravel fill requirement is 5 ft. from face of pier to inside edge of sheeting. Steel sheeting will extend to 3 ft. above maximum navigable pool elevation. A rubber dock-fender system will be installed on the channel sides of sheeting and wrap around the face of the pier so that it extends at least 3 ft. beyond the point at which the sheeting is parallel with the pier. The centerline of the rubber dock fender shall be located 18 inches above normal pool elevation. Should normal pool elevation and maximum navigable elevation differ by more than 2 ft., a second fender shall be placed at an elevation of 18 inches above maximum navigation elevation. In all cases the minimum horizontal clearance from centerline of pier to edge of channel shall be 16 ft. 5. Where the potential for barge traffic exists, and construction of a pier does not require the use of a sheet piling cofferdam (i.e., areas that can be dewatered), any proposed bridge project shall consider using the same guidelines as above. This approach would allow the option of constructing an impact attenuator system at a future date and not encroach on channel limits. The minimum horizontal clearance of 16 ft. from centerline of pier to the edge of channel should be used. 6. Column pier configurations are not typically recommended for use on canal bridge projects. If column piers are chosen their use shall be limited to areas outside of the designated channel and shall be placed on a solid pier plinth that extends no less than 3 ft. above maximum navigable pool elevation. In instances where an impact attenuator system is not required at this time, a rubber dock fender system is necessary to protect both vessel and structure from damage. Therefore, all substructures located in water depths exceeding 2 ft. of depth (from normal pool) will have a rubber dock fender system installed. Installation requirements are the same here as they are for the impact attenuator system. 7. Rehabilitation Projects: Rubber dock fenders and/or an impact attenuator system for substructures located in the navigable portion of the canal should be considered on an individual basis and practicality of such an installation. It is also important to note that any rehabilitation work which will change the width of the superstructure, skew angle or alter existing horizontal and/or vertical clearances over the canal will require a U. S. Coast Guard bridge permit before construction may commence. When this occurs, navigation lights not previously required may become mandatory. Questions should be directed to the Office of Structures, Coast Guard Compliance Unit. 8. Permits: All bridges (permanent or temporary) constructed over the canal require a Section 9 bridge permit before construction may commence. The Office of Structures, Coast Guard Compliance Unit or the bridge owner or his designee is responsible for obtaining the bridge permit and coordinating with the U.S. Coast Guard.

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.5.2.1

Navigation Lights

The U.S. Coast Guard is the sole authority in determining the requirements for navigation lights. The Office of Structures, bridge owner, or the bridge owners designee is responsible for securing Coast Guard approval. Once approval of the lighting system is obtained, modifications cannot be made without additional Coast Guard review. For fixed bridges required to have navigation lighting, each fascia of the superstructure shall indicate channel limits of passage through the structure for nighttime traffic. The edge of channel will be marked by a red channel margin light which shall show through a horizontal arc of 180 degrees. The center of channel will be marked by a green navigation light showing through a horizontal arc of 360 degrees. The focal plane (center of lens) of all navigational lights shall never be less than 6 inches below Low Steel. Navigation lights are not considered an encroachment on vertical clearances and should be placed over actual channel limits whenever possible. Due to the variety of structure types and navigable conditions, some bridge locations may be exempted from displaying navigation lighting. The Office of Structures or the bridge owner or his designee will coordinate with the U. S. Coast Guard for proper lighting requirements.

2.5.2.2

Additional Navigation Aids

The U.S. Coast Guard is the sole authority in determining the requirements for numerous other aids to navigation. Ordinarily, they do not mandate such items but the possibility does exist. The Office of Structures, bridge owner, or the bridge owners designee is responsible for coordination with the Coast Guard. Possible items that may be required to be installed to aid navigation are retroreflective panels, pier lights, daymarks, radar reflectors, racons, painting of the bridge piers, and vertical clearance indicators.

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Figure 2.3 Typical Canal Channel Sections

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January 2008

Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Figure 2.4 Canal Pier Details

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

2.5.3

Railroads

For projects crossing railroads, it is desirable to carry the railroad's existing section or planned standard section under the bridge without alteration. However, FHWA has specified participation limits which determine the length of bridge they will fund. The Department concurs with these limits which are shown in Table 2-3. The distance from the centerline of the outside track to the 1 on 2 embankment shall be measured along a horizontal line at the top of rails at right angles to the track. In the case of superelevated tracks, the horizontal line is at the top of the high rail. This distance shall not exceed that shown in Table 2-3. For single track layouts, an off track maintenance roadway is provided on one side only. The railroad will specify the side. In multiple track situations, off track maintenance roadways may be required on both sides. The railroad shall specify a need for two roadways and identify their locations. In the event that the railroad has, or plans to have, a wider cross section, Table 2-3 will govern at the bridge, and the railroad drainage ditch shall be piped through the embankment (See Figure 2.6). Greater dimensions may be justified on the basis of effective span arrangements and extraordinary drainage conditions, such as defined streams. In the event the railroad's actual existing or proposed section is less than that given in Table 2-3, the railroad's actual section shall be used. For railroad sections that are in an earth cut, see Figure 2.7. When the railroad is in a rock cut, the distance to the toe of the highway embankment will be determined by the actual section and the characteristics of the rock (see Figure 2.8).

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Figure 2.5 Railroad Clearance Diagram


*Check individual RR for acceptance of the clipped corners

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Notes: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

This detail applies for multiple track installations on a tangent. This detail also applies to new track installation constructed simultaneously with new structure construction. W.P.1 is a working point used to establish the shoulder break length as shown in Figure 3.1. The 20 ft. offset to the face of pier accommodates an off track maintenance roadway. If multiple tracks exist, this offset may be required for both sides as well as between various sets of tracks. Whenever possible, the pier and the highway embankment should be located to avoid established drainage ditches. When unavoidable, drainage pipes may be used to carry surface drainage through the embankment, The bottom of footing for a pier should be placed below the bottom of ditch elevation. Any pier located within 25 ft. of the centerline of a set of tracks shall be protected by crash walls designed in accordance with current American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA) specifications, or the requirements of the affected railroad.

Figure 2.6 Track on Embankment (Section Perpendicular to Centerline of Track)

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Notes: 1. 2. 3. This detail also applies to multiple track installations on a tangent. W.P.2 is a working point used to establish the shoulder break length as shown in Figure 3.1. The 20 ft. offset accommodates an off track maintenance roadway. If multiple tracks exist this offset may be required for both sides as well as between various sets of tracks. Any pier located within 25 ft. of the centerline of a track shall be protected by crash walls designed in accordance with current American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA) specifications or the requirement of the affected railroad. When possible, piers should be kept out of ditch areas. The bottom of footing elevation for a pier should be placed below the bottom of ditch elevation.

4.

5.

Figure 2.7 Track in Cut (Section Perpendicular to Centerline of Track)

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Notes: 1. 2. This detail also applies to multiple track installations on a tangent. The 20 ft. offset accommodates an off track maintenance roadway. If multiple tracks exist, this offset may be required for both sides as well as between various sets of tracks. Ditching through the structure area shall meet and match adjoining existing drainage ditches for both alignment and profile. Any pier located within 25 ft. of the centerline of a track shall be protected by crash walls designed in accordance with current American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA) specifications or the requirement of the affected railroad. When possible, piers should be kept out of ditch areas. The bottom of footing elevation for a pier should be placed below the bottom of ditch elevation.

3. 4.

5.

Figure 2.8 Typical Railroad Rock Cut Section (Section Perpendicular to Centerline of Track)

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Lateral Distance from Centerline of Outside Track to 1 on 2 Embankment* Railroad Section Fill Cut CutHeavy Snow Area** With Off-Track Maintenance Roadway 28 ft. 30 ft. 33 ft. Without Off-Track Maintenance Roadway 20 ft. 22 ft. 25 ft.

* When the outer track is on a horizontal curve, increase these dimensions one inch for every degree of curvature to a maximum of 1N-6O. ** Heavy Snow Area - All portions of state except NYC area and Long Island.

Table 2-3 Lateral Offset from Centerline of Tracks Piers located within 25 ft. of the centerline of a track shall be of heavy construction or be protected by a concrete crash wall in accordance with current American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association (AREMA) specifications. Railroad BridgesA typical single track, thru-girder bridge is shown in Figure 2.9. The dimensions shown in Figure 2.9 are only for reference. Prior to final design, the railroad involved must provide an approved section. A general clearance diagram for railroad bridges is shown in Figure 2.5.

2.5.4

Miscellaneous Corridors

At times, besides being required to cross a major feature such as a roadway or river, the new bridge must accommodate secondary corridors. These corridors can range from a defined paved bikeway/walkway to a level area of natural ground which would allow passage under the bridge of such things as cattle and wildlife. This requirement should be identified in the design report as well as on the Bridge Data Sheet - Part 1. A minimum corridor width and a desired headroom should be indicated if it becomes a control feature. Unpaved access roadways for fire, emergency or maintenance equipment also fall into this category.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Figure 2.9 Typical Thru-Girder Railroad Bridge

2.6 2.6.1

Live Loading Requirements New and Replacement Bridges

New and replacement bridges shall be designed to carry not less than the AASHTO HL-93 live load and the NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle.

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.6.2

Bridge Rehabilitation

Existing highway bridges should be rehabilitated to carry the HS 20 live load, unless economically unjustified. Bridges whose superstructures are completely replaced while retaining all or part of the substructure will be designed in accordance with NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Existing substructures to remain shall not be upgraded solely to accommodate the higher live loads or LRFD Specifications. Where the HS 20 loading cannot be economically justified, bridges should be rehabilitated to support an H 20 live load. In some cases, locally owned bridges or State-owned bridges carrying local roads may be rehabilitated to a lesser loading provided that heavy loads are anticipated to be rare. The minimum acceptable loading for a rehabilitated structure is H 15. Rehabilitation of any structure to a live loading less than HS 20 must be expressly approved by the Regional Director.

2.6.3

Temporary Bridges

Temporary structures carrying vehicular traffic shall generally be designed for an HS 20 live load. While an HS 20 design live load is sufficient for all current legal loads, it is recognized that in a few situations, the design live load for temporary structures should be increased to an HS 25 design live load. This should be considered for only the following types of projects: C C C Interstate or equivalent highways with very high Average Daily Truck Traffic (ADTT). Very high ADTT can generally be taken to be over 10,000. Interstate or equivalent highways where it is anticipated that the temporary structures will be in service longer than one year. Other locations that may have unique situations in regard to very heavy industrial truck traffic, anticipated very heavy permit vehicles or access to railroad yards and port facilities.

It is also recognized that some locations may not require a HS 20 design live load for temporary structures. This would most often be the case for structures on parkways or in rural areas. However, locations in rural areas should be treated with caution since many low volume roads frequently carry heavy vehicles such as logging trucks, milk tankers and heavy farm machinery. Structures on parkways that will be in use over a winter season should also be treated with caution because snow removal equipment may approximate HS 20 loading. All uses of temporary structures with design live load less than HS 20 need to receive approval from the Regional Structures Engineer. In certain circumstances, temporary structures designed for a live load less than HS 20 will require posting. In no case will approval be granted for a design live load less than H 15. In no case shall a temporary bridge on an NHS designated route be designed for less than HS 20. Place Standard Note #7 from Section 17.3 on the plans for all projects containing temporary structures.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

2.6.4

Pedestrian Bridges

All pedestrian bridges will be designed in accordance with NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and the AASHTO LRFD Guide Specifications for Design of Pedestrian Bridges, December 2009. The owner may waive the fracture critical member requirements for design of tubular members. See Section 8.18 for additional guidance.

2.6.5

Railroad Bridges

All structures carrying railroads will be designed for Cooper E-80 loading (U.S. Units), unless noted otherwise.

2.7 2.7.1

Alignment, Profile and Superelevation Horizontal Alignment

The alignment of a bridge can be controlled by a highway realignment project or be set by the standards that are to be used for a bridge only replacement project. Three factors normally dictate the chosen alignment: class of highway, design speed and traffic volume. The requirements of each individual project should be reviewed prior to establishing the necessary horizontal and vertical control standards. If possible, the highway designer should avoid placing spiral alignments and compound curve alignments on structures. Conventional highway treatments such as spiral alignments, reverse curves and superelevation banking transitions, when used on a bridge, can complicate the design, increase cost and make construction difficult. Severely skewed alignments can cause uplift, seismic design and maintenance problems, and may result in a structure that is considerably longer than the existing structure.

2.7.2

Profile

When selecting project standards, such as maximum grades and stopping sight distances, the highway designer should avoid placing a sag curve at the bridge location. If this is not possible, the bridge designer should avoid placing the beam itself on a sag and fabricating it with negative camber. The placement of a level (0%) grade on the bridge should be avoided. If possible, steel beams shall use haunches for sag correction with the top and bottom flanges remaining parallel on a vertical tangent. (See Section 8.9.1, for further discussion on sag cambers for steel bridges.) Prestressed units shall not be subjected to negative camber. The only corrective measure which can be used for adjacent units is to vary the thickness of the wearing surface. If this procedure cannot accommodate the geometry of the curve in a reasonable manner, the use of the adjacent slab or box units is not recommended. Prestressed I-beam or spread box/slab units can use varying haunches to accommodate some sag vertical curvature.

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

2.7.3

Superelevation

Transitions in the cross slope of a bridge deck should be avoided whenever possible. When it has been determined that transition on the bridge is unavoidable, the following procedure is to be used: The length of the transition shall be determined from the appropriate "Superelevation Table" found in the current edition of AASHTO's A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Maximum superelevation rates are 4% for urban conditions and 8% for rural conditions Simple Circular Curve Alignments Between 90% and 60% of the runoff shall be applied in the tangent and between 40% and 10% will be carried into the curve. The typical split is 70% - 30%. The runout will be applied to the tangent prior/after the runoff. See Figure 2.10 for sample banking diagram, and Figure 2.12 for banking details of a bridge deck. Spiral/Circular Curve Alignments The full required superelevation shall be obtained by the time the SC (Spiral to Curve) point is reached. Full superelevation will be carried through the circular curve until the CS (Curve to Spiral) point is met. The superelevation transition length (LT ) will consist of two parts; the length of spiral equal to the LS value in the appropriate "Superelevation Table" and an additional length of transition known as the Tangent Runout (TR). LT = LS + TR TR = L x (N.C.) eNreqd See Figures 2.10 and 2.11 The Point of Rotation (POR) and the superelevation rates for the lanes and shoulders will be identified for each individual project. On a structure, the low-side shoulder will maintain the same cross slope as the adjacent travel lane. If the high side shoulder is broken back it should maintain a constant downward slope of 2%. For recommended rollover combinations see Highway Design Manual Figure 3-5. When the cross slope exceeds 6% a breakback will not be allowed for adjacent concrete beams. The designer should consider other options for the structural system if a break-back is required. When the cross slope exceeds 4% Bulb Tee beams should not be used due to excessive haunch depths. AASHTO I-beams should be considered. For bridges with reinforced concrete approach slabs, the shoulder transition from the 6% highway cross slope norm to the 2% cross slope on the bridge will be applied prior to the approach slab. The approach slab will be treated the same as the bridge deck. The difference of the grades for the high-side shoulder and the adjacent travel lane should never exceed 10%. The high shoulder will almost always be set at a 2% down slope.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

The number and location of the breaks in the cross slope should be kept to a minimum, due to the limitations of deck finishing machines. If the travel lane and adjacent shoulder on the low side of the bridge are in transition, that is decreasing the cross slope, a break will be introduced when the transitioning cross slope reaches 2%. At that point the shoulder will retain the 2% down slope, and the travel lane will continue to transition until it reaches the required cross slope. For buried structures such as box culverts, the standard highway section will be carried across the structure if possible. The shoulders will be the same as on the highway sections. If necessary to provide minimum pavement thickness, the shoulder banking may be treated like a bridge deck shoulder. Further information on superelevation and transitions can be found in Chapters 2 and 5 of the Highway Design Manual.

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Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

LT = Length of Transition N.C. = Value of Normal Crown Banking P.O.R. = Point of Rotation e = Superelevation required for a specific horizontal curve Outside Edge = Larger radius of horizontal alignment P.C. = Point of Curvature See Chapter 5 of the Highway Design Manual for Runoff and Runout Formulae.

Figure 2.10 Banking Simple Curve

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Lt = Length of Transition L= Length of Spiral TR = Tangent Run-out N.C. = Value of Normal Crown Banking P.O.R.= Point of Rotation e = Superelevation required for a specific horizontal curve Outside Edge = Larger Radius of horizontal alignment S.C. = Spiral to Curve Point T.S. = Tangent to Spiral Point

Figure 2.11 Banking Spiral Curve

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January 2008

Geometric Design Policy for Bridges

Figure 2.12 Banking Details for Bridge Decks (Break-Back Option Shown See HDM Figure 3-5 for Full Bank Option)

January 2008

2-35

Appendix 2A Bridge Roadway Width Tables


The tables included in the following two pages have been derived from Chapters V and VI of AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004. Tables N and R apply to new and replacement bridges on local and collector roads and streets. Table R provides minimum permissible widths, while Table N provides maximum widths regardless of the approach roadway geometry for non-NHS roadways. Table N also provides the maximum shoulder width for non-NHS minor arterial bridges where no improvements are planned. See Section 2.3 and Table 2-1 for additional discussion on bridge roadway widths. Table X applies to certain bridge rehabilitations on local and collector roads, see Table 2-1. Additional clarifications: 1. All traffic is two-way. 2. The average daily traffic (ADT) in vehicles per day is always the design year traffic. 3. Refer to Project Development Manual (PDM) Appendix 5 for the design year for bridge work. 4. "Traveled way" is the portion of the roadway for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Table R Minimum Roadway Widths For New and Replacement Bridges (Non-NHS) (Local and Collector Roads)

Design Volume (veh/day) Under 400 400 - 1500 1500 2000 Over 2000

Minimum Roadway Width of Bridge a Width of traveled way plus 2 ft. each side Width of traveled way plus 3 ft. each side Width of traveled way plus 4 ft. each side b Approach roadway width b

(Ref. AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004, Exhibit 6-6)

Notes:
a

Where the approach roadway width (traveled way plus shoulders) is surfaced, that surface width should be carried across the structures. For bridges in excess of 100 ft. in length the minimum width of traveled way plus 3 ft. on each side is acceptable.

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January, 2008

Bridge Roadway Width Tables

Table N Maximum Width of Traveled Way and Shoulder (Non-NHS) (Local and Collector Roads)

Design Volume (veh/day) Design Speed (mph) Under 400 400 to 1500 1500 to 2000 Over 2000

Width of Traveled Way (ft) 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 All Speeds 2.0


b

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 22 22

20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 22

22 22 22 22 22 22 22 24 24

24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24

Width of Shoulder on Each Side of Road (ft)a 5.0 6.0 8.0

(Ref. AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004, Exhibit 6-5)

Notes:
a

The shoulder widths noted in this table also serve as maximum values for the shoulders on non-NHS minor arterials where no improvements are planned. Per HDM Chapter 2, Table 2-5, a 1.2 m shoulder is required where barrier is utilized.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Table X Minimum Roadway Widths For Bridge Rehabilitations b (Local and Collector Roads Two Lanes)

Design Traffic (veh/day)

Minimum Clear Roadway Width (m) a

Under 400 400 to 1500 1500 to 2000 Over 2000

22 22 24 28

(Ref. AASHTOs A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2004, Exhibit 6-7)

Notes:
a

Clear width between curbs or railings, whichever is less, shall be equal to or greater than the approach traveled way width. Table X does not apply to structures with a total length greater than 100 ft. These structures should be analyzed individually by taking into consideration the clear width provided, safety, traffic volumes, remaining life of structure, design speed and other pertinent factors.

January 2008

2A-4

Bridge Roadway Width Tables

Figure 2A.1 Usable Shoulder Details

January 2008

2A-5

Appendix 2B One-Lane Bridge Policy


A. Objective: This policy sets forth criteria used to determine where it would be acceptable to replace an existing one-lane bridge by another one-lane bridge. When an existing one-lane bridge has deteriorated beyond a point where rehabilitation is appropriate, an evaluation shall be made to determine whether closure of the road or removal of the bridge is an acceptable solution. If that evaluation indicates that the bridge is deserving of replacement, then a determination must be made of the number of traffic lanes to be carried by the proposed bridge. The objective of this policy is to govern that decision. B. Definitions: Existing One-lane Bridge: One upon which two vehicles, traveling in the same or opposite direction, will not normally attempt to pass one another. The bridge may or may not be signed as a "One-lane Bridge". In the absence of recorded or observed experience, any bridge less than 16 ft. wide, curb to curb or rail to rail, shall be considered as a one-lane bridge. A ramp bridge, carrying traffic in only one direction, is not a one-lane bridge for the purpose of this definition. Existing One-lane Road: One upon which two vehicles, traveling in the same or opposite direction, will pass one another only with care, usually by the slowing or stopping of one or both vehicles, and perhaps by the movement of one or both vehicles partially off the pavement surface, often accomplished at intermittent widenings which may occur naturally or which may be developed deliberately to facilitate such passing. In the absence of recorded or observed experience, any road measuring less than 16 ft. wide, edge to edge of roadway (including pavement plus graded shoulders), shall be considered as a one-lane road, unless it carries traffic in only one direction. C. Requirements: An existing one-lane bridge may be replaced by another one-lane bridge if each of the following requirements are met: 1. The project must be controlled by Chapter V of the AASHTO Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets - 2004. 2. The current two-way ADT must be less than 350, and the predicted ADT for the 30th year after completion of the project must be less than 500. 3. The current and anticipated future operating speeds must be not greater than 40 mph . 4. An analysis of the three-year accident experience must reveal no more than one reported accident, with no accident being reported during that same period as being directly attributable to the narrowness of the existing one-lane bridge.

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5. The replacement bridge and its approaches must be signed as a "One-lane Bridge" in accordance with the MUTCD. 6. Horizontal and vertical sight distances must be provided to allow approaching motorists to safely observe an opposing vehicle on the bridge or its far approaches. D. Desirable Conditions: In addition to the above requirements, other relevant factors should be evaluated and considered before a final decision is made in favor of a bridge replacement to carry one-lane of traffic. Several of these factors are subjective in nature, and others may be very difficult to measure or identify with exactness. All should be treated as desirable conditions which should be met, but which are not absolute requirements. A list of such preferable conditions would include, but not be limited to, the following: 1. The local authorities should have no substantive objection to a one-lane bridge. 2. The existing two-way approach roadway should be one-lane wide and operating as a one-lane road (although this may be difficult to determine with confidence). 3. There should be no plans for the future improvement of the highway which would be expected to substantially alter existing operating conditions. E. Supporting Documentation: Sufficient information should be supplied in the Scoping Phase so that the requirements and desirable conditions can be evaluated and a decision reached prior to the preparation of the Design Approval Document. If portions of that information are lacking, the final decision on the number of lanes may be made at a later time, but must, in any event, be resolved at or prior to Design Approval. Justification: In order to achieve economics, one-lane bridge replacements shall be permitted when certain safety requirements have been met and certain conditions evaluated. Compared against the cost of a complete two-lane bridge, a minimum savings of 10 to 15 percent can be routinely expected, with appreciable greater savings when existing substructures can be retained. Conclusion: When all requirements have been met, and when a final decision has been made to replace an existing one-lane bridge by another one-lane bridge, and when Design Approval, specifying that decision, has been obtained, the structural design normally shall produce plans for a bridge 14 ft. wide between railings, except that the replacement shall not be narrower than the existing one-lane bridge. Minor variations are permissible to account for the intricacies of particular structural components.

F.

G.

2B-2

January 2008

Appendix 2C Vertical Clearance over the New York State Thruway, I-90 and Revised 16' Clearance Network
The current statewide16' vertical clearance network in the west to east direction is described below: State Route 17/I-86 from the Pennsylvania state line east to I-81, I-81 from Route 17/I-86 north to I-88, I-88 east to I-90 (Thruway exit 25A) and I-90 east to I-87 (Northway) in Albany (Thruway Exit 24); and State Route 17/I-86 from the Pennsylvania state line east to I-81, I-81 south to the Pennsylvania line, and I-84 east to the Connecticut state line. As part of a December 12, 1991 agreement with FHWA, the Department made a commitment to provide 16 clearance on this network. Accordingly, regardless of funding sources, no exceptions will be entertained to the 16 clearance requirement for bridges over the routes described above if the project involves: C C Bridge replacement or Bridge rehabilitation including deck replacement

Justification for retention of nonstandard clearance is required for bridges along the identified additional routes listed below: 1. I-90 from the Pennsylvania State line east to I-88 (Thruway Exit 25A) in the Capital District; 2. I-90 from I-87 Northway (Thruway Exit 24) east to the Massachusetts State line; 3. I-87 from Route 300 (Thruway Exit 17; I-84), north to I-87, Northway (Thruway Exit 24); 4. I-190 in the Buffalo-Niagara Falls area. At the end of this appendix is a listing of the bridges along these particular routes. When a project involves one of the listed bridges whose clearance is 14' or greater but less than 16 and the existing clearance is not being diminished, the Region will request approval to retain the existing clearance in accordance with the SAFETEA-LU Matrix. The request should include the following nonstandard feature justification: The structure carrying...over..., BIN...provides a minimum vertical clearance of .... This structure is one of those on the listing of structures in Appendix 2C of the NYSDOT Bridge Manual whose existing clearance can be retained as agreed by FHWA on December 12, 1991. When a project results in reducing existing vertical clearance of bridge(s) listed, a full nonstandard feature justification will be required. FHWA has stated that the Department cannot approve any vertical clearance less than 14'.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Coordination with SDCC: Based on a January 27, 1998 letter from the Department of the Army, the Military Traffic Management Command, Transportation Engineering Agency (now Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDCC)) has concurred with a batch design exemption for the bridges along the above six routes as long as the existing clearances are not being diminished. All exceptions to the 16 ft. vertical clearance standard along the routes described in the first paragraph of this appendix are to be coordinated with the SDDC (see Appendix 2D). On other urban Interstate routes, where the 14 ft. vertical clearance standard applies, there is no requirement to coordinate with nor notify the SDDC. This Appendix applies only to listed bridges and to those on the 16 ft. vertical clearance network described in this Appendix. Existing rules relative to vertical clearance continue to apply to all other bridges.

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January 2008

Vertical Clearance

List of bridges over the Thruway, I-190, and I-90 with vertical clearance less than 16 that NYSDOT and FHWA have agreed to exempt from the 16 requirement by use of this Appendix.
RC 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 BIN 1015970 1022440 1025320 1033101 1033102 1047510 5513349 5513500 5513520 5513530 5513580 5513600 5513610 1018030 1031060 1038060 1053550 5513180 5513200 5513220 5513230 5513290 5513400 5513410 5513420 Feature Carried Rte. 20 Old Rte. 32 443 443 11022005 87I 87I11081000 87I 87I11081000 396 396 11011064 912MX Beaver Dam Road Clapper Road Wemple Road New Scotland Ave. Russell Rd. Co. 204 Schoolhouse Rd. 23A 23A13011324 81 81 13021199 144 144 13011008 9W 9W 13041188 Brick Schoolhouse Old Kings Highway CR 23B NYSTA INT 21 New Balt Ser Rd 90I EB B-1 Ramp Woodward Road Woodward Road Feature Crossed 87IX 87IX 87IX 90I 90I 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 90IX 90IX Vertical Clearance (Feet/Inches) 14'-6" 14'-6" 14'-8" 14'-0" 14'-0" 14'-4" 14'-8" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-8" 15'-4" 14'-2" 14'-2" 15'-1" 14'-1" 15'-3" 14'-7" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-7" 14'-2" 14'-0" Thruway Milepoint 0014685 0013954 0014247 None None 0813461 0080000 0013542 0013670 0013804 0014431 0014538 0014642 0011001 0012221 0012756 0012369 0010862 0011257 0011364 0011389 0012728 0080659 0080778 0080777

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

14 14 14 16 16 16 16 16 23 23 23 23 23 23 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 25

5513430 5513440 5513460 1038760 5513710 5513720 5513760 7513690 1002380 1002770 5516010 5516080 5516130 5523320 1010590 5025670 5512730 5512740 5512750 5512770 5512780 5512790 5512800 5512810 5512830 1021050 5515780 5515790

Bunker Hill Road Bunker Hill Road 90IX 159 159 16011115 Putnam Rd Gordon Road Patsonvle-Rynexrd D & H Railroad 5 5 23111027 5S 5S 23021156 River Road Carder Lane Rd Dyke Road CR 37 Pedestrian Bridge 13 13 24051330 46 46 24012024 Kirkville Rd Fyler Road Lakeport Rd Gee Road Indian Open Rd North Main Street North Court Street Canal Road Thruway Ramp at 34 30 30 25042001 Bulls Head Rd Pattersonville Rd

90IX 90IX 87IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-0" 14'-0" 14'-6" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-2" 13'-6" 15'-1" 14'-10" 14'-5" 15'-1" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-4" 14'-5" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-1"

0080847 0080846 0080658 0015923 0015991 0016104 0016703 0015893 0022820 0021635 0020661 0022668 0022992 0020990 0026173 0025709 0027184 0026937 0026789 0026599 0026303 0026201 0026005 0025790 0026150 0017386 0016970 0017088

2C-4

January 2008

Vertical Clearance

25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 31 31 31 31 31 31 31

5515820 5515840 5515850 5515890 5515940 1018830 1042230 1042260 1046709 5512860 5512870 5512880 5512890 5512900 5512920 5512940 5512950 5512970 5512980 5513030 7708960 1021810 1023360 1024300 1034450 5510310 5510330 5510340

Amsterdam Interch Snooks Corners Rd Fort Hunter Rd Fultonville Int Canajoharie Inter 26 26 26051155 233 233 26011068 31 31 26011066 365 365 26011040 Verona Interch Westmoreland Int Utica Interchange Randall Rd Sandhill Rd Tilden Hill Rd W. Moreland Lowell Batlett Road Cider St Co Rt 23 Judd Road Leland Ave Conrail 31 31 31081014 34 34 31053077 38 38 31043067 90 90 31021476 Thruwy Int 40 Ramp CR13B Oakland Rd Townline Road

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-5" 14'-5" 15'-1" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-2" 15'-2" 14'-0" 14'-1" 14'-8" 14'-6"

0017359 0017512 0017747 0018217 0019410 0024850 0024366 0025227 0025306 0025271 0024320 0023285 0025640 0025540 0025090 0024786 0024525 0024279 0024048 0023296 0023501 0031105 0030392 0030797 0031216 0030419 0030527 0030580

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

31 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 35

5510360 1008520 1026099 1031659 1045210 1046870 1049830 1073150 2266610 5027410 5039140 5313210 5510030 5510050 5510070 5510080 5510090 5510100 5510120 5510140 5510150 5510160 5510190 5510200 5510240 5510250 5510260 1034320

N Main St 11 11 33033008 690I 690I 33014014 81I 81I 33033012 298 298 33012038 370 370 33031136 Lemoyne Ave Fr Rte 48 to 690I Bikeway CR7 Oswego St 173 X Laird Rd North Manlius Rd CR54 Minoa - Sheps CR136 Fremont Rd Fly Road Thruway Int35 Ramp Thompson Road CR70 Townline Rd Thruway Int36 Ramp CR48 Buckley Rd Thruway Int37 Ramp CR47 Morgan Rd Thruway Int38 Ramp Van Buren Rd Canton Street Bennetts Crnrs Rd 89 89 35021339

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-5" 14'-4" 14'-1" 14'-1" 14'-6" 14'-7" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-10" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-0" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-4" 14'-2" 13'-11" 14'-1" 14'-3"

0030733 0028190 0028837 0028271 0027837 0028636 0028175 0028840 0028268 0028567 0029249 0029613 0027329 0027448 0027601 0027739 0027893 0027914 0028031 0028293 0028304 0028379 0028522 0028595 0028963 0029206 0029452 0031596

2C-6

January 2008

Vertical Clearance

35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 43 43 43 43

1048150 5510400 5510420 5510430 5510440 5510450 5510460 5510470 5510480 5510490 1015250 1022980 1028730 1030080 1042340 5315350 5315400 5315660 5315680 5315690 5316050 5516830 5516920 7707180 1011530 1023760 1028910 1028980

414 414 35041334 CR101 Gravel Rd Mid Black Brk Rd Black Brook Rd Thruway Int41 Ramp CR106 Birdsey Rd Stone Church Rd CR107 Whiskey Hil CR108 Nine Foot R Grange Hall Road 19 19 41031122 33 33 41023024 63 63 41043011 77 77 41021098 237 237 41011030 Indian Falls Rd Slusser Rd CR30 Kelsey Road State Street Road Bank St Rd CR13 West Bergen Rd Ramp to Exit 48 Ramp to Exit 47 Conrail - PC RR 15 15 43031079 36 36 43031033 64 64 43021063 65 65 43031078

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-0" 14'-3" 14'-0" 14'-0" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-5" 14'-1" 14'-0" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-6" 14-6" 14'-5" 14'-5" 14'-0" 14'-6" 14'-0" 15'-11" 14'-4" 15'-10" 14'-1"

0032015 0031746 0031857 0031919 0032041 0032108 0032192 0032314 0032416 0032479 0037889 0038624 0039176 0040128 0038378 0039767 0039670 0039339 0038973 0038873 0038057 0039013 0037856 0038665 0036277 0037413 0035525 0035825

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 44 52 52 52 52

1043340 5510600 5510830 5510840 5510850 5510860 5510870 5510880 5510890 5510900 5510910 1016470 5510620 5510630 5510640 5510920 5510930 5510940 5510950 5510960 5510970 5510980 5510990 5511000 1015410 1027890 1030020 1048430

386 251 43011183 Thwy Ramp Exit 46 Beulah Rd CR166 Winslow Rd CR188 Wheatland Ctr Rd Union St Middle Road Pinnacle Road Bloomfield Rd E River Rd CR84 Mile Sq Rd CR70 Chapin-Pamyra Thwy Ramp Exit 45 Exit 44 Ramp Exit 43 Ramp Log Cabin Road Pumpkin Hook Rd Farmington Rd CR8 Blacksmith Cor Rd Port Gibson Rd C7 Kendall Rd CR25 Marbletown Rd Mott Road Port Gibson R CR7 20 20 52011355 60 60 52013254 76 76 52011191 County Route 85

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-0" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-5" 15'-11" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-5" 14'-0" 14'-4" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-2 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-2"

0036899 0036244 0037503 0037241 0037079 0036985 0036212 0035979 0035570 0036474 0035411 0033980 0035099 0034713 0034015 0035236 0034598 0034501 0034242 0033747 0033545 0033115 0033030 0033748 0046074 0046816 0049316 0045926

2C-8

January 2008

Vertical Clearance

52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52

1050610 1050620 1090130 5011990 5047170 5090220 5511130 5511140 5511150 5511170 5511180 5511200 5511210 5511240 5511250 5511260 5511280 5511290 5511310 5511360 5511370 5511380 5511390 5511400 5511410 5511420 5511430 5511440

950D950D52011005 950D950D52011005 County Route 81 394 17 52011004 County Route 380 County Route 380 Wiley Rd Forsythe Road Rogerville Road Walker Road Hawley Street Westfield Exit RP McKinley Road Pratt Road Pratt Road Walker Road Walker Road Pecor Street Mathews Road North Road County Route 74 County Route 74 County Route 78 Chestnut Street Chestnut Street Temple Street Brigham Road Fred-Dunkirk Intr

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-2" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-1" 14'-4" 14'-5" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-7" 14'-6" 14'-0" 14'-9" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-1" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-5" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-1"

0049493 0049492 0046711 0048543 0047618 0047617 0049267 0048974 0048839 0048697 0048586 0048500 0048308 0048133 0048134 0047915 0047914 0047817 0047755 0047378 0047266 0047265 0047175 0047069 0047070 0047033 0046983 0046774

January 2008

2C-9

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

52 52 52 52 52 52 52 52 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53

5511450 5511470 5511490 5511500 5511530 5511540 5511550 7707640 1001579 1022859 1023160 1028230 1029910 1037620 103989C 1043940 1044340 1044960 1045720 1045770 1050660 1061120 1062961 1062999 1063090 1063100 1063110 5045780

County Route 80 Newell Road County Route 79 OBrien Road County Route 93 County Route 95 Silver Creek Intr Conrail RR 5 5 53023025 33 33 53012016 33B 33B 53012017 62 62 53031234 75 75 53011182 130 130 53012016 Scaj Exp Ramp 266 266 53012008 277 277 53011197 290I290I53011002 S Main St CR 9B 957 CX 951E951E53011006 249 249 53011020 219 219 3021255 Ridge Rd Interch 190IX 190IX 190IX Long Road

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 190IX

14'-6" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-4" 14'-7" 14'-6" 14'-6" 14'-3" 14'-7" 14'-5" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-1" 15'-2" 14'-7" 14'-5" 14'-6" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-6" 15'-0" 14-6" 14'-2" 14'-7" 14'-2"

0046613 0046538 0046345 0046282 0045820 0045653 0045554 0046466 0090498 0042157 0042210 0043485 0043665 0042364 0090869 0091155 0041989 0091336 0044917 0091967 0043403 0045177 0043043 0042947 0090582 0090589 0090681 0091932

2C-10

January 2008

Vertical Clearance

53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53

5045800 5511640 5511650 5511660 5511670 5511720 5511730 5511860 5511900 5511950 5511970 5511980 5512000 5512010 5512039 5512109 5512160 5512170 5512180 5512290 5512310 5512320 5512340 5512350 5512360 5512370 5512390 5512400

324 324 53021055 Crittenden Road South Newstead Rd N Millgrove Road Ransom Road Rossler Street Henry Street Gunville Road Youngs Road Forest Road 290I EB TO 90I EB Wehrle Dr CR 290 Cleveland Drive George Urban Blvd 952Q952Q53011019 Rt400 Intch W I90 Depew Interchange South Ogden St Weiss Street Louisiana Street Hardpan Rd CR492 Pontiac Rd CR490 Pedestrian Walk Pedestrian Walk Gowans Rd CR 489 Evans Ctr - Eden Rd Sturgeon Point Rd Sturgeon Point Rd

190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90X 190IX 190IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-0" 15'-2" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-7" 14'-3" 14'-0" 14'-4" 14'-10" 14'-7" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-6" 14'-4" 14'-3" 14'-9" 14'-6" 14'-0" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-2"

0091546 0040545 0040727 0040944 0041160 0090037 0042540 0041365 0041835 0042012 0042033 0042035 0042070 0042252 0042319 0042794 0041727 0090070 0090106 0090413 0045029 0044778 0044710 0044711 0044652 0044550 0044369 0044368

January 2008

2C-11

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 53 81 81 81

5512420 5512430 5512440 5512450 5512460 5512470 5512500 5512510 5512570 5512620 5512680 5512700 5512710 5512720 5516240 5516250 5516260 5516270 552015G 6048500 6600030 7045820 7708440 7714560 7714570 1016860 1029050 1045110

North Creek Rd Lakeview Rd CR65 Lakeview Rd CR65 Amsdell Rd CR 122 Access Rd Exit 57 Sowles Rd CR 162 Access Rd Exit 56 Lake Ave CR200 Porter Ave to 190I US Army Corp Dupont Access Rd Staley Road Baseline Whitehaven Road 90I EB to 190 NB 190I SB to 90I EB Pedestrian Bridge Bedell Rd 950EX 438 X 5 Mile Strip Road Penn Central RR CNRR & City St Penn Central RR Balt Ohio Br 22 22 81061291 66 66 81011206 295 295 81011050

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 190IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 190IX 190IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX

14'-3" 14'-6" 14'-8" 14'-7" 14'-6" 14'-4" 14'-6" 14'-4" 14'-6" 14'-3" 14'-0" 14'-6" 14'-4" 14'-1" 14'-1" 14'-1" 14'-3" 14'-0" 14'-5" 14'-1" 14'-1" 13'-9" 14'-6" 14'-3" 14'-5" 14'-2" 14'-0" 14'-7"

0044181 0044076 0044075 0043766 0043622 0043560 0043245 0043222 0090666 0090905 0091166 0091577 0091646 0091727 0042618 0042617 0091120 0091839 0090535 0045431 0045346 0091354 0090900 0042363 0043122 0082327 0081121 0081626

2C-12

January 2008

Vertical Clearance

81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 81 83 83 83 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86 86

1050360 5515230 5515240 5515250 5515270 5515290 5515300 5515340 7713280 1045270 5514370 5514380 1019620 1022270 1022320 1022350 1045240 5515350 5515370 5515380 5515390 5515400 5515410 5515450 5515460 5515510 5515520 5515540

Rt 980D (Mass.) Shaker Museum Rd Albany Turnpike County Road 79 987G Access Road County Road 27 Sayre Hill Road Red Rock Rd CR 79 Conrail 300 300 83011038 Exit/Entry Ramp 17 Meadow Hill Road 28 28 86012008 32 32 86021012 32 32 86021211 32 32 86023117 299 299 6011072 Freetown Road Ohioville Road Brookside Road Thwy Access Ramp Horsenden Road Grist Mill Road County Road 94 Lucas Tpk CR 50 Thwy Access Ramp Sawkill Rd CR 42 L Katrine Rd CR90

90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 90IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX

14'-4" 14'-5" 14'-9" 14'-0" 14'-0" 14'-5" 14'-4" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-1" 14'-5" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-4" 14'-0" 14'-8" 14'-3" 14'-6" 14'-6" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-5" 14'-3" 14'-3"

0082409 0081172 0081289 0081328 0081509 0081662 0081826 0082029 0081604 0006383 0006010 0006095 0009113 0006786 0008533 0010125 0007638 0007068 0007345 0007417 0007601 0007865 0008271 0008698 0008928 0009137 0009188 0009527

January 2008

2C-13

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

86 86 86 86 86 86

5515550 5515570 5515580 5515590 5515600 5515610

Ruby Road Mt Marion Rd CR34 Peoples Road Malden Rd CR89 Katsbaan Road Asbury Road

87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX 87IX

14'-3" 14'-3" 14'-2" 14'-2" 14'-3" 14'-4"

0009656 0009807 0010232 0010316 0010404 0010534

2C-14

January 2008

Appendix 2D Required Coordination with the Department of Defense on Nonstandard Vertical Clearances over Interstate Routes
Introduction In 1998, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) informed the Department that the FHWA and Department of Defense (DOD) updated the interagency coordination when a project on an Interstate System roadway is to be advanced with a design exception to standard vertical clearances. This Appendix describes the NYSDOT procedures to provide this coordination. The procedures are based on the guidance in the included August 15, 1997, memo, Vertical Clearance, Interstate System Coordination of Design Exceptions from FHWAs Associate Administrator for Program Development of the FHWA Regional Administrators and the Federal Lands Highway Program Administrator. Requirements For projects on the Interstate System to be advanced with a design exception to the standard 16' vertical clearance, the NYSDOT or the New York State Thruway Authority will coordinate with the Surface Deployment and Distribution Command-Transportation Engineering Agency (SDDCTEA)1 during preliminary design, prior to requesting FHWAs concurrence with the design exception. This coordination applies for all Interstate routes except: 1. Interstates in urban areas where another route provides the single 16' routing for the urban area. (These single 16' routings are identified for the New York City, Kingston, Albany-Schenectady, Utica, Syracuse, Rochester and Buffalo urban areas in the package from FHWA that the Planning and Program Development Groups December 11, 1997, memo forwarded to the Regional Planning and Program Managers.) Sections of I-90, I-87 and I-190, which were exempted from the 16' vertical clearance as described in Appendix 2C. (NYSDOT will still have to prepare nonstandard feature justifications per the SAFETEA-LU Matrix on these bridges as described in Appendix 2C.)

2.

For projects to be advanced with a design exception to the standard vertical clearance over an Interstate route, except those routes noted in (1) and (2) above, the NYSDOT Region or Thruway Authority will coordinate with the SDDCTEA. This will be done late in Design
1

In previous editions of the Bridge Manual, the Department of Defense coordinating agency was the Military Traffic Management CommandTransportation Engineering Agency. In 2004, the name was changed to the Surface Deployment and Distribution CommandTransportation Engineering Agency. Because of on-going changes in the structure of the Department of Defense, the designer should verify the name and address of the Transportation Engineering Agency.

April 2010

2D-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Phase I by forwarding a copy (or applicable sections) of the draft Design Report, Design Report/Environmental Assessment or Design Report/Draft Environmental Impact Statement to the SDDCTEA for their review of the proposed nonstandard vertical clearance. See the Project Development Manual for additional guidance. FHWA and the Design Quality Assurance Bureau should be copied on this letter. The SDDCTEA is to reply by letter or e-mail within 15 calendar days. If no reply is received within 15 calendar days, it is assumed they have no comment. The text of Chapter III.C.2.a of the Full Design Report should then be modified to state that coordination with the Department of Defense has occurred and whether or not the SDDCTEA replied. If they do reply, a copy of their response is to be included in the attached appendices of the design report as important correspondence received on the project. Appropriate consideration should be given to any SDDCTEA comments and the treatment of the nonstandard feature and/or the justification of the nonstandard feature modified accordingly. FHWA will consider any SDDCTEA comments in their evaluation of the retention of the non-standard vertical clearance. The request for coordination should be addressed to: Director Surface Deployment and Distribution Command Transportation Engineering Agency (SDDCTEA) Attention: MTTE-SA 720 Thimble Shoals Boulevard, Suite 130 Newport News, VA 23606-2574 (Telephone - 757-599-1117) (Fax - 757-5991560) A sample letter for this coordination with the SDDCTEA is included in this Appendix.

2D-2

April 2010

Required Coordination with the Department of Defense

SAMPLE LETTER

State of New York Department of Transportation Albany, N.Y. 12232 http://www.dot.state.ny.us


Thomas Madison, Jr. Commissioner George E. Pataki Governor

William S. Brown, P.E. Regional Design Engineer NY State Dept. of Transportation State Office Building 1 Washington Drive Sample, New York 12201 October 12, 2005 Director Surface Deployment and Distribution Command Transportation Engineering Agency (SDDCTEA) ATTN: MTTE-SA 720 Thimble Shoals Boulevard, Suite 130 Newport News, VA 23606-2574 RE: PIN 9999.99 Route 33/I777 Interchange Town of Washington, Lincoln Co.

Dear Sir/Madam This letter is to provide coordination in accordance with the Federal Highway Administration/Department of Defense interagency coordination procedures when a project on an interstate system roadway is to be advanced with a design exception to standard vertical clearance. The subject project, to reconstruct the Route 33/I777 interchange, includes retention of a nonstandard vertical clearance at the Francis Palmer Road Bridge over I-777. this nonstandard feature and the justification for its retention are described in Section III.C.2.a on page 19 of the attached draft of the Design Report/Environmental Assessment, dated October 2005.

January 2008

2D-3

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

SAMPLE LETTER
Page 2 of 2 October 12, 2005

Please inform us of your comments on the retention of this nonstandard vertical clearance by responding by letter or e-mail. If we do not receive a response within 15 calendar days from the date of this memo, we will assume you have no comments. If you have any questions, please contact John Smith at (555)555-5555. A response by email should be sent to jsmith@dot.state.ny.us.

Sincerely

WILLIAM S. BROWN Regional Design Engineer

WSB:bb bcc: Robert Arnold, Division Administrator Director, Design Quality Assurance Bureau, 50 Wolf Road, POD 23

2D-4

January 2008

Required Coordination with the Department of Defense

MEMORANDUM

U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration Subject: ACTION: Vertical Clearance, Interstate System Coordination of Design Exceptions From: Associate Administrator for Program Development Date: August 15, 1997

Reply to Attn of: HNG-14

To: Regional Administrators Federal Lands Highway Program Administrator For almost 30 years, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA) of the Department of Defense (DOD) have cooperated to meet the demands of military traffic on the Interstate System, particularly in the area of vertical clearances. This need has been met with the adoption of standards by FHWA for vertical clearance on the Interstate that require a clear height of structures over the entire roadway width, including the useable width of shoulder, of 4.9 meters for the rural Interstate. In urban areas, the 4.9-meter clearance is applied to a single route, with other Interstate routings in the urban area having at least a 4.3-meter vertical clearance. In 1960, at the request of the DOD, and with the cooperation of the States, the above standards were established to accommodate military traffic on the Interstate. At that time, a large number of structures on the Interstate, constructed under previous criteria, existed which did not conform to the new minimum standard. The correction of all these deficiencies could not be economically justified. Consequently, in 1969, the MTMCTEA, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) (then AASHO) and the FHWA agreed to concentrate on a subset of the Interstate judged to be priority routes. The subset contained a significantly smaller number of deficient structures on 41 842 kilometers of the Interstate. The 41 842 kilometer priority network served about 95 percent of the major military installations. Since then, the MTMCTEA has developed and continues to refine the Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET). The STRAHNET report dated January 1991 was distributed to Regional Federal Highway Administrators by memorandum from the Director, Office of Environment and Planning dated March 22, 1991. Since 1991, there have been a few changes made to STRAHNET. These changes have been coordinated with the States and the field offices. Maps delineating the changes were distributed to the affected regional offices by HEP-l0. The STRAHNET is a system of highways that provides defense access, continuity and emergency capabilities for movements

January 2008

2D-5

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

of personnel and equipment in both peacetime and wartime. The STRAHNET was based on quantifiable DOD requirements, addressing their peacetime, wartime, strategic, and oversize/overweight highway demands. The network consists of approximately 96 000 kilometers of highway. The STRAHNET has been incorporated into the National Highway System (NHS). Almost 75 percent of the system in the continental United States (about 70 000 kilometers) consists of roadways on the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. The currently established procedures require the FHWA to coordinate with the MTMCTEA when a clear height of structures of less than 4.9 meters is created as the result of a construction project or the project does not provide for the correction of existing substandard vertical clearance on the 41 842-kilometer priority network prior to approving the exception. For routes not on the priority network, coordination is not required although the FHWA policy provides that the MTMCTEA be notified of all exceptions to vertical clearance on the remainder of the Interstate System. The approval action for exceptions to vertical clearance has been delegated to the field offices, which can contact the MTMCTEA directly. When the State highway agency (SHA) has approval authority for design exceptions under one of the 23 U.S.C. 106(b) exemption provisions, coordination with the MTMCTEA is still required and may be accomplished through the FHWA or directly with the MTMCTEA. The development of the STRAHNET, the establishment of Power Projection Platforms, base realignments, and the evolving role of the military have created a need to revise coordination procedures between the MTMCTEA and the FHWA, concerning exceptions to the vertical clearance requirements on the Interstate System. Therefore, the FHWA and the MTMCTEA have agreed that all exceptions to the 4.9-meter vertical clearance standard for the rural Interstate and the single routing in urban areas, whether it is a new construction project, a project that does not provide for correction of an existing substandard condition, or a project which creates a substandard condition at an existing structure, will be coordinated with the MTMCTEA beginning upon receipt of this memorandum. This agreement extends to the full roadway width including shoulders for the through lanes, as well as ramps and collector-distributor roadways in Interstateto-Interstate interchanges. This change in effect eliminates the 41 842-kilometer priority network as a separate subset of the Interstate System. The revised coordination procedures do not change the standards adopted for the Interstate enumerated in "A Policy on Design Standards Interstate System," AASHTO, July 1991, or the delegations of authority in FHWA Order M1100.1A. A number of toll roads are part of STRAHNET by virtue of being incorporated into the Interstate System under the former provisions of Section 129(b) of Title 23, United States Code. While the FHWA does not have any particular "leverage" on the toll authorities to comply with Federal standards on non-federally funded projects, it is expected that the SHA's have established appropriate procedures to assure that proposed changes or alterations of the toll road will meet applicable policies established for the Interstate System. The working relationship should ensure the needs of the military are considered and that necessary coordination occurs. A request for coordination may be forwarded to the MTMCTEA at any time during project development prior to taking any action on the design exception. It should include a time period of 10 working days (after receipt) for action on the request. The office initiating a request for coordination to the MTMCTEA should verify receipt of the request by telephone or fax. If the MTMCTEA does not respond within the time frame, the FHWA should conclude that the

2D-6

January 2008

Required Coordination with the Department of Defense

MTMCTEA does not have any concerns with the proposed exception. If comments are forthcoming, the FHWA and the SHA will consider mitigation to the extent feasible. A request for coordination should be addressed to: Director Military Traffic Management Command Transportation Engineering Agency (MTMCTEA) ATTN: MTTE-SA 720 Thimble Shoals Boulevard, Suite 130 Newport News, VA 23606-2574 (Telephone: 757-599-1117, Fax: 757-599-1560) The Federal Aid Policy Guide Non-regulatory Supplement, 23 CFR 625, Paragraph 7 of Transmittal 13 dated July 21, 1995, will be revised as appropriate at the earliest opportunity. Questions regarding this memorandum should be directed to William A. Prosser at 202-3661332, or Robert C. Schlicht at 202-366-1317.

/s/ Thomas J. Ptak

January 2008

2D-7

Appendix 2E Coast Guard Jurisdiction Checklist


PIN _____________ Route______________________________ BIN______________ Waterway ______________________________________ County________________ This checklist is designed to help determine the need for a Section 9 Permit from the US Coast Guard for bridge construction projects. Final determination for such a need shall be verified by the N.Y.S. D.O.T. Main Office, Office of Structures, Coast Guard Compliance Unit. (1) Is the noted waterway presently used (or susceptible to use in its natural condition or by reasonable improvement) as a means to transport interstate or foreign commerce? Yes No

A "yes" answer for question 1 indicates a clear need for the noted permit. (2) Is the noted waterway subject to the ebb and flow of tide? Yes No A n o a n s w e r t oq u e s t i o n1b u t a y e s a n s w e r t oq u e s t i o n2i n d i c a t e san e e d for further discussion with the Coast Guard, or FHWA if federal funds are utilized. Answers to the following questions will be used for information during discussions with the U.S.C.G. This information will be used to request a determination and when necessary to supplement the data necessary for a public notice and formal permit process. (3) Marine craft utilizing this waterway at or in the vicinity of the project site include: (CHECK ALL THAT APPLY) None Canoes/Rowboats Small Motorboats (15' max.) Medium Motorboats (20' max.) Large Vessels (over 21') Recreational Commercial (4) Give normal pool or ordinary water depths in vicinity of bridge: 0' to 2' 3' to 5' over 5'

January 2008

2E-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

(5)

Is there likely to be navigation passing under the existing bridge during periods of poor visibility (i.e., nighttime, fog, bad weather, etc.)? Yes No No

(6)

Does the existing bridge have navigation lights? Yes

(7)

Does secondary lighting in the area provide a clear definition of the navigable channel and bridge opening? Yes No

(8)

Does the waterway exhibit characteristics which may pose risk to navigation such as constricted navigation channel, piers in waterway, dams, rapids, etc.? Yes No

(9) Give minimum vertical clearance at mean high water (or maximum navigable pool elevation) for: A) Existing Bridge ____________________________ B) Downstream Bridge_________________________ C) Upstream Bridge ___________________________ (10) Give expected minimum vertical clearance at mean high water (or maximum navigable pool elevation) for the Proposed Bridge_______________________. Will this project utilize Federal funds? Yes No

(11)

This checklist was completed by: Title/Organization: Date:

If the need for a permit has not been determined, forward a copy of this checklist to M.O. Office of Structures, Coast Guard Compliance Unit. Determination: Permit No Permit

Determination Date: / / Name: Organization: (D.O.T.-Regional Office, D.O.T.-Main Office, Coast Guard District, FHWA) Include a copy of this form in the Design Approval Document for the project after a final determination has been made.

2E-2

January 2008

Section 3 Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types


3.1 Scoping

There are always certain questions that must be answered when a bridge project is identified. These same basic questions arise regardless of whether the project is being evaluated as part of a highway upgrade program or as a more urgent need such as a structure load posting or closure. The time involved in going through this process may be lengthy or, due to the urgency of the situation, it may be expedited. All projects identified by the New York State Department of Transportation are first addressed through a process known as "Scoping." Scoping is defined as a process that establishes a genuine consensus about the nature of a proposed project and what is to be accomplished. The products of this process are: C C C C Project Objectives Design Criteria Feasible Alternates Reasonable Cost Estimate(s)

To develop these products, the designer will ask many questions whose answers will help define the products. Some of these questions include: C C C C C C C C C C C What is necessary to satisfy projected needs? Is the roadway alignment a problem? (e.g., accident history, nonstandard features) Is an adequate roadway section provided? What is the condition of the bridge? Could it be a highway improvement project only or should bridge work be included? Does the bridge provide an adequate opening for the feature it crosses (i.e., waterway, roadway, or railroad)? Can the existing bridge be widened? Should it be widened based on its condition? Can part or all of the bridge be retained? If so, for how many years? What input is the community providing (e.g., historical, maintenance of traffic, utilities, and aesthetic treatments)? What preliminary cost estimates are available? When can the work be scheduled? 3-1

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The answers to these questions will define the appropriate highway and bridge work. This process will also establish the project objectives that will result in one of three decisions: C C C Short-Term Repair Long-Term Rehabilitation Replacement

3.2

Preliminary Engineering

During the preliminary engineering process, any structure(s) within the limits of the project must be assessed with regard to: C C C The load carrying capacity of the existing structure(s). The expected remaining life of the structure(s). The geometric features of the existing structure(s) and its approaches as well as structural features such as railing, bearings, fatigue-prone details, etc.

Sometimes it is not clear whether the bridge should be rehabilitated or replaced. Additional input is needed to make this decision. See Section 19 for more information on the rehabilitation versus replacement decision. Cost comparisons of the remaining possible solutions, as well as a constructability evaluation, are needed. This preliminary engineering process becomes more project specific, and more detailed answers to the following questions are now sought: C C C C C C C What services must be maintained and what services can be interrupted (e.g., utilities, emergency, fire and ambulance, school bus routes, etc.)? How can traffic be maintained during construction? How will a new bridge differ from the old? Should it be longer or shorter? Should it be wider or narrower? What procedures are different between a rehabilitation project and a replacement project? Does the site require any special construction considerations? How much will it cost and how long will it take to complete each of the various options? Should prefabricated bridge elements and systems be used to speed construction, save costs or improve work zone safety?

These refined evaluations will result in more project-specific findings. A final recommendation should then be made. When the recommendation is a bridge replacement, a Final Design Report will present the findings, Design Approval will be sought and a "Site Data Package" will be prepared for the specific bridge site. Bridge rehabilitation projects will follow a similar process. Section 19 of this manual also provides guidance for evaluating a rehabilitation option.

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Further information on scoping and preliminary engineering is contained in the Project Development Manual.

3.3

Site Data

Once the project objectives are established, work begins on the final design and preparation of the Plans, Specifications and Estimate package. The PS&E package consists of two parts, the highway portion and the bridge portion. Information needed to establish parameters for the final design is provided to the bridge designer by the Region. The Region prepares and assembles this "Site Data" package or oversees its preparation by a consultant. The Regional Structures Engineer is responsible for verifying accuracy and completeness of the data. The site data package consists of two parts: C C Bridge Data Sheet - Part 1 - Must be completed for all structures. Bridge Data Sheet - Part 2 - Waterway supplement, which must be completed for most structures over a waterway. (See Section 3.4.1)

These forms also require various supporting documentation (see Appendices 3A and 3B). An electronic version of the appendices is available on the Office of Structures web site. Electronic files are required. Hard copies of the site data package are optional. For designs to be progressed in the Office of Structures, the package will be reviewed by the Bridge Program and Project Development Group. For structures crossing water, the package will also be reviewed by the Hydraulic Engineering Unit. For consultant and Regional (in-house) bridge design projects, the Office of Structures Design Quality Assurance Bureau will be responsible for the review. For this type of project, see Appendix 3D for the required portion of the site data to be submitted. With completion of these reviews and resolution of major comments, final design begins.

3.4 3.4.1

Hydraulics Hydraulic Design

Projects involving waterway crossings will generally require a hydraulic analysis unless it is clear that, because of the bridges height, length, substructure configuration and construction method, there will be no significant effect on hydraulics. Consult the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit for guidance on whether or not a hydraulic analysis is required. If an analysis is required, the necessary supporting documentation is outlined in Appendix 3B, Bridge Data Sheet-Part 2, Waterway Supplement. For definitions of ordinary high water, ordinary water and low water, see Section 17, Note 48. Any work, permanent or temporary, that involves placement of constrictions or obstacles to flow within a channel or floodway (e.g., cofferdams, water diversion structures, causeways, etc.) will require the concurrence of the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit or the Regional

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Hydraulics Engineer. Such obstructions have the potential to increase water surface elevations in violation of Federal flood insurance and control regulations, or to create dangerous scour potential. Since evaluation of these possibilities may at times require significant hydraulic analysis, any such proposed work should be brought to the attention of the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit or the Regional Hydraulics Engineer as early as possible.

3.4.2

Hydraulic Table

For all projects where the hydraulic opening for the feature crossed is the controlling factor, a Hydraulic Table is required on the plans. The following table shall be shown: HYDRAULIC DATA Drainage Area = Recurrency Interval Peak discharge High Water Elevation @ Pt. of Max. Backwater Proposed Avg. Velocity Thru Structure @ Design Flood = ft/s ft. Q500 Scour Depth (ft) Q500 Scour Elev. (ft) (sq. miles) (yrs) (ft3/s) Existing Basic Flood 100 Design Flood 50

Minimum Channel El. Scour Analysis: Q100 Scour Depth (ft) Q100 Scour Elev. (ft)

Begin Abutment Pier End Abutment Scour depth is measured from minimum channel elevation.

Table 3-1 Hydraulic Data Table For projects requiring the use of a temporary bridge to cross the waterway, the following notes should be completed and placed directly under the Hydraulic Table. Note 2 is to be used only when a hydraulic analysis permits. 1. The proposed temporary structure shall provide a minimum clear opening of _____ ft perpendicular to the flow with a minimum acceptable low beam elevation of _____. 3-4 May 2011

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A minimum clear waterway area of ______ ft2 is required below the minimum low beam elevation. 2. As an alternate to the minimum clear opening specified above, the Contractor may elect to use a single circular pipe of ______ diameter or a series of multiple pipes having a minimum diameter of ______. A minimum effective flow area of ______ ft2 is required below elevation ______. The following note shall be placed directly under the Hydraulic Data Table for Three- and FourSided Structures: The proposed structure shall have a minimum hydraulic area of ______ ft2 below the design high water elevation of ______ at the upstream fascia of the structure. This area shall be measured perpendicular to the flow. The minimum clear span shall be ______ ft2 perpendicular to flow; a clear span exceeding this by more than 10% shall require the concurrence of the Regional Hydraulics Engineer or the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit.

3.4.3

Slope Protection Criteria

All erodible or disturbed banks in a project that are subject to hydraulic flows shall be protected by stone fill to an elevation 1 foot above design high water. Medium stone fill will be used when the average velocity through a structure is 10 ft/sec or less at design flow. Heavy stone fill will be used when the average velocity through a structure is from10 ft/sec to 12 ft/sec at the design flow, or as directed by the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit or the Regional Hydraulics Engineer. For banks subject to wake or wave action, bank protection shall be carried to a height equal to 3 feet above the maximum navigable elevation. All slopes not protected with stone fill and which cannot be seeded, e.g. under a structure, shall be protected with select granular fill slope protection, concrete block paving or grouted stone. Slope protection under a structure should be carried a minimum of 3 feet outside the fascia line. Select granular fill slope protection shall be placed to a thickness of 8 inches. Light stone fill shall be placed to a thickness of 1 foot and can be provided in lieu of granular fill when heavier protection is desired. See the latest BD sheets for stone fill placement and key-way details.

3.4.4

Scour Monitoring Devices

Scour monitoring devices are sometimes installed on existing piers and abutments. They are not normally used on new construction. Scour monitoring devices can be considered for use in the following circumstances. 1. Bridges with a known history of scour and no scour retrofits.

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2. Bridges over streams on erodible materials, mainly with silt sands and gravel (or stone fill on top of erodible material). 3. Bridges where there is no easy access to measure the stream bed during floods. 4. Bridges over streams with high velocities that make it impossible to measure the depth of scour holes by probing, or because the velocity prohibits the measuring device from staying vertical in the scour hole during a flood. 5. Bridges over streams with high debris loads because the debris would prohibit probing for the depth of scour with either weights on a line or with a pole; however, some of the devices may be easily damaged by debris or ice. 6. For a critical bridge on the flood watch program. (Other things being similar, structures carrying high traffic volumes should be given preference.) Background Scour monitoring devices have been in existence for many years and their reliability has improved. Properly installed and maintained, they have provided critical information during flooding that alerted bridge owners to close a bridge during critical stages. Scour monitoring devices measure the scour at one point in the stream bed. If scour happens outside the devices measuring area of influence the monitoring device probably will not give a true reading of the maximum scour when it occurs. Most scour monitoring devices have several limitations, especially when they are trying to measure the extent of a scour hole during a flood and in riverine situations. During a flood it is possible to get inaccurate readings (both high and low) that may not reflect actual conditions because of air bubbles due to velocity and debris, but in general if the device indicates a problem, it should be considered accurate. Monitoring devices should not be a substitute for scour retrofits such as stone fill. No monitoring device is foolproof, and any device may fail during floods. Monitoring devices should be used in addition to, not in place of, sending people to the location to determine the extent of scour. Monitoring devices do not guarantee the safety of the bridge during floods. Operation and Maintenance Procedures Any scour monitoring device should initially be checked once a week for at least two months to gain confidence in its operation, understand its limitations and be able to distinguish if a reading is true or affected by other environmental factors. If a device is installed there should be operation and maintenance procedures developed with input from the manufacturer and instructions for record keeping. Directions for reading the device shall also be conveyed to the Regional flood watch teams. Types of Scour Monitoring Devices There are several devices available that are recommended for consideration: Brisco scour monitor, magnetic sliding collar scour monitor, sonar scour monitor, driven rod with piezoelectric

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polymer film sensors, buried float-out devices, etc. NCHRP Report #396 discusses these devices and gives their pros and cons. The following scour monitoring devices have been used with some success at installations throughout New York State: Brisco scour monitor; Magnetic sliding collar scour monitor; Sonar scour monitor. They are described below: 1. Brisco Scour Monitor: It can be used in most situations, (but usually not in sandy channels); it is fairly simple with no high-tech components. If the channel consists mainly of sand, the rod will vibrate in the stream bottom so it will require a bottom plate to avoid vibrating into the sand. Sand, suspended sediment and ice could also get between the rod and the enclosing pipe, binding the rod to the pipe and inhibiting movement as it descends into the scour hole (even though this does not happen very often). It may require reinforcement or protection in streams or rivers carrying heavy ice or debris to avoid denting the outer pipe. It will not show any backfilling of the stream bottom. In a salt water environment the sleeve and the rod should be galvanized to avoid corrosion and the device should be checked for barnacles. 2. Magnetic Sliding Collar Scour Monitor (Described in NCHRP Report #397B): It is a simple, reliable scour monitor preferred by the New York Office of the USGS. The cables carrying the signal can be attached to the back side of the pier columns to avoid damage from ice or debris. It may be hard to install in streams with large boulders or rocks where excavating and installing the guide pipe may become a construction problem. It will not show any backfilling of the stream bottom. The collar and guide pipe will not corrode in a salt water environment nor interfere with magnets since they are stainless steel. The guide pipe must be driven to below the extent of possible scour. In salt water environment, the device should be checked for barnacles. 3. Sonar Scour Monitor (Described in NCHRP Report #397A): This scour monitor can be used in deep water more effectively than shallow water because if it is not always submerged, air bubbles trapped around the transducer head, will alter the reading given by the device. Fast flowing water may also introduce air bubbles, suspended sediment, debris or water turbulence at the transducer head which may alter the readings. It can show backfilling of the stream bottom. The reading during actual scour may be inaccurate due to the conditions mentioned previously. The head of the device requires regular maintenance and should be checked for barnacles, algae, or other obstacles if they exist in the vicinity. Since the sensor device in a sonar scour monitor is relatively inexpensive it may be worthwhile to use more than one sensor to measure scour at a foundation as a back up in case the first device becomes inoperative. Further information on scour monitoring devices and guidance for their use may be obtained from the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit.

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3.4.5

Stream Crossing Permit Requirements

In 2007 the Buffalo and New York City Districts of the US Army Corps of Engineers modified the Regional Conditions of the Nationwide Permits. The Regional Conditions require an open bottom or an embedded invert to create a natural streambed for short span structures over fishbearing streams. See EI 10-028 for complete requirements.

3.5 3.5.1

Structure Selection Process Establishing Span Lengths

The geometric design policy outlined in Section 2 of this manual must be considered as well as the Design Report, site data package and correspondence to establish bridge span lengths. Design criteria for the lower roadway must also be considered. The profiles and sections of the features being crossed as well as the crossing feature create two mathematical reference planes. The relationship of these planes to each other can be established by a NYSDOT computer program known as VERTCL (Shoulder Break and VERTical CLearance Program). Other 2D and 3D COGO or CADD routines can also be used to determine the location of the minimum critical vertical clearance point and the maximum available beam depth. The resulting available beam depth, when used in conjunction with other project geometry, allows for the evaluation of various span lengths and configurations. The shoulder break program also provides the limits of the bridge opening. This is known as the shoulder break area (see Figure 3.1). The overall bridge length is smaller than the shoulder break length. See the users manual for examples of how to use this program.

Figure 3.1 Shoulder Break Area 3-8 May 2011

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3.5.2 3.5.2.1

Bridge Type Based on Span Lengths Span Lengths Less than 40 ft

See section 3.4.5 for stream crossing requirements. The various types of units and materials available for this span range include: Structural Plate Pipes (aluminum and steel) These units are available in various shapes and sizes. They can be used for shallow fills (-2 ft minimum), as well as deep fills. Their uses include pedestrian, bike and animal underpasses, railroad tunnels, and vehicular tunnels. They have been used as liners for masonry and concrete arches as well as other pipes. Steel plates are rarely used for water crossings due to corrosion concerns. Presently, the use of a bridge-size type of structure is limited to secondary roadways and low fill areas. Environmental and size constraints normally dictate whether to use steel or aluminum. For a discussion and details of this type of structure see the appropriate chapter of the latest NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and the latest manufacturer's catalogues. Steel and aluminum pipes are considered to be equal alternates. Precast or Cast-In-Place Reinforced Concrete Structures Reinforced concrete structures for culverts and short span bridges consist of four sided boxes, three sided frames and arch shapes. These structures are usually precast in segments and assembled in the field. The precast segments are usually designed by a professional engineer employed by the Contractor after the award of the contract. Four-sided boxes and prismatic three-sided frames are usually designed using the computer program ETCULVERT. Nonprismatic shaped and arch-shaped three sided structures are designed using other computer programs. For additional information on the structure types below, see Chapter 19 of the Highway Design Manual. Four Sided Boxes have a maximum practical single-cell clear span of approximately 20 ft. Three-Sided Structures have a maximum practical clear span of approximately 50 ft. These units are supported on strip footings founded on rock or piles. A precast or cast-inplace, full-invert slab/footing unit can also be used. Both three-sided structures and precast arches can be used for many of the same situations identified for the larger pipes. In order to obtain the necessary headroom for some cases, the units may be raised by supporting them on a pedestal wall. The use of multi-cell adjacent units to convey a waterway is discouraged due to the potential for blockage by debris catching and accumulating in the intermediate piers. Use of three-sided structures is discouraged in the following situations:

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1. Spans longer than 40 ft with low fill heights. With low fill heights the use of arch shapes is not feasible and three-sided frames (flat top of slab) are inefficient. Use of conventional bridges with prestressed slab unit superstructures must be investigated. 2. Structures with stage construction, on a skew greater than 10 and with a span longer than 40 ft. Arch shapes are very difficult to use in a stage construction with skew and three-sided frames are inefficient. Use of conventional bridges with prestressed slab unit superstructures must be investigated. Deck Slabs or Deck/Girder Designs Prestressed slab units, stress-laminated timber decks and concrete or timber decks with steel or timber girders cover this entire span range. Conventional reinforced concrete slabs, however, are inefficient for spans greater than 24 ft due to their excessive depth and heavy reinforcement. Composite deck systems utilizing concrete with built-up steel girders or rolled sections can also be considered for spans in this range.

3.5.2.2

Spans Between 40 ft and 100 ft

Three-sided units can be used to a maximum span of about 50 ft. Adjacent prestressed concrete slab units can be used to a maximum span of about 60 ft. Prestressed concrete box units, concrete I-beams, bulb-tee sections, etc., are used for the remaining portion of the span range. Bulb-tees are usually preferred over concrete I-beams. (For bridges with large cross slopes, the smaller top flange width of concrete I-beams may make them more attractive than the bulb-tee.) Deck/Girder systems using laminated timber beams have a maximum span of about 80 ft. Conventional composite design systems utilizing concrete decks and steel stringers can be used for the entire span range. At the lower end of the span range rolled beam sections would be used. Fabricated, welded plate girders would more likely be used at the upper end. Special prefabricated bridge panels with concrete decks and steel beams can reach spans approaching 100 ft. They have the advantage of reduced field construction time.

3.5.2.3

Span Lengths Between 100 ft and 200 ft

Special modified prestressed concrete box beam units up to 4N-6O deep can span up to 120 ft. Prestressed concrete I-beams and bulb-tee beams ranging from 4N-7O to 6N-7Oin depth can span up to approximately 150 ft. Bulb-tees are usually preferred over concrete I-beams. The designer should investigate the feasibility of transporting and erecting the beams, especially those with a span longer than 130 ft. Composite steel plate girder systems can easily and economically span this range. Single spans up to 220 ft have been used. Once the single span exceeds 165 ft, alternate multiple span arrangements should be considered. The cost of additional substructures must be compared to the greater superstructure cost.

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3.5.2.4

Span Lengths Between 200 ft and 300 ft

Single spans in this range have fewer options. For the majority of the cases only a thru or deck truss should be considered. Plate girders or spliced concrete girders can be used at the lower end of this span range. Special designs utilizing arches, slant leg rigid frames, and concrete or steel box girders are also viable options. These types of special structures are used to address limited member depths, aesthetics and compatibility with site conditions. Constructability concerns and possible alternatives should be discussed in detail with the Region.

3.5.3

Multiple-Span Arrangements

For multiple-span bridges, a continuous design should be used whenever possible to eliminate deck joints. In the case of multiple-simple-span prestressed unit bridges, the deck slab should be made continuous for live load over the intermediate supports. Span arrangements ranging from equal span viaduct type structures to proportionally increasing span ratios should be evaluated. Continuous design using steel rolled beams or built-up plate girders takes into account the continuity over the interior support points. Based on the span arrangements and the span ratios, the largest span of a continuous layout can be equated to a smaller equivalent simple span. This reduces the required beam depth for the span. See the following table and LRFD Table 2.5.2.6.3-1 for guidelines. Poor continuous span ratios may result in uplift. Tie-down systems and anchored end spans are two means of addressing uplift.

Number of Spans 2 3 4 5

Ratio of Spans

Equivalent Simple Span

Span to Depth Ratio Desired Maximum 30** 30** 30** 30**

1.0 : 1.0 0.75 : 1.0 : 0.75 0.80 : 1.0 : 1.0 : 0.80 0.60 : 0.80 : 1.0 : 0.80 : 0.60

*0.90 x 1.0 span *0.85 x 1.0 span *0.75 x 1.0 span *0.60 x 1.0 span

27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5

* For span arrangements with less efficient ratios, the equivalent factor can be adjusted proportionally upward (i.e.,0.85 up to 0.90, 0.75 up to 0.85 and 0.60 up to 0.75). ** For ratios greater than 30, designers should consider LRFD LL deflection recommendations.

Table 3-2 Multiple Span Arrangement Ratios

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3.5.4

Spans over 300 ft

Multiple-span arrangements in this range will involve balancing superstructure and substructure costs to achieve an optimum design. Site restrictions will often impact efficient substructure placement. Long multiple-span structures can utilize a variety of construction types and materials. C Steel Thru or deck trusses with girder approach spans Trapezoidal box beams Variable depth girders (I shaped beams and box girders) Hybrid girders utilizing conventional steel for the web and high-performance steel for the flanges. Cable-stayed girders or box beams Deck or thru arches Cable-stayed bridges Suspension bridges C Concrete Segmental box designs Cable-stayed trapezoidal boxes Deck arches Floating bridges/Pontoons Post-tensioned, spliced bulb-tees Segmental viaducts with variable depth units

3.5.5

Selection Guidelines

A vast majority of New York's bridges are small single-span structures. The decision on what type of structure to use often depends on site limitations, foundation and geometric considerations. The following guidelines may be used to determine what type of structure should be considered in the shorter span length ranges. These are for guidance only. Consideration should be given to the structure's relationship to the total project, geographical location, site accessibility and constructability: A. For spans not exceeding 100 ft., prestressed adjacent box beam and slab units are always considered. If the structure is over a railroad or a stream prestressed concrete is

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more advantageous because of maintenance and inspection considerations. Elimination of form work for the deck slab minimizes work over the feature. Use of bulb-tees must be considered if utilities are present on the structure. B. Frequently, prestressed concrete adjacent slab units or box beams will be chosen to satisfy critical profile and vertical clearance restrictions. Prestressed concrete structures with adjacent slabs or boxes require a 6 inch thick deck while a steel composite structure requires a 9 inch deck and a 2 inch minimum haunch. When skew angles over 50 are involved, adjacent prestressed concrete beam design should be chosen only after careful review, since conventional joint details and reinforcement become quite complicated, as do the size of the bearings and bridge seats. Bulb-tees or I-beams would be preferred at these sites. Approval of the D.C.E.S. is required for the use of adjacent prestressed beams with a skew over 50. For curved spans with midordinate corrections exceeding 1 foot, prestressed concrete adjacent box beams or slab units are seldom chosen because of the increased cost of the wider chord alignment and the complications that arise with regard to bridge railing anchorage and end transitions. Prestressed concrete bulb-tees, I-beams, or spread boxes are alternates worth considering. Concrete bulb-tees, I-beams, or spread box beams should be considered if vertical clearance requirements can be satisfied. At locations where either long piles or poor bearing capacity is anticipated, prestressed adjacent box or adjacent slab design has the disadvantage of having a heavier superstructure. Under these conditions a spread box, bulb-tee, or concrete I-beam with deck slab configuration might be considered to reduce the loads. Prestressed concrete adjacent beam design is often chosen over steel beams when a structure must be opened to traffic quickly. This type of construction eliminates the need for deck slab forming. It can also accommodate a temporary asphalt wearing surface if the time of the year prohibits placement of the concrete deck. Where significant space must be provided for utilities, a spread system using steel girders, concrete I-beams, or bulb-tees is the preferred choice. Spread concrete box units can also accommodate some utilities. Vertical curves are better handled with multigirder systems, since camber can be fabricated and controlled with greater accuracy. Adjacent prestressed units must accommodate any curve correction by placing a variable depth deck slab. This can result in considerable additional dead load necessitating a deeper beam. Negative cambers should not be used. Adjacent prestressed concrete boxes or slabs are preferred over streams where ice and/or debris is a problem. The smooth underside of adjacent units reduces the potential for snagging. Where either a steel or concrete superstructure is acceptable, the latest bid prices should be consulted.

C.

D.

E. F.

G.

H.

I.

J.

K.

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3.6 3.6.1

Substructures Substructure Location

When deciding where to locate substructures, the designer should identify all appropriate horizontal offsets, standards and requirements covered in Section 2. Using these constraints and the shoulder break length, the selection of either a single or multiple span arrangement, whichever is most appropriate, should be made. The available beam depth is factored in along with any special concerns such as: C Sheeting requirements for staging and substructure construction. Cantilever sheeting design vs. tied-back sheeting vs. pile and lagging wall costs. Deep water cofferdam construction vs. shallower depths or causeway construction. Treatments such as high abutments with large reveal heights for form liner, masonry or brick treatments. Wetland encroachments - Longer spans to avoid wetlands will require additional beam depth. This can raise a profile and move the toe of slope out or require a retaining wall. Shorter spans may disturb more of the area and require additional wetland mitigation. Staging problems - Includes interference between the existing and new features, (e.g., substructures, beams, pier caps, pile driving - especially battered piles) as well as utilities that must remain in service. Misalignment with features crossed - Narrow highway medians may result in large skews for piers. For stream piers the normal direction of stream flow should be considered to avoid the creation of eddies and turbulence. Desirable modifications of the skew for seismic reasons may be made difficult by site geometry. Utility Conflicts - Avoidance of utilities that would require costly relocations can further restrict the location of substructures. Pile driving and sheeting placement may be limited by overhead or underground interference. Integral Abutments - Must be located so that their exposed height is within the limits identified in Section11.6.1.6.

C C

3.6.2

Foundation Assessment

The "Site Data" package includes the substructure boring logs for the bridge and, sometimes, the highway. These logs should be evaluated with regard to: C Location with respect to the new bridge - Do the boring locations allow the designer to confidently perform a preliminary foundation assessment?

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C C C C

Consistency of the soil with respect to each log - Is the information in the different logs consistent enough to interpret rock elevations and soil types? Number of borings taken - Are there enough borings to extrapolate information? What if long walls are anticipated? Compatibility with the record plans of the existing bridge - Are rock elevations or pile lengths shown on the record plans consistent with the new boring logs? Location of borings with respect to the proposed substructure layout - Is there sufficient information to estimate pile lengths? Can sheeting be driven to required depths?

3.6.3 3.6.3.1

Foundation Selection Water Crossings

The following criteria shall be applied to all structures crossing water. C C C Unless founded on rock, all structures crossing water shall be supported on piles or have other positive protection to prevent scour of the substructure. The minimum length of pile to be considered is10 ft. Cofferdams should be evaluated with regard to need, type, size, constructability and cost. Alternative types of construction such as causeways, caissons or drilled shafts should be considered and compared to conventional cofferdam costs. The estimated maximum depth of scour should be used to determine overall structure stability. Piles should be socketed into rock if scour can affect their stability. Recommendations for details will be contained in the Foundation Design Report (FDR).

3.6.3.2

Grade Separations

Continuous structures will normally require unyielding foundations. Differential settlement is not acceptable since it may result in secondary stresses detrimental to the structure. Where abutment or wingwall heights exceed 24 ft., alternate systems other than cantilevered, cast-in-place concrete wall systems should be considered. This is especially true in fill areas. Several modular wall systems are available which may provide a more economical system. Coordination with the Office of Structures Foundation Unit and the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau is needed. Any assumptions made that are critical to the structure type and configuration should be verified. Additional boring requests or other subsurface investigations should be addressed to the Structures Foundation Unit of the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau.

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3.6.4 3.6.4.1

Orientation, Configuration and Details Skew

Orientation of the substructure units is greatly dependent upon the type of feature crossed. Whenever possible, the skew of the structure should be kept at 30 or less. Skews in excess of 30 can cause uplift problems, cracking of the concrete deck in the acute corners, and require larger bridge seats and pedestal bearing areas. Sharp acute corners should be avoided. Radial supports are preferred for curved structures. If possible, skews 10 or less should be eliminated, unless it creates problems with misalignment of the feature crossed.

3.6.4.2

Water Crossings

Whenever possible piers should be aligned with the stream flow to avoid the creation of eddies and turbulence which can increase scour. Skews of less than 10 can usually be avoided. Placement of abutments or piers should not result in pockets where water turbulence can increase potential for scour. The following guidelines for substructures need to be considered: C C Two piers close to each shore line may be more hydraulically efficient and economical to build than one deep water pier. Piers should be solid to a height of 3 ft. above maximum navigable elevation or 2 ft above the 100-year flood or flood of record, whichever is higher. If the remaining height of pier above the solid stem is 16 ft. or less, piers should be made completely solid. Use of a short column bent can result in shrinkage cracks in the columns. The upstream face of piers should be rounded or V-shaped to improve hydraulics. If ice and/or debris is a problem, the upstream face should be battered 15 degrees and armored with a steel angle to a point 3 ft. above design high water. This allows the ice to be broken and the debris or ice to ride up the pier face. At sites where medium or heavy drift is expected, this treatment should also be considered. Where wingwalls of an abutment are at or near the water's edge, wingwalls should be flared to improve the hydraulic entrance condition. If possible, the elevation at the end of the wingwall should be higher than design high water or, as a minimum, the ordinary high water. Wingwalls on the upstream side should be aligned to direct the flow through the bridge opening. For ease of construction, downstream wingwalls can be made mirror images.

3.6.4.3

General Details

U-wingwalls can be used when there is interference between the existing and the proposed structure or some other site restriction. They may also be used when a certain aesthetic effect is desired. Flared or in-line wingwalls are generally more cost effective.

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When a wingwall length exceeds 25 ft., an alternate type of wingwall system should be investigated. Various types of sheeting or modular walls may prove to be more economical than a cast-in-place cantilever design. Special details such as below ground cast-in-place or masonry block sills may be used to support architectural stone or brick facings. If form inserts are used to obtain an aesthetic appearance, the wall thickness must be increased by an amount equal to the relief of the insert. Narrow roadway medians will generally require the alignment of a median pier to approximate the skew of the roadway. In wider medians, 60 ft or more, pier skews may be modified. In narrow medians where a pier will be subject to road spray, salt and snow build-up, a solid pier should be considered. The use of small, isolated column piers is discouraged where the potential for impact by heavy trucks is possible. Where multicolumn piers are used, the potential for impact should be evaluated, and when deemed necessary, a crash-wall-type, partial-height plinth should be used. At railroad crossings, pier crash walls should be made parallel to the track and meet current AREMA specifications. Substructure placement should also consider drainage requirements in the area around the substructure.

3.7 3.7.1

Work Zone Traffic Control General

Before finalizing the type and configuration of the new structure, one final consideration must be evaluated. The method for temporary traffic control may become the overriding consideration in the selection of the preferred alternative as well as affect the cost and scope of the work. The temporary traffic control method for a project is generally decided in Project Design Phases I IV. It is presented in the Design Approval Document. In order of preference typical methods for temporary traffic control used by NYSDOT are: C C C C Off-Site Detour Stage Construction Temporary on-site detour bridge. New alignment such that the existing bridge/roadway can be used to maintain traffic. This can include a partial or complete alignment shift.

Occasionally, the chosen method for temporary traffic control presents difficulties that require the method be revised during final design. Cost, constructability, safety, anticipated traffic volume, traffic capacity, and community impact are important criteria to be evaluated when comparing competing temporary traffic control methods. For example, stage construction presents construction difficulties that could result in a less desirable finished product and costly work zone traffic control. Night construction may also be considered as an optional method. Dialogue with the highway designer should be maintained through all design phases.

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3.7.2

Off-Site Detour

Off-site detours often impose a cost on users in terms of the additional time and mileage needed to circumvent the construction site. Depending on the additional travel time imposed on the user, these costs can be negligible or very significant. This decision can also affect businesses, school bus operations, emergency services, etc. Local residents and officials may prefer an off-site detour if it includes payment for a necessary roadway upgrade of the detour route or if special measures to mitigate the effects to local users/services can be arranged. An example of this is an adjacent fire district agreeing to temporarily provide service to an area separated from its normal fire service provider by bridge construction. From a construction perspective, an off-site detour presents the best opportunity for the contractor to do work efficiently. An off-site detour will almost always mean a simpler, less expensive, faster construction process that will likely yield a more durable final product (as compared to stage construction).

3.7.3

Stage Construction

Stage construction is appropriate when a suitable off-site detour is not available, or when the traffic volume is so large that off-site detouring is not practical. To accommodate high traffic volumes, widened shoulder areas can be provided on the new structure to carry multiple lanes of traffic during staging operations. Stage construction can even be considered for existing bridges that have some form of nonredundant superstructure, e.g., thru girders, if additional supports or load carrying members can be added. Large profile changes between existing and proposed conditions can make staging difficult and require expensive sheeting schemes. The costs associated with stage construction are difficult to estimate in the early stages of a project. Until the actual staging details are developed, the cost of staging can only be indicated as an additional percentage of the estimated project cost. The procedures and details proposed for staging should be thoroughly investigated to avoid orders-on-contract. Cost overruns associated with omissions or errors which should have been identified and addressed by additional site evaluations, record plans or subsurface investigation can be very costly. Depending upon the complexity and extent of the stage construction, the additional cost can range from 10% to 30%. Guidelines for Stage Construction Details C The Region is responsible for determining minimum lane widths, shoulder widths and pedestrian access needs for each condition of staging. The Region should also identify any restrictions placed on any of the utilities. Show staging details for old and new pier(s) in each of the appropriate cross-sectional views.

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Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types

Use a dashed line pattern to identify limits of removal work in each stage. Limited removal work can also be identified as a crosshatched area, e.g., partial sidewalk removal. A dashed line should also be used to indicate temporary barrier and its location. Identify all temporary and permanent utilities in the appropriate stage. All transverse staging sections should include a true vertical and horizontal representation of the existing and new pier status at each stage. Any temporary supports or shoring details should also be included. All details should be drawn showing a true representation of the existing and proposed conditions with regard to their true elevation and horizontal relationship. When possible each preceding stage should be detailed below the previous. This downward projection should give a true representation of the location of the existing and proposed features with relationship to each other. Temporary cantilevered outrigger sidewalk details should be provided when the existing or proposed partial bridge section cannot accommodate both vehicle and pedestrian traffic within the dimensions proposed. This may be waived only if minimal pedestrian safety or mobility impacts will occur. Fencing may be used as the pedestrian fascia barrier in some cases. As a temporary condition (if alternate pedestrian routes and/or detours permit), all or a portion of the sidewalk area placement can be delayed as a means of providing room for vehicle lanes and shoulders. A temporary sidewalk width of at least 5 ft. is preferred. The absolute minimum sidewalk width is 3 ft. if a 5 ft-wide passing zone is provided every 200 ft. See the Highway Design Manual, Chapter 16 for further information. Temporary concrete barrier (each unit) shall be pinned to the concrete deck or stiffened with box beam if the design speed of the detour exceeds 45 mph. If the design speed of the detour is less, pinning of the barrier can be omitted if a minimum set back of 1 ft. from the edge of deck slab to edge of temporary concrete barrier can be maintained. Pinning of the barrier to the existing deck is acceptable provided the condition of the existing concrete is acceptable. Barriers should not be placed on large overhangs without checking the capacity of the deck slab. If possible, place the temporary barrier directly over a beam or on the deck slab between two beams. A temporary barrier stiffened with box beam is preferable to pinning because of its superior deflection performance. For further information on stage construction design, see Section 5.1.9.

C C C

3.7.4

On-Site Temporary Bridges

The on-site temporary bridge serves to keep the roadway facility operational during construction. The type of temporary structure to be used is greatly dependent upon site conditions. The alignment, profile, typical roadway section and the minimum span/opening will

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

be specified by the State. The type of temporary structure may be left to the Contractor's option, or the Department may direct that a specific type be used. It will also be the Department's decision as to whether the temporary structure should be leased or purchased. Options to consider when a temporary bridge is proposed include: C The Traditional Manner: A temporary detour structure is specified by the designer. The Contractor is made responsible for the design and plans of the temporary bridge and must submit them to the Department for review and approval. Upon the completion of the project and the return of traffic to the permanent roadway corridor, the structure's salvage is the Contractor's responsibility. All detour structure costs are eligible for federal participation except they are limited here to a rental-type reimbursement. C The Local Bridge Incentive Program: A temporary detour structure is again specified by the designer, but additional consideration is given to the permanent disposition of the temporary detour structure. The required bridge design, specifications, plans and project development are tailored to both the temporary and permanent installation sites. All costs associated with this option are eligible for Federal participation. Even costs for removal of the existing local bridge at the site where the temporary structure is to be permanently placed are eligible. Additional guidelines can be obtained from FHWA. C Innovative Designs: Innovative design procedures can be introduced by either the designer or the Contractor. An example would be a roll-in or sliding technique. In this version, the temporary substructure and the new superstructure are located on a temporary alignment, parallel to the permanent corridor. The temporary substructure must be designed to carry the new bridge superstructure as well as being capable of handling the horizontal and vertical jacking forces. The permanent superstructure is then used as the temporary detour, while the old bridge is removed and the new permanent substructures are built. Once the new substructures and approach work are completed, traffic must be completely shut down for a short period of time for the jacking operation(s). The new superstructure is then moved to its final location. Right-of-way, archeological, historical preservation, environmental and utility issues all have to be addressed as they relate to the placement of a temporary bridge. One or more of these factors may severely affect the use of a temporary bridge to maintain traffic at the site.

3.7.5

Alternative Alignments

Using an alternative alignment is a temporary traffic control approach most often used when it is necessary to eliminate an undesirable feature associated with the existing alignment, for example, a sharp curve. Due to high traffic volumes and certain traffic movements, it may be the most efficient way to handle traffic. The alternative alignment may either be a full or partial shift of the roadway's horizontal alignment. This approach can involve the same issues as mentioned

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Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types

for the on-site temporary bridge method; R.O.W., environmental, etc. In some cases the State may already own the R.O.W. adjacent to the existing bridge which will help reduce the cost. The cost and need for real estate acquisition can be a critical project concern. With an alternative alignment the project cost is also increased by the cost of roadway construction from the point of divergence to convergence with the existing alignment.

3.8

Alternate Designs

The process that has been outlined allows for an evaluation of options. By working through the process and applying site or design constraints, various alternatives are eliminated. This process of elimination and evaluation results in the most efficient and economical structure for most small and medium bridge projects. For projects involving major structures (estimated cost $10 million or more) it may be more advantageous to determine the most cost efficient structure by competitive bidding. Alternate bridge types could be developed in the following manner: C C C Value Engineering Conceptual Plans only Detailed Alternate Bridge Designs and Associated Plans

New York State includes a Value Engineering clause on all projects, whereby the Contractor may propose an alternate design for review and approval.

3.9

Hazardous Materials

The two hazardous materials most likely to be encountered in bridge replacement or rehabilitation projects are asbestos and lead-based paint. Asbestos has been used historically in several common bridge construction materials. Typical applications include bearing pads/sheet packing, joint filler, caulking, utility conduits, paint and other coatings. Removal/disturbance of asbestos-containing material is regulated under State and Federal Regulations. For guidance related to asbestos inspection and abatement design associated with bridge replacement or rehabilitation projects, refer to Chapter 1.C of the Environmental Procedures Manual. The following items should be used to implement and maintain effective Health and Safety controls for lead removal as needed. C C C C Item 570.01, Lead Exposure Control Plan Item 570.02, Medical Testing Item 570.03, Personal-Exposure-Monitoring Sample Analysis Item 570.04, Decontamination Facilities

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3.10 3.10.1

Environmental Considerations Introduction

When designing a bridge, a designer is required to fit a solution to a problem. A proposed work strategy of rehabilitation or replacement must adequately address a deteriorated or inadequate bridge or a newly proposed crossing. Solutions to these problems must be developed while considering certain criteria and parameters. The criteria can be found in laws or specifications governing loads, stresses or operational requirements. Some parameters are defined by site conditions, soil properties, seismic classifications, hydraulic considerations, etc. Other parameters are defined by social, economic or environmental issues. A designer attempts to develop a solution that economically addresses the conditions that define the problem while accommodating applicable criteria and parameters. The Governors Environmental Initiative of 1998 re-emphasized the importance of assuring a projects consideration of environmental parameters. These parameters are meant to assure the maintenance of clean air and water and to advocate projects that fit in community settings, maintain historic significance, and accommodate recreational opportunities, where appropriate. True support of the Governors initiative requires that the Departments designers ascribe to the precepts of the initiative and integrate them into the project development and design processes. This must be done in a way that resulting products reflect the Departments steadfast environmental ethic. Every attempt should be made to identify environmental requirements and enhancements as early in the project development process as possible. This will allow an evaluation of the impacts they may have to project development, design and construction, the costs they impart to the project and the benefits that result in the final product. Obviously, decisions of scale, those that meaningfully impact project scope, cost or schedule, should be introduced in the scoping stage. Details, items that enhance appearance but do not have serious design, construction or cost implications, can be considered and introduced later in project development.

3.10.2

Types of Project Enhancements

There is a wide variety of enhancements available for bridge projects. For the purposes of this discussion, three classifications are identified as Structural, Aesthetic and Recreational. 1. Structural Enhancements These are enhancements that affect the way a structure performs. The enhancement can be in the form of a structure type or layout which may not be optimum from an economic or a purely structural standpoint but is selected for superiority in combining sensitivity to community setting or historic ambiance and maintenance of acceptable operating standards. Examples are replacement trusses that bear extra fabrication and construction costs or haunched prestressed boxes that replicate arch construction but involve extra material and fabrication costs. These alternates may not be as structurally 3-22 April 2010

Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types

efficient as conventional designs, yet perform adequately and better replicate a desired era of construction. Designers should be cautious with the use of false structural facades, such as placing a truss in front of a girder span, to replicate a historical detail. Such treatments usually result in a bridge that is neither historical looking nor aesthetic. It is usually better to use an architecturally pleasing form that does not try to copy a historical detail. The enhancement can also take the form of a preferred treatment, as in the use of innovative repair procedures or materials to preserve a bridge that is historic or contributes to the historic character of a setting. Examples of innovative repair procedures are the installation of an arch to reinforce an inadequate truss or lining a deteriorated masonry arch with a steel liner. Lightweight materials such as lightweight concrete or composite materials may allow the rehabilitation of bridges considered inadequate for typical design loadings. 2. Aesthetic Enhancements Aesthetic enhancements affect the appearance of a structure and likely have economic impacts, but have minimal, if any, structural impacts. Treatments such as stone facing, form liners or concrete stamping are options that can be considered to enhance the appearance of a structure. Decorative bridge lighting along with decorative railing are often proposed to blend with community settings. Further information on aesthetics is available in Section 23. 3. Recreational Enhancements Bicycle and pedestrian accommodations represent the majority of applications in this category. However, there are a variety of alternate applications to consider. Many NYSDOT bridges cross streams and rivers, some of which are prime fishing venues. Parking areas for anglers can be included as a project enhancement and, where safety considerations allow, wider bridges to accommodate anglers can be considered. Similar treatments can apply when vistas or other features that attract sightseers are encountered. Parking areas, overlooks or other accommodations such as sidewalks on the bridge can be considered. While these enhancements can be considered in response to community sentiment or the habits of the public in general, the designer must place the safety of the traveling public as the number one priority in project development, design, construction and the eventual operation of the proposed facility.

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3.10.3

When to Identify Enhancements

Enhancements should be identified early in the project development process to allow a reasonable evaluation of the costs and benefits associated with the enhancement. Obviously, parking areas or overlooks, or even facilities such as sidewalks or bikeways, may require the acquisition of right of way and should be considered in the project scoping stage. The selection of a structure type can have similar impacts. Structure type selection is generally done in the final design phase of a project. However, certain types of structures, such as trusses, cannot be constructed in stages and can impose maintenance of traffic issues that impact alignment selection, contract duration and right of way issues. These impacts should be evaluated early in the project process. It is also important to look beyond an enhancements initial cost when determining its viability. The cost to maintain and inspect the facility should be considered and the responsibility for maintenance clearly defined. This is particularly important when facilities such as sidewalks continue off the bridge or when parking areas or overlooks are provided.

3.10.4

Summary

All NYSDOT projects should reflect the Departments environmental ethic. It is the designers responsibility to integrate this ethic into a projects design characteristics. The characteristics must be introduced at a point in the project development process that allows a meaningful evaluation of benefits and costs. Above all, the safety of the traveling public must remain the Departments number one priority and any project enhancements must conform to that priority.

3.11 3.11.1

Final Preliminary Bridge Plan General

The Final Bridge Preliminary Plan defines, by means of drawings, the concepts of the finished bridge. The following details are used to define the bridge and its approaches. C C C C C C Plan View Elevation View including a section of the feature being crossed Transverse Bridge Section including the type of pier, where appropriate Profiles Typical Section(s) of the Bridge Approach(s) Notes & Design Parameters

These details and drawings will become the first sheets of the detailed contract documents prepared for each new structure. (See Appendix 3F for a checklist.)

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Planning New and Replacement Bridge Types

3.11.2

Format

The Bridge Preliminary Plan generally consists of at least two sheets. The following details appear on each sheet. Sheet 1 C C C C C Plan view of the finished structure with the general features of the existing bridge shown dotted Full elevation view of the new structure Hydraulic Summary Table/Detour Opening Note Appropriate Highway Curve Data Table Preliminary Approval Signature Box

Sheet 2 Any continuation of the plan and elevation view should be broken at a point of support (pier or abutment) and continued a small distance past the support. The center line of support shall be the location of the match line. C C C C Full Transverse Section of the New Structure (showing a pier type where appropriate) All necessary profiles with banking details A detailed banking diagram of the bridge deck if it is in transition Construction and Traffic Staging Details - Start with the existing structure and continue showing the typical traffic and new construction limits in each stage. A finished bridge section does not have to be shown if it has been provided elsewhere on a preliminary bridge plan sheet. These sections should follow a true projection sequence from the top to the bottom of the sheet. Typical Approach Section showing the approach slab, railing transition details, and wingwall or retaining wall treatment where appropriate. Special elevation views to show the treatment of wingwalls, slopes, etc.(as required).

C C

Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes This is a listing of general and specific design notes as well as questions or proposals to the Region for review and comment. The preliminary cost estimate of the structure and preliminary foundation information (if available) are included. These notes are prepared on standard 8 x 11 paper and included with the preliminary plan. (See Appendix 3G.)

3.12

Structure Justification Report

Each new and replacement structure requires the preparation of a Structure Justification Report. This report will also list principal dimensions and features of the existing and replacement structure. A sample Structure Justification Report form is provided in Appendix 3H. The report should include a discussion of waterway opening and alignment, skew, span length, number of spans, existing features, available structure depth, utility locations, horizontal clearances, material choice, aesthetic features, railing and constructability.

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The structure type options that were considered prior to selecting the final structure type and configuration should also be discussed. If the final choice was based on an economic comparison, the supporting estimates should be provided. All Structure Justification Reports must contain a determination and statement whether or not the structure is considered innovative or unusual. See Section 20.2.2 for criteria and information on innovative and unusual bridges.

3.13

Hydraulic Justification Report

Each new and replacement structure over water requires the preparation of a Hydraulic Justification Report (HJR). The report is prepared or approved by the Hydraulic Engineering Unit (or Regional Hydraulic Engineer) prior to Preliminary Plan approval by the Deputy Chief Engineer, Structures. Major rehabilitations may require an HJR if the waterway area is being affected. Contact the Hydraulic Engineering Unit or Regional Hydraulic Engineer to determine if an HJR is necessary. The report contains a brief description of the stream crossing and watershed, and any existing ice or debris issues. A description of the existing structure and any hydraulic or scour deficiencies is provided. The discussion of the proposed structure includes type, material, alignment, dimensions and whether a temporary detour structure will be provided. The hydraulic analysis is summarized and freeboard noted for both the Design flow (Q50) and Basic flow (Q100). Specific scour protection and hydraulic features are described. When a hydraulic analysis is not required (i.e. bridge over gorge with abutments not near the waterway, or bridge over controlled section of NYS Barge Canal) the Hydraulic Engineering Unit prepares a statement summarizing the reasons an analysis is not needed, in lieu of the HJR.

3.14

Accelerated Bridge Construction

Some prefabricated bridge elements and systems may offer significant advantages over onsite cast-in-place construction. Advantages can include a reduction in field construction time, lower costs resulting due to off-site fabrication and standardized components, and improved safety because of reduced exposure time in the work zone. The controlled environment of off-site manufacturing helps ensure consistent quality of components for durability and long-term performance. There are considerable rewards that can be attained with thorough planning, design and execution of accelerated bridge construction contracts. A detailed evaluation should be made to determine if a job should be accelerated. Consideration must be given to the applicability of the design, the contracting industrys abilities, project site conditions, costs and construction schedules. The Region and the Contractor must be committed to the accelerated schedule to ensure success. Shared responsibility, risk and control are needed for a successful project. Reduced schedules save money for all parties. When properly implemented, accelerated bridge construction can and should result in an inexpensive and durable bridge that meets schedule and budget requirements. Additional information and guidance on selecting accelerated bridge construction for a project is available at www.fhwa.dot.gov/bridge/prefab/framework.cfm. 3-26 May 2011

APPENDIX 3A BRIDGE DATA SHEET FOR ALL STRUCTURES


Approved By: NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION , Regional Structures Engineer, Region Date:
(Approval should be via e-mail from the Regional Structures Engineer )

DESCRIPTION
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. PIN: BIN: Project Description: County: Town: City/Village:

GENERAL
7. Over Roadway Description (Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report and/or Design Report) a. State Highway Name and Number b. Route Number c. Local Road Number/Name d. Functional Classification NHS System e. Design Speed Truck Traffic f. Projected Traffic Year g. Projected AADT h. Seismic Performance Criteria Under Roadway Description (Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report) a. State Highway Name and Number b. Route Number c. Local Road Number/Name d. Functional Classification NHS System e. Design Speed (See Bridge Manual Section 2) f. Minimum Vertical Clearance Required Minimum Horizontal Clearance (See Bridge Manual Section 2) g. Required Maintenance of Existing Traffic (Information can be found in Design Report) a. Is there vehicular traffic which must be maintained? b. If yes, how will it be maintained? c. If a temporary detour structure is required, what live loading should be used? (See section 2.6.3 of Bridge Manual) d. Does pedestrian traffic need to be maintained? e. If yes, how will it be maintained? f. Is the bridge part of a designated bicycle route?

8.

9.

EXISTING STRUCTURE
10. 11. Structure Description: Original Construction Contract No.(s)
(Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report)

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual 12. 13. Type of structure, span, and skew
(Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report)

Are plans available?

Do they accompany submittal?

14. 15.

Is there any asbestos on the existing bridge ? (See record plans and Section 3.9
of Bridge Manual)

Is the bridge within or adjacent to an area of contaminated sediment or soil such as a superfund site? (Information can be found By GIS Search) If so, must contaminated soil be distributed or removed? Disposition of superstructure and estimated cost (Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report) Disposition of substructure and estimated cost (Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report) Are there sidewalks on the bridge? Specify any utilities carried on structure
(See Bridge Inspection Report in WINBOLTS)

16.

17.

18. 19.

a. b.

Do any of these utilities need to be kept in service during construction? Can any of these utilities be interrupted for a given period of time?

PROPOSED STRUCTURE
20. 21. Recommended type and reason for preference
(See Section 3.0 of Bridge Manual)

Typical Bridge Section: a Number of lanes b. Lane width c. Shoulder width d. Are sidewalks needed? e. Sidewalk location and width f. Should railing be used instead of barrier? Explain g. Are adjacent driveways or sight distance a problem? Explain h. Are there geometry issues involved? Explain i. Is deck drainage a concern? Explain j. Is water flow over Roadway a concern? Explain k. Should protective fencing be used? l. Should a permanent snow fence be installed on the structure? m. Railing Design Service Level Should provision be made for utilities? (Include letters of request by utility companies) a. Size b. Number c. Type d. Indicate location, span capability, weight per lineal foot and amount of insulation:

22.

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Bridge Data Sheet - Part A

23.

Should provisions be made for lighting? If yes, provide light standard locations by stations and offsets, and indicate size of conduit in an excel table in the projects ProjectWise folder. Are any signs to be supported by the structure? If yes, Give sizes, weights Are there any aesthetic requirements? Is the structure located within the Adirondack Park? Is the structure located within the Catskill Park? Should access for fishing, hiking or wildlife be provided under the bridge? If yes, explain Are any parking or boat launching facilities adjacent to bridge site? If yes, explain Is the existing structure a historic landmark or a contributing factor to a historic district? (Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report) Are there any other special environmental considerations for this Bridge? If yes, explain Do you recommend that approach slabs be used?
Regional Structures, Geotechnical, and Materials Groups) (Based on input from the

24.

25. 26.

a. b. c. d. e.

Should weathering steel be used? Should drip bars be used? Should all or a portion of the substructure concrete be cleaned? Should the steel be painted? What color paint is desired?

27.

Datum used Required correction to USGS Datum


(See NYSDOT Survey Manual for Information on site specific correction factors, Map numbers available from WINBOLTS)

Name of USGS quadrangle (7.5 min. Series) showing structure location 28. Miscellaneous:

MATERIALS TO BE SUBMITTED:
29. All electronic files submitted shall meet the requirements as set forth in the Departments CADD Standards and Procedure Manual and Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual. The designer should ensure that all electronic files submitted meet the requirements of the CADD Standards and Procedure Manual and Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual prior to making them available to the Office of Structures. Any files not meeting these requirements will be rejected and will have to be resubmitted once the files are corrected to meet the appropriate standards. It shall be the responsibility of the Regional Project Design Engineer or the Regional Structures Engineer to notify the bridge designer of any changes in the alignments, profiles, superelevation, sections, or the proposed finished grade which will affect the final bridge design. A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the existing ground and the proposed finished grade shall be required which covers an area 200 feet from either side of the extremities of the proposed bridges. The required submittal of a Digital Terrain Model does not exclude the required submittal of waterway cross sections as required in the Waterway Supplement, Appendix 3B. Electronic files are available on ProjectWise under the appropriate Regional folder and PIN. Plans can be plotted at various scales from 1=10' to 1=250'. The following chart shall be filled in by the Designer. All information required by structures shall be coordinated between the structures designer and the group providing the information. As an example; 1=50' scale plans with contour intervals should be displayed at 2 feet for steep terrains and 1 foot contour intervals for flat or rolling terrain.

30.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual REQUIRED FOR ALL BRIDGES


File Name Location ProjectWise Folder Horizontal Vertical Superelevation

1.) Geometry Project (Alg)


Feature

A.) Existing-Over " Under " Additional " Additional B.) Proposed-Over " Under " Additional " Additional C.) Detour
File Name

N/A N/A N/A N/A

Location - ProjectWise Folder

2.) Surface (dtm) A.) Existing-Original Ground " Bridge Deck B.) Proposed-Approaches " Bridge Deck
File Name Model Location - ProjectWise Folder

3.) 2D/3D Base Mapping (dgn) A.) Photogrammetry B.) Survey 4.) Right of Way (ROW) File (dgn) A.) Existing B.) Proposed 5.) Utilities/Drainage File (dgn) A.) Existing B.) Proposed 6.) Boring Location File (dgn) 7.) Baseline Survey File (dgn) 8.) Highway Plan/Work File (dgn) 9.) Bridge/Typical Sections (dgn) 10.) Typical Staging Section (dgn) 11.) Over-Profile/Superelev. (dgn) 12.) Under-Profile/Superelev (dgn) 13.) General Plan (dgn)
File Name Location - ProjectWise Folder

14.) Roadway Design File (ird/rwl) 15.) Template Library File (itl/tml) 16.) Scoping Report (doc) 17.) Design Report (doc) 18.) Record Plans File (pdf) 19.) Boring Log File (pdf) WATERWAY SUPPLEMENT
File Name Model Location - ProjectWise Folder

20.) Hydraulic Data Files A.) Plan Location and Orientation of Stream Cross Sections B.) Plot of Stream Cross Sections C.) Stream Cross Section Data (text file required) Notes: Some data fields may be N/A (Not Applicable) or Pending. See Appendix 3B for hydraulic survey and data requirements.

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Bridge Data Sheet - Part A

31.

One copy of boring logs. Indicate on 1=50' scale plan.


(Boring logs are obtained from the Regional Geotechnical Engineer and can be scanned and posted in Project Wise in PDF format)

32.

For projects that cross the New York State Barge Canal System, the "Residency Map" for the bridge site should be obtained from the Division Canal Maintenance Engineer, of the Canal Corporation, NYS Thruway Authority. Any site restrictions pertaining to Wetlands, Parklands, and Historical or Archeological Areas, should be shown on the 1=50' scale plans (Available in the General Plan files on Project Wise) Photographs of the existing bridge and approaches.
(Information can be found in WINBOLTS Report)

33.

34. 35. 36.

Plans of the existing bridge - preferably "As Builts" (Many As-Built drawings are now available on the P:Drive @ P:\Office of Engineering\Design\MO_RecordPlans\As-Built Contract Plans) Please submit costs for the following items which are to be assigned to the bridge share. a. Utilities b. Maintenance and protection of traffic c. Removal and disposal of existing bridge d. Channel Work e. Detour Structure f. Special approach and transition work

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APPENDIX 3B BRIDGE DATA SHEET PART 2 - WATERWAY SUPPLEMENT


NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PIN: BIN:

SITE CONDITIONS AT EXISTING STRUCTURE


1. a. b. c. d. 2. 3. Length of span along center line of highway
(Information is available from WINBOLTS Report)

Describe:____________ Describe:____________ Describe:____________

Skew angle Is the waterway area adequate during extreme high water?*

Has scour occurred?* ________Describe: ____________________________________

Does erosion or deposition occur on bank or streambed or both?* _____Describe:____________ a. b. c. d. Does the waterway carry ice? _________ Light ______ Medium _____Heavy ______ What problems have been created by ice: Blockage ________ Scour _________ Structure Damage __________ Does the waterway carry debris? _____ Light ______ Medium ____Heavy ________ What problems have been created by debris? Blockage ______Scour _______ Structure Damage ________ Describe:________________

4.

Is there an existing dam, lake, or reservoir near the proposed structure? a. b. Location, type, and condition: If there is a dam immediately adjacent to proposed structure, give streambed elevations above and below the dam:*

Describe:________________

5. 6.

Does the bridge cross a designated stream or river? (Recreational, Wild & Scenic) _________________
(Information is available thru ARCGIS Search)

Does the bridge cross a stream or river which is part of an Army Corps of Engineers Flood Control Project? If yes, Explain Indicate any State or Federal Environmental Agency construction restrictions on in-stream work times: Is there a flood insurance study at this location?* Estimated time duration of temporary detour structure: Elevation of extreme high water at existing bridge as observed by:* a. b. c. d. Gage Local residents: D.O.T. Personnel: Are photos of extreme high water available? Date Observed: Date Observed: Date Observed: Describe:_______________ Describe:_______________

7.

8. 9. 10 .

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11 .

Was the high water affected by ice blockage?* Was the high water affected by debris blockage?*

Describe:_______________ Describe:_______________ _______________

12 . 13 . 14 . 15.

What is the ordinary water elevation:*

What is the low water elevation:*

_______________

What is the ordinary high water elevation:* Does stream or river reach high water rapidly?* Is the water recession rapid?

_______________ Describe:_______________ Describe:_______________ Describe:_______________ Describe:_______________

16.

Has water ever over topped the structure?* Has water ever over topped the structures approaches?* If so, to what elevation?

What Date _______________ _______________ _______________ ______________________________

17. 18. 19. 20.

Elevation of lowest under-clearance point of superstructure:* Size of drainage area above structure in square miles:* Estimated discharge in cubic feet per second:* State any objections to a pier in the stream:

21.

Describe character of surrounding terrain:

22.

Miscellaneous:

NAVIGATION REQUIREMENTS
23. 24. 25. Does existing structure have navigation lights? Is there tidal influence at the project location?** Give size, type, and volume of marine traffic:

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Bridge Data Sheet Part B

EXISTING UPSTREAM STRUCTURE


26. a. b. c. d. e. f. BIN: (Information is available from WINBOLTS Report) Carries: Span measured along centerline of highway Skew Angle: Is the waterway area adequate during extreme high water? Has scour occurred?

EXISTING DOWNSTREAM STRUCTURE


27. a. b. c. d. e. f. BIN: (Information is available from WINBOLTS Report) Carries: Span measured along centerline of highway Skew Angle: Is the waterway area adequate during extreme high water? Has scour occurred?

MATERIALS TO BE SUBMITTED:
28. 29. Two copies of the Bridge Data Sheet Part 2 Required stream cross sections: C C Downstream of project bridge: 100N; 200N; 300N; 400N; 500N; 1000N; 2000N. For streams with slopes flatter than 1 foot in 1000 feet, take an additional section 4000N downstream. Upstream of project bridge: a distance equal to the length of the proposed bridge; that length plus 100N; that length plus 200N and one at a bridge length plus 500N. Where the bridge length exceeds 1000N the Hydraulic Engineering Unit shall be contacted for a recommendation for the section location. Take sections at all structures (bridges, dams, etc. including the existing project bridge) within the limits of the required cross sections listed above. If a lake or dam exists within 10 miles downstream of the site, contact the Hydraulic Engineering Unit for guidance. Additional cross sections should be taken at points where the characteristics of the terrain change radically, where the flow is constricted, where the shape of the channel changes, at sharp bends in the stream, confluence with tributaries, etc. Contact either the Regional Hydraulic Engineer or the Main Office Hydraulic Unit for information. Sections should be at least 7 times the width of the low flow channel, and if possible, as wide as the 100 year flood plain. In cases where the flood plain is very wide, shots should be taken as far away from the stream bank as practical. All electronic cross section data, whether in Projectwise or not, must be reported from left to right looking downstream starting with the farthest downstream section. Data must be reported in an ASCII text file in 2 column format (station and elevation table with entries separated by one tab). Acceptable file types for section data include .txt, .doc, .wpd or .xls but not PDF.

C C

C C

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

30.

If any channel work is proposed, provide a profile of the existing stream channel and proposed stream channel showing: C C P.V.I.'s and grades covering 500 feet upstream and 500 feet downstream from the centerline of the proposed stream crossing. Existing ground elevations, approximate existing ground line (label contours.)

31.

Channel cross sections at all bridges shall be taken at both the upstream and downstream faces of the bridge. Sections shall include: C C C C C Dimensions of bridge opening Elevations of stream bed, water surface, bottom of bridge superstructure, top of road and faces of piers and abutments. Outline and dimension of piers and abutments with offsets and elevations at or near the face of the project bridge. Type of stream bed material at bridge site: (silt; sandy silt; sand; sand and gravel; gravel; rocks) Type of vegetation on overflow and type of stream bed. Plan at 1=50, 1=100, or 1=200 scale with location and orientation of stream cross sections. PDF format is acceptable for stream and cross section location and orientation plan. 1=20 (or other acceptable scale) plots of stream cross sections, looking downstream with offsets and elevations. PDF format is acceptable for cross section plots.

32.

33.

* **

Check on available information from Regional Hydraulics Engineer or Maintenance Engineer. Check on available information from Regional Hydraulics Engineer or Environmental Unit

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Appendix 3C Project Monitor Sheet


Project Monitor
(Target Dates)
P.I.N.____________
HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS DESIGN PHASE (6-7 MONTHS)

C. G. PERMIT

RECEIVE FINAL FDR RECOMMENDATION

TO REGION FOR REVIEW E. C. D

APPROVED PRELIMINARY PLAN

ADVANCE PRELIMINARY PLAN

ADVANCE DETAIL PLAN

SITE DATA REVIEWED

SITE DATA RECEIVED

BEGIN FINAL DESIGN

75%

COMPLETED P S & E

30 DAYS

60 TO 90 DAYS

30 DAYS 30 DAYS

60 DAYS

30 DAYS

DATE

DATE

DATE

DATE

DATE

DATE

DATE

PRELIMINARY PLAN STAGE


PROGRAMMED ________________ CHECKED___________ HYDRAULICS_________________ FOUNDATIONS________ COMMENTS _____________________________________

DESIGN AND DETAIL STAGE

______________________________________ ______________________________________

______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE (ECD)

January, 2008

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DATE

FINAL P S & E

Appendix 3D Preliminary Plan Development for New and Replacement Bridges


Introduction The preparation of a Preliminary Structure Plan is the first step in preparing final bridge plans for inclusion in a project PS&E package. The Preliminary Structure Plan presents in a clear and concise way, the intended bridge design for the project. The proposed structure should be compatible with the overall conditions of the site; that is, geometric, topographical, cultural, ecological, etc., and should be consistent with the cost, scope, and schedule established for the project. The importance of the Preliminary Structure Plan should not be minimized. The plan provides interested parties both within and outside the Department with an opportunity to understand the project work. The clearer the preliminary plan, the clearer that understanding will be, and the more relevant review comments will be. A well developed Preliminary Structure Plan presents a structure that will be safe, economical, constructible, and consistent with the requirements of the project. The following is a step-by-step procedure for developing a Preliminary Structure Plan. While specifics of the project may result in a slight reordering of the steps presented, all the steps should be included in the development.

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STEPS IN THE PRELIMINARY PLAN PROCESS: NEW OR REPLACEMENT STRUCTURES 1. Collect Support Data a. b. Design Approval Document (DAD) - Provides the latest project definition. Bridge Site Data - Region or Consultant assembles a Site Data Package (SDP) for each bridge in a project. The package provides the designer with the information required to select a structure for a specific site. It provides the hydraulics engineer with data needed to perform a hydraulic analysis and it defines any outside agency requirements (utilities, DEC, etc.). (See Appendices 3A and 3B for SDP requirements.) The Site Data Package shall be reviewed and approved by the Regional Structures Engineer. All Site Data necessary to perform a hydraulic analysis and evaluation will be submitted to the hydraulics engineer at the earliest possible date. Appropriate portions shall be submitted electronically. The hydraulics engineer can be the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit, the Regional Hydraulics Engineer or a Consultant. If the Office of Structures is the bridge designer, then a complete Site Data Package for each structure should be submitted to the Director of the Structures Design Bureau. Appropriate portions should be submitted electronically. One copy should be sent to the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. If the Region or a Consultant is the bridge designer, only those portions of the Site Data Package (excluding hydraulic requirements) that facilitate the technical progress review need to be submitted to the Office of Structures Design Quality Assurance Bureau. Refer to Item 3 of this appendix, Perform In-Progress Technical Review, for required submissions. One copy of the SDP should be sent to the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. 2. Develop the Structure Study Package a. Prepare Structure Study Plan This plan may also be referred to as an advance preliminary, 40% preliminary or size, type and location. Its purpose is the same, however: to ensure that all issues or questions regarding the concept of the proposed structure are resolved at the earliest point practical in the design process. The size, type, and location/orientation of the structure are the major items investigated and selected at this point in the process. For a typical structure, a Structure Study Plan should include the following information: C C Plan view (1:240) showing bridge centerline and features crossed Substructure locations (existing and proposed)

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Preliminary Plan Development

C C C C C C C C

Span lengths Elevation view (1:250) or larger Minimum clearances (horizontal & vertical) Full transverse sections of proposed bridge including proposed staging details (if applicable) and utility locations (if applicable) Existing contours Existing & proposed boring locations Profile of all roads and/or railroads, including banking diagrams* Horizontal alignment data *Included in Design Approval Document (if available)

b.

Prepare Structure Justification Report (SJR) This report documents why the particular structure size, type and location as presented in the Structure Study Plan was selected. It does not need to cover why replacement was selected over rehabilitation (or vice versa), since that decision has already been documented in the Design Approval Document. Typical topics to be discussed in the SJR include: C C C Superstructure type, configuration, materials Substructure type, foundation constraints (if known) Hydraulic, M&PT, Railroad, ROW constraints, etc.

An SJR form which facilitates the report preparation is available for use by the designer (See Appendix 3H). The "Comments and Alternates" portion of the form should include, but not be limited to, a discussion of the following factors to the extent they affect the type of structure selected: C C C C C C C C C C C C c. M&PT requirements Utilities Design exceptions due to nonstandard features (e.g., sag curve and crest curve) Brief narrative of existing hydraulic conditions at the site (e.g., ice, debris) Subsurface soil conditions, type of foundation, and type of temporary sheet piling/lagging system (if required) Any special features (e.g., aesthetic treatments) Anticipated construction problems Construction cost estimates Structure alternates eliminated from selection Reasons for barrier/railing type selected Reasons for alternate selected A determination whether the structure is innovative or unusual.

Prepare a Preliminary Cost Estimate The Office of Structures has developed a preliminary bridge estimating tool called the Preliminary Cost Estimate Worksheet. It uses a cost estimate methodology based on shoulder break area. The shoulder break methodology is advantageous for use early in a project when bridge

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

particulars, such as abutment heights and locations, are not known. This methodology provides reasonable compensation for positioning abutments anywhere within the shoulder break length. The approach also utilizes cost comparisons to similar bridges constructed in the recent past. Copies of the most recent Preliminary Cost Estimate Worksheet, in a spreadsheet format, may be obtained from the Office of Structures Bridge Program and Project Development Group, in electronic or hard copy form, or from the Department web site. d. Establish Hydraulic Criteria For bridge projects over water, the designated hydraulics engineer, the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit, the Regional Hydraulics Engineer, or a design consultant will provide the designer with a hydraulic summary which includes a preliminary Hydraulic Data Table. The summary will document the review of the proposed structure regarding freeboard and scour requirements, and document other hydraulic requirements considered in the selection of the type and size of the structure. Hydraulic criteria for any temporary structure will also be required. 3. Perform In-Progress Technical Review A progress review is performed at this time to ensure that the structural solution being developed is consistent with the scope of the project, is technically and economically appropriate, and responds to the site conditions, restrictions, etc., that have been identified. This review of the structure study package (structure study plan/structure justification report/preliminary cost estimate/hydraulic criteria) should be conducted to gain a consensus among affected Regional Groups, the Office of Structures, and the Regional and Main Office Geotechnical Engineering Groups. It should include the consultant, if that consultant is performing work for the Department which is impacted by the bridge work in any way. This review should take place regardless of designer, since the review helps ensure that the structure being presented satisfactorily meets project requirements and provides an early evaluation of possible foundation problems and alternatives. The review also allows the Geotechnical Groups to determine if additional subsurface information is warranted (e.g., more or deeper soil borings, more rock cores or probes). The Geotechnical Engineering Group responsible for the structure foundation recommendation should also evaluate the appropriateness of the type of structure proposed and the proposed temporary/permanent sheet piling/lagging system. A preliminary foundation recommendation memorandum will be issued by the Geotechnical Engineering Group as part of their review.

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Preliminary Plan Development

For a complete review, the following items are required: C C C C Structure Study Plan Structure Justification Report Preliminary Cost Estimate Bridge Site Data Soil Boring Logs Bridge Data Sheets Part I (Items 1-26) Part II (Items 1-29)* Preliminary Hydraulics Summary and Data Table* Design Approval Document As-Built Bridge Plans (for Replacement Bridges on similar alignment) *Required for hydraulic crossings only.

C C C

The Structure Study Plan Package should be submitted directly to all reviewers (i.e., the Office of Structures, Regional Structures Engineer, Main Office and Regional Geotechnical Engineering Bureaus and any impacted project consultant) for review. In-Progress Technical Review comments for region designed projects shall be coordinated by the Office of Structures Design Quality Assurance Bureau. In-Progress Technical Review comments for consultant designed projects shall be coordinated by the Region, the Consultant Manager or the Office of Structures Design Quality Assurance Bureau. The Region shall designate the coordinator of progress review comments. In-Progress Technical Review comments for Office of Structures designed projects shall be coordinated by the Structures Design Bureau. One month shall be provided for technical review after all review material is received. 4. Complete Preliminary Structure Package a. Prepare Preliminary Structure Plan The Preliminary Structure Plan is developed from the Structure Study Plan, considering comments generated from the In-Progress Technical Review. The Preliminary Structure Plan will present the project in more detail and include a an 8 x 11 Preliminary Plan Note sheet, containing descriptive project information. The completed plan should present a full picture of the bridge project and work that is to be done. The Preliminary Structure Plan should include the following: C C C Plan view including controlling clearances and dimensions Full transverse section of the proposed structure with elevation view of a proposed pier Sections of approach treatments

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

C C C C C C C C C

Profiles of over and under features and banking diagrams Stream profile and sections (only if relocating the stream) Hydraulic Box including temporary structure note Staging details showing bridge sections including maintenance of traffic stages and new construction stages *Notes regarding design specifications *Proposed foundation treatment *Disposition of utilities *Special conditions that may apply *Updated preliminary cost estimate *included in preliminary notes

Appendix 3F contains a preliminary plan checklist and layout and Appendix 3G contains preliminary plan sheet notes that should be used as a Quality Control tool by the design group progressing this plan. b. Revise Structure Justification Report During completion of the Preliminary Structure Plan, the SJR should be revised (if necessary) to reflect any changes resulting from new information or review comments. c. Revise Preliminary Cost Estimate During the completion of the Preliminary Structure Plan, the preliminary cost estimate should be revised (if necessary) to reflect any changes resulting from new information or review comments. d. Prepare Hydraulic Justification Report The hydraulic engineer will provide the designer with a Hydraulic Justification Report, (HJR) to be appended to the SJR, prior to submitting the completed Preliminary Plan Package to the Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures) for approval. e. 5. Complete Preliminary Plan Checklist (See Appendix 3F).

Transmit for Final Review The completed Preliminary Structure Package (revised Preliminary Structure Plan, Preliminary Plan notes, revised SJR, revised Preliminary Cost Estimate, and the HJR) shall be submitted for final review. Submissions and comment coordination shall be the same as in Item 3, In-Progress Technical Review of the Structure Study Package.

6.

Resolutions of Final Review Comments and Approvals The final comments are resolved and a revised Preliminary Structure Package is sent to the Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures) for approval.

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Preliminary Plan Development

The Preliminary Structure Package occasionally will be approved and transmitted to the Region with additional minor comments. These minor comments may include changes to notes or minor detail changes (e.g., wingwall skew angles). These minor comments should be incorporated into the Advance Detail Plans. 7. Distribution of Approved Preliminary Bridge Plan a. After approval, the following groups shall be notified by email indicating the location of files in Projectwise by the Office of Structures. Organizations without access to Projectwise shall receive pdf file(s): Region NYS Thruway Authority/Canal Division (when involved) FHWA Consult Chapter 4 of the Project Development Manual. Concrete Unit, Office of Structures - For bridges utilizing precast concrete elements. Design Services Bureau - For projects involving railroads or when the Design Services Bureau is doing the highway design Consultant Management Bureau (when involved) Geotechnical Engineering Bureau Foundation & Construction Unit, Office of Structures Special Designs - When the following special designs are used files will be sent to known suppliers. C Prefabricated steel bridges Design Quality Assurance Bureau - For structures with unconventional sidewalk, bicycle facility or shared-use path details. b. After receipt of the Approved Plan, the Region makes the following distribution: DEC - (for projects involving water crossings). State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) - When involved. Utility Companies - When involved. Local Officials - When involved. 8. Revisions to an Approved Preliminary Structure Plan Any changes made to the Preliminary Structure Plan after "Approval" by the Deputy Chief Engineer Structures (D.C.E.S.) shall be made only with concurrence of the D.C.E.S.

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3D-7

3D-8 Hydraulic Analysis Hydraulic Summary & Table Hydraulic Justification Report Distribution of Approved Preliminary Plan (Internal and External) Site Data Collect Support Data Prepare Structure Study Package Perform In-Progress Technical Review Complete Preliminary Structure Plan Package Preliminary Plan Package Review Preliminary Plan Approval Prepare Advance Detail Plans
*Structure Study Plan *Structure Justification Report *Preliminary Cost Estimate *Hydraulic Criteria *Structure Justification Report *Preliminary Structure Plan *Preliminary Cost Estimate *Hydraulic Justification Report

Design Approval

Preliminary Foundation Recommendations

Foundation Design Requirements (FDR) Report *

PRELIMINARY BRIDGE PLAN DEVELOPMENT FLOW CHART NEW AND REPLACEMENT BRIDGE PROJECTS This flow chart is the same, regardless of designer and/or hydraulic engineer * The FDR may or may not be finalized prior to the ADPs. At the ADP stage the designer should at least have an interim report

April, 2010

In-House Preliminary Bridge Plan Preparation Sequence


Site Data Received & Reviewed by SDB SDB assures completeness and conformance to Design Criteria represented in the projects Final Design Report. SDB identifies any physical or environmental characteristics that may influence the size, type or location of the proposed structure. SDB maintains communication with the Region to assure timely site data submissions.

SDB Designer initiates contact


with various units and organizations to assure awareness of the proposed project. SDB, in consultation with the, the Bridge Foundation Unit and GEB, attempts to verify the adequacy of the existing subsurface information or the need for additional borings.

SDB Coordinates with; GEB, Bridge Foundation Unit, Hydraulics, Coast Guard, Railroad

Develop Structure Study Package (See NYSDOT Bridge Manual Appendix 3D 2.a-d)

Design Decision (Director/Asst Dir SDB)

In-Progress Technical Review Two Copies: RDE - att: RSE. GEB cc: Bridge Foundation Unit; Concrete Eng. Unit (Precast Only); Hydraulic Engineering Unit (for bridges over water); Highway & Railroad Design Section of the DSB if joint design with DSB; Rail Agree. Section of DSB if RR project; Consultant if joint Design with Cons. One Copy: Director/Asst. Dir. SDB.

Layout & Design by Design.

Incorporate comments and prepare Final Preliminary Plan Package (See NYSDOT Bridge Manual Appendix 3D 4.a-d)

Abbreviations D.C.E.S. Deputy Chief Engineer Structures GEB Geotechnical Engineering Bureau DSB Design Services Bureau

Submit for approval: Through: Asst. Dir. SDB Dir. SDB To: D.C.E.S. for Approval

RDE Regional Design Engineer RSE Regional Structures Engineer SDB Structures Design

SDB Distributes SDB enters project into Preliminary Plan database and distributes Two Copies: RDE - att. RSE; Rail Agreements Section of DSB, if RR Project One Copy: GEB cc: Bridge Foundation Unit; Highway & RR Design Section of DSB, if joint design with DSB ; Consultant Engineering firm, if joint design with Consultant

SDB maintains a database that contains both basic and unusual project features, and allows sorting for future reference.

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Appendix 3E Preliminary Bridge Plan Work Process (Office of Structures Design)


Scoping and/or early input is done at the Region's request. A preliminary file should be started for the project, including any input that may have been provided (i.e., telephone conversation logs, notes of informal meetings and site visits). The submission of a Site Data Package usually starts the formal process: 1. Site Data is received by the Office of Structures. The Bridge Program and Project Development Group logs it in, makes a work file and retrieves any records from the main office files. The Office of Structures Design Bureau is informed and the design squad who will design the bridge is selected at this time. The Hydraulic Engineering Unit is informed and the hydraulics information along with a copy of the soil boring logs and the Bridge Data Sheets Parts I & II is taken by the unit. The Bridge Program and Project Development Group reviews the package and prepares the review reply to the region. The Preliminary Bridge Plan is assigned to either the Bridge Program and Project Development Group or a design squad. When the Hydraulic Engineering Unit is ready, the designer discusses the proposed structure types with them. Jobs are usually assigned by PS&E priority, but sometimes they are assigned by size and complexity. Input from the Region, Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, Construction Support/Bridge Foundations Unit, Design, Construction, Design Bureau, Regional Environmental contact, Manufacturers, Canals, Thruway and Hydraulics is sought as needed. Schedule meetings as needed. Schedule site visits as needed. Coordinate with other involved parties. A report and photo log should be prepared for each site visited. Photo logs of most projects involving hydraulics are available from the Hydraulic Engineering Unit. Drafting assignments are usually made by PS&E priority. Complexity, schedule and Coast Guard permit needs should also be considered. The assigned engineer reviews the Advance Preliminary Plan prior to its distribution. Corrections are made and an advance is sent to: Region, Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, Structures Foundation Unit, Design Unit, Rail Unit and certain Fabricators. The necessary transmittal letters are prepared.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

9.

Within 30 days of the Advance Preliminary Plan the engineer should do a final review of the plan, prepare an estimate if it was not done previously, prepare a Structure Justification Report and obtain the Hydraulic Justification Report. All comments received should be resolved. If a comment cannot be resolved over the telephone, a memo may have to be written. The designer completes the Preliminary Plan checklist. After comments are resolved, the designer submits the Preliminary Plan to the Director of the Structures Design Bureau for signature. The Preliminary Plan is then submitted to the D.C.E.S. for signature. Distribution of the final approved plan is next. See Appendix 3D, subsection 7 for details of distribution.

10. 11.

12.

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January 2008

Appendix 3F Structures Preliminary Plan Checklist


Scales indicated are suggested scales to be used by detailers based on 11 x 17 sheets. Drawings should provide as much detail as possible and be fully dimensioned. The drawings shall not display a numeric scale or scale bar except where specifically indicated in this checklist. PLAN (Scale 1 = 40, but may vary) Show Scale Bar. Orient with over road up station to the right and centerline at horizontal, when possible. North arrow. Indicate and identify appropriate base lines, TGLs, PORs, centerlines and station lines, with stations for over roadway, stream or railroad. Indicate Base Line points and label accordingly. Indicate azimuths for station lines on tangent alignment and show P.C., P.T., T.S., S.T., S.C., and C.S. for the station lines on curved alignment if they occur within the scope of the plan (show in tabular form also). Indicate equality stations for intersections of over road, with road, stream or railroad below. Indicate contours on the appropriate CADD level. Emphasize index contours of 0 and 5 and show other contours in 2 feet increments for steep terrain and 1 foot for flat terrain. Indicate existing topography. Label features to remain and indicate disposition of existing structures. Indicate and identify existing substructure and superstructure in dashed lines and indicate whether it is to remain or be removed. Indicate and identify destinations and directions for vehicular and rail traffic. For structures with a tangent alignment, indicate and identify the skew angle that a line normal to the centerline of the structure makes with the centerline of the road, stream or railroad below (Tangent Alignment).

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For curved structures, provide the centerline of bearing azimuths for all substructures. Identify the point at which minimum vertical clearance occurs. Identify minimum horizontal clearance to piers or abutments where critical. Identify span lengths and out-to-out bridge width. Indicate and identify lane, shoulder, shoulder break and mall widths on approaches for over and under roads. Indicate borings by standard symbol and identify. Indicate and identify slope protection and extent of placement. Indicate and identify gutter details, where necessary. Indicate and identify utilities, lighting standards or signs on the structure, where appropriate. Indicate and identify face of approach and bridge rail and/or barrier. Tie structure down by centerline of bearing station or by clearance distance to substructure. Indicate section marks for Elevation View. If a temporary detour is to be constructed in the vicinity of the structure, show centerline of alignment and appropriate details including width. For Stream Structures: a. b. c. d. e. Indicate and identify theoretical channel width as solid lines.

or
Indicate and identify proposed channel width, alignment as solid lines. Identify direction of stream flow, or ebb and flow of tides and edge of water. Indicate and identify stream bank protection, showing limits by stations or dimensions. Indicate spur dikes, if necessary.

Indicate hydraulic information in standard table and include detour structure note with type, size and loading. Show maintenance note for railroad structures, if available. Obtain from Rail Agreements Section in Design Quality Assurance Bureau. Indicate angle of wingwalls. Indicate existing and proposed ROW and Easements as necessary and if available.

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Structures Preliminary Plan Checklist

ELEVATION (Scale 1 = 20 or 1 = 40, but may vary) Scale Bar Position immediately beneath the plan. Indicate elevation of structure along fascia, looking parallel to highway. May be projected down if the scale is the same. Indicate and identify appropriate existing ground line (show dashed where changing, solid where there is no change). Indicate and identify datum elevation line. Indicate and identify fixed and expansion bearings, if applicable. Identify embankment slopes. Indicate approximate existing and proposed footing locations and elevations. Show piles if required. Indicate and identify any architectural treatment on abutment and walls. Indicate and identify over road highway approach railing and bridge railing/barrier. Indicate and identify existing and proposed pipes and utilities, where appropriate. For structures over highways: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Indicate section but not dimensions of under roadway. Identify as existing, proposed, and future. Indicate and identify or H.C.L., station line, T.G.L. and point of rotation (P.O.R.) of under roadway. Identify cross slopes of under roadway. Identify minimum horizontal clearances and indicate guide rail, where required. Identify minimum vertical clearance over travel lane or usable shoulders. Indicate and identify type and thickness of slope protection. Indicate and identify "deflection berm" or safety slopes, if required, at piers and abutments.

For Structures over Streams: a. b. c. d. e. Indicate and identify the theoretical or actual bottom angle width or channel width at the controlling elevation. Indicate and identify slope protection. Identify Design High Water Elevation at 6 bridge or Maximum Navigable and Normal Pool elevations, where applicable. Indicate and identify minimum freeboard above Design High Water elevation, or vertical clearance over maximum navigable pool elevation. Indicate and identify navigation lights where applicable.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

f. g. h.

Indicate stone fill at piers where required, i.e., around the footing, inside the cofferdam, etc. Provide navigation channel dimensions. Show pier impact protection details and locations of rub rails or dock fenders, where appropriate.

For Structures over Railroads: a. b. c. d. Indicate all pertinent track dimensions not shown in plan. Indicate and identify min. vertical clearance over railroad clearance point. If clearance from centerline of track to face of multi-columned pier is less than 25N indicate a crash wall (unless railroad has waived this requirement). Indicate minimum horizontal clearance dimensions from 6 of track to nearest substructure on each side.

TYPICAL BRIDGE SECTION (Scale 1 = 10 or 1 = 20) Orient looking upstation. Indicate widths and identify lanes, shoulders, sidewalks, medians, tapers, auxiliary lanes and all other elements carried on the structure and show cross slopes. Indicate and identify or H.C.L., T.G.L., station line and P.O.R.. Identify slab depth and description (9Omonolithic bridge slab), or type and thickness of wearing surface (6Oon prestress concrete sections). Indicate and identify railing, barrier and curb type and height. Indicate and identify prestressed concrete beams, steel stringers or other types. Indicate that size and spacing of beams/girders are to be determined by designer. Indicate and identify utilities and conduits. Indicate configuration of pier.

STAGE CONSTRUCTION SECTION (Scale, as required) Existing and proposed sections for each stage Identify removal (dashed) and new construction Temporary (dashed) and permanent railing or barriers Temporary lane widths, sidewalks and shoulders/offsets Cross slopes may be omitted due to space constraints Concrete closure placement location and width

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April 2010

Structures Preliminary Plan Checklist

Horizontal relationship of cut and build lines to or HCL Vertical relationship between existing and proposed must be shown accurately Stage Construction Notes that describe the construction sequence Curb type and height or HCL, station line, TGL, and point of rotation Any required temporary support A Staging Plan View may be needed to convey staging strategy

TYPICAL HIGHWAY SECTION (Scale 1 = 10 or 1 = 20, same as other sections) Orient looking upstation. Indicate widths and identify lanes, shoulders, sidewalks, medians, tapers, auxiliary lanes and all other elements carried on the structure and show cross slopes. Indicate and identify or H.C.L., T.G.L., station line and P.O.R.. Indicate and identify pavement and shoulder types. thicknesses. Do not include item #s or

Indicate and identify railing, barrier and curb type and height. Indicate and identify ditch details and embankment or cut slopes. If section is different at each end of structure a section should be shown for each side.

TYPICAL APPROACH SECTION (Scale 1 = 10 or 1 = 20, same as other sections) Orient looking upstation. Indicate widths and identify lanes, shoulders, sidewalks, medians, tapers, auxiliary lanes and all other elements carried on the structure and show cross slopes. Indicate and identify or H.C.L., T.G.L., station line and P.O.R.. Indicate width and thickness of reinforced concrete approach slab. Indicate and identify railing, barrier and curb type and height. Indicate and identify ditch details and embankment or cut slopes. Show U-walls, if applicable.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

If section is different at each end of structure a section should be shown for each side.

PROFILES (exaggerate scale: 5 horizontal to 1 vertical) For each over road, under road, railroad and relocated stream, provide the following as appropriate: Indicate profile data on each side of structure, or elevations where existing pavement is met. Show PVI station and elevation, length of vertical curve, middle ordinate and sight distance (SSD or HSD). Indicate grades on each side of all PVI with correct signs. Indicate datum elevation line with stations, approximate existing ground line, final T.G.L., and equality points. Locate structure by indicating embankment end slopes and superstructure and include the equality points. Indicate stations of superelevation transitions, direction and percent of slope. For Railroads: a. b. c. Show profile for rail that controls vertical clearance. Specify top of existing and/or top of proposed rail as appropriate. Specify track number and identify which rail is being plotted.

For stream relocation identify T.G.L. as bottom of dish. If significant superelevation transition occurs on the structure and/or approaches also show an Expanded Banking Diagram detail. See Figure 2.12.

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April 2010

Structures Preliminary Plan Checklist

GENERAL Check that widths of roadways and superelevation agree with the design report and design speeds. Check that all horizontal clearances are acceptable according to Section 2. Indicate any datum correction note on the plan sheet. The front sheet of the preliminary bridge plan should provide abbreviated horizontal alignment curve data. The highway portions of the plans should include the complete curve data. Use the following format: SIMPLE CURVE DATA PC or PT Station Radius Length of Curve, LC

SPIRAL CURVE DATA TS Station Radius Length of Curve, LC Length of Spiral, LS

Complete the hydraulic information for the standard table. Include the required opening size of any temporary structure and the required design load. (See Section 3.4.2 for the format). Design Live Load Note for Temporary Structures.

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3F-7

Appendix 3G Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes


1. 2. 3. GENERAL NOTES: DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS: NYSDOT LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SPECIFICATION: NYSDOT STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, MAY 1, 2008. DESIGN LOAD: AASHTO HL93 AND NYSDOT DESIGN PERMIT VEHICLE FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION: DESIGN SPEED: WORK ZONE DESIGN SPEED: PROJECT TRAFFIC YEAR: AADT:

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. TWO-WAY DESIGN HOUR VOLUME: 11. PERCENT OF TRUCK TRAFFIC:_____% 12. BOTTOM OF FOOTING ELEVATIONS ABUTMENTS: PIERS:

or
13. TOP OF FOOTING ELEVATIONS - (FOR ROCK) 14. ESTIMATED COSTS TO BE INCLUDED IN BRIDGE ESTIMATE: BRIDGE @ $_____ PER SHOULDER BREAK SQUARE FEET REMOVAL OF EXISTING STRUCTURE WORK ZONE TRAFFIC CONTROL (BRIDGE SHARE) DETOUR STRUCTURE SPECIAL APPROACH WORK UTILITIES (BRIDGE SHARE) MISCELLANEOUS CHANNEL WORK (BRIDGE SHARE) TOTAL BRIDGE SHARE $____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ $____________

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

DESIGNER NOTES The following notes are to be used by the designer as appropriate.
15. ASBESTOS: 16. REGION INDICATES THERE IS NO ASBESTOS ON EXISTING BRIDGE. 17. THE PRESENCE OF ASBESTOS ON THE EXISTING HAS NOT YET BEEN DETERMINED. 18. REGION INDICATES THERE IS ASBESTOS ON EXISTING BRIDGE. 19. AVAILABLE BEAM DEPTH: 20. AVAILABLE BEAM DEPTH: ___ FT. - ___ IN. BASED ON 2 FT. MIN. FREEBOARD. 21. AVAILABLE BEAM DEPTH: ___ FT. - ___ IN. BASED ON ___ FT. - ___ IN. VERTICAL CLEARANCE. 22. PLEASE INVESTIGATE POSSIBILITY OF USING ___ FT. - ___ IN. BEAM TO PROVIDE 0 IN. OF FREEBOARD. 23. USE ___ FT. - ___ IN. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BOX BEAMS. 24. USE ___ FT. - ___ IN. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE SLAB UNITS. 25. USE ___ FT. - ___ IN. x ___ FT. - ___ IN.GLULAM STRINGERS, WITH ___ FT. - ___ IN. GLULAM DECK WITH ___ FT. - ___ IN. MINIMUM ASPHALT WEARING SURFACE. 26. THE MINIMUM FREEBOARD CONSIDERED ACCEPTABLE AT THIS LOCATION IS XXX FT. THIS CAN BE ACHIEVED BY USING A ___ FT. - ___ IN.DEEP BEAM AND A 6 IN. WEARING SURFACE, OR 9 IN. DECK WITH 2 IN. HAUNCH. AFTER FINAL DESIGN, THE FREEBOARD SHOWN IN ELEVATION A-A SHOULD BE REVISED TO REFLECT THAT ACTUAL ABSOLUTE MINIMUM FREEBOARD. 27. BASED ON MEETING AN EXISTING LOW BEAM ELEVATION OF ___ FT. - ___ IN., ___ FT. - ___ IN. IS THE AVAILABLE BEAM DEPTH. THIS PROVIDES A FREEBOARD OF ___ FT. - ___ IN.. THE ACTUAL FREEBOARD MUST BE CALCULATED BASED ON FINAL BEAM DEPTH. 28. If freeboard is 2 ft. or more say 2 FT. MIN. ALLOWABLE FREEBOARD. 29. If 0 in. freeboard is provided, show in elevation as 0 IN. FREEBOARD. 30. Do not indicate a negative freeboard.

31. Under pressure flow, show location of water surface and label in elevation view.

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Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes

32. HYDRAULIC INFORMATION: 33. WATER ELEVATIONS @ APPROACH: XX ft D.H.W. X.XX O.H.W. X.XX (FROM TABLE)

O.W. X.XX

L.W. X.XX

34. STREAM VELOCITY FOR TWO-YEAR FLOOD ___ ft/sec 35. HYDRAULICS ANALYSIS WAIVED, NO HYDRAULIC TABLE. 36. WATER SURFACE ELEVATIONS NOT APPLICABLE DUE TO WATERFALLS. 37. MAINTENANCE OF TRAFFIC: 38. TRAFFIC IS TO BE DETOURED OVER LOCAL ROADS. 39. TRAFFIC IS TO BE MAINTAINED AT SITE ON A TEMPORARY STRUCTURE. 40. TRAFFIC IS TO BE MAINTAINED ON EXISTING STRUCTURE UTILIZING STAGE CONSTRUCTION. 41. TRAFFIC IS TO BE MAINTAINED ON EXISTING STRUCTURE. 42. TRAFFIC IS TO BE MAINTAINED AT THE SITE BY MEANS OF A TEMPORARY AT-GRADE CROSSINGS. (Railroad crossings) 43. RECORD PLANS: 44. SKETCHES ARE AVAILABLE IN FOLDER IN LIEU OF AS BUILT PLANS. 45. AS-BUILT PLANS NOT AVAILABLE. 46. AS-BUILT PLANS AVAILABLE IN DESIGN FOLDER. 47. REMOVALS: 48. EXISTING SUBSTRUCTURE TO BE REMOVED TO ___ FT. - ___ IN. BELOW FINISHED GROUND UNDER BRIDGE ESTIMATE. 49. EXISTING STRUCTURE TO BE REMOVED UNDER BRIDGE ESTIMATE. 50. EXISTING SUBSTRUCTURE TO BE REMOVED TO ELEVATION AS NOTED UNDER BRIDGE ESTIMATE. 51. EXISTING PILE BENTS TO BE REMOVED TO EXISTING GROUND UNDER BRIDGE ESTIMATE. 52. ABUTMENTS TO BE LEFT IN PLACE AND FILL PLACED OVER AND IN FRONT OF THEM. 53. EXISTING SUPERSTRUCTURE TO BE REMOVED IN ITS ENTIRETY. 54. PORTIONS OF THE EXISTING SUPERSTRUCTURE ARE TO BE SALVAGED AND TO BECOME THE PROPERTY OF ______________ (STATE, COUNTY OR CITY, ETC.) - need a special

note identifying the components to be saved

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55. RESTRICTIONS: 56. STREAM IS CLASS C (T), REGION WILL PROVIDE ANY D.E.C. RESTRICTIONS. 57. STREAM IS A CLASS C (T). NO INSTREAM WORK BETWEEN __/__/__ AND __/__/__. 58. CLASS C (T) STREAM 59. ADJACENT WETLANDS REQUIRE STEEPER SLOPES, LONGER U-WINGWALLS, ETC. 60. SLOPE PROTECTION: 61. STONE FILLING (MEDIUM/HEAVY) WILL BE REQUIRED TO STABILIZE ALL DISTURBED SLOPES. 62. STONE FILLING (MEDIUM/HEAVY) WILL BE REQUIRED IN CHANNEL BOTTOM AND ALL SIDE SLOPES TO 6 IN. ABOVE 100-YR. FLOOD ___ FT. EITHER SIDE OF FASCIA - MEET APPROX. EXIST. CHANNEL BOTTOM. 63. PLACE STONE FILL TO AN ELEVATION EQUAL TO. ___ FT. - ___ IN. (1 FT. ABOVE DHW) (3 ft.

above the maximum navigable elevation)


64. STONE FILLING (HEAVY/MEDIUM) TO BE PLACED 1 FT. ABOVE D.H.W. OR AS INDICATED IN PLAN AND INCLUDED IN BRIDGE ESTIMATE TO LIMITS SHOWN.

The following note is for stream bridges with piers in or adjacent to water:
65. ANY BACKFILL MATERIAL AROUND THE PIERS WITHIN A MAXIMUM LIMIT OF ONE FOOTING WIDTH ON EITHER SIDE OF THE PIER FOOTING SHALL BE STONE FILLING (MEDIUM/HEAVY). 66. SPECIAL NOTES: 67. PERMANENT STEEL SHEET PILING IN N.W. QUAD TO BEGIN AT STA. XXX + XX. 68. SIDE SLOPES IN THE NE QUADRANT WILL BE STEEPER THAN 1 ON 2 TO AVOID FILLING THE EXISTING DITCH. 69. OFFSETS BETWEEN EXISTING ("E" LINE) AND PROPOSED ("G" LINE) ARE IN THE DESIGN FOLDER.

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Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes

70. SUBSTRUCTURE AND SUPERSTRUCTURE DETAILS: 71. ABUTMENTS SHALL BE BUILT PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER AT AZ 0E-00'-00". 72. ABUTMENTS & PIERS SHALL BE BUILT PARALLEL TO EACH OTHER AT AZ 0E-00'-00". 73. USE INTEGRAL ABUTMENT DETAILS - NO AUGURING REQUIRED. (bridges less than 100 ft.) 74. INTEGRAL ABUTMENTS - AUGURING REQUIRED. 75. USE INTEGRAL ABUTMENT DETAILS FOR SUPERSTRUCTURE TO SUBSTRUCTURE CONNECTION. 76. USE SEMI-INTEGRAL ABUTMENT DETAILS 77. APPROACH SLABS SHALL BE CONTINUOUS WITH BRIDGE DECK. 78. FASCIAS BUILT PARALLEL. 79. FASCIAS SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED PARALLEL TO LOCAL TANGENT AZIMUTH OF 0E-00'-00". 80. JOINTLESS DETAILS ARE PROPOSED. 81. INVESTIGATE USE OF JOINTLESS DETAILS. 82. VARY OVERHANG OR CURVE FASCIA TO ACCOMMODATE ___ FT. - ___ IN. THROW DUE TO SPIRAL. 83. GIRDERS WILL BE STRAIGHT W/ VARIED OVERHANG. 84. MAKE STRUCTURE CONTINUOUS FOR LIVE LOAD. 85. UTILITIES & LIGHTING 86. NO UTILITIES OR LIGHTING SHALL BE CARRIED ON STRUCTURE. 87. NO UTILITIES WILL BE CARRIED ON STRUCTURE. 88. NEW STRUCTURE TO CARRY ___ IN.GAS LINE ON EAST SIDE. 89. UTILITIES PENDING, REGION WILL PROVIDE LOCATION, SIZE, NUMBER, ETC. 90. UTILITY(IES) TO BE CARRIED ON (LEFT, RIGHT) SIDE OF STRUCTURE IS, ___ FT. - ___ IN.WATER LINE, ___ IN.CONDUIT FOR TELEPHONE, ETC. 91. NAVIGATION LIGHTS ARE REQUIRED.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

92. WEATHERING STEEL: 93. WEATHERING STEEL WILL BE USED. DRIP BARS ARE REQUIRED. SUBSTRUCTURE CONCRETE IS REQUIRED. 94. WEATHERING STEEL WILL BE USED. DRIP BARS ARE REQUIRED. SUBSTRUCTURE CONCRETE IS NOT REQUIRED. 95. RAILING: 96. RAILING DESIGN SERVICE LEVEL (indicate TL-2, TL-4 or TL-5). CLEANING OF

CLEANING OF

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January 2008

Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes

REGION NOTES
97. APPROACH SLABS: 98. ENTIRE COST OF REINFORCED CONCRETE APPROACH SLABS IS TO BE INCLUDED IN BRIDGE ESTIMATE. 99. APPROACH SLABS ARE NOT PROPOSED. DO YOU CONCUR? 100. ASBESTOS: 101. PLEASE VERIFY IF ANY ASBESTOS IS PRESENT ON EXISTING STRUCTURE. 102. BANKING DIAGRAM: 103. PLEASE VERIFY BANKING DIAGRAM STATIONS, AND CROSS-SLOPES. 104. BORINGS: 105. PLEASE PROVIDE BORINGS. 106. PLEASE VERIFY BORING LOCATIONS. 107. CURVE DATA: 108. PLEASE PROVIDE CURVE DATA FOR ROUTE 000. 109. PLEASE VERIFY CURVE DATA FOR ROUTE 000. 110. DETOUR: 111. COMPLETE PS&E PACKAGE FOR THE FULL HIGHWAY DETOUR INCLUDING THE DETOUR STRUCTURE WILL BE THE REGION'S RESPONSIBILITY. 112. PLEASE PROVIDE THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION FOR THE DETOUR: WIDTH, AND DESIGN LOAD. 113. DRAINAGE: 114. PLEASE INDICATE DESIRED DRAINAGE TREATMENT @ BRIDGE. 115. NO HIGHWAY DRAINAGE WILL BE PERMITTED ON RAILROAD RIGHT OF WAY. 116. GUIDE RAIL: 117. PLEASE INDICATE IF RAILING TREATMENT MEETS W/ YOUR APPROVAL. 118. PLEASE INDICATE IF RAILING TREATMENT MEETS W/YOUR APPROVAL, SPECIFICALLY THE NE CORNER AT GRAVEL DRIVE. 119. PLEASE INDICATE DESIRED RAILING TREATMENT AT GRAVEL DRIVE IN NW QUAD. ALIGNMENT,

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120. HYDRAULIC INFORMATION: 121. PLEASE PROVIDE OBSERVED WATER ELEVATIONS: OHW, OW, AND LW. 122. LIGHTING: 123. PLEASE LOCATE LIGHTING STANDARDS AND GIVE STATIONS AND OFFSETS. 124. MISCELLANEOUS: 125. PLEASE PROVIDE LIMITS OF TAPER ON TRAVEL LANES. 126. PLEASE PROVIDE RADIUS FOR CREEK . (reconstructed channels)

127. "PEDESTRIAN FENCING..." IT IS OUR INTENTION TO INSTALL SUCH A SYSTEM ON THIS


STRUCTURE. PLEASE INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION OF THIS PROPOSAL. (Sidewalk is necessary in order to use this note. Don't put on before getting

approval from region.)


128. RESTRICTIONS: 129. PLEASE PROVIDE ANY D.E.C. RESTRICTIONS. 130. PLEASE INDICATE WHEN IN-STREAM WORK IS TO BE RESTRICTED. 131. R.O.W.: 132. PLEASE PROVIDE PROPOSED R.O.W. 133. PLEASE PROVIDE EXISTING & PROPOSED R.O.W. 134. SLOPE PROTECTION: 135. PLEASE VERIFY LIMITS FOR STONE FILLING (MEDIUM/HEAVY). 136. UTILITIES: 137. PLEASE LOCATE ALL UTILITIES IN VICINITY OF STRUCTURE AND INDICATE THEIR FINAL DISPOSITION. 138. PLEASE INDICATE LOCATION OF ALL UTILITIES TO BE CARRIED ON STRUCTURE. ALSO PLEASE PROVIDE NUMBER, SIZE, TYPE, WEIGHT/FOOT, ETC.

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Preliminary Plan Sheet Notes

139. WEATHERING STEEL: 140. DO YOU HAVE ANY OBJECTION TO THE USE OF WEATHERING STEEL? 141. IF WEATHERING STEEL IS NOT DESIRED, PLEASE INDICATE COLOR YOU WISH STEEL TO BE PAINTED. 142. WILL YOU REQUIRE CLEANING OF THE SUBSTRUCTURE CONCRETE?

(Information notes - not for plans. Weathering steel will not be painted: use A572 instead.)

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

FOUNDATION NOTES
143. SCOUR ELEVATION @ABUT ___ FT. - ___ IN.

@PIER
144. CIP PILES ___ TON CAPACITY

___ FT. - ___ IN.

145. STEEL BEARING PILES HP _____ x_____ WITH A ___ TON CAPACITY. 146. SPREAD FOOTINGS ON SOIL OR ROCK BEARING CAPACITY COEFF OF FRICTION ________ ksi _______

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January 2008

Appendix 3H Structure Justification Report

STRUCTURE JUSTIFICATION REPORT


P.I.N: TITLE: DATE: SITE DATA RECEIVED: B.I.N.: PS&E: COUNTY: ADV. PRELIM. PLAN:

EXISTING YEAR BUILT: NO. OF SPANS: SPAN LENGTH: WIDTH: SUPERSTRUCTURE: SUBSTRUCTURE: SKEW:

PROPOSED

WZTC: UTILITIES: ASBESTOS: SLOPE PROTECTION: INNOVATIVE/UNUSUAL STRUCTURE COMMENTS & ALTERNATIVES:
1

YES:

(specify)

NO:

(See Appendix 3D.2.b for information about factors that should be considered.)

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

STRUCTURE JUSTIFICATION REPORT P.I.N: B.I.N: PAGE: COMMENTS CONTD:

Signature/Title:_____________________________ Date:______________________________________

January 2008

3H-2

Section 4 Structure Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams


4.1 General Guidelines for Structure Excavation Protection and Support

The designer should become familiar with the appropriate specifications in the most current version of the Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials. The following guidelines shall in no way supersede the specifications. The intent of these guidelines is to explain the differences between the types of systems that are used to support excavations and those used to protect the workers and to identify: C C C When they are used. Who is responsible for the design. What is to be shown on the Plans.

This section is intended to provide guidance on the commonly used excavation items in bridge construction. Users should refer to Chapter 9 of the Highway Design Manual (HDM) for guidance on excavation protection systems for trench and culvert excavations. These guidelines conform to OSHA definitions, which differentiate between a support system as being a "structure . . . which provides support to an adjacent structure, underground installation, or the sides of an excavation" and a protective system, which protects workers from cave-ins. "Protective systems include support systems, sloping and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide the necessary protection." The Departments responsibility in designing excavations is to provide support of the roadway and adjacent structures and utilities. The Contractors responsibility in performing excavations is to provide protection for the workers from cave-ins. It is assumed that designers are familiar with the design procedures necessary to do the designs. If, however, geotechnical design assistance is needed, refer to "Geotechnical Design Procedure for Flexible Wall Systems" GDP-11 or contact the appropriate Departmental Geotechnical Engineer. If support or protective systems are used in the vicinity of a railroad right-of-way, special requirements are usually necessary. Contact the appropriate Railroad Liaison for additional information. (See Chapter 23 of the Highway Design Manual.) Protection for employees working in an excavation shall be provided except when: C C The excavation is made entirely in stable rock; or The excavation is less than 5 feet deep and an examination of the ground by a competent person gives no indication of a potential cave-in.

For excavations less than 5 feet in depth, only the excavation items need to be shown on the plans. OSHA regulations do not require any special steps be taken regarding worker protection. April 2010 4-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

For excavation depths from 5 feet through 20 feet, one of the following scenarios shall be used: 1. If there is no encumbrance with elements which would require support, (e.g. traffic lane, underground utilities, structures or their foundations, or the existing right of way etc.) within a safe slope that meets OSHA guidelines (typically: 1 vertical to 1.5 horizontal) measured from the bottom of the excavation to existing ground, it is considered to be in compliance with OSHA regulations that cover worker protection. In this case, only excavation and backfill items need to be specified and the cost estimate shall be based on the payment lines shown on the plans. If there is interference within a safe slope that meets OSHA guidelines (typically the 1 vertical and 1.5 horizontal) but vibrations are minor and repairable subsidence is not considered to be a problem, and there is no interference at least 10 ft. from edge of excavation, then a steeper slope of up to 1 vertical to 1 horizontal may be used, if approved by the Regional Geotechnical Engineer or Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. The cost estimate shall be based on the payment lines shown on the plans. If 1 or 2 above cannot be satisfied, an appropriate sheeting support system is required and shall be designed and detailed on the contract drawings, by the Department or the Departments Consultant.

2.

3.

For excavations greater than 20 feet, a support system or slope lay back must be site specifically designed and detailed on the contract plans. If a slope lay back is feasible as determined by the Regional Geotechnical Engineer or Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, it shall be designed and detailed on the plans and serve as a support system, and the cost estimate shall be based on the payment lines shown on the plans. A support system shall be designed and specified (i.e., a sheeting item or soldier pile and lagging wall) to provide for worker protection where a designed slope lay back is not feasible. See the BD-EE series for appropriate excavation and embankment details and item numbers.

4.2

Unclassified Excavation and Disposal

This is a general excavation Item (203.02) to remove material not provided for in another Item. Typically, this involves large excavations using large equipment. No special care, other than reaching grade, is required. No provisions for a support system are included in this item. Additional items for support or protective systems must be added, as necessary, for support of the excavation or to protect workers.

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Structure Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams

4.3

Structure, Trench and Culvert, and Conduit Excavation

The Structure Excavation Item (206.01) provides a small, neat excavation using smaller equipment. The Trench and Culvert Items (206.02 and 206.04) provide a neat excavation in a confined space; typically for pipe or culvert excavations. The Conduit Excavation Item (206.03) also provides a neat excavation in a confined space; typically for conduit or direct buried cable excavations. For all Items, special care is required to provide an excavation with an undisturbed bottom. The designers attention is called to Item 206.04 - Trench and Culvert Excavation - O.G., which specifies that the top payment line is "the ground surface prior to commencing work." Over time, the typical construction contract has changed from building a road on new location to rehabilitating an existing facility. Todays operations on existing location requiring the maintenance of traffic dictates how a contractor sequences the work. This new item should result in the best method of measurement for most construction contracts. However, there are some instances where it is desirable to use the old method of measurement for trench and culvert excavation. For these instances Item 206.02 - Trench and Culvert Excavation, whose only purpose is to keep the old top payment line and method of measurement, is still appropriate. The instances where this item should be used are: 1. Road built on new location. 2. Construction taking place on existing road where a majority of the road is closed and traffic rerouted by a detour detailed in the plans. 3. When, after considering M&P/T, excavation work, road configuration and other factors, the logical and probable sequence of work the Contractor will choose is general excavation/fill first then trench and culvert excavation second. The designer, when using Item 206.02 Trench and Culvert excavation under #3, should always consult the Regional Construction Office to confirm the decision. Both items can be used on the same project provided clear details are shown in the contract documents. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Location Typical sections showing payment lines.

4.4

Removal of Substructures

This item (202.19) is used only to remove concrete and masonry. If excavation is needed to remove the substructure, the excavation should be shown and paid for under the Structure Excavation Item (206.01). Item 202.19 is used to partially or fully remove stone or concrete substructures that are not to be repaired or altered and reused.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

4.5

Excavation Protection System

This Item (552.16) should only be used for Trench and Culvert excavations greater than 5 feet and less than 20 feet in depth. It provides for worker protection only where vibration or minor repairable subsidence are not considered a problem and no lay-back option is available due to ROW constraints, traffic, etc. An EPS is not acceptable for stage construction of highways or bridges or culverts. EPS is also not acceptable to protect workers from a one sided excavation, such as a cut into an existing slope. See Chapter 9 of the Highway Design Manual for details.

4.6 4.6.1

Interim Sheeting Interim Steel Sheeting

This Item (552.15) uses steel sheeting to provide temporary support during progression of an excavation. This sheeting is then cut off to an elevation specified in the Contract Plans and the remainder is left in place. The decision to leave in place is usually dictated by soil conditions and will be made by others. The Geotechnical Group, Rails, Structures or even the Department of Environmental Conservation may have input during design and should be consulted. For example, sheeting may be left in place when there is stage construction, when pulling the sheeting may leave voids, or when the sheeting is adjacent to a structure and pulling the sheeting may cause structural damage to the adjacent structure. Sheeting may be previously used material, but must be in satisfactory condition and suitable for the intended application. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's Consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Plan location of the sheeting placement Typical section(s) showing: B Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting. B Elevation for the bottom of the excavation. B Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation. B Elevation at which sheeting is to be cut off. B Payment lines. B Location of wales or bracing, if required. Minimum section modulus for the sheeting If required, minimum section modulus of wales and size of bracing

C C

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April 2010

Structure Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams

Table1 showing the soil parameters used for the design: UNIT WEIGHT (lbs/ft3) FRICTION ANGLE (Degrees) WALL FRICTION ANGLE (Degrees)

LOCATION

ELEVATION (Feet)

COHESION (lb/in2)

0
Notes: Divide the passive earth pressure coefficient (Kp) by 1.25. Groundwater is assumed at Elevation _______.1 A surcharge load of ___ lb/in2 is assumed at the top of the wall.1 and 2 Sheeting cannot be driven below Elevation _______, due to _______ (choices: rock, boulders, compact material, obstructions, artesian water pressure).1 and 2 Any other pertinent information1
1

If the sheeting is associated with a structure for which a Foundation Design Report (FDR) has been prepared, the FDR will provide this information. If, however, an FDR has not been prepared or the sheeting is not in the vicinity of the structure, this information is to be provided by the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau or the Regional Geotechnical Engineer for inclusion on the plans. 2 If applicable, this note should be added.

Table 4-1 Soil Design Parameters

4.6.2

Interim Timber Sheeting

This Item (552.14) uses timber sheeting to provide temporary support during progression of an excavation. This sheeting is then cut off to an elevation specified in the Contract Plans and the remainder is left in place. The decision to leave in place is usually dictated by soil conditions and will be made by others. The Geotechnical Group, Rails, Structures or even the Department of Environmental Conservation may have input during design and should be consulted. For example; sheeting may be left in place when there is stage construction, when pulling the sheeting may leave voids, or when the sheeting is adjacent to a structure and pulling the sheeting may cause structural damage to the adjacent structure. The timber may be used material and of any acceptable species. It shall be free of any defects that may impair its strength or tightness. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's Consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C Plan location of the sheeting placement B Typical section(s) showing: - Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting - Elevation for the bottom of the excavation - Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation - Elevation at which sheeting is to be cut off - Payment lines

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

C C C

- Location of wales or bracing, if required Minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber If required, minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber of wales and bracing Show the same table used for Interim Steel Sheeting (Section 4.6.1).

4.7 4.7.1

Temporary Sheeting Temporary Steel Sheeting

This Item (552.13) uses steel sheeting to provide temporary support during progression of an excavation. When no longer needed for excavation support, the sheeting shall be removed. The Contractor may leave the sheeting in place only with the written approval of the Engineer. The sheeting may be used material, but must be in satisfactory condition and suitable for the intended application. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's Consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Plan location of the sheeting placement Typical section(s) showing: B Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting. B Elevation for the bottom of the excavation. B Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation. B Payment lines. B Location of wales or bracing, if required. Minimum section modulus for the sheeting If required, minimum section modulus of wales and size of bracing Show the same table used for Interim Steel Sheeting (Section 4.6.1).

C C C

4.7.2

Temporary Timber Sheeting

This Item (552.12) uses timber sheeting to provide temporary support during progression of an excavation. When no longer needed for excavation support, the sheeting shall be removed. The Contractor may leave the sheeting in place only with the written approval of the Engineer. Unless stated otherwise on the Contract Plans, the timber may be used material and of any acceptable species. It shall be free of any defects that may impair its strength or tightness. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's Consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Plan location of the sheeting placement Typical section(s) showing: B Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting. B Elevation for the bottom of the excavation. B Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation. B Payment lines. B Location of wales or bracing, if required.

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April 2010

Structure Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams

C C C

Minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber If required, minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber of wales and bracing Show the same table used for Interim Steel Sheeting (Section 4.6.1).

4.8 4.8.1

Permanent Sheeting Permanent Steel Sheeting

This Item (552.11) uses steel sheeting to provide permanent support. Associated work may or may not require an excavation. The sheeting is then left in place to function as a structure. Unless stated otherwise on the Contract Plans, only new, unused ASTM A328 steel is to be used. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's Consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Plan location of the sheeting placement Typical section(s) showing: B Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting. B Elevation for the bottom of the excavation, if applicable. B Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation, if applicable. B Payment lines. B Location of wales or bracing, if required. Minimum section modulus for the sheeting If required, minimum section modulus of wales and size of bracing Show the same table used for Interim Steel Sheeting (Section 4.6.1) except in the first note change 1.25 to 1.5 for permanent conditions.

C C C

4.8.2

Permanent Timber Sheeting

This Item (552.10) uses timber sheeting to provide permanent support. Associated work may or may not require an excavation. The sheeting is then left in place to function as a structure. Unless stated otherwise on the Contract Plans, the timber shall be new, unused material of any acceptable species. It shall be free of any defects that may impair its strength or tightness. This sheeting is to be designed by the State or the State's consultant. The following information is to be shown on the Contract Plans: C C Plan location of the sheeting placement Typical section(s) showing: B Elevations for the top and toe of the sheeting B Elevation for the bottom of the excavation, if applicable B Minimum embedment below the bottom of the excavation, if applicable B Payment lines B Location of wales or bracing, if required Minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

C C

If required, minimum cross section (use actual dimensions) and stress grade for the timber of wales and bracing Show the same table used for Interim Steel Sheeting (Section 4.6.1) except in the first note change 1.25 to 1.5 for permanent conditions.

4.9

Cofferdam and Waterway Diversion Guidelines

The designer should become familiar with the specifications for cofferdams in the most current version of the Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials. The following guidelines shall in no way supersede the specifications. Cofferdams are temporary enclosures to keep excavations free from earth, water, ice, or snow and to permit the excavation to be carried to elevations shown on the Contract Plans. These elevations may be lower than the planned bottom of excavation due to an undercut. Permanent substructure protection systems are not to be paid for under the cofferdam item. A waterway diversion is a temporary structure that diverts or pumps water around an area so that excavation or work can be accomplished. The use of a waterway diversion is primarily to provide water quality protection. The area from which water is diverted does not need to be earth, water, ice or snow free. A waterway diversion structure is not a substitution for or equal to a cofferdam. Unlike cofferdams, a temporary waterway diversion structure does not need to be designed by a registered Professional Engineer. The use of cofferdams, permanent sheeting, stream diversions and associated temporary access fills requires permits, approvals and coordination with various State and Federal regulatory agencies (Department of Environmental Conservation, Corps of Engineers, Adirondack Park Agency, Department of State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, New York City Department of Environmental Protection, U.S. Coast Guard). Permits contain conditions that must be adhered to and shall be included in the Contract Documents (proposal/plans). Regulatory agencies may place seasonal restrictions on work in the waterway, may require restoration plans, and limit the types of materials to be used. The Designer should coordinate with the Regional Landscape/Environmental Unit (RL/E Unit) early in the project design to facilitate environmental reviews and permit/coordination procedures. The Designer must also coordinate with the Regional Hydraulics Engineer regarding the location and number of cofferdams and temporary access fills that may be in place at any given time and the number of construction seasons they will be in place. The Regional Hydraulics Engineer can also assist when choosing between a cofferdam or waterway diversion structure or determine if both are necessary. A cofferdam item should be included in contract plans only if the proposed bottom of footing elevation for a substructure is below the Ordinary High Water (O.H.W.) elevation. A cofferdam item is generally not called for: C When existing substructure removal is performed in water (this operation need not be performed in a "dewatered" condition unless required by specific project requirements), or

4-8

April 2010

Structure Excavation, Sheeting and Cofferdams

To install stream bank protection (turbidity curtains, dikes, waterway diversions or other erosion and sediment control measures should be utilized, as appropriate, to limit turbidity at the substructure removal site or when performing bank stabilization activities. At times, a closed system may be utilized to confine turbidity without having to be dewatered. Those measures should be paid for under the appropriate Standard Specifications Section 209 pay items).

A temporary waterway diversion structure may be used for operations where stream flow needs to be relocated around a work site but the work site does not require dewatering. For example, placing stone fill along a slope, or excavating for and placing stone fill for keyways. At the request of the designer, in consultation with the Regional Hydraulics Engineer, the Regional Landscape Architect and/or Environmental Engineer and permitting agency, the cofferdam item shall include additional streambank protection based upon installation timing and waterway flows. No less than a 2-year storm event potential shall be taken into account in designing temporary streambank protection. When permanent sheeting is called for on the Contract Plans to protect against vessel impact, a cofferdam item shall be included to provide for the cost of de-watering and construction protection. The Contractor will have the option of installing separate cofferdam protection, or incorporating the permanent sheeting in the cofferdam system. If the latter option is chosen, the cofferdam item will cover all additional bracing required to strengthen the sheeting system, if required, and any work necessary to return the permanent sheeting to its required function after the cofferdam operation is complete. On occasion, anchor spuds are driven to facilitate construction of the cofferdam system and they are included in the price bid for the cofferdam. When the sole purpose of the system is to protect dewatering and construction operations, the entire system will be covered under the cofferdam item. Where stream diversion or other alternates are allowed as a substitution, the work shall be paid for at the price bid for the cofferdam at that location. Cofferdams will be paid for on an each basis and shown as an enclosed area on the Contract Plans. This will expedite environmental reviews and permit procedures prior to PS&E. Use a separate serialized item number for each cofferdam to assure that varying field conditions are accounted for at each location. Cofferdams will be classified as either Type 1 or Type 2: Type 1 (Item 553.01nnnn) cofferdams are required for a water depth exceeding 8 ft., measured from the bottom of excavation to anticipated Ordinary High Water or when special conditions warrant. They must be designed by a Professional Engineer licensed and registered to practice in New York State retained by the Contractor. The design is submitted to the Engineer-in-Charge for review by the DCES a minimum of twenty (20) working days prior to installation. Type 2 (Item 553.02nnnn) cofferdams are limited to a maximum anticipated depth of 8 ft., measured from the bottom of excavation to anticipated Ordinary High Water. They must be designed by a Professional Engineer licensed and registered to practice in New York State retained by the Contractor. The Contractor submits to the Engineer-in-Charge, for review, the methods to be employed a minimum of ten (10) working days prior to installation. No design computations are required to be submitted. April 2010 4-9

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

The Designer shall select the appropriate cofferdam type based on anticipated water elevation and bottom of excavation. Stream integrity characteristics such as high velocity, ice pressure and scour potential may warrant a Type 1 cofferdam even if the depth is less than 8 ft. For cost estimating purposes, assume that the cofferdam extends 2 ft. above Ordinary High Water and 3 ft. laterally beyond the limits of the proposed footing. See the appropriate section of this manual related to navigable water clearances for additional information. The Contractor shall determine the actual field limits required to satisfy conditions of the specification. (Such as not interfering with battered piles.) When a cofferdam is used in conjunction with a tremie seal, the designer shall include Note 43 on the Contract Plans indicating the critical water elevation at which the system should be flooded in order to prevent the tremie seal from becoming buoyant. The Geotechnical Engineering Bureau will provide the flooding elevation. See Section 11 for additional information on the design of tremie seals. The location(s) of sediment removal areas shall be indicated on the Contract Plans. The designer should obtain input from the Regional Landscape/Environmental Unit. See Section 17.3, Notes 39 43, for standard cofferdam notes to be placed on the contract plans. In some streams the Ordinary High Water elevation can be several feet higher than the Low Water elevation. This could lead to a cofferdam design of excessive size and cost that may be inappropriate for the majority of the construction operation. In consultation with the Regional Hydraulics Engineers it may be appropriate to designate by a note on the plans a more realistic elevation above which the system should be flooded to avoid overloading rather than expect the cofferdam to serve the most severe field condition as inferred in the specification.

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April 2010

EXCAVATION REQUIREMENTS ITEM 203.02 Unclassified Excavation and Disposal ITEM 206.01 Structure Excavation ITEM 206.02 Trench and Culvert Excavation and ITEM 206.04 Trench and Culvert Excavation - O.G. Provide an excavation in a confined space. Example: Pipe and culvert excavations. ITEM 206.03 Conduit Excavation and Backfill ITEM 202.19 Removal of Substructures ITEM 580.01 Removal of Structural Concrete

Intended Use:

General excavation item to remove material not provided for in another itemlarge excavations using large equipment. None, other than reaching grade. Included No

Provide a small, carefully excavated area with smaller equipment.

Provide an excavation in a confined space. Example: Conduit and direct buried cable excavations.

To partially or fully remove stone or concrete substructures that are not to be repaired or altered and reused. (Does not include Excavation.) To not damage remaining concrete, if any is to remain. Included No. Requirements for Structure Excavation Item 206.01 apply. Yes N/A

Removal of structural concrete from structural concrete elements. Examples: Patching of abutments and piers; abutment backwall removal to a defined elevation where vertical reinforcing is to remain and the backwall reconstructed. To not damage remaining concrete. Included N/A

Special Care Required: Disposal: Backfill Included: Dewatering Included: Layback Option Available to Contractor: Protective System Design Responsibility

Bottom of excavation to be undisturbed. Included Yes, except select material. Yes Yes-if detailed without a support or protection system item. CONTRACTOR: If no system is specified (excavation without support system). STATE OR CONSULTANT: If support system is specified. Cubic Yard

Bottom of excavation to be undisturbed. Included Yes, except select material. Yes Yes-if detailed without a support or protection system item. CONTRACTOR: If Excavation Protection System (EPS) Item, cofferdam, or no system specified. STATE OR CONSULTANT: If any system other than EPS or cofferdam indicated. Cubic Yard

Bottom of excavation to be undisturbed. Included Yes

No No

Yes Yes-if detailed without a support or protection system item. CONTRACTOR: If Excavation Protection System (EPS) Item, cofferdam, or no system specified. STATE OR CONSULTANT: If any system other than EPS or cofferdam indicated. Linear Foot

N/A N/A

Excavation support is not included in this item. Additional item(s) must be used.

CONTRACTOR: N/A

N/A

Pay Unit

Cubic Yard

Cubic Yard

Cubic Yard

4-11

Table 4-2 Excavation Requirements

Intended Use:

Designed By: Materials:

Final Status:

Layback Option Available: De-Watering Included: Pay Unit: Show on Plans:

4-12
SUPPORT AND PROTECTION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ITEM 552.14 ITEM 552.15 Interim Sheeting Support System (Left in Place) Provide temporary excavation support. When no longer needed as support, is cut off and left in place. Example: Wall within embankment for staged construction. State/Consultant New or used ITEM 552.16 Excavation Protection System (for details see Section 9.3.12 of HDM) For excavations less than 20 ft., provide temporary support to protect workers for excavations where layback is not an option. Not to be used in the vicinity of adjacent structure or utility. Contractor New or used sheeting, shoring, trench box, or shield; other preengineered support system Removed or left in place with Engineers approval. No ITEM 206.01* ITEM 206.02* ITEM 206.03* ITEM 206.04* Trench, Culvert and Structure Excavation Included in these items is the protection necessary to ensure safety of workers. ITEM 552.10 ITEM 552.11 Permanent Sheeting Provide excavation support. To remain in place to function as a structure. ITEM 552.12 ITEM 552.13 Temporary Sheeting Provide excavation support. May be removed from site when no longer required for support unless written approval of Engineer allows it to remain. State/Consultant New or used State/Consultant Steel: New Timber: Any acceptable species free of defects. Left in place Contractor Anything meeting the requirements of OSHA. Removed after use. Removed or left in place with Engineers approval. No No Left in place after use, but cut off to elevation shown/stated on plans. No Yes No: Included in excavation item. Square foot Plan location//Typical Section showing: elev. for sheeting top and toe plus excavation bottom, min. embedment, payment lines//Min. section modulus for sheeting and wales (if required)//Soil parameters table //Groundwater elev. //Pertinent notes. No: Included in excavation item. Square foot Plan location//Typical Section showing: elev. for sheeting top and toe plus excavation bottom, min. embedment, payment lines//Min. section modulus for sheeting and wales (if required)//Soil parameters table //Groundwater elev. //Pertinent notes. No: Included in excavation item. Square foot Plan location//Typical Section showing: elev. for sheeting top and toe plus excavation bottom, min. embedment, payment lines//Min. section modulus for sheeting and wales (if required)//Bracing size (if required)// Soil parameters table//Groundwater elev. //Pertinent notes//Cut-off elevation. No: Included in excavation item. Square foot Location Typical Section - If used for pipe installation. Yes Cubic Yard, Linear Foot Location Typical Section showing payment lines when situation not covered by Standard Sheets. *If detailed without a support system. See Guidelines Table 4-3 Excavation Requirements

COFFERDAM REQUIREMENTS ITEM 553.01nnnn Cofferdams (Type 1) Intended Use: Protect and dewater an excavation to install foundation elements. Contractors NYS Professional Engineer Design, including computations and method of installation. New or used timber or steel sheeting, impermeable earth-filled bags, precast concrete, commercially designed system. Each Plan Location Exceeding 8 ft. or special conditions warrant. ITEM 553.02nnnn Cofferdams (Type 2) Protect and dewater an excavation to install foundation elements. Contractors NYS Professional Engineer Methods to be employed ITEM 553.03nnnn Temporary Waterway Diversion Structure Divert flow

Designed by: Review by New York State:

Contractor Methods to be employed

Materials:

New or used timber or steel sheeting, impermeable earth-filled bags, precast concrete, commercially designed system. Each Plan Location 8 ft. maximum

Pay Unit: Show on Plans: Depth:

New or used timber or steel sheeting, impermeable earth-filled bags, precast concrete, commercially designed system, such as a Portadam. Each Plan Location 8 ft. maximum

Table 4-4 Cofferdam Requirements

4-13

Section 5 Bridge Decks


5.1 5.1.1 Concrete Deck Slabs Composite Design

Concrete deck slabs on steel girders are almost always designed to act compositely with the girders. Composite design provides an advantage in reducing the necessary section of primary members and also serves to significantly stiffen the bridge. The composite action is attained by the use of properly designed stud shear connectors. Prestressed concrete beams are also designed with a composite deck slab, regardless of whether the beams are spread or adjacent. The composite action is attained by extending reinforcing stirrups from the top of the beams into the slab. The design thicknesses for monolithic structural slabs neglect the top integral wearing surface portion in structural calculations. This is to account for expected wear and deterioration of the wearing surface. The design thickness for various concrete deck systems are in Table 5-1.

Deck system Monolithic Slab

Deck Thickness 9 inches

Design Thickness 8 inches

Comments Epoxy-Coated or Galvanized Reinforcement Solid Stainless Steel or Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement See Section 5.1.4 Adjacent Concrete Slab Units or Box Beams

Monolithic Slab

8 inches

8 inches

Two Course Deck Deck Slab

10 or 9 inches 6 inches

7 inches 5 inches

Table 5-1 Deck Thickness Requirements Dead load calculations shall always include the full thickness of the deck system. All structures with a monolithic wearing surface shall be designed for a possible future wearing surface weighing 20 lbs/ft2.

January 2008

5-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.2 5.1.2.1

Monolithic Decks for Spread Girders History

Monolithic bridge decks have been the preferred deck system for many years, although they have gone through a number of detail changes. They have remained the preferred choice because of their general performance and cost when compared to alternate deck systems. The original monolithic deck used in New York was a 7 inch deck with uncoated reinforcement and a 1 inch cover on the top bars. This deck system was first used around 1967. Because of concerns about chloride penetration into the deck, the top cover on the reinforcing steel was increased to 3 inches and the total deck thickness was increased to 9 inches around 1974. Uncoated reinforcing steel was still used. With the introduction of epoxy-coated reinforcement for the top mat of steel in 1976, the top cover was reduced to 2 inches and the total deck thickness to 8 inches. In 1992, because of renewed concerns about chloride penetration and deck durability, the top cover on the reinforcement was increased to 3 inches and the total deck thickness to 9 inches. The top mat of reinforcement remained epoxy-coated. In 1996, Class HP concrete was introduced for deck slabs. This mix uses a lower water/cement ratio and substituted 20% fly ash and 6% microsilica for cement. The objective was to decrease permeability and cracking of deck slabs and to increase workability and strength. In 1997, the covers on the top and bottom reinforcing steel were adjusted to provide greater protection for the bottom reinforcement and to reduce cracking of the top of the concrete. The top cover was decreased to 3 inches and the bottom cover increased to 1 inches. At the same time isotropic reinforcement was made the preferred deck reinforcement for most situations. See Section 5.1.5.1 for more information on isotropic reinforcement. The introduction of solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement provides designers with the opportunity to reduce the top cover in bridge decks from 3 inches to 2 inches because of their exceptional corrosion resistance. The reduction of cover and slab thickness has the potential to decrease bridge deck load enough to reduce the size or number of girders. Solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement is significantly more expensive than plain or epoxy-coated reinforcement and requires D.C.E.S. approval. See Section 15 for more information on stainless steel reinforcement.

5.1.2.2

Current Practice

The standard deck system to be used for new construction with steel girders and spread concrete beams is a monolithic deck with an integral wearing surface and isotropic reinforcement with epoxy-coated or galvanized bars in both mats. The D.C.E.S. will make exceptions to this policy only in unusual circumstances. Bridge deck replacements should use the same deck system, if possible. However, a thinner monolithic deck, a lightweight concrete deck or alternative deck system may be used if it is necessary to reduce dead load or if a thinner deck is required.

5-2

January 2008

Bridge Decks

The concrete strength and dimensions of the standard monolithic deck for bridges with steel girders or spread concrete beams are as follows: 28-day strength Thickness Cover on Top Steel Cover on Bottom Steel 3000 psi (Class HP concrete) 9 inches 3 inches 1 inches

5.1.3

Monolithic Decks for Adjacent Concrete Beams

The standard deck system to be used on adjacent prestressed concrete beams is a 6 inch monolithic deck with epoxy-coated or galvanized reinforcement. The monolithic deck is considered to be an integral wearing surface. The thickness of bridge decks for prestressed concrete box and slab beams may exceed the 6 inch minimum shown on the plans. This is especially true for structures with superelevated and curved alignments. For these situations, additional thickness information needs to be provided. Maximum as well as minimum thicknesses and their locations need to be shown if the average theoretical slab thickness exceeds 7 inches for a nominal 6 inch minimum deck. When the maximum slab thickness exceeds 9 inches an additional mat of steel reinforcing bars should be provided in the thickened section for crack control, see Section 5.1.5.3.

5.1.4

Two-Course Decks

There are two types of two-course decks. One utilizes a 2-inch asphalt concrete wearing surface over a 7-inch structural concrete deck. The other type uses a portland cement concrete wearing surface over a 7-inch structural concrete deck. The structural concrete deck in a two course deck system uses epoxy-coated or galvanized reinforcement. The top mat has 1 inches of cover. The bottom reinforcement has 1 inch of cover. A waterproofing membrane shall be used below all asphalt wearing surfaces. The concrete overlay is specified to be one of the following, normally at the Contractor's option. In some cases, only certain options will be specified on the plans: C C 1 inch Class DP Concrete 1 inch Micro-Silica Concrete

Two-course decks are used by NYSDOT only in unusual circumstances after prior approval by the D.C.E.S. Some localities and authorities use them as their standard deck system. A twocourse deck may provide a small increase in deck life in areas of aggressive environments or very heavy traffic, but its increased cost is usually not justified and there have been problems with pavement shove on decks with asphalt overlays.

April 2010

5-3

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.5 5.1.5.1

Deck Reinforcement Design Isotropic Decks

The design of isotropic reinforced decks is based on empirical results that show reinforced concrete bridge decks develop an arching action between girders and fail in punching shear rather than flexure when subjected to loads that are significantly higher than factored design loads. Isotropic reinforced decks have lighter reinforcement than traditionally reinforced decks and use equal reinforcement transversely and longitudinally in both top and bottom mats. Reinforcement in deck overhangs is designed for flexure the same as for conventional decks. Isotropic reinforcement is the preferred method for deck reinforcement. It shall be used when the following conditions are satisfied: C There must be four or more girders in the final cross section of the bridge. (A stage construction condition with three girders is permissible; however, the temporary overhangs must be reinforced traditionally.) The maximum center-to-center spacing of the girders is 11 ft. and the minimum spacing is 5 ft. Design slab thickness shall be a minimum of 8 inches and the total standard deck thickness shall be a minimum of 9 inches. An 8 inch thick deck may be used with solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement. The deck is fully cast-in-place and water cured. Only permanent corrugated metal and removable wooden forms shall be permitted (prestressed concrete form units are not allowed). The supporting components are made of spread steel or concrete I-girders. The deck shall be fully composite in both positive and negative moment regions. In negative moment regions, composite section property computations shall only include the area of the longitudinal steel. Isotropic reinforcement may be used with spread concrete box beams provided the reinforcement is adequate to resist flexure for the clear span between beam units. The minimum overhang, measured from the centerline of the fascia girder to the fascia, is 2N-6O. If a concrete barrier composite with the deck is used, the minimum overhang is 2N-0O. Skew angles up to 45. Note: For skews above 30 isotropic reinforcement becomes very congested at the end of the slab. Traditional deck slab reinforcement is recommended for skews greater than 30.

C C

C C

C C

5-4

January 2008

Bridge Decks

When isotropic reinforcement is used the following details are followed: C The reinforcement shall be two mats (one top and one bottom) comprised of #4 bars on 8 inches in transverse and longitudinal directions. A less desirable alternate of # 5 bars on 12 inches may be used at regional request. The above spacings need to be adjusted when there is a skew as noted below. The top and bottom transverse and longitudinal reinforcement shall be staggered so that the top bars are centered between the bottom bar spacing, except in the end zones of decks with a skew angle over 30. The top and bottom mats of reinforcement are epoxy coated or galvanized. Top reinforcement cover is 3 inches for epoxy and galvanized bars and 2 inches for solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad; bottom reinforcement cover is 1 inches for all types of bars. The longitudinal bars of both mats shall be placed on top of the transverse bars. For skew angles greater than 30 additional reinforcement shall be placed in the slab end zones at abutments and conventional deck joints. The additional reinforcement shall double the amount of the reinforcement in both mats and in both directions. This shall be done by cutting the spacing of the reinforcement in half. This additional reinforcement zone shall extend a distance from the end of the slab equal to the girder spacing. Fascia overhang reinforcement must be designed traditionally. An effort should be made to use #4 or #5 bars. The isotropic reinforcement extends to the fascia. Its area is included in the overhang design. Additional longitudinal reinforcement shall be placed in the overhang as shown on the BD sheets. Longitudinal bars are placed parallel to the girders. Transverse bars are placed parallel to the skew angle for angles up to and including 30. On structures with curved girders the transverse bars shall be placed radially, maintaining the maximum spacing at the outside fascia girder. When reinforcement is placed on the skew, the perpendicular bar spacing shall be equal to the 8 inch nominal bar spacing times the cosine squared of the skew angle. For skew angles greater than 30 the transverse bars shall be placed normal to the girders. Additional longitudinal reinforcement in negative moment areas shall be provided as required in Article 6.10.1.7 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Welded splices are not permitted. Mechanical connectors are permitted only where stage construction requires their use due to a lack of adequate clearance for a lap splice.

C C

C C

C C C

April 2010

5-5

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.5.2

Traditional Deck Slab Reinforcement

When the conditions of Section 5.1.5.1 for isotropic reinforcement cannot be satisfied, traditional deck slab reinforcement shall be used. When concrete deck slabs are designed with traditional reinforcement (nonisotropic) the design shall be in accordance with strength limit state design methods of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Service limit states must also be checked in accordance with Article 5.7.3.4. When slabs are continuous over three or more supports, advantage shall be taken of the 0.80 continuity factor to reduce dead load and live load, simple-span bending moments. It is recommended that designers include stud shear connectors in the negative moment regions of continuous girder bridges as permitted by AASHTO. This may serve to lessen deck cracks by providing a more bonded section. Including longitudinal reinforcement in this region in section properties is permitted at the designers option. Transverse reinforcement for a 9-inch monolithic deck is given in the Traditional Deck Slab Reinforcement Table, Table 5-2. This transverse reinforcement is to be used in both the top and bottom mats. Design span is defined as the perpendicular distance between girders less one half the width of the one flange. Ordinarily, girder spacing should not exceed 11N. Larger spacings are possible but should be used only in special cases with the approval of the D.C.E.S. Longitudinal reinforcement in the top of the slab shall be #5 bars at 18 inches. Spacing of longitudinal reinforcement in the bottom of the slab shall be in accordance with Article 9.7.3 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. The longitudinal bars shall be placed on top in both mats. No bars need be placed in the bottom of the slab directly over supporting members. Additional longitudinal reinforcement in negative moment areas shall be provided as required by Article 6.10.1.7 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Both the top and bottom mat of reinforcement are epoxy coated, galvanized or stainless steel. Top reinforcement cover is 3 inches for epoxy and galvanized bars and 2 inches for solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad; bottom reinforcement cover is 1 inches for all types of bars. For skews up to and including 30 the transverse reinforcement shall be placed parallel to the skew. For skews over 30 the transverse reinforcement shall be placed normal to the girders. Skewed transverse reinforcement shall be detailed with the spacing perpendicular to the bars; not parallel to the girders and the spacing should be as given in Table 5-2 times the cosine squared of the skew angle. This intent needs to be detailed clearly with the use of arrowheads perpendicular to the bars.

5-6

April 2010

Bridge Decks

Table 5-2 Traditional Transverse Deck Slab Reinforcement

April 2010

5-7

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.5.3

Reinforcement of Decks for Adjacent Concrete Beams

Deck slabs for bridges with adjacent prestressed concrete box beams or units shall be a minimum of 6 inches thick. A single mat of #4 epoxy-coated or galvanized bars spaced at 8 inches in each direction shall be used in the top of the deck. The cover on the top bar shall be 3 inches. The use of welded wire fabric has been discontinued because of the superior performance of bar reinforcement in controlling longitudinal cracking over the shear keys. When cross slope transitions increase the deck slab thickness above 9 inches, a second, bottom mat of #4 epoxy-coated or galvanized bars spaced at approximately 8 inches in each direction should be used. The second mat of reinforcement should be used only in the areas of increased deck thickness. The bottom mat should have a cover of 1 inches above the top of the beams. The designer will need to adjust the spacing of the bottom mat to avoid the composite bars extending from the beams. In the negative moment regions of slabs which are continuous over piers, additional reinforcement shall be added in the longitudinal direction to resist the negative moment in the deck slab. This additional reinforcement shall be designed in accordance with the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications Article 5.14.1.4.8. The bar reinforcement shall be long enough to span the region of moment that cannot be handled by the positive moment reinforcement, plus a development length on each end. Epoxy-coated bar reinforcement shall also be provided in the transverse direction for the length of the corresponding longitudinal bars. All bars shall be placed to provide a minimum clear cover of 3 inches.

5.1.5.4

Deck Overhangs

The recommended maximum overhang of a concrete deck slab beyond the centerline of the steel fascia I-girder is 4 ft. In addition, the maximum overhang for steel fascia I-girders less than 5 ft in depth should be limited to 3 ft. The use of an overhang greater than 3 ft. with steel fascia I-girders less than 5 ft. in depth requires a detailed analysis. See the current BD sheets for recommended overhangs for prestressed concrete Bulb-Tee and AASHTO I-beams. Forming and bracing systems used to place the concrete for bridge decks with large overhangs induce large horizontal forces in the fascia girder. These forces can cause lateral buckling and deflection problems in the fascia girder resulting in a poor deck profile. See Figure 5.1. The design of formwork and temporary bracing is the Contractors responsibility. A properly designed fascia girder within the geometric guidelines mentioned above will handle normal practice construction loads. When the overhang geometry is outside the guidelines, the designer shall evaluate the ability of the fascia beam to safely support the construction loads. Construction loads shall include but not be limited to the forms, bracing, wet concrete, walkway overhangs, workforce, and concrete screeding machines and appurtenances. Assistance in determining typical construction loads and the level of analysis required is available from the Construction Support/Bridge Foundation Unit. If the investigation of the assumed construction loads determines that bracing beyond that normally necessary is required place Note 15 from Section 17.3 on the plans.

5-8

April 2010

Bridge Decks

If the structure is designed by a Consultant, a task for checking the fascia girder for the actual construction loads calculated by the Contractors engineer should be included in the Construction Support Services Agreement. When girder depths exceed 4 ft., another potential overhang related problem can develop. If the brace supporting the overhang form is brought back to bear against the web of the fascia girder above the bottom flange, the horizontal force from the brace can buckle the web. Place Note 53 from Section 17.3 on the plans in this situation. In cases with large overhangs, shallow beams and long spans the designer may choose to accommodate the temporary construction loads by placing additional permanent bracing (lateral system and more diaphragms) in the fascia bay. Reinforcement in the top of the structural deck slab in overhang regions needs to be designed to resist wheel loads on the overhang as well as impact loads on the railing or barrier. Requirements for overhang reinforcement are found in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. See the latest BD sheet for slab edge reinforcement specific to barrier/railing system. Top transverse deck slab bars require hooks at each fascia of the slab to provide proper development. When the transverse width is less than 30 ft. use one bar with hooks at each end. When the transverse width is greater than 30 ft. and less than 115 ft., use two unequal length bars, each with a hook on one end (see Section 15.4.1). When the transverse width is greater than 115 ft., provide a long straight bar in the center lapped to shorter bars with hooks on one end. Bottom transverse deck slab bars do not require hooks, and can be straight bars up to 60 ft.

Figure 5.1 Overhang Form Bracing

April 2010

5-9

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.6

Haunches

Haunches are to be provided on all bridges with steel girders or prestressed concrete I-beams, bulb-tees or spread box beams. The purpose of the haunch is to provide a means for final adjustment of the deck slab elevation to match the designed roadway profile and cross slope. The haunch allows this adjustment to correct construction and fabrication variations without having the top flange of the girder project into the structural deck. The calculated depth of haunch shall have a 2-inch minimum concrete thickness as measured at the centerline of beam from the top of beam to the bottom of slab. A deeper minimum is required when the top flange equals or exceeds 1N-4O in width to allow for roadway cross slope. The total haunch depth shown on the plans shall include the thickness of the top flange for fabricated steel girders. At all splice locations for steel girders, the top flange splice plates will reduce the haunch depth. The designer shall verify that a negative haunch will not occur at the splice location. If a negative haunch does occur, the haunch shall be increased to eliminate the negative haunch (such that the distance between the theoretical bottom of slab and the top of the top flange top splice plate will be greater than zero). It is not necessary to provide the full 2-inch minimum haunch at the splice location. Dimension E in the haunch table will still be dimensioned from the theoretical bottom of slab elevation to the top of the top flange. Details of haunches for steel girders are shown in the current BD sheets. For simple span bridges, the calculated depth of the haunch at the centerline of bearings shall be the minimum depth, plus the difference in thickness between the maximum and minimum top flange plates plus increases to account for cross slope and horizontal curvature when straight girders are used. The haunch shall be reinforced when the depth of the concrete portion of the haunch exceeds 4 inches. Only the section along the girder where the concrete portion of the haunch exceeds 4 inches requires reinforcement in the haunch. See haunch reinforcement details in the current BD sheets. Steel beams shall have minimum 6-inch stud shear connectors for haunches up to 4 inches in depth. Haunches on steel beams greater than 4 inches shall comply with NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Article 6.10.10.1.4 or NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges, Article 10.38.2.3. Haunches on fascia beams of multispan bridges shall be set so that the top of the webs of fascia beams in adjacent spans line up. Do not label the haunch as 2 inches minimum. Label it only as haunch. The Contractor shall provide the completed Haunch Table to the EIC. A haunch table shall be shown on the plans to assist in construction. For spans 65 ft. and under, the haunch table should be done for span quarter points. For spans over 65 ft., the haunch table shall give elevations at span tenth points, but not to exceed a spacing of 20 ft. Bridges with curved girders should have a haunch table with the elevations given at the diaphragm lines. The predicted concrete slab and superimposed dead load deflections are shown at these points.

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January 2008

Bridge Decks

Haunch tables shall always be computed considering stage construction and the assumed pouring sequence for continuous span structures. In addition, the computations shall consider differing dead loads applied to fascia and interior girders, especially with construction loads such as barriers. Field measurements are then taken at the same points shown in the haunch table. The actual haunches are then determined from this information. An example of a partial haunch table to be shown on the contract plans is given in Figure 5.2. A full haunch table is shown in the current BD sheets. Bridges with complex geometry, haunched girders, and significant superelevation transitions should have a Design Haunch Depth Table, Table 5-3, providing the design haunch depth at the supports.

G1 G2 G3 G4 G5

DESIGN HAUNCH DEPTH TABLE S. ABUT. (ft) PIER (ft) N. ABUT. (ft) 0.305 0.430 0.325 0.430 0.410 0.285 0.322 0.459 0.285 0.351 0.440 0.315 0.285 0.686 0.285

Table 5-3 Design Haunch Depth Table Except for the fascia side of the fascia girder, haunches shall not extend beyond the flange of the beam. In the past, some bridges were constructed with a haunch detail as shown in Figure 5.3. This detail was commonly employed when removable wooden forms were used for a concrete deck, since it enabled precut material to be used in the forming operation. The cause of cracking and eventual loosening of portions of this unreinforced concrete has been attributed to forces generated by corrosion on the vertical edges of the flanges. Cracking occurs at the top corner of a girder flange and progresses upward and outward through the concrete to the vertical haunch face. This loosened concrete is then prone to separate and fall from the structure.

April 2010

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Figure 5.2 Haunch Table

All structural plans for bridges with concrete decks supported on steel girders, Bulb-Tee and AASHTO I-beams or floor systems shall include Note 54 from Section 17.3 on the plans, in association with the standard haunch detail.

Figure 5.3 Haunch Detail (Cracking Problem)

5-12

April 2010

Bridge Decks

5.1.7

Forming

Current specifications permit the forming of structural slabs using removable forms, permanent corrugated metal forms and prestressed concrete form units. If one or more options are not permitted on a particular job, the remaining permitted option(s) shall be listed on the Plans. Individual railroads and the Thruway Authority may not permit the use of permanent corrugated metal forms above their facilities. Use of these forms must be approved by the railroad or agency involved. When permanent corrugated metal forms are specified, a small detail shall be included in the plans indicating the presence of corrugations on the bottom of the structural slab and that the bottom row of reinforcement shall be placed with 1 inch cover above the crest of the corrugations. Such a detail is shown on the current BD sheet titled, Superstructure Slab Optional Forming Systems. The additional weight of permanent corrugated metal forms with the corrugations filled with Styrofoam shall be taken as 4 lb/ft2. The stringers or girders shall be designed for this additional weight. No additional weight shall be considered when using precast prestressed concrete form units. Their details are shown on the current BD Sheet titled Superstructure Slab Optional Forming Systems.

5.1.8

Continuous Structure Deck Slab Placements

Deck slabs on continuous structures are subject to transverse cracking during construction. The cracking can be found in negative moment areas where the concrete has already set and the placement has continued into positive moment areas. The cracking is caused by additional deflection of the beams when the concrete in the remaining positive moment area is placed. The frequency of the cracking can be reduced if proper construction methods are used and strict control over the timing and sequencing of the deck placement operation is exercised. Deflection cracks usually occur for one of the following three reasons: 1. Slow Rate of Placement When the concreting progresses slowly, some of the already-placed concrete may take its initial set prior to full deflection of the steel. As additional concrete is placed during the same placement operation, cracks will occur in the concrete that has already set. To prevent this from happening, either the duration of the placement should be decreased or the time to initial set of the concrete should be lengthened. The time required to complete a placement depends on its size and complexity, concrete delivery logistics, available rate of supply, and Contractor efficiency. Responsibility for attaining the highest practical rate of placement, and the shortest possible placement time at any particular project location rests with the Contractor.

April 2010

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

The setting time for concrete can vary widely. It depends on many factors, such as mix design, use of admixtures, and atmospheric conditions. Retarding admixtures are intended to lengthen the time to initial set of the concrete. To avoid cracking caused by the occurrence of initial set prior to completion of the placement, the duration of each placement shall be kept to a minimum, and no concrete shall be placed without sufficient retarding admixture to assure that initial set will not occur prior to completion of the placement. 2. Incorrect Loading Sequence Many continuous structures require a total volume of concrete which is too large to be placed prior to the occurrence of initial set at some point in the deck. In cases where the total volume of concrete exceeds 360 cubic yds., the total concrete volume must be divided into a sequence of placements. Although this method lessens the probability of cracking related to initial set, cracking may still occur if the sequence of applying concrete loads is incorrect. When a sequence of placements is used, the location of the first placements is vital. Concrete cannot be placed in negative moment areas first because subsequent placements will impose tensile stresses on this concrete, resulting in transverse cracking. Further, if any placement results in the upward deflection of concrete previously placed in a positive moment area, the concrete in that area may crack. Consequently, it is necessary to place concrete in each positive moment area during the initial placement. This may be difficult if the volume of concrete required to fully place all positive moment areas is very large. Therefore, either the concrete volume or the placement rate must be modified. In some cases, the placement rate can be increased by the use of an additional finishing machine. The volume can be decreased by adding some of the positive area to the negative area, to improve the balance between placement volumes. As a last resort, the positive moment area placement can be divided and placed in separate placements, but, in such a way as to minimize the potential for cracking. On skewed structures, the placement of the concrete and the operation of the finishing machine should parallel the skew angle. Loading the structure in this manner equalizes the steel deflections. It may be necessary to operate the finishing machine at a reduced skew angle on certain very wide or highly skewed structures. See note 158 in Section 17.3. 3. Early Application of Loads Immediately after initial set, deck concrete has little or no compressive (or tensile) strength. At this time, minor loads or deflections can cause serious cracking in the new deck. However, compressive strength increases rapidly to a point where moderate stresses (due to loads or deflections) can be resisted. For this reason, new deck concrete that will have any measurable effect on recently placed concrete shall not be placed until adequate early strength may be assumed. A waiting period of 72 acceptable curing hours, measured from completion of previous placement to start of next placement, is considered sufficient. 5-14 April 2010

Bridge Decks

Instructions to Designer The Contract Plans for every continuous steel structure where the total volume of deck concrete exceeds 360 cubic yds. shall include a deck placement sequence. Two placements shall be shown, except for structures comprised of unusually long or numerous spans which will require special treatment. Continuous spans with the total volume of deck concrete less than 360 cubic yds. may be placed in a single placement. A placement is defined as the total volume of concrete placed during a continuous work period. It may result from one placement operation in one area, one placement operation in several areas sequentially; or two or more placement operations in several areas simultaneously. Placement 1 shall include the positive moment areas (except as noted below) in all spans. Placement 2 shall include all the negative moment areas. Construction joint locations shall be shown in the deck placement sequence details. These joints shall be located at or near points of dead load contraflexure (see Figure 5.4). In addition to delineating the placements, this information may be helpful to the Engineer should it be necessary to terminate the Contractor's deck placement operation due to unforeseen circumstances. When the total volume of deck concrete to be placed during Placement 1 exceeds 360 cubic yds., two simultaneous placement operations shall be used. The designer should specify this by including a note in the deck placement sequence details. At a few project locations, the available supply of concrete will not support the use of two placement operations. The designer must determine that sufficient concrete is available before specifying the use of two placement operations on the plans. The determination may be obtained by asking the Regional Materials Engineer. When the use of two placement operations is impractical, or when special treatment is in order due to unusual length or number of spans, Placement 1 may be divided into Placement 1A and Placement 1B. The plans should show Placement 1A to be comprised of end span positive moment areas only. A note shall be added stating that the segments labeled Placement 1B shall not be placed until a minimum of 72 acceptable curing hours after the completion of Placement 1A. This procedure confines the risk of deflection cracking to end span areas near the points of contraflexure only. In certain instances, where the concrete volume is very large, the designer may elect to modify the Placement 1 segment lengths such that Placement 2 includes some positive moment area. This may be accomplished in either of two ways: 1. Move the location of construction joints up to 5% of the span length into the positive moment area (see Figure 5.5). 2. Introduce an additional construction joint within 20% of the span length from the abutment, in end span positive moment areas only (See Figure 5.6). Either, or both, of these methods will reduce the duration of Placement 1. The total placement volumes of Placement 1 and Placement 2 will also become more equal, thus facilitating the Contractor's operations.

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Construction joints shall be shown parallel to the skew angle, regardless of the orientation of the reinforcement. Longitudinal construction joints shall not be used to reduce placement size. The direction of placement shall be shown on the plans. The direction of placement shall preferably be uphill and always uphill when the true (not theoretical) grade exceeds 3%. Also applies to simple spans. Camber-deflection data shown on the plans shall be based on the placement sequence shown on the plans. The loads imposed by Placement 1 will be supported by the noncomposite beam section, and partial deflections shall be computed accordingly. The loads imposed by Placement 2 will be supported by the composite beam section, n=27 (assuming a modular ratio=3n), in positive moment areas covered by Placement 1, and by the noncomposite section in negative moment areas. Partial deflections from the various placements included in Placement 2 shall be computed, assuming simultaneous placement. The Designer shall check for uplift at bearings. Where uplift is anticipated, a load vector shall be shown at the free end bearing line (usually an abutment) towards which Placement 1 is progressed, It shall be accompanied by a note reading: Provide uplift restraint equal to ________ kips/Bearing. The cost of this restraint shall be included in the price for the appropriate concrete deck item. (See Figure 5.4) See section 17 for additional slab placement notes to be shown on the contract plans.

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January 2008

Bridge Decks

Figure 5.4 Slab Placement Sequence - A (For Decks Over 360 cubic yds.)

Figure 5.5 Slab Placement Sequence - B (For Decks Over 360 cubic yds.)

Figure 5.6 Slab Placement Sequence - C (For Decks over 360 cubic yds.)

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.9 5.1.9.1

Stage Construction Deck Slabs General Considerations

Stage construction should be used only if absolutely necessary. It increases construction time, Work Zone Traffic Control costs, and overall construction cost. The resulting deck slab has the potential of having lower quality than if placed in one continuous placement. However, because site conditions often necessitate stage construction it is a common strategy employed when replacing existing bridge decks, superstructures and complete bridges. It allows structures to remain in service during all or most of the replacement process, thereby avoiding detours or expensive temporary bridges. During the construction operation, a portion of the proposed bridge width is built as an independent bridge for a specific stage of that construction process. Thus, a "bridge" exists in service for some period of time that may have different performance characteristics than the finished full width structure. It is extremely important that the bridge resulting from each stage of construction be evaluated to ensure the serviceability required during that stage. It is also important that the bridge be analyzed for the various construction loads to which it will be subjected, including, but not limited to, erection operations and slab placement operations. Attention to the design and service behavior of these partially complete structures will avoid construction problems, unanticipated costs and delays, and potential failures. It will also provide a better engineered structure during the various stages and eventually through the bridges entire service life. A third placement (Closure Placement) between the stages should be used if possible. This will help to isolate the second stage deck slab during the curing process from undesirable vibrations caused by traffic on the first stage deck slab. In addition, the closure placement permits a smooth transition between the top surfaces of the deck placements should they be misaligned due to variation from the theoretical deflection of one or both groups of girders. The closure placement should be wide enough to accommodate the transverse bar splice. If it cannot be made wide enough, mechanical connectors shall be utilized on the transverse reinforcement. Consideration should also be given to increasing its width to keep the first and/or second stage overhang from becoming too large. Notes from Section 17 will be placed on the plans where applicable. They also contain instructions concerning the installation of the diaphragms between the stages. Eccentric construction stage loads (particularly on stage widths supported by 2 or 3 girders) can cause the superstructure to noticeably move laterally during the deck placement. When lateral movements are anticipated, additional permanent or temporary bracing to resist such movements should be considered. It may also be possible to brace against the adjacent existing structure (or previously completed adjacent stage). When bracing against an adjacent structure, the bracing must allow for freedom of vertical movement so the construction stage deck pour deflection will occur as predicted. Top struts shall be included in all cross frames located in temporary fascia bays of each stage of construction.

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May 2011

Bridge Decks

For longer spans (over 130 ft.) combined with narrow construction stage widths (2 or 3 girders), special treatment of Superimposed Dead Loads (SDLs) may have to be considered to maximize the match between work completed in different construction stages being connected with closure diaphragms and a subsequent deck closure placement. Specifically, the sequence of SDLs being applied must be evaluated. For example, some SDL is often applied to the first stage in the form of concrete traffic barriers while the second stage may have a lesser, or no, SDL applied to it at the time of closure. A procedure to calculate these sequenced SDL deflections to be used on the Camber and Haunch Tables is outlined in Section 5.1.9.3. If special conditions of loading are anticipated during stage construction operations which may require the Contractor to perform an engineering analysis during construction, ensure that this is clearly presented by note on the plans. Curved girder bridges and bridges with high skews (>30) require special attention since the stage deck placement displacements can be very different from those where stage construction is not used. A grid analysis or three-dimensional analysis is recommended for computing stage construction behavior. For curved girder structures, each stage must be analyzed independently in addition to analyzing the final structure configuration. Individual stage conditions often produce the controlling design loads and displacements on some or all of the girders. The designer is also reminded to check the load capacity of the existing structure if it will be used to carry traffic during a construction stage. Partial removal of the structure and/or modifications to the lane configurations and superimposed loads for stage traffic may require load restrictions or strengthening measures.

5.1.9.2

Steel Superstructures

The preferable minimum number of girders per construction stage is three. However, it is recognized that it may be necessary to utilize a construction stage with only two girders. If a construction stage is to be supported on two girders, the girder spacing should be increased to a reasonable maximum considering deck design requirements. The use of bottom lateral bracing with a two girder stage system is also recommended for spans greater than 115 ft. Isotropic deck reinforcing shall not be used on decks supported by two girders. Deck overhangs should be equalized where possible to avoid having an eccentric deck concrete load applied to the stage girder system. Eccentric deck placement loads can cause lateral twisting and/or unequal girder deflections during the deck placement. The weight of the slab haunches and the added thickness of the slab fascia overhang must be considered. It is preferable to position the construction stage line at approximately the one-third point of the girder spacing between stages. The deck dead load deflections based on stage construction considerations should be computed. The actual deck load is applied to each stage to compute individual girder deflections. In many cases, the stage deck placement load per girder will be less than the full design deck load of a typical interior girder due to the reduced stage placement overhang. Any load eccentricity applied to the girder transverse section for the construction stage must be accounted for. As an alternative to computing individual girder loads and deflections, a grid analysis computer program to model the individual construction stages may be used. January 2008 5-19

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

5.1.9.3

Stage Construction Deflection Calculations for Steel Structures

The following procedure may be used to calculate staged Superimposed Dead Load deflections to be used in the Girder Camber and Haunch Tables: 1. Compute the total Design SDL uniform load for the entire completed bridge [WSDL]. This load would include final sidewalks, railings, design future wearing surface as well as weight of the deck closure placement(s). 2. Compute the Stage SDL uniform load actually applied to each individual construction stage at the time of stage closure. [WSSTAGE1, WSSTAGE2...]. The deck closure placements(s) are not included in the Stage SDL(s). Each Stage SDL will often be different from each other. Compute the individual girder Stage SDL deflections [dsSTAGE1, dsSTAGE2...]. If a heavy Stage SDL is applied highly eccentric to the stage girder framing layout, (e.g., a concrete traffic barrier on one side only) the load eccentricity should be accounted for in computing the individual girder dsSTAGEX values. Otherwise, WSSTAGEX can be distributed equally to all girders supporting the individual stage. 3. Compute the Final SDL uniform load applied to the completed bridge after stage closure [wfSDL], where wfSDL = WSDL - (WSSTAGE1 + WSSTAGE2...). This consists of only that portion of the Design SDL that is applied after the stages are structurally connected to each other. Compute the individual girder deflections attributed to the Final SDL [dfSDL]. The girder dfSDL values are computed by distributing wfSDL equally to all girders in the final bridge section. 4. The individual girder SDL deflections for each stage's girders [dSDL] are computed as follows: For (an individual) Stage X girder: dSDL = dsSTAGEX + dfSDL dSDL shall be the value used on the girder Camber Table for the SDL deflection incorporated into the girder Haunch Table.

5.1.9.4

Prestressed Concrete Superstructures

A complete discussion may be found in Section 9 of this Manual.

5.1.10

Deck Sealers

Sealers are an effective means of protecting concrete from the ingress of water and chlorides, while having minimal effect on the concrete's ability to breathe (transfer water vapor). Applying sealers to new concrete protects the concrete while it matures and becomes less permeable. Sealers protect existing structural concrete from corrosion-related distress when reinforcing steel is subjected to chlorides. There are two types of sealers: surface and penetrating types. Only penetrating sealers are used to seal decks.

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January 2008

Bridge Decks

When penetrating sealers are applied to concrete they penetrate the surface, chemically bond to the concrete, and prevent water and chlorides from entering. Because the sealers bond below, not on, the surface, they cannot be abraded away easily. Good surface preparation prior to applying the sealer is essential to achieve the desired maximum penetration. Contaminants must be totally removed and the surface allowed to dry. When the surface is properly prepared, a five-year service life of the sealer can be achieved. Penetrating sealer should be applied to all new and concrete overlaid bridge decks, to protect the surface from scaling due to early exposure to deicing chemicals. This is recommended because the majority of bridge deck and overlay placements occur late in the construction season thereby making them prone to early exposure to deicing chemicals, and because the concrete, regardless of age, will receive some benefit from the application of a sealer. Parapets and barriers allow the use of curing compounds. Because curing compounds prevent penetration of sealers into concrete, sealers should not be used unless the membrane cured surfaces are allowed to cure and then are sandblasted. Usage Guidelines New Bridge Decks: To protect new, green, concrete from scaling, a penetrating type sealer (which does not contain an aqueous solvent/carrier) shall be applied to the top surface of all newly constructed bridge decks, bridge deck rehabilitations, sidewalks and concrete approach slabs, in accordance with Item 559.1896_ _18. Existing Bridge Decks: Application of sealers to the top surface of existing bridge decks shall be in accordance with Item 559.1796_ _18. Place Note 99 of Section 17.3 on the plans. Existing decks with good quality concrete and epoxy-coated reinforcing steel should generally not be considered for sealer application. Decks with such protection are usually only sealed as a remediation for construction, material, or other problems, such as hairline cracks or an open surface. The use of sealers in these situations should be decided on a case by case basis, in consultation with the Regional Materials Engineer. Sealers are not a viable alternative for protecting improperly air entrained concrete. Sealers may be used on existing decks with uncoated steel reinforcing bars or less than 3 inches of cover to slow down any existing corrosion and postpone more costly repairs. Sealers do not stop corrosion, but the corrosion process is slowed by reducing intrusion of water and chlorides.

5.1.11

Aggregate Requirements for Concrete Decks and Approach Slabs

To provide adequate wet-weather friction, a concrete wearing surface must have sufficient macrotexture and microtexture. Macrotexture is provided by manipulating the concrete surface during or after construction (e.g., Astroturf drag and saw-cut grooving). Microtexture is the texture on the surface of the exposed aggregate particles. As concrete decks and approach slabs are subjected to traffic loads the cement paste abrades away, reducing macrotexture. If wear becomes excessive before the slab reaches the end of its structural life, macrotexture can be improved through relatively inexpensive treatments such as saw-cut grooving. May 2011 5-21

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Traffic also reduces the microtexture of the concrete surface by polishing the exposed aggregate surfaces. The hardness of the aggregate determines its resistance to polishing under traffic. Once compromised, microtexture cannot be restored through inexpensive treatments, and in most cases the only remedy is to overlay the surface. Therefore, it is essential that appropriate aggregate be used during initial construction of the slab. Since harder aggregates are more expensive and of limited supply, it is not appropriate to simply use the hardest aggregates in every situation. The required aggregate hardness depends on the traffic volume and site geometry. High traffic volume (AADT), braking traffic, or turning traffic will polish aggregate more quickly than straight rolling traffic. The NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials contains requirements for four types of friction aggregate; Types 1, 2, 3, and 9. Each type is intended for use under specific traffic and geometric conditions. The aggregate requirements are in addition to all surface texture requirements such as turf drag or saw-cut grooving. Increasing the macrotexture from these treatments does not compensate for using inappropriate aggregate. If any portion of the bridge deck or approach slabs meets any one of the criteria listed below, use the Aggregate Type Selection table (Table 5-4) to determine the appropriate aggregate. If the bridge deck or approach slabs do not meet any of the criteria, use Type 9 aggregate. The designer shall specify only one type of aggregate for each bridge and its approach slabs by selecting the appropriate pay item. C C C The deck or approach slabs are 500 ft. before a stop sign, traffic signal, or yield sign, as measured from the stop bar or yield sign. The deck or approach slabs are in a location where vehicles regularly queue regardless of distance from a traffic control device. The deck or approach slabs are 500 ft. from the point of curvature of a curve requiring reduced speed limit, chevrons, advisory speed, advisory curve or other warning signs or signals as defined in the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). The deck or approach slab is 500 ft. before an exit ramp, as measured from the initiation of the taper for the deceleration lane. The deck or approach slab is 500 ft. after an entrance ramp, as measured from the terminus of the taper for the acceleration lane. The deck or approach slab is located on an entrance or exit ramp. Any location where the ratio of wet weather accidents to total accidents is greater than the state average for the same facility type.

C C C C

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January 2008

Bridge Decks

Traffic High Volume 1

Location Downstate 2 Upstate 2

Aggregate Type Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Low Volume 1
1

All

High Volume refers to single lane bridges with design year AADT over 4000, 2 or 3 lane bridges with two-way design year AADT over 8,000, or bridges with 4 or more lanes with two-way design year AADT over 13,000. Low Volume refers to bridges not meeting the aforementioned criteria.

The City of New York and the surrounding counties of Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, and Westchester are referred to as Downstate. All other areas are referred to as Upstate.

Table 5-4 Aggregate Type Selection

5.2

Jointless Decks at Abutments

A jointless bridge deck at an abutment is one where the bridge superstructure is normally supported on conventional bearings and the deck slab is continuous with the approach slab over the abutment backwall. All expansion and contraction of the superstructure is, therefore, transmitted into horizontal movement through the expansion bearings and the sliding of the approach slab over the abutment backwall. A bond breaker is used over the backwall and over the approach fills at the expansion end. The deck slab should not haunch down to an end diaphragm at a jointless abutment. Haunching the deck slab to an end diaphragm designed to carry live loads serves no useful purpose. Because the deck slab is supported directly by the very stiff backwall, the end diaphragm would actually carry very little load. Bridges with jointless decks do not rigidly connect superstructure and substructure as integral abutment bridges do. Bridges with jointless decks are supported on conventional abutments. If it is possible to construct an integral or semi-integral abutment, it is preferable to do so rather than construct a bridge with a jointless deck using conventional abutments. Integral abutments are more cost effective because of their simpler details. Situations where integral abutments cannot be used include locations where the footing is on rock, sufficient pile penetration is not possible, or a high wall abutment is necessary. In these situations, the possibility of a semi-integral abutment should be investigated before a jointless deck is used.

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

The advantage to using jointless decks is the considerable benefit gained by eliminating the deck expansion joint system. Leaking deck joint systems are one of the most significant causes of bridge deterioration. Although deck joint design has improved considerably in recent years, it is unlikely that any deck joint system will ever be completely reliable. Therefore, there is a strong motivation to eliminate all deck joints whenever possible. Jointless bridge decks at abutments can be used under the following criteria: C C C C C C C C Approach slabs must be used. See Section 13 of this manual for appropriate details. Maximum skew of 30 at the expansion end. It is difficult for the slab to slide over the backwall when the skew exceeds 30. Jointless deck details may be used at abutments with U-wingwalls if the skew is less than 15. See Section 13.1.3 for approach slab width criteria. Maximum skew of 60 at the fixed end. Jointless deck details may be used at the fixed end of the span even if a conventional expansion joint is used at the expansion end. On a curved girder bridge, jointless deck details may be used at the fixed end. Maximum expansion length at the abutment of 200 ft. (Expansion length is defined as the distance from the of the expansion bearing to the of the nearest fixed bearing.) When the expansion length at an abutment exceeds 65 ft., provision for expansion must be provided at the end of the approach slab by using the appropriate sleeper slab detail shown on the current BD sheet.

5.3

Other Deck Types

Concrete decks are almost always used on bridges but other deck types can be used in special circumstances. Some of these deck types are discussed below: Timber - Timber decks should only be used on low-volume rural roads. Timber decks can be of plank construction where timbers are fastened to stringers with their wide dimension horizontal. Timber decks can also be glue laminated or nail laminated with their narrow edge horizontal. There are many variations in details for timber decks. Timber decks will usually need some kind of wearing surface, in most cases asphalt, to make them more skid resistant. Open Steel Flooring - This deck uses open steel grating supported on steel stringers. It should not be used for new construction because its open construction leaves the underlying structure vulnerable to corrosive attack. These decks also have low skid resistance. Open steel flooring is, however, a lightweight deck and is sometimes used in rehabilitation projects where reduction of dead load is important. Open steel flooring should be galvanized to increase its service life. Filled Steel Flooring - Similar to open steel flooring except the grating is filled with a Class D (small aggregate) concrete, which improves protection of the structure and skid resistance of the deck. Composite Unfilled Grid Decks - Composite unfilled grid decks, commonly referred to as Exodermic decks, are a lightweight, modular deck system comprised of a reinforced concrete 5-24 January 2008

Bridge Decks

slab with an unfilled steel grid. These decks can be cast-in-place or precast. Deck thicknesses may vary from 7 to 10 inches. Advantages are lighter weight without sacrificing stiffness or strength and speed of construction. Precast panels can often be erected during a short, overnight work window. The specification for this product does not provide for design delegation. Therefore, it is the designers responsibility to design all aspects of the superstructure and provide all appropriate details in the contract plans. Use of composite unfilled grid decks requires approval of the D.C.E.S. Justification for using this system should include comparisons to other lightweight deck systems. Precast Concrete Decks - There are a number of variations of this type. Their principal advantage is to shorten construction time. They can be advantageous for deck replacement projects in high traffic volume areas where detours and lane restrictions are limited. These decks can be full-depth concrete panels or a concrete deck supported by an unfilled steel grid (see Composite Unfilled Grid Decks above). Precast Precompressed Concrete/Steel Composite Superstructure - This system, commonly referred to as Inverset, is a combined superstructure and deck system made up of steel beams and a concrete slab. The deck is cast in the shop either in an inverted position or with the beams shored in an upright position. The casting process results in the steel beams being prestressed and the concrete deck being precompressed. The advantages of this system include quicker construction, reduced superstructure depth and increased deck durability. The specification for this product does not provide for design delegation. Therefore, it is the designers responsibility to design all aspects of the superstructure and provide all appropriate details in the contract plans. Fiber Reinforced Polymer Decks - These decks consist of E-glass fibers embedded in a resin matrix. Although their use is new, they show great promise of increased durability. However, they are significantly more expensive than conventional concrete decks. They can be a great advantage on rehabilitation projects because of their extreme light weight (about 20% - 25% the weight of concrete). See Structures Design Advisory SDA 02-003.

5.4

Deck Drainage

It is important to provide good deck drainage on all structures primarily for traffic safety reasons, but also to prevent structure deterioration from ponding water and improperly directed drainage. To facilitate runoff and provide better skid resistance, the surface of all concrete bridge decks and approach slabs is to be finished with longitudinal saw cut grooving. Grooves are 0.1 inches wide and 0.15 inches deep, spaced 0.75 inches on center, and are cut after the concrete has cured. The most effective way to provide bridge deck drainage is to use curbless details. The required drainage must be balanced with railing/barrier requirements for the type of facility. Water quality issues must be considered before proposing to use curbless railing systems over waterways.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Good drainage design includes provisions to remove as much water as possible that would flow onto the bridge at the high end of the structure. This can be accomplished by locating drainage inlets approximately 10 ft. before either the further of the wingwall end or approach slab end when a curbed highway section exists. If there are no curbs, drainage should be handled with sod, asphalt or stone lined gutters. If a bridge has curbs or traffic barriers it may be necessary to check the deck drainage design. Bridge deck drainage needs to be designed in accordance with FHWA Circular HEC No. 21 Design of Bridge Deck Drainage, May 1993. The design is to be based on rainfall intensity of the most severe storm of five-minute duration likely to occur in a ten-year period. Design criteria for bridge deck drainage are based on maintaining the following conditions: C C C C Maximum width for the spread of water is 12 ft. Maximum spread depth is inch less than the curb height. For highways with design speeds less than 45 mph, puddles may encroach into a travel lane only to a point where 8 ft. of the lane remains unencroached by the puddle width. For highways with design speeds greater than or equal to 45 mph, puddles should not encroach into any portion of a travel lane.

If any of the above conditions cannot be met, scuppers (drains) must be provided. Scuppers typically become necessary with a combination of a long (over 325 ft.), wide (over 50 ft.) bridge and a flat grade (less than 2%). The average bridge typically does not require scuppers. They should not be used unless needed because of their tendency to contribute to deck and superstructure deterioration. Consider scupper locations prior to finalizing girder spacing to avoid interference between the outlet and the girder flanges. When used, scuppers should be located so they do not discharge onto travel lanes, sidewalks or railroad rights-of-way. Scuppers should be midway between cross frames or diaphragms and away from abutments and piers, if possible. Scuppers should have Fiberglass or PVC downspouts extending at least 1 ft. below the superstructure. Diffusers should be used over land unless erosion protection is provided or the free fall exceeds 25 ft. Scuppers can discharge into downspouts carried down to ground level or to a closed drainage system. However, this method is discouraged because of the susceptibility of the downspouts to freezing or becoming plugged with debris. Bends in downspouts should be kept to a minimum. A clean out fitting should be located at each bend. Scupper details are shown on the current BD sheet. Scupper grates should be of a bicycle-safe design. These are usually reticuline grates or parallel bar grates with welded transverse bars. See the FHWA publication Bicycle-Safe Grate Inlet Study for additional guidance.

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January 2008

Bridge Decks

In urban areas, if downspouts extend to the ground, and the potential exists for malicious damage, steel pipe may be used. Fiberglass downspout systems have more impact resistance than PVC systems. Occasionally, downspouts have been encased in the substructure concrete. This practice should be avoided whenever possible, because it usually creates clean out problems and can also result in chloride damage to the concrete. If used, the installation shall include a 1 inch compressible protective covering between the pipe and the concrete to accommodate expansion of the pipe and shrinkage of the concrete. Downspouts shall be placed at the least objectionable location by attempting to hide them from view behind columns. The surface below the outfall shall be protected by the use of a stone, concrete slab, or grouted block paving.

5.5 5.5.1

Deck Expansion Joints Transverse Expansion Joints

Many deck joints and details have been used over the years, with varying results. The one constant result is that nearly all joint systems leaked after a short duration in service. Therefore, their use should be avoided whenever possible through the use of continuous spans, jointless abutments, and semi-integral or integral abutments. Joint systems currently in use include armorless joints, armored joints and modular joints. See the current BD sheets for selection criteria for each joint system.

5.5.1.1

Armorless Joint Systems

Armorless joint systems are preferred for superstructure movement of 2 inches or less. This range of movement has historically been handled by armored joint systems, which are no longer the preferred system (see Section 5.5.1.2). Armorless bridge joint systems are expected to alleviate many problems associated with armored joints and compression seals. Armorless joint systems have been used by NYSDOT Bridge Maintenance for many years with excellent results. There are no skew limitations for armorless joint systems but skews over 45 require close attention to sizing criteria on the current BD sheets. The elastomeric concrete used in armorless joint systems offers a durable header material that cures much faster than traditional concrete. This minimizes lane closure times, reduces Work Zone Traffic Control costs and shortens delays to the traveling public. Unlike traditional concrete, fresh elastomeric concrete bonds extremely well to previously placed fully cured material. It can be installed in segments, making it adaptable to stage construction as well as staged repairs or replacements. Elastomeric concrete headers shall not overhang the concrete slab.

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The poured liquid sealant, closed-cell cross-linked foam seals or preformed seals of armorless joint systems are easily placed in their entirety or in segments. They require very little time to place and/or cure allowing restoration of traffic in a matter of hours. When replacing only the existing armored joint and header for a minor rehabilitation and the opening between the deck and the backwall or deck slabs exceeds the maximum opening given in the BD sheets it may still be possible to use an armorless joint without doing additional deck work. If the maximum opening (set opening + design movement) does not exceed 5 inches an armorless joint can still be used.

5.5.1.2

Armored Joint Systems

Persistent maintenance problems with armored joints have been routinely encountered. During initial construction, proper consolidation of concrete under the horizontal leg of the armoring angle is difficult. The resulting voids lead to water collecting under the angle. When this water freezes it lifts up the armoring angle and increases the likelihood of snow plow impact. An additional problem is corrosion of the steel angle. On the vertical face, corrosion creates a gap at the seal to angle interface which allows water to leak onto the superstructure and substructure elements below. On the horizontal face, corroding steel causes the concrete in contact with the angle to spall away, creating a larger gap for water to get under the angle. This causes leakage behind the angle in even when the seal remains watertight. Repair of damaged armored joint systems is time consuming and difficult. Damaged compression seals cannot be repaired and must be replaced in their entirety. Typically the whole system needs replacing which requires removal and replacement of the concrete header and armoring angles. This requires jack-hammering, cutting out the steel angles, and placing new steel angles and concrete. The repaired section cannot be opened to traffic until the concrete has cured, requiring long term lane closures. There are skew limitations for armored joint systems. See the current BD sheets for allowable skews and selection criteria.

5.5.1.3

Modular Joint Systems

Modular joint systems are used for larger movements. Single-cell modular joint systems may be used for up to 2 inches of superstructure movement. Multicell modular joint systems are used for superstructure movement over 2 inches. There are no skew limitations for modular joint systems but skews over 45 require close attention to sizing criteria on the current BD sheets.

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May 2011

Bridge Decks

5.5.2

Longitudinal Joints

When the bridge width exceeds 90 ft., a longitudinal deck joint should be considered. This is especially true for bridges whose width approaches or exceeds the bridge span. The type and placement of this joint should take the following bridge characteristics into consideration: C C C C Bridge deck drainage pattern (i.e., crossslope). Likelihood that traffic will have to traverse the joint. The existence of a raised or flush median. The existence and location of any median barrier.

A 1 inch joint is recommended if traffic is likely to traverse the joint. If a raised median with or without concrete traffic barrier is present, a 2 inch joint is recommended. If the joint is at or near the roadway surface, it should be sealed. If half-section adjacent concrete traffic barriers are used, the closure of the joint is optional. A compression-type seal is the recommended closure material in either case.

5.6

Sidewalk and Brush Curb Overlays

All sidewalks and brush curb overlays should be paid for under Item 557.30, Sidewalks and Safety Walks. The advantage of this item is that it includes the steel reinforcement and provides for a wet cure of the concrete.

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Section 6 Bridge Railing


6.1 Introduction

The obvious function of bridge railing is to provide protection at the edges of structures for traffic and pedestrians. In performing this function, the railing must have the strength to withstand the vehicular impact and the geometry and details to safely redirect the vehicle without serious snagging or overturning. The decision of what type of railing to use is based on many factors including traffic volume, design speed, bridge geometry and the number of heavy trucks. The development of any new railing and barrier systems must meet the requirements established in the AASHTO Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware (MASH) 2009. The MASH sets forth new crash test requirements and criteria for accepting railing systems. The current standard NYSDOT railing and barrier systems (as detailed in the Bridge Detail (BD) sheets) developed under NCHRP 350 are still approved and may continue to be manufactured and installed. Systems approved for use under NCHRP 350 criteria are not required to be retested using MASH criteria. A good background reference that discusses bridge railing design issues is FHWAs October 1998 manual, Improving Highway Safety at Bridges on Local Roads and Streets.

6.2

Types of Railing

The following is a list of the types of railing systems used by NYSDOT: C C Traffic or Vehicular Railing - A railing used for the purpose of providing a physical barrier to safely restrain vehicles on the bridge. Pedestrian Railing - a railing or a fencing system that provides a physical barrier for pedestrians crossing a bridge and of sufficient height to minimize the likelihood of a pedestrian falling over the system. Bicycle Railing - a railing or fencing system that provides a physical guide for bicyclists crossing a bridge and of sufficient height to minimize the potential for a bicyclist to fall over the system. Combination Railing - A bicycle or pedestrian railing system added to a traffic railing or concrete barrier system. Vertical Faced Concrete Parapets - a traffic barrier system of reinforced concrete, usually used adjacent to a sidewalk. Permanent Concrete Traffic or Bridge Barrier - a traffic barrier system of reinforced concrete having a traffic face which is a safety shape, single-slope, F-shape or Texastype Barrier.

C C C

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Transition - a railing system which should provide a gradual change in stiffness from a flexible highway guide rail to a rigid bridge rail or concrete barrier or parapet.

6.3 6.3.1

Railing and Barrier Design for New and Replacement Bridges Service Levels

The first step in the selection of a railing/barrier system is to establish the proper design service level for the bridge. The service level is designated in terms of Testing Levels TL-1 thru TL-6 as defined in NCHRP 350 and AASHTO LRFD specifications. The previous system of service levels used performance Levels PL-1 thru PL-3. There is essential equivalency in the crash test requirements as follows: NCHRP 350 TL-2 TL-4 TL-5 1989 AASHTO PL-1 PL-2 PL-3

The 1989 AASHTO Guide Specification contains warrants based on ADT, design speed, percentage truck traffic and horizontal and vertical geometry. Although there is an ongoing study to reevaluate these criteria, these warrants provide a rational basis for the railing/barrier selection. The general descriptions of the service levels to be used are as follows: TL-2 (PL-1)Taken to be generally acceptable for most local and collector roads with favorable site conditions, work zones and where a small number of heavy vehicles are expected and posted speeds are reduced. TL-4 (PL-2)Taken to be generally acceptable for the majority of applications on high-speed highways, expressways and interstate highways with a mixture of trucks and heavy vehicles. TL-5 (PL-3)Taken to be generally acceptable for applications on high-speed, high-traffic volume and high ratio of heavy vehicles for expressways and interstate highways with unfavorable site conditions. A recommendation of the service level will be made by the designer to the Deputy Chief Engineer Structures (D.C.E.S.) based on the general descriptions above and the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications unless a variance can be justified. The recommended service level will be shown on the preliminary structure plan tear sheet.

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May 2011

Bridge Railing

6.3.2

Railing/Barrier Design Alternatives

Once the appropriate service level has been established, some functional and geometric criteria need to be established. These criteria are discussed as follows: Under-crossing Feature - Bridges over another highway or railroad must have either a concrete barrier or a curb. This is necessary to prevent roadway drainage from dropping onto the under feature. Bridges over waterways may use a curbless section if not on an interstate or other controlled access highway. Pedestrian Traffic (Sidewalk on Bridge) - Bridges carrying a sidewalk must use a concrete parapet or four-rail railing at the fascia with a minimum height of 3N-6Oabove the sidewalk surface. It is presumed that bridges with a sidewalk do not carry bicycle traffic on the sidewalk. When a sidewalk is separated from vehicular traffic by a traffic railing, then a minimum 3N-6O high pedestrian railing or fencing must be used on the fascia. Pedestrian Traffic (No Sidewalk on Bridge) - A railing or concrete barrier with a minimum height above the roadway of 3N-6Oshall be used. Bicycle Traffic - If a bridge bicycle railing is to be used, it shall be a railing or combination concrete barrier and railing with a minimum height of 3N-6O above the roadway surface. The Highway Design Manual (Chapters 17 and 18) should be consulted for warrants to determine when bicycle or pedestrian railing should be provided. Bridges that carry bicycles on a bikeway that is separate from vehicular traffic may use either of the bicycle/pedestrian railings shown on BD-RP2 or BD-RP3 on the fascia of the bridge. If a steel railing is used to separate the traffic from the bikeway then a rub rail(s) should be placed on the back side of the traffic railing to protect the bicyclists from the railing posts. Fencing can be used as an alternate to the standard details shown, but the posts and rails must be designed to withstand the loads specified in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for bicycle and pedestrian railing. Table 6-1 shows the available railing and barrier options for the different design service levels. Current BD Sheets should be consulted for the details of the various systems.

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6-3

TL-2(Less than 500 AADT) 1. Thrie Beam (BD-RL1E) 2. Double Box BeamRail Curbless (BD-RL3E) 3. Steel Three-Rail Curbless (BD-RS1E) 4. Steel Four-Rail (BDRS2E) 5. Steel Five-Rail Curbless (BD-RS3E) 6. Steel Two-Rail with Brush Curb (BD-RS1E) 7. Timber Rail (BD-RT1E) 8. 2N-10O Safety Shape (BD-RC1E) 9. 3N-6OSingle-Slope (BD-RC11E) 10. 3N-6OF-Shape (BDRC14E) 11. 3N-6OVertical Parapet (BD-RC2E) 12. 3N-6OTexas-Type (BD-RC8E)

TL-2(Less than 1500 AADT) 1. Double Box BeamRail Curbless (BD-RL3E) 2. Steel Three-Rail Curbless (BD-RS1E) 3. Steel Four-Rail (BDRS2E) 4. Steel Five-Rail Curbless (BD-RS3E) 5. Steel Two-Rail with Brush Curb (BD-RS1E) 6. Timber Rail (BD-RT1E) 7. 2N-10OSafety Shape (BD-RC1E) 8. 3N-6OSingle-Slope (BD-RC11E) 9. 3N-6OF-Shape (BD-RC14E) 10. 3N-6OVertical Parapet (BD-RC2E) 11. 3N-6OTexas-Type (BD-RC8E)

TL-2(Greater than 1500 AADT) 1. 2N-10OSafety Shape (BD-RC1E) 2. Steel Three-Rail Curbless (BD-RS1E) 3. Steel Four-Rail (BD-RS2E) 4. Steel Five-Rail Curbless (BD-RS3E) 5. Steel Two-Rail with Brush Curb (BD-RS1E) 6. 3N-6OSingle-Slope (BD-RC11E) 7. 3N-6OF-Shape (BD-RC14E) 8. 3N-6OVertical Parapet(BD-RC2E) 9. 3N-6OTexas-Type (BD-RC8E) 10. Timber Rail (BD-RT1E)

TL-4

TL-5 and Controlled Access Interstate 1. 3N-6OSingle-Slope [CIP and slipform options only] (BDRC11E) 2. 3N-6OF-Shape (BD-RC14E)

Controlled Access Non-Interstate 1. 3N-6OSingle-Slope (BD-RC11E) 2. 3N-6OF-Shape (BD-RC15E) 3. 2N-10OSafety Shape (BD-RC1E)

1. 2N-10OSafety Shape (BD-RC1E) 2. Steel Three-Rail Curbless (BD-RS1E) 3. Steel Four-Rail (BD-RS2E) 4. Steel Five-Rail Curbless (BD-RS3E) 5. Steel Two-Rail with Brush Curb (BD-RS1E) 6. 3N-6OSingle-Slope (BD-RC11E) 7. 3N-6OF-Shape (BD-RC14E) 8. 3N-6OVertical Parapet (BD-RC2E) 9. Timber Rail (BD-RT1E)

Table 6-1 Railing and Barrier Selection Table

Bridge Railing

6.3.3 6.3.3.1

Railing/Barrier Selection Interstate and Controlled Access Highways

All new and replacement bridges and deck or superstructure replacements on interstate and other controlled access, high-speed highways shall use concrete bridge barrier (parkways without truck traffic and culvert structures are excluded). For interstate bridges, 3N-6O high F-Shape or single-slope barrier shall be used. For other fully or partially controlled access, high speed highways, designers should evaluate the required railing design service level according to Section 6.3.1 to determine if the service level is Test Level-4 and an 2N-10O high concrete safety shape barrier can be used. Exceptions to this guidance should be discussed and justified in the Design Approval Document and be approved by the D.C.E.S. Exceptions that will be considered are in the cases of a deck replacement when the existing superstructure is not adequate for the increased dead load associated with a concrete barrier or where a concrete barrier on the inside of curve would reduce sight distance to less than the allowable. A number of recent accidents have involved tractor trailers penetrating steel bridge rail and causing severe damage and injury. There is a common misperception that steel bridge railing is designed to contain a heavy tractor trailer impact. In reality, the current standard two-rail and four-rail bridge railings are designed and tested to a Test Level-4, under NCHRP 350, to contain a 4400-lb pickup truck at 60 mph with a 25-degree angle of impact and an 18,000 lb single-unit van truck at 50 mph with a 15-degree angle of impact. The design standards for previous railing systems had significantly lower impact loads. There are no known steel railing systems designed for an impact by an 80,000 lb tractor trailer (Test Level-5 level of service). It would be extremely difficult to design such a steel railing system because the impact force must be transferred to the deck at each post location. A concrete barrier is much more effective in that it distributes the force to the deck through the continuous deck/barrier interface.

6.3.3.2

Other Highways

The Railing and Barrier Selection Table (Table 6-1) lists the available choices for each design category. The first choice in most design categories is a concrete barrier or parapet. This preference is based on the concrete barriers strength, durability and low initial and maintenance costs compared to metal railing systems. Factors that may cause an alternative selection to be made are: Bridge Deck Drainage - On bridges over waterways where concrete barriers would necessitate the use of scuppers, a curbless railing should be used. Generally, for most bridges it will not be necessary to use scuppers with concrete barriers. It is usually possible to carry the deck drainage off the ends of the structure without scuppers, unless the bridge becomes very long, wide or has a flat profile. The bridge deck hydraulics must be checked.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Aesthetics - In areas where the aesthetics of the railing/barrier is a prime concern, the Texas Type C411 concrete barrier is an option. However, the cost of this barrier is significantly higher than a standard barrier and its use is restricted to situations where a service level of TL-2 (PL-1) applies. A barrier with an outside face treatment using one of the many types of form liners should also be considered. Concrete cover and bridge width must be increased when form liners are used. Concrete barrier can be colored by staining the cured concrete for an aesthetic effect. Color added to the concrete mix is not recommended because of the variability of results. Exposed aggregate finishes should be avoided because of maintenance concerns. A timber railing is also available for use in areas such as the Adirondack and Catskill Parks where a rustic appearance is desired. In certain situations it may be desirable to provide a view of scenic under features. An open railing system could be used in these situations. Bridge or pedestrian railing may be painted the same color as the steel superstructure to achieve a uniform appearance. Use the appropriate Brown Rail item (568.nn) and place Note 62 on the plans indicating the color from 708-05 to match the color of the surrounding painted structural steel. Modify Note 62 to indicate that the railing is to be painted. Visibility - When intersections or driveways are close to the end of the bridge, an open railing system may be selected over a concrete barrier to increase visibility of oncoming traffic from the intersecting roadway. It should be pointed out that the visibility through the steel railings is limited and becomes even less with the addition of pedestrian fencing or permanent snow fence to the railing. This factor should only be a consideration in unusual circumstances. Snow Accumulation - In areas with heavy snowfall, Regions sometimes consider using open railing on bridges over waterways to mitigate the effect of snow accumulation on the shoulders. The intent is to push snow through an open railing during snow plowing operations to reduce the need for maintenance forces to remove accumulated snow from the bridge shoulder. However, the ability to push snow through the relatively close spacing of the rails is limited at best. Bridges over highways and railroads will ordinarily carry a snow fence on the structure. Therefore, snow accumulation is usually not a factor in the railing/barrier decision on such bridges. Geometric design policy for new and replacement bridges ordinarily results in a shoulder wide enough to permit snow storage. The factor of snow accumulation driving a decision to use open railing rather than a concrete barrier should occur only in unusual circumstances.

6.3.4

Weathering Steel Bridge Railing

Use of weathering steel for bridge railing to achieve a rustic appearance is no longer allowed because accelerated deterioration has been noted inside the railing tubes. In most cases, standard galvanized guide rail should be used. If a rustic appearance is required, timber bridge railing or painted galvanized steel may be used.

6-6

May 2011

Bridge Railing

6.3.5

Transitions

Approved transitions from bridge railing and barrier to highway railing are shown in the BD RC, RL, RS and RT series. If it is necessary to transition from corrugated beam highway rail to box beam highway rail (or vice versa), make the transition away from the bridge in accordance with the details shown on the Highway Standard Sheets. The purpose of bridge railing/barrier transitions is to provide a smooth transition from the rigid bridge rail to the flexible highway guide rail without forming a snagging pocket. When driveways or other roadways are in close proximity to the end of the bridge and make the use of the full transition length impossible, the designer shall utilize as much of the transition as possible. The highway guide rail shall be terminated in accordance with the highway standard sheets where conditions permit.

6.3.6

Modifications

Modifications to any of the standard railing/barrier systems may be made only with the approval of the D.C.E.S. Any substantial modifications would generally require a crash test to qualify the system. This will also be determined by the D.C.E.S.

6.4

Precast Concrete Barrier

The Contractor has the option of constructing concrete barrier by one of three methods: cast-inplace, slip formed or precast. If the precast method is chosen, the Contractor must use one of the preapproved precast concrete barrier systems. The approved systems are listed on the Departments Technical Services - Materials Approved list. The approved systems are specific in their details, materials and method of attachment to the deck slab. In certain circumstances the designer may wish to require the use of a precast concrete barrier system. In that event, the normal barrier pay item can be used, but a note on the plans should state that only the precast option is allowed. No details of the barrier reinforcement or anchorage should be shown on the plans. A note should be placed to state that the precast barrier must be one of the approved systems.

6.5

Pedestrian Fencing

On bridges over railroads or highways where there is a potential for vandalism from pedestrians, pedestrian fencing should be provided. The fencing is attached to the back side of steel railings, concrete barriers and parapets. It is located on the back side to minimize the potential danger from flying debris if a truck impacts the railing or barrier and leans into the pedestrian fencing. As an alternate, fencing may be mounted to the top of a barrier through a longer base plate or corbelled edge as long as the standard distance from the face of the barrier to the fencing is maintained. Details are shown on the BD Sheets.

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Pedestrian fencing over railroads shall be carried a minimum of 20 ft. past the center line of any single track or from the centerline of the two most external tracks. If there is an off-track maintenance roadway adjacent to the tracks, the fencing should be extended a distance of 3 ft. past the edge of the maintenance roadway. If the required limits of pedestrian fencing over the railroad corridor beneath the structure are a significant portion of the overall structure length, the Region may decide to simply run the pedestrian fencing along the entire length of the structure. Pedestrian fencing shall have a minimum height of 8 ft. as detailed on the current BD sheets and extend to a point 10 ft. beyond edge of the shoulder of the under roadway.

6.6

Permanent Snow Fencing

Structures with open railing that pass over a roadway should be equipped with snow fence in the area over the under roadway. The purpose is to retain and disperse the snow from snow plowing operations. Permanent snow fence should be chain link fence mounted to the back side of the railing. If used, the recommended height of snow fence is 4 ft. as detailed on the current BD sheets. Bridges with concrete traffic barriers (2N-10O high) may need snow fence installed on the back of the barrier depending on local conditions. It is recommended that bridges over interstate highways have such fencing. Bridges with higher concrete barrier or parapet (3N-6O) ordinarily do not require snow fence. If used, permanent snow fence on concrete barrier should have a height of 2 ft. above the top of the barrier. Permanent snow fence should be installed on the back side of railing and barrier for the same reason discussed under Pedestrian Fencing. As an alternate, it can be mounted to the top with certain restrictions as discussed in Section 6.5. Permanent snow fence should be used judiciously. It has the potential to create more problems than it solves (particularly on concrete barrier) and may be unattractive. When snow fence is used, it should extend to a point 10 ft. beyond the edge of the shoulder of the under roadway.

6-8

January 2008

Bridge Railing

6.7

Railing/Parapet Design Dead Loads

The following uniform dead loads based on current BD sheets in lb/ft. can be assumed for design purposes: Two-Rail with brush curb ( 2N-1Owide) Four-Rail curbless Safety Shape Concrete Barrier Vertical Concrete Parapet Texas-Type Barrier Single-Slope Concrete Barrier F-Shape Concrete Barrier Timber Rail Single-Slope Median Barrier Single-Slope Median Wide Barrier Permanent Concrete Median Barrier (Type A) Permanent Concrete Median Barrier (Type B) Permanent Concrete Median Barrier (Type C) 210 85 465 445 430 600 585 75 715 890 410 515 610

Table 6-2 Railing/Barrier Design Dead Loads (lb/ft) 6.8 6.8.1 Guidelines for Railing Treatments on Rehabilitation Projects Background

A majority of the bridge railings currently on NYSDOT structures have not been crash tested in accordance with NCHRP 350 criteria. As of October 1, 1998, these existing railings are considered nonconforming features and FHWA requires that they be considered when progressing a rehabilitation project on the structure.

6.8.2

Purpose

These guidelines identify a course of action that will allow the designer to address, in a uniform and consistent manner, the variety of situations encountered in rehabilitation project development and design. These rehabilitation guidelines will: 1. Identify the warrants to be considered in selecting a bridge railing treatment. 2. Categorize situations based on general work strategy.

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3. Propose actions for the various categories. 4. Define project decision responsibilities and authorities. Railing treatments on rehabilitation projects is a complex subject with many project specific considerations. Although these guidelines have been adopted, it is realized that they cannot cover every situation and engineering judgment will be required in their interpretation. A flow chart outlining these guidelines is shown in Appendix 6B.

6.8.3

Warrants

Numerous considerations factor into selecting the appropriate bridge railing treatment on a rehabilitation project. Evaluation of the following contributing factors should provide sufficient information to identify the criteria that define the logic on which the designers decision is based: A. Existing Bridge Railing - age, original design criteria, materials, anchorage, snagging characteristics, vaulting causing features, discontinuities, transitions, fascia characteristics, maintenance concerns and other contributing factors. B. Required Design Service Level - Federal and State standards for Design Service Levels as shown in Section 6.3.1. C. Roadway System - NHS, non-NHS, functional class, design speed, urban, rural, pedestrians, bicycles, etc. D. Roadway Characteristics - horizontal and vertical geometry, visibility, AADT, DHV, percent trucks, width, sidewalk, curb, median/median barrier, feature crossed, structure length, approaches and any other contributing characteristics. E. Safety/Accident Evaluation - number and severity of accidents and their cause, indications of bridge rail hits. Also, the type and amount of damage to the bridge railing. F. Historic/Aesthetic Considerations - community input, SHPO input, Regional discretion. G. Drainage - ability of system to accommodate roadway drainage and snow storage. H. Safety Walks face-of-rail to face-of-curb dimension and curb height for vaulting considerations. I. Scope of Work - consider the railing upgrade/replacement in view of the rehabilitation project from the perspective of appropriateness of work and increase in project cost.

J. Desired Service Life of the Repair - a short term fix may be appropriate in anticipation of future work strategies. K. Traffic - in some cases temporary traffic control considerations may greatly influence the scope and type of bridge railing work that is feasible. L. Transitions - current and past Standard Railing systems also have an approved transition to the highway guide railing. Approved transition details are shown on the Bridge Detail sheets which coincide with the appropriate bridge railing.

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May 2011

Bridge Railing

6.8.4

Identified Work Strategies

The decision regarding bridge railing must be consistent with the overall work strategy for the individual bridge. Public safety, timing and economics are important considerations when making this decision. The work strategies discussed below are ones that involve all the railing on a bridge or in the case of a viaduct, major portions of the bridge. Repair of accident damage or isolated deterioration are not covered by these guidelines. The following are guidelines to help the designer:

6.8.4.1

Long-Term Work Strategy

The projects in this category are long-term service life fixes that imply no major work for at least ten years after project completion. It is important to consider all work necessary to bring the bridge up to the current standards, especially those related to public safety. For the bridge railing, the consequences of not addressing it would mean that it would remain nonconforming. This alternative would be considered unacceptable. Therefore, these guidelines recommend the replacement/upgrading of the existing bridge railing in these situations, unless retention of the bridge railing was justified as described in Section 6.8.5.3. These types of projects inherently impact the existing bridge railing and/or its anchorage and also have long term service life implications. Therefore, it is cost-effective, prudent, and timely to proceed with bridge railing replacement/upgrades. Certain work strategies with applicable defined scope of work will direct that the existing bridge railings be upgraded and/or replaced to current accepted standards. Regardless of the contributing factors as defined earlier in this document, specific types of projects shall always include bridge railing replacement/upgrades. These types of projects shall include, but are not limited to:

C C C C C

Bridge Superstructure Widening (Consider widened portions only) Superstructure Replacement Complete Deck Replacement (Thru-girder, truss, P/S box beam and other unique bridges need special consideration) Bridge Railing Replacement Contracts Major Bridge Rehabilitations

6.8.4.2

Short-Term Work Strategy

The projects in this category are intended to provide a short-term or interim fix prior to possible larger programmed work. These types of projects, such as minor rehabilitation and deck asphalt overlay contracts, typically have an expected service life of less than 10 years. It is in developing these types of projects that the designer must pay close attention to the intended scope, the objective of the project, and the contributing factors as described earlier in this

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document. Sound, prudent, and cost effective engineering decisions based on both the shortterm and long-term planning for these structures should prevail. The types of projects that a designer would typically evaluate as to whether to include bridge railing replacement/upgrade are: C C C C C Bridge Railing Repair Asphalt Overlay Projects Bridge Curb Replacement/Repair/Modifications Extensive Sidewalk and/or Concrete Work (involving railing anchorage) Other Element Specific Contracts (excluding monolithic deck projects)

Actions such as repair of railing collision damage and localized maintenance repair of curbs, sidewalks and snow fencing do not require an evaluation of bridge railing replacement/upgrade. In a more general sense, if the anchorage system is exposed or will be exposed by the intended work, strong consideration should be given to replacing/upgrading the bridge railing.

6.8.4.3

Monolithic Deck Work

This work is a long-term work strategy because it substantially extends the structures service life and requires a considerable level of effort. Although monolithic deck projects are a long-term work strategy, it is desirable for programmatic reasons to allow additional flexibility. It is for this reason that monolithic deck projects are treated separately. On monolithic deck projects, if a standard railing system is not installed, the existing bridge railing may be proposed for retention, if it has been crash tested to NCHRP 230 and the curb is within 9 inches of the face of rail. If the existing bridge railing is an acceptable NCHRP 230 railing and the curb is not within 9 inches of the face of rail, then the scope of work shall include the safety walk removal. Safety walk removal can be completed by removing and replacing the existing curb such that the curbs face is within 9 inches of the face of rail. Also, the safety walk can be effectively addressed by blocking out the rails such that the curbs face is within 9 inches of the face of rail. If the existing bridge railing is not an acceptable NCHRP 230 railing, the railing must be replaced or upgraded. If the deck does not have the capacity to satisfy the loadings associated with the standard bridge railing, then the deck should be modified to accept the standard railing and associated loadings. See Appendix 6A 1987 Bridge Railing Crash Test Report, for a discussion of the crash tests performed on former NYSDOT bridge railing. Special consideration is needed when applying the above guidelines to viaducts. Viaducts are more complex structures which may involve many bridges and connecting ramps presenting unique problems. Due to their nature, there are no reasonable, logical termini for bridge railing and/or safety walks. As a result, the designer may be faced with chasing the bridge railing modification, upgrade or replacement for exceptionally long distances impacting other bridge structures and/or spans which may not be receiving any other improvements. This can ultimately alter the scope of the capital project, which was originally conceived to replace the wearing surface of the concrete deck (monodeck rehabilitation work only). The cost implications of such an action could preclude the Region from pursuing monolithic deck work and opt for a more interim fix.

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Bridge Railing

These guidelines allow flexibility when dealing with viaducts and large interchanges. Each situation requires close examination and an evaluation of a number of different factors: C C C The accident history problem and if so, what is it attributed to. Are the safety walks and bridge railing contributing elements or involved with the problem? Relative to project cost and the Regions budget, the impact of addressing the bridge railing and safety walks. Uniqueness of this capital project for the viaduct or is it one of many future projects on the viaducts? In other words, if the Region is planning to systematically progress a series of contracts to address the entire viaduct then conditions may be such that it is prudent to include the additional work now. Aesthetics have to be considered. Most viaducts are located in highly populated, urban areas; entrances to cities. The visual impact of segmenting work could be negative for a prolonged period. The Region may be better served addressing all the bridge railing at once and all the safety walk issues under a separate contract. This notably must be weighed against impacts to safety, traffic, cost, remobilization efforts, etc.

Viaducts require close examination and have to be considered as a separate entity on a case by case basis. The designer should document and place in the project file or design report all information that supports the final decision.

6.8.5

Actions to be Taken

Generally, all actions should be based on the warrants and the work strategy for the bridge. The warrants and the work strategy are discussed in Sections 6.8.3 and 6.8.4. The required design service level for the bridge railing is determined according to Section 6.3.1. The following actions are applicable to all roadway systems, unless otherwise noted.

6.8.5.1

Replacing the Bridge Railing/Barrier

The standard systems for replacement bridge railing and barriers shall be as defined in Section 6.3.2 and as detailed in the current Bridge Detail sheets. Acceptance of these systems is based on a crash-tested system in accordance with NCHRP 350.

6.8.5.2

Upgrading the Bridge Railing/Barrier

The upgraded bridge railing/barrier must meet the requirements of the bridges design service level to qualify as an acceptable system. A railing/barrier can be upgraded to a TL-2 (PL-1) or TL-4 (PL-2) service level. Due to the strength requirements, it is not possible to upgrade to a TL-5 (PL-3) service level and, therefore, the railing/barrier will need to be replaced for that level. In addition, the retrofitted railing/barrier must qualify by providing similar snagging and vaulting characteristics of a crash tested system. An acceptable system demonstrates this equivalence through similarity of rail, post and curb locations to crash-tested systems. This also includes cutting any safety walk back to preferably 6 inches, but not more than 9 inches, from the face of railing. The required strength of the posts and anchorage can be satisfied by calculation in

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accordance with the assumed loads specified in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Section 13. Typical details for upgrading steel railing to TL-2 or TL-4 levels are shown on the Bridge Detail sheets. TL-2 upgrading consists of a single 6O x 6O box beam rail. TL-4 upgrading consists of double 6O x 6O box beam rails.

6.8.5.3

Retaining the Bridge Railing

Generally, the decision to retain bridge railing should be based on the warrants, the work strategy and the bridge railings ability to meet the requirements of the roadway (design service levels) as described in Section 6.3.1. When considering long term service life of a bridge, there are a few cases where retaining the nonconforming bridge railing is desirable. These cases must be justified and well documented similar to the procedure described in the Highway Design Manual, Section 2.8. When it is determined by the designer that bridge railing replacement/upgrade is not warranted, then documentation supporting the decision shall include the existing bridge rail condition (including anchorage), evaluation of contributing factors, the intended scope and objective of the project. This documentation should be provided to the project file, Region Design Engineer, Region Structures Engineer and Region Bridge Maintenance Engineer for the purpose of determining future work needs and programs. The following guidelines are for the retention of existing bridge railing: 1. Project Specific Reasons The following projects will typically not include bridge railing replacement/upgrades and would not require written documentation/justification for retaining nonconforming bridge railing: C C C C C C C C C C Bridge Painting/Cleaning/Sealing Joint Repair/Replacement Bearing Repair/Replacement Striping Steel Repair (Impact Damage, Localized Corrosion, etc.) Scour Work Sign Projects Navigational Light Repair/Installation Preventive Maintenance Work (Cyclic Work to Reduce Deterioration) Snow Fence Installation

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Bridge Railing

However, if the designer notices potential problems with the bridge railing, the anchorage system, or other associated bridge rail hardware, it shall be communicated to the RSE and the RBME for their action. The former two-rail and four-rail steel bridge railings detailed on various BDD sheets issued since 1977 are acceptable and adequate for a TL-2 service level without upgrading. See Appendix 6A, 1987 Bridge Railing Crash Test Report for further discussion. However, any transition to highway guide railing containing the tuning fork detail is not adequate for a TL-2 service level. In addition, for non-NHS roadways only, compliance to the TL-2 Service Level can be analytically determined by verifying the bridge railing as structurally adequate using the assumed loads given in AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, Section 13. Some variance in rail, post and curb positions from crash tested systems is permissible if there are no obvious safety hazards such as snagging points and there is approval by the D.C.E.S. 2. Historic Preservation or Other Project Specific Reasons For projects which deal with historic or aesthetic considerations, the decision regarding bridge railing can be much more difficult. The deficiencies of the proposed nonconforming bridge railing, relative to its conformance with the required service level, shall be clearly documented and shall be presented to the approving authority noted in Section 6.8.6. This information shall be accompanied by the cost differential between the two bridge railings and the logic supporting the decision to employ the nonconforming bridge railing.

6.8.5.4

Anchorage of Steel Bridge Railing

It is NYSDOT policy to allow drilling and grouting of anchor bolts for steel bridge railing during rehabilitation projects. All anchor rods must be proof-load tested to ensure the quality of the existing concrete and the grout selected. It is recommended that the contractor install and test several bolts prior to grouting all the bolts in case of a concrete/anchor/grout incompatibility. The recommended embedment depth for 1O diameter bolts is 12O. Although the anchorage is compliant with current loading requirement, the overhang reinforcement in the superstructure may not be adequate. The deck reinforcement should be investigated to ensure that it can resist the larger loadings this railing system is capable of transmitting, or a determination must be made to accept the damage to the deck that may occur during a severe impact.

6.8.6

Responsibilities and Authorities

Approval authority will be in accordance with the Design-Related Approval Matrix in the NYSDOT Project Development Manual, Exhibit 4-2.

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6.9

Bridge Railing/Transition Shop Drawing Requirements

Bridge Railing and Transition Shop Drawing Approvals are not required in most cases. Since the recent implementation of new crash-tested bridge railing and transition details, it has become obvious that the shop drawing review process provides little value when compared to the effort of reviewing and approving shop drawings for these items. In most cases, the contract document details and construction specifications are adequate to ensure that the railing system will be fabricated in a manner that will satisfy safety and construction tolerance criteria. Nevertheless, there are situations that warrant the review and approval of shop drawings for these items, as follows: C C C C Transitions requiring connections between existing bridge rail and existing highway rail. Transitions requiring connections between existing bridge rail and new, upgraded bridge rail or between existing bridge rail and existing truss members. Unique and complex end transitions. All nonstandard concrete and steel railing systems and all timber rail systems.

When these situations occur, Note 72 in Section 17 shall be placed in the contract plans.

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Appendix 6A 1987 Bridge Railing Crash Test Report


Purpose
This report is intended to document the results of the 1987 crash tests of the NYSDOT two-rail steel bridge railing. The testing done by Southwest Research Institute is documented in NCHRP Report 289. The crash testing done by the NYSDOT was never documented in a final report. The following information is intended to document the facts behind the NYSDOT bridge railing rehabilitation guidelines.

Background
In 1987, NYSDOT conducted voluntary crash tests of the two-rail curbless steel bridge railing and steel railing transitions. Both systems were in wide use at that time. The crash testing procedures used were established in a FHWA document titled NCHRP Report 230, which provides several crash test levels using specific vehicle types, speeds and entrance angles for each scenario. These crash tests do not directly correspond to any performance level or testing level currently used. A review of the NYSDOT standard sheets revealed that the two-rail curbless bridge railing existed in the tested form as far back as 1977, and was found on BDD 77-51. That same year, BDD 77-51 R1 was issued and detailed a shorter post for the two rail on a brush curb. This new sheet adjusted the height of the rails to 118 inches above the tested rails for a six inch curb, and 418 inches above the tested rails for a nine inch curb. In 1989, this revised sheet later came to be known as BDD 89-59A, and the curbless details remained on the BDD sheets with the 51 number.

Methodology
The testing done by Southwest Research Institute used a 1,990 lb. compact car to determine the geometric adequacy of the two-rail curbless railing. The vehicle velocity was 61 mph at an entrance angle of 14.2 degrees. These factors meet the minimums set by NCHRP Report 230 Test #12 that requires a 1,800-lb. car, 60 mph and 15-degree entrance angle. The results of this test are given in NCHRP Report 289. The tested bridge rail was standard except that it was attached to a concrete cantilever intended to simulate a bridge deck overhang. The testing done by NYSDOT used a 4,600-lb. large car to determine the strength capacity of the railing. The vehicle velocity was 60 mph and an entrance angle of 25 degrees. These factors meet the minimums set by NCHRP Report 230 - Test #10 that requires a 4,500-lb. car, 60 mph and 25-degree entrance angle. The results of this test are summarized in a memorandum to D.J. Massimillian of the Structures Division from R.J. Perry of the Engineering R&D Bureau. All of the raw test data and video footage is available, but the results were never

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compiled into a standard test report. The bridge rail was standard except for the anchorage system. The bridge rail was constructed on a three-foot by three-foot concrete footing intended to simulate the concrete bridge deck. The anchor bolts were not cast in place as detailed on the standard sheets. Instead, the anchor bolts were drilled and grouted into the footings using the Kelken-Gold brand grout system.

Conclusions
The overall conclusion drawn from the crash tests and available data is that the two-rail curbless steel bridge railing, mounted as either curbless or with a six-inch brush curb and shorter post, passed all of the requirements of NCHRP Report 230 - Test #10 and Test #12. The following is a short excerpt from NCHRP Report 289 - Test #10 explaining the results of the crash test: The test vehicle was redirected after significant wheel snagging on the first downstream post occurred... The redirected vehicle remained essentially parallel to the bridge rail for a considerable distance. No barrier deflection was evident. The damage to the vehicle was severe,... No significant damage to the barrier system was evident. Measured values indicate compliance with NCHRP Report 230. The following is a short excerpt from the memorandum to D.J. Massimilian from R.J. Perry regarding Test #12 conducted by the NYSDOT: ... The test vehicle sustained substantial damage to the right front corner, but there was no intrusion into the passenger compartment. Bridge rail posts 3, 4, and 5 were...partially dislodged from the deck by pullout of the anchor bolts. Vehicle Trajectory results were marginal in some respects... the vehicle initially departed the bridge rail at a steep angle, it quickly turned back toward the railing... Considering these points, we believe this test met the intent of the Vehicle Trajectory criteria, even though some of the suggested values were exceeded.

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Appendix 6B Railing Treatments on Rehabilitation Projects

Consider Warrants

Consider Work Strategy

Long Term Project (> 10 Yrs)

Monodeck Project (Long Term > 10 Yrs)

Short Term Project (10 Yrs)

Must Upgrade/Replace OR Must Justify Retaining


No

Evaluate for Upgrade/Replace OR Defer to Future Project Meets NCHRP 230


Yes

Must Upgrade/Replace AND Modify Deck Overhang (If Necessary)

Yes

Curb to Rail Face < 9 in

No

May Retain

Remove Safety Walk OR Blockout Railing

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Section 7 Utilities
7.1 Criteria for Utility Placement on Bridges

The New York Code of Rules and Regulations (NYCRR) states, "It is in the public interest for utility facilities to be accommodated within the highway rights-of-way when such use and occupancy does not interfere with the free and safe flow of traffic . . ." The decision to allow a utility on a bridge rests with the Region. Most Regions make all reasonable efforts to accommodate utilities on bridges. The designer needs to be aware of the responsibilities of the utilities and of the rules governing the placement of utilities on bridges. See Chapter 13 of the Highway Design Manual for information about regulations and procedures.

7.2

Design Information Furnished by Utilities

It is the responsibility of the utility to design the carrier and provide the Department with: C C C C C Unit weight of the utility (assuming all ducts or carriers are full). Maximum allowable span of the ducts or pipes. Type of expansion system. Desired support details. Material specifications for carriers, coatings, expansion devices, etc.

The designer should not be designing the carrier pipe for a utility, only the support system. A review of the information the utility provides is prudent.

7.3

Utility Locations

The designer, in consultation with the utility, should select the utility location in the following decreasing order of preference: C C C C C C C In the sidewalk for small diameter ducts carrying telephone, electrical or cable television lines. No more than six 2 12O ducts shall be used. In the bays between main longitudinal members or in a void created by spreading adjacent prestressed concrete box beams under a sidewalk. A maximum of two 2 Oconduits may be carried in a concrete traffic barrier. On a utility ledge or outrigger (preferably on the downstream side). Attached to the fascia (preferably on the down stream side). In the voids of closed box bridge members. Structural support system separate from the bridge.

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7.4

Design Criteria for Utilities and Supports

Rules governing utilities on bridges that the designer needs to be aware of are: C C C C C C C Utilities are not allowed on an existing bridge if the load rating would be reduced below the legal limit. The plans must fully detail the utility installation. The utility (and all supports) must be above the bottom of the superstructure. The utility should not be attached to a railing. Utilities shall not be hung from the structural slab. No welding is permitted to connect utility hangers to existing structural steel. Thermal movements must be accommodated by: B B B C C Utility expansion devices located at bridge deck expansion joints (at both abutments for bridges with integral abutments), or Supporting the utility on a system of rollers so it moves independently of the bridge, or A combination of the above.

The utility shall be marked with the carrier contents. Water and sewer lines shall either: B B Have welded or restrained joints, or Be cased for the length necessary to prevent liquid from falling on the underlying highway or railway.

Supports for heavy utilities should be designed to minimize local bending in the support members. This can be accomplished by the use of beam clamps rather than a rod passing through a single thin flange. The design and placement of utility supports should consider the need to inspect, paint and otherwise maintain the bridge. On concrete box beam bridges it may be feasible to separate the boxes under the sidewalk to create a utility bay if fascia installation is not desired. (This should be done only under a sidewalk.) Flexible jointed water mains can zigzag when pressurized unless they are properly supported. This problem can be prevented by using top and bottom rollers at two locations on every other section of pipe to provide lateral restraint. Intermediate sections need only have one roller location, unless otherwise required by design.

C C

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Utilities

7.5

Utility Shares

The full cost of providing a new utility installation on a bridge is included in a utility share in the Estimate. This cost includes: C C C C Providing and installing the carrier. Providing and installing the hanger system. The cost of any extra diaphragms or cross members needed to support the utility. For steel bridges, the cost of the extra steel in the two girders supporting the utility. (The cost of the extra steel in the other girders is borne by the Department. It is the Departments decision to make all the girders the same strength.) There is a small and difficult-to-identify cost differential for prestressed concrete beams, so generally the utility share will not include an additional cost for the main beams. Utilities on an existing bridge that are replaced or maintained during a bridge rehabilitation or replacement project follow different rules depending on the incorporation of the utility. Generally, municipal (not-for-profit) utility installations (city water and sewer, police telephones, etc.) are replaced in-kind or maintained in service at no cost to the utility. If the size of a municipal utility is increased (a 10O line replaces a 6O line) then the utility pays for the difference between an in-kind replacement and the larger size (betterment). This is usually only the increased material cost. Generally, for profit utilities (National Grid, Central Hudson Gas & Electric, etc.) pay for the full cost of replacing their facility with the same or larger size. Maintenance costs are also borne by the utility.

C C

The Regional Utility Engineer should be contacted to verify that costs for a particular installation follow the above general rules. Further information on engineers estimate shares is found in the Highway Design Manual, Chapter 21, Section 21.5.

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Section Eight Structural Steel


8.1 8.1.1 Design Design Methods

Structural steel has long been used as a bridge material in New York State. It continues to be commonly used and is the usual choice for spans over 115 feet. Structural steel design should be in accordance with the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for all new and replacement bridges. The NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges may be used for rehabilitation of existing bridges. Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) is the required design method for all new steel structures designed in New York State. It introduces limit states as a design philosophy and uses structural reliability methods to achieve a more uniform level of safety. Factor of Safety is replaced with a new statistically based measure of safety called the Reliability Index . LRFD requires a Design Reliability =3.5, which provides for a notional failure probability of 1 in 10,000. The LRFD code defines four design limit state categories: C C C C Strength Limit States - ensure strength and stability, both local and global. Service Limit States - impose limits on stress and deformation. Fatigue and Fracture Limit States - limit the liveload stress range under regular service conditions. Extreme Event Limit States - ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major event such as a vessel collision, flood, earthquake, etc.

Within each category there are multiple limit states. Steel bridges shall be designed using Strength 1 (for moment and shear), Service 2 (overload, liveload deflection, bolted connections) and fatigue. A Strength 2 limit check of new girders utilizing the NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle is also required. LRFD introduces new live load criteria which will provide heavier loads on shorter spans and lighter loads on longer spans than are provided in the LFD specification. Service Load Design, also known as Allowable Stress Design (ASD), is the older and generally more conservative design method for medium to long bridge spans (over 100 ft). ASD achieves its factor of safety by limiting the stresses on the member to some percentage of the maximum stresses that the member could take before yielding. Since the dead load and live load stresses are considered at the same time, there is no provision for the certainty of the dead loads or the uncertainty of the live loads. As span lengths increase and dead loads become a much higher percentage of the total load, ASD becomes overly conservative and uneconomical.

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Strength Design, also known as Load Factor Design (LFD), achieves its factor of safety by applying multipliers, or load factors, to the design loads. These multipliers increase the load effects, or stresses, applied to the member above those induced from the design loads alone. Since the dead loads are known, the load factor applied to them is relatively small. By comparison, live loads are highly variable and, therefore, the applied load factor is relatively large. The factored stresses are then compared to the yield stress, or ultimate capacity, of the loaded member. The benefit of handling dead loads and live loads separately is that it provides a uniform factor of safety for live load in bridges of any span length. As span length increases and dead load becomes a larger part of the total load, LFD becomes increasingly more economical than ASD because of the smaller load factor applied to the dead load. LFD must always be checked for deflection and serviceability criteria. Designers are cautioned that at very long span lengths, typically in excess of 400 ft., LFD may not provide adequate reserve strength capacity in the bridge.

8.1.2

Analysis Methods

Straight girders should ordinarily be analyzed by the line element method. Only in very unusual circumstances should it be necessary to analyze a straight girder bridge by a grid, threedimensional or finite-element analysis. The marginally increased refinement in the analysis offered by these techniques does not usually justify their substantially increased design effort. This conclusion is justified in large part by the fact that design loadings are only an approximation of actual traffic loads. However, in some instances these more exact methods are justified. They are required for bridges with girders that have enough curvature to meet the requirements for curved girder analysis as defined by AASHTO. Some straight girder bridges that have extremely large skews (in excess of 45), unfavorable continuous span arrangements, or faying girders (secondary girders framed to main girders for unusual geometric situations) may be candidates for a more exact analysis.

8.1.3

Design Considerations

The LRFD specification increases the role and responsibility of the designer to anticipate construction related issues and be aware that stresses during erection or construction are sometimes the controlling conditions of design. Examples of conditions that need to be checked are the erection of the girder and the placement of the concrete deck, both of which occur when there is a long unbraced compression flange. The designer should refer to Article 6.10.3 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications for requirements for stability checks.

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Structural Steel

8.2 8.2.1

Steel Types Unpainted Weathering Steel

The preferred structural steel is unpainted weathering steel. Two grades are available; ASTM A709 Grade 50W and Grade 70 HPS - 70W. This steel eliminates the need for painting because the steel weathers to form a protective patina, or thin layer of protective oxide coating, that prevents the steel from further rusting. Its slightly higher cost per pound than nonweathering steels is easily offset by the savings in initial and maintenance painting. This steel should be used in most situations. However, weathering steel has been known to exhibit problems in certain situations. These have generally been in environments where the steel has been exposed to wet conditions, salt spray or chemical fumes over prolonged periods. In these situations weathering steel may be unable to properly form the protective patina surface. The steel may be prone to delamination during the corrosion process and rapidly lose large amounts of its weathered surface material. Therefore, unpainted weathering steel should not be used under the following circumstances: C Grade separation structures in tunnel like conditions where the steel is highly exposed to salt spray from the under roadway. These conditions can occur when there is minimum vertical clearance and substructures are located relatively close to the travel lanes of the under roadway Bridges over low water crossings where the structural steel is less than 8 ft over the ordinary water elevation. Marine coastal areas. Industrial areas where concentrated chemical fumes may drift directly onto the structure. Bridges exposed to spray from adjacent waterfalls or dam spillways, or located in an area of high rainfall, high humidity or persistent fog. Areas where debris can collect and primary connections may be exposed to roadway drainage (e.g., bottom chords of thru truss structures). Any staining of substructure is unacceptable. Color of weathering steel is not appropriate for aesthetic reasons.

C C C C C C C

It is strongly recommended that all weathering superstructure steel be painted within a distance of 1.5 x depth of the girder from bridge joints. Additionally, if the appearance of a partially painted girder is an aesthetic concern, the exposed area of the fascia girders should be painted for the entire girder length. This would include the entire fascia girder except for the top of the top flange and the interior surfaces of the web and top and bottom flanges. If a timber deck is used, see Section 10 - Timber for additional protective measures. In locations where the guidelines do not specifically prohibit the use of weathering steel, but conditions such as excessive salt spray may compromise structural performance, the designer should increase flange and web thickness by approximately 116 inch, if weathering steel is used. This will act as sacrificial section in order to achieve the intended service life.

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8.2.2

Drip Bars for Unpainted Weathering Steel

The use of unpainted weathering steel for bridge superstructures results in the potential for staining bridge substructures during the period when the superstructure steel is developing a protective oxide coating. Rainwater flowing along the steel carries iron oxide particulates which are deposited on pedestals, abutment stems and pier caps. While various methods for reducing or eliminating staining of substructures have been tried with varying success, current practice is to attach deflectors, called drip bars, to the bottom flanges of stringers in selected locations. Drip bars are normally used only on structures having substructure units clearly visible to the public, such as piers or high abutments adjacent to an under roadway. It is not expected they would be used on structures over railroads, water, or at stub abutments of structures over highways. Use of drip bars is determined at the Preliminary Plan stage of a project. If used, they are attached to the bottom flange of each fascia stringer at the low end of appropriate spans.

8.2.3

Painted Steels

When painted steel is used for aesthetic reasons or in situations where uncoated weathering steel is not desirable, ASTM A709 Grade 50 steel should preferably be used. It is usually the economical choice over Grade 36 steel. In structures that use painted steel it is possible to design main members using ASTM A709 Grade 50 and use ASTM A709 Grade 36 for secondary members and details. However, the cost differential between ASTM Grade 50 and ASTM Grade 36 is small, and it is therefore recommended for uniformity to use all Grade 50 steel. In structures that need to have large portions of the steel painted, such as thru trusses, the entire structure should be painted rather than use weathering steel painted only in the splash zone. It is very difficult to paint steel to match the appearance of unpainted weathering steel. The Structural Painting Details note required by Item 572.01, Structural Steel Painting: Shop Applied, shall contain the following information: description of serialized items, estimated structure length, width, vertical clearance, pay items to be used, description and location for pay items 574.02 and 574.03 if necessary, stream classification, and whether or not the structure is over a public water supply.

8.2.4

HPS Steel

The use of HPS steel requires approval by the D.C.E.S. HPS steel should be considered only when one of the following conditions exists: C The layout of the structure can be reorganized to eliminate an entire span. As an example, if a proposed structure designed without using HPS is a five-span simply

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Structural Steel

C C

supported steel superstructure and can be replaced with a three-span continuous structure if HPS is used, HPS steel may be the best solution. One or more girders can be eliminated from a bridge cross section. The bridge requires a reduced superstructure depth, based on critical vertical clearance issues, which cannot be accomplished without using HPS.

Recent experience has shown that price analyses based on weight savings alone are not truly representative of final erected steel costs. Therefore, designers should include the following parameters in their cost analysis when deciding whether or not to incorporate HPS steel on a project: C The added cost of splicing the higher strength steel Bolted field splices must develop higher allowable strengths, which necessitate a greater number of bolts and longer length bolts to accommodate the increased pattern size. Consideration should be given to using Grade 50 steel to reduce cost. For shop splices, because of the limits of the rolling stock available, there will be more splices in a specific size flange or web. Also, there will be an increased cost in extra required nondestructive testing. C Erection cost - Because of extreme flexibility in the structure due to the large span to depth ratio high performance steel allows, there is a concern for lateral flange buckling. Additional falsework may be required to ensure the stability of members during erection. Shipping costs will increase because of the greater flexibility of the shipped units.

8.2.5

Other Steels

Various other steel types are used for special situations such as sheet piling and railing tubes. If any steel other than A709 Grade 36, Grade 50 or Grade 50W is to be used for primary structural members, approval of the D.C.E.S. is required.

8.2.6

Combination of Steel Types

When more than one type of steel is used in a contract, the types shall be clearly described in the plans. The payment for furnishing and placing these steels shall be made under a single structural steel item. A table titled Total Weight for Progress Payments shall be placed on the plans adjacent to the estimate table, indicating the quantity of each type of steel.

8.2.7

Steel Item Numbers

Depending on the type and nature of a project, steel shall be paid for under Item 564.XX or Item 656.0101 as described below. These items include the cost of the steel, shop drilled holes, and bolts. April 2010 8-5

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On steel rehabilitation projects, designers must remember to include item numbers in the contract for steel removal (which includes the cost of bolt and/or rivet removal), field drilling of existing steel, and rivet removal and replacement with high strength bolts where applicable. See Section 19.4.4 for further information regarding rehabilitation of riveted structures. Item 564.05XX, Structural Steel, L.S. C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C New bridges and superstructure replacements. Shop drawings reviewed by D.C.E.S. Minor rehabilitation projects, with variable quantities due to unknown deterioration. Secondary member repair/replacement, minor repair to primary members: (e.g., diaphragm replacements and replacement of primary member stiffeners and/or connection angles.) Quantities verified by the Engineer-In-Charge. Shop Drawings reviewed by the Engineer-In-Charge. Stock steel option is allowed. Major rehabilitation contracts, with variable quantities due to unknown deterioration. Primary member replacement or strengthening: (e.g., truss rehabilitations, girder web and flange repairs, floor beam and stringer replacements, continuity retrofits and seismic retrofits). Quantities verified by the Engineer-In-Charge. Shop Drawings reviewed by D.C.E.S. Minor rehabilitation projects with known quantities. Secondary member repair/replacement, minor repair to primary member components: (e.g., diaphragm replacements, and replacement of primary member stiffeners and/or connection angles.) Shop Drawings reviewed by the Engineer-In-Charge unless otherwise specified in the contract documents. Designer should consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to determine when D.C.E.S. review of shop drawings is required. Stock steel option is allowed. Used for extraneous items. (e.g., hand rails, metal floor grating, ladders). Shop Drawings reviewed as per SCM.

Item 564.10nnnn, Structural Steel Replacement, lb.

Item 564.51nnnn, Structural Steel, lb.

Item 564.70nnnn, Structural Steel Replacement, Each

Item 656.01, Miscellaneous Metals, lb.

8.3 8.3.1

Redundancy - Fracture Critical Members Primary and Secondary Members

Primary members are defined as structural elements that are designed to carry live load and act as primary load paths. Examples include: truss chords; girders; floor beams; stringers; arches; towers; bents; rigid frames. Additionally, lateral connection plates welded to the members listed

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above, and hangers, connection plates, and gusset plates which support the members listed above are primary members. Tub and curved-girder diaphragms are also included. Secondary members are defined as those structural elements which do not carry primary stress or act as primary load paths.

8.3.2

Redundancy

Redundancy in structures is the ability of a structure to absorb the failure of a main component without the collapse of the structure. Superstructures have three types of redundancy: C C C Load path redundancy. Structural redundancy. Internal redundancy.

With load path redundancy, the loads will be transferred to adjacent members or alternate paths with the failure of a single member. The best example of load path redundancy is a bridge with four or more longitudinal main girders. Structural redundancy is best typified by the middle spans in a continuous span bridge. Indeterminate trusses can also be structurally redundant. Internal redundancy occurs when a girder is composed of a number of components such as angles and plates which are connected by rivets or bolts (not welded). Only the first form of redundancy, load path redundancy, is generally counted on in design

8.3.3

Fracture-Critical Members

Fracture-Critical Members are defined as tension members or tension components of nonredundant members whose failure would result in the collapse of the structure. Tension components include any member that is loaded axially in tension or that portion of a flexural member that is subjected to tensile stress. Any attachment that is welded to a tension area of a fracture critical member or component is considered to be part of that member or component and, therefore, also fracture critical. It is important to realize that members can be nonredundant without being fracture critical (e.g., the compression chord of a truss is nonredundant but it is not fracture critical). Examples of fracture-critical members or components are the tension flange and web of twoand three-girder systems, tension flange and web of steel pier cap beams, the tension chord and diagonals of trusses, the tie girders of a tied-arch bridge and the floor beams in a truss or thru girder that are spaced more than 12 ft. on centers. All single tub and box girder structures shall be considered fracture critical. Some columns are fracture critical as defined by the designing engineer. Examples of non-fracture-critical members are all components of the girders in any bridge with four or more girders, the compression chord of a truss and the stringers in a floor system of a thru girder or truss. Two- and three-girder pedestrian bridges and truss pedestrian bridges should not be considered fracture critical because they are not subject to high numbers of load cycles. Bridges containing fracture-critical members should be avoided if possible. However, it is recognized that in many situations there is no good alternative to their use. Vertical clearance

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restrictions may necessitate the use of thru truss or thru girder structures. When spans become very long it also becomes cost prohibitive to provide a load-path-redundant structure. Bridges that have fracture critical members have restricted allowable fatigue stress ranges and more stringent fabrication requirements. These issues are covered in the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges and in the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual. The NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications requirements for fatigue design do not differentiate between redundant and nonredundant members. For this specification, both redundant and nonredundant members are designed for an infinite fatigue life. Fracture-critical members designed with this code are still subject to the fabrication requirements of the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual. C C C C Designers shall designate and provide a table of all fracture-critical members on the contract plans. Designers shall designate tension zones of all fracture-critical members on the contract plans. When the Designer has determined that the column or column system is fracture critical, they shall designate all column components as fracture critical on new steel bents where columns experience tension under LRFD Strength III loading. When the Designer has determined that the column or column system is fracture critical, they shall designate all column strengthening components as fracture critical on major rehabilitations where a significant portion of the work is associated with the seismic strengthening and/or retrofitting of the structure.

8.4 8.4.1

Economical Design Girder Spacing

A key element in producing an economical steel bridge design is the selection of girder spacing. While no absolute rule can be stated, the most economical design is usually the one with the least number of girders. There are, however, limitations that must be worked within. There should be a minimum of four girders and their spacing should not ordinarily exceed 12 ft. In addition, restrictions on the available clearance requirements may force the use of more girders. Stage construction requirements may have an impact on girder spacing, but there is no requirement to have more than four girders or an even or odd number of girders. Bridges can generally be stage constructed as easily with four girders as with five. It is good practice to check the economics of two or possibly three alternate girder spacings.

8.4.2 8.4.2.1

Girder Proportioning for Plate Girders General

It is important to remember when proportioning plate girders that the design resulting in the least weight of structural steel is not necessarily the least costly option. Increased fabrication, construction, transportation and erection costs can easily outweigh a small savings in the quantity of steel used. Economical steel designs use good details and good proportions.

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Structural Steel

Generally, web and flange plate sizes and lengths for interior and fascia girders should be the same, with differences in deadload deflections between interior and fascia girders accommodated in the camber table.

8.4.2.2

Depth

There is an optimum depth to plate girder design. If there is flexibility in the allowable girder depth then a number of options should be explored to develop an economical design. Weight and cost of a girder will usually decrease as girder depth increases but only to a point. Beyond this point the weight and cost will increase as the girder depth is further increased. Very deep girders with small flanges may prove to be unstable and difficult to transport and erect.

8.4.2.3

Flanges

Minimum flange thickness shall be Oand minimum plate girder flange width shall be 12O. When designing flanges, it is important to keep in mind that, in general, the most economical way for steel fabricators to make up flanges is to butt weld together several wide plates of varying thickness and then strip the flanges from the wide plate. Plate is usually purchased in widths starting at 4 ft. For the ordinary bridge, this usually makes it more economical to vary flange thickness rather than width. In large bridges, where there are significant changes in girder section needed and the quantities of each plate size are large, this guideline may be impractical or irrelevant. Flanges should not be excessively wide compared to girder depth nor should they be excessively thick compared to the girder web thickness. A good rule of thumb is that the flange thickness should be no more than six times the web thickness. As moment and shear change along the length of the girder, the required section of the girder also changes. It is frequently economical to introduce flange splices to utilize a lighter flange plate where possible. The savings in material achieved by making the splice must be balanced against the increased fabrication cost to make the butt weld. If the mass of material saved by making the splice is more than the amount computed by the following guidelines, then it is economical to make the splice. Grade 36 steel: lbs saved 300 + (25 x cross sectional area of smaller flange (in)) Grade 50 and 50W steel: lbs saved 1.33 x (300 + (25 x cross sectional area of smaller flange (in))) When making flange plate size changes, the thicker plate shall not be greater than twice the thickness of the thinner plate. It is good practice not to change the sectional area of the flange plates by more than a factor of 2 or the width by more than 8 inches. Flange transitions shall be tapered 1 on 4 for width transitions and 1 on 2.5 for thickness transitions. It is usually preferred to transition thickness rather than width.

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8.4.2.4

Webs

It is recommended that webs of plate girders be at least O in thickness. Web thickness is varied only in unusual circumstances. It is the standard practice to keep web thickness constant throughout the length of the girder. This is done for uniformity and in keeping splice and connection details simpler. The main issue in economic web designs is whether or not to use stiffeners. It is usually the best choice to thicken webs sufficiently so that transverse stiffeners are not needed on girders under 48 in. depth. For girder webs above that depth, a good economic choice is usually to thicken the web sufficiently so that only a few transverse stiffeners are required in areas of high shear. Longitudinal stiffeners are rarely used and they become an option only with very large web depths. Designers should always check to see whether a stiffened or unstiffened web is more economical. Web thickness should be determined for both cases. The following guide can be used to help make the choice. It is economical to use the thicker web if the necessary thickness increase of the web does not exceed the amounts shown: Grade 36 steel: Increase in tw ((N(36 + WST) /41L) Grade 50 and 50W steel: Increase in tw ((N(28 + WST) /41L) where: t w = web thickness in inches N = number of stiffeners to be removed W st = weight in lb/linear ft. of one stiffener L = length of web in feet to be increased

8.4.2.5

Stability During Erection

Stability of structural steel during transportation and erection is the Contractors responsibility. However, designers must ensure that the structural steel can be erected without requiring extraordinary means of support. If the structure is designed using the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002, the designer must check the local buckling stress of the compression flange due to steel dead load only during erection procedures. The designer must assume the location of field splices, determine segment lengths, and analyze each segment using the buckling stress and factor of safety requirements given in Blue Page Article 10.34.7 of the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges2002. The stability of the spliced girder is the responsibility of the Contractor. If the calculated Factor of Safety against local compression buckling is less than 1.1, the designer shall increase the area of the compression flange or specify other means of temporary bracing.

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If the structure is designed using the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, splices are done by the designer and detailed in the Contract Plans. The girder segments must be checked according to the provisions of Blue Page Article 6.10.3.1.a (place Blue Page Note 1 or Note 2 on the plans). Detailed information on splice locations and maximum shipping lengths is provided in section 8.11.

8.4.3

Rolled Beams

Designers should check the economics of using rolled beams versus plate girders on short spans (under 100 ft.). Four alternatives in order of increasing fabrication cost should be considered. C C C C Rolled section Rolled section with cover plate on bottom flange Rolled section with cover plates on both top and bottom flanges Fabricated plate girder

Either of the first two alternatives may be more economical than a plate girder that uses less steel weight. Only in rare situations would the third alternative be cost effective because the total amount of time required to fabricate the beam would be comparable to that of a plate girder. Designers should not compare alternatives based on material weight savings alone. Rather, they should include potential savings achieved through the elimination of an operation during fabrication or through the elimination of field operations. When specifying Group 4 or Group 5 W-shapes, commonly referred to as jumbo shapes, the designer should check with the Metals Engineering Unit for availability of the shape. Generally, cover plates should be used only on simple span structures. Two options are available: C C Full-length cover plates. Partial length cover plates using the end bolted detail shown in Fig. 10.3.1C in the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges or Fig. 6.6.1.2.3-1 in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

When full-length cover plates are used, they shall be extended so that the end of the plate is a maximum distance of 12 inches from the centerline of bearings. The purpose of the limitations is to move the undesirable Category E fatigue detail to a region of low stress range. Full length cover plates shall be welded to the flanges as shown in Figure 8.1.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Figure 8.1 Cover Plate Connections

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Structural Steel

8.5

Metal Thicknesses

An effort should be made to design and detail steel plate in the following thicknesses:
3

16O 5 16 3 8 7 16

16 11 16 13 16

16 1 1 1 1 1

15

1 1 1 2 2 2

Over 2 use increments. Table 8-1 Steel Plate Thicknesses Structural steel, (including lateral bracing, cross frames, diaphragms and all types of gusset plates), except for the webs of certain rolled shapes, shall have a minimum thickness of 38O. The web thicknesses of rolled beams, channels and structural tees shall be a minimum of O. However, webs less than 38O may require special welding procedures. These minimum thicknesses are specified to insure adequate protection against potential loss of section from corrosion. In areas where the metal is exposed to marked corrosive influences, it should be increased in thickness or specially protected. Fill plates necessary to make connections are not subject to the 38O minimum thickness requirements. When plates are called out on the plans, their dimensions are called out in the following order: width x thickness x length.

8.6 8.6.1

Connections General

Connections are a very important part of any structural steel design. Good details are important for strength, serviceability and maintenance of the structure as well as for economical construction. Shop connections are usually designed as welded connections. Bolted connections are preferred in the field because automatic shop welding processes are often impractical in the field.

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8.6.2

Bolts

All bolted connections on bridge projects shall be designed as slip critical, with Class A surface conditions, unless otherwise approved by the D.C.E.S. Bolt lengths shall be such that threads are excluded from the shear planes in the connection. When individual bolts are shown in horizontal joints on the plans, they should be shown with the bolt head up.

8.6.2.1

Bolt Types

ASTM A325 high strength bolts are preferred. A490 bolts should be used only when necessary and require D.C.E.S. approval. Designers shall provide the following information on the contract plans for all structural steel connections: the design surface condition (Class A or B), the number of bolts, the bolt type, and the bolt diameter. Bolt types are as follows: C Non-Weathering steel applications (Shop applied zinc-rich primer) Mxx high-strength ASTM A325 (Type 1) or Mxx high-strength ASTM A325 (Type 1, hot dipped galvanized) Designers shall show both types of bolts on the contract plans. Choice is at Contractors discretion with only one type of bolt used per bridge. C C Weathering steel applications (Painted or Unpainted) Mxx high-strength ASTM A325 (Type 3) Galvanized steel applications Mxx high-strength ASTM A325 (Type 1, hot dipped galvanized)

8.6.2.2

Bolt Sizes

The normal size of high-strength bolts is 78 inch. An effort should be made to keep field bolts all the same size to avoid confusion. inch bolts shall not be used in members carrying calculated stress except in 2.5 inch legs of angles and in flanges of sections requiring inch fasteners. Structural shapes which do not permit the use of inch fasteners shall not be used except in handrails. The diameter of fasteners in angles carrying calculated stress shall not exceed the width of the angle leg in which they are placed. In angles whose size is not determined by calculated stress, inch fasteners may be used in 2 inch legs.

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Structural Steel

8.6.2.3

Bolt Spacing

Bolt spacing is not ordinarily shown on the contract plans. This detail is best left to the fabricator. The contract plans should show the number of bolts and be checked to assure that the connection can be fabricated. However, bolt spacing is required on all splice design drawings. The pitch of fasteners is the distance along the line of principal stress, in inches, between centers of adjacent fasteners, measured along one or more fastener lines. The gage of fasteners is the distance in inches between adjacent lines of fasteners or the distance from the back of angle or other shape to the first line of fasteners. The pitch of fasteners shall be governed by the requirements for sealing. See the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual for minimum bolt spacing and edge distances. Stitch bolts shall be used in mechanically fastened built up members where two or more plates or shapes are in contact. The pitch of these fasteners shall be as per NYSDOT LRFD Article 6.13.2.6.4 through 6.13.2.6.6.

8.6.3 8.6.3.1

Welding Weld Sizes

Intermediate stiffener and connection plate welds shall not exceed 516 in, unless required by design. The minimum flange to web fillet weld sizes shall be as per NYSDOT LRFD Article 6.13.3.4.

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8.6.3.2

Weld Detailing

When complete joint penetration groove (CJP) welds are called for, the only information that should ordinarily be shown on the plans is CJP in the tail of the welding callout. The joint configuration should not be called out. This is the responsibility of the fabricator to select and show on the shop drawings. Special finishing and contour can be shown if required. For T and corner joints designers shall show UT testing requirements on the contract plans. Partial joint penetration groove (PJP) welds are used only in special circumstances. They should be used only after consultation with the Metals Engineering Unit. Transversely loaded partial penetration groove welds shall not be used except as permitted in LRFD Article 9.8.3.7.2. Designers and detailers are referred to the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Steel Construction Manual, the American Welding Society publication D1.5, and the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual for information on the proper method of detailing welded joints.

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Structural Steel

8.6.4

Copes

Simple shear coped beam connections have a history of being vulnerable to fatigue cracking initiating at the cope, and should be avoided whenever possible. This is especially pertinent in floor beams and stringers of truss and thru girder spans. There are design situations, however, where coped connections cannot be avoided because of framing considerations. Two cases shall be considered for main/primary members: Case 1 Case 2 Cope depths < 6 inches: The minimum radius of the cope shall be 2 inches. Cope depths 6 inches: The minimum radius of the cope shall be 6 inches to reduce the stress concentration that may be present at a notch or tight radius cope. Cope depths greater than 6 inches shall be reinforced using a horizontal reinforcement plate welded on each side of the web within the limits of the cope. (See Figure 8.2) Designers may contact the Metals Engineering Unit for specific guidance when this situation arises.

Figure 8.2 Reinforced Cope Detail

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8.6.5

Connection Design

Connections shall be designed as slip-critical connections. Slip-critical connections are required in primary members because they carry live load. Diaphragms and laterals in curved-girder bridges carry live load and are primary members. Diaphragms in straight-girder bridges are secondary members. The NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual allows the use of oversize holes for secondary members. Oversize holes cannot be used in bearing-type connections, therefore the connections must be designed as slip critical. Where floor beams are connected directly to stiffeners, knee braces or connection plates, the floor beams shall not be coped. The flanges shall be cut and chipped to provide a smooth faying surface as shown in Figure 8.3.

Figure 8.3 Blocked Flange Detail Article 6.13.1 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications states that the end connections of diaphragms and cross frames shall be designed for the calculated member loads. It is not necessary to design the end connections of diaphragms and cross frames for 75% of their shear or axial capacity.

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Structural Steel

8.7 8.7.1

Stiffeners Bearing Stiffeners

Bearing stiffeners shall be a minimum of 34O thick and a minimum of 7O wide. Bearing stiffeners shall be placed parallel to the skew for skews 20 degrees, and normal to the web for skews >20 degrees. Bearing stiffener welds: C Bearing stiffeners shall be fillet welded to the top flange, fillet welded to the web, and either milled to bear and fillet welded or complete penetration groove-welded (C.P.G.W.) to the bottom flange. When welding directly to the tension flange, designers shall limit the fatigue stress to category CN.

The ends of all beams and girders and all bearing stiffeners shall be vertical after dead load deflection. When two pairs of bearing stiffeners are used for very large reactions, the stiffeners must be placed a sufficient distance apart to permit access to weld the stiffeners to the web. The spacing between stiffeners should be at least equal to their width.

8.7.2

Intermediate Stiffeners and Connection Plates

Intermediate stiffeners shall be a minimum of 38O thick and 4O wide. Connection plates for straight girder cross frames and diaphragms shall be a minimum of Othick and 7Owide. Connection plates for curved girder cross frames and diaphragms shall be a minimum of 916O thick and 7O wide. Connection plates also serve as intermediate stiffeners. Connection plates shall be placed parallel to the skew for skews 20 degrees, and normal to the web for skews >20 degrees. Transverse intermediate stiffeners that are not connection plates shall be placed normal to the web. On fascia girders, intermediate stiffeners shall be placed on the side of the web which is not exposed to view. On interior girders, they shall be located on alternate sides of the web, except where they are used in conjunction with a longitudinal stiffener on the other side. Intermediate stiffener welds: C Intermediate stiffeners shall be fillet welded to both flanges and the web.

Connection plate welds: C Straight girders with skews 30 degrees: Connection plates shall be fillet welded to both flanges and the web.

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C C

Curved girders and straight girders with skews >30 degrees: Connection plates shall be fillet welded to the top flange, fillet welded to the web, and tight fit to the bottom flange. When welding directly to the tension flange, designers shall limit the fatigue stress range to category CN.

8.7.3

Longitudinal Stiffeners

Use of longitudinal stiffeners should be avoided whenever possible. Generally, longitudinal stiffeners shall be continuous for their entire length, with intermediate transverse stiffeners and connection plates cut short to avoid intersecting welds. When longitudinal stiffeners are required, show them placed on one side of the web only. On fascia girders they shall be placed on the web surface exposed to view. The intermediate transverse stiffeners, if necessary, shall be placed on the opposite side of the web. The longitudinal stiffeners shall be attached to the web plate with full-length, continuous, 516O fillet welds. Fabrication details including transverse connection plate and longitudinal stiffenerintersection details shall be in accordance with the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual.

8.8

Designation of Tension Zones

The Contract Plans shall clearly indicate the limits of tensile stress on each flange of all continuous steel girders. This will facilitate control of materials and welding inspection during fabrication and erection, as specified in the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual. This requirement shall apply to reconstruction projects which require new deck slabs, as well as to new structures. A sufficiently accurate approximation of the point of combined load contraflexure may be obtained from moment diagrams alone. Using the moment tables shown on the plans, the designer can total dead load moment, superimposed dead load moment, and the appropriate live load moment at incremental points along the girder. The point where zero combined moment occurs can be found by interpolation. This point will reasonably represent the end of a tension zone and shall be shown as such on the plans. If stress calculations are available, stresses may be used instead of moments. Designers need not calculate stresses for this purpose alone. The moment diagram method produces a conservative estimate of the tension zone limits. Stress calculations improve on this estimate by factoring in the effect of differing section moduli. However, actual loadings and section moduli may vary from the assumed values. Where tension zones terminate less than 10 ft. beyond the dead load point of contraflexure, the distance of 10 ft. shall be shown. The actual distance computed shall be shown for distances greater than 10 ft.

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Structural Steel

8.9

Camber

Design cambers include: structural steel dead load, concrete dead load, superimposed dead load, vertical curve, and total of the above. The dead load from a future wearing surface shall be included in the determination of camber. When cambers vary between girders due to differing concrete slab loads, concrete placement sequence, or stage construction issues, they shall be shown separately in the table. A camber table and camber diagram shall be shown on the plans. See the current structural steel Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets for details. If a steel member is designed with no camber, a note shall be placed on the plans instructing the fabricator to place the mill camber up.

8.9.1

Sag Camber

By definition, a girder is said to have sag (or negative) camber if any portion of the curve formed by the top of web in the completed structure falls below a working line constructed through the top of web points at the girder ends. Note that all intermediate support points are ignored when applying the above definition. The designer's attention is directed to the fact that sag camber can be introduced into a girder from superstructure geometry other than from a sag vertical curve. These other conditions include any superstructure (straight or curved) in which a superelevation transition length occurs within the span, or a horizontally curved superstructure supported on straight girders. Girders with sag cambers are to be avoided because their unstable appearance is aesthetically objectionable. An exception to this policy may be made when the under feature of the structure is a waterway. This exception recognizes a reduced concern for aesthetics. Designers may find that approved geometrics for a bridge project have not considered the Office of Structures policy regarding sag cambers. If this condition exists, the Designer shall use the following guidelines to minimize the effect or eliminate, when possible, designing a sag cambered superstructure. 1. Investigate the possibility of revising the geometrics (i.e., modifying or relocating the sag vertical curve and/or modifying or relocating the superelevation transition off the superstructure). In those cases where a deeper haunch is required, the 8O reinforced haunch should be used in conjunction with a sag camber. 2. If a revision of the geometrics is not possible, a variable haunch shall be introduced to eliminate the need for the sag camber. The depth of haunch for this purpose shall be limited to a nominal 8O.

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8.10

Moment, Shear and Design Load Tables

A table showing moment, shear, and design loads shall be provided on the plans. See the current structural steel BD sheets for details. Moments and shears shall be given at the same intervals as the camber table. Moments and shears for AASHTO HL 93 and the NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle need to be shown separately.

8.11 8.11.1

Splices Girder Splices

Girder details for all LRFD projects with spans of more than 140 feet or where a splice is otherwise required shall be prepared with field splice locations and splice design details shown on the plans. Details and location access constraints control the erection procedure. However, designers must always assure themselves that girders can be field spliced following the criteria shown in this section. In the design of long stringers and girders, simple or continuous, straight or curved, consideration should be given to the need for field splices. Bolted field splices are preferred over welded field splices, because of substantial savings in time and money. Fill plates are not allowed. Except for those cases where it is obvious that no field splice will be required (span lengths less than 130 ft. for straight or large radius curved members), the flanges should have sufficient excess area at points where splicing is anticipated to permit a bolted splice to be made. Splice locations are generally selected near points of dead load contraflexure and where there is sufficient flange area to permit hole drilling while still maintaining the required net area. DESIGN General Practice For simple spans or continuous spans where the total girder is less than 140 ft. in length, the girder may be assumed to be erected as a single segment and no splice design will be necessary. For simple spans greater than 140 ft. in length, the preferred location for the splice, based on load considerations only, is at the one-third point. For continuous spans greater than 140 ft. in length, the preferred location for the splice, based on load considerations only, is near the dead load contraflexure point. Note that on longer structures the points of dead load contraflexure can be greater than 140 ft. apart, in which case the preferred locations would be where the size of the splice and number of bolts is minimized.

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Structural Steel

Additional constraints on splice location include the following: C C C C C The minimum distance from a flange plate transition groove weld to the nearest flange splice bolt hole or lateral gusset plate bolt hole is 12 inches The centerline of field splice shall be located >5 feet from a flange plate transition groove weld. The minimum distance from a lateral gusset plate to the end of a flange splice plate is 6 inches. The minimum distance from a stiffener or connection plate to the end of a flange splice plate is 12 inches. The minimum distance from a stiffener or connection plate to a groove welded splice in either the flange or web is 6 inches.

As is current practice, the compression flange must be designed considering the steel dead load acting on the unbraced length (before diaphragms are attached). Refer to Section 8.4.2.5 for requirements for stability of the structural steel during transportation and erection. It is preferable to group the design of the splices at any splice location by designing all splices using the heaviest section or greatest moment rather than vary the splice designs across the structure. This avoids confusion and possible construction problems, and should provide the most economical solution. In addition, it is preferable to have one design for all splice locations rather than having a different design at each splice point. Vertical Clearance When locating the splice, the designer shall consider the effect of the splice on vertical clearance. Vertical clearance at the splice location will be reduced by the bottom flange splice plate, washer, nut and free end of bolt (see AISC table titled Entering and Tightening Clearances). If the splice affects minimum or critical vertical clearance, the designer shall show the revised minimum or critical vertical clearance on the plans. Vertical clearance issues may control the location of splices. Erection Erected and spliced segments must be statically stable. Depending on the span arrangement, this may require the use of falsework or splicing of the girder on the ground. Note that when a girder is spliced on the ground the unbraced compression flange length may increase. The girder must be stable during all phases of erection and construction. Structures which are difficult to erect (e.g., tub girders, long simple spans) should show a suggested method of steel erection in the Contract Plans. This is required because the Contractor is responsible only for additional stresses caused by their erection scheme, and the Contractor may assume the simplest erection method possible if none is shown on the plans.

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Falsework A generalized falsework schematic should be shown on the plans when it is required for stability of the compression flange or stability of the structure. When falsework is required, the designer must get approvals from the appropriate agencies. The Rail Unit, Real Estate or Highway Design (for Temporary Traffic Control) may typically need to be contacted. Railroads will not allow falsework within the track zone and also may not allow any splices above the tracks. Maintenance and Protection of Traffic issues may also control the location or use of falsework. Design of the falsework is the responsibility of the Contractor, subject to the approval of the D.C.E.S. Shipping The maximum shipping length is 140 ft. based on permitting and geometric limitations. The maximum girder depth is typically 14.0 ft., although depths up to 16 ft. may be used in special circumstances with the approval of the Metals Engineering Unit. The issue of special hauling permits is typically handled by the fabricator and is controlled by weight of the girder segment and the configuration of the truck and trailer used. The maximum shipping weight of a segment is 100 tons. Cranes For typical structures, the designer may assume the maximum single crane pick is 100 tons. Nearly all structures constructed for the Department are erected by a single crane of this type. For structures which require larger or multiple cranes to erect, contact the Metals Engineering Unit for assistance. When splicing needs to be done before erection it should be noted on the plans so the Contractor is aware of the possible need for a larger (or multiple) crane(s) at bidding. Additional Items A High-Performance-Steel simple span may be long enough to require the use of two field splices. Falsework up to 16 ft. in height may be assumed to cost $5,000 per location for typical 40 to 50 feet wide structures. It is preferable to avoid the cost of these temporary structures and strengthen the compression flanges if the cost is similar. Fracture-Critical Members shall have splice plates constructed from Fracture-Critical material. Design Calculations Bolted designs shall use ASTM A325 bolts only. Bolts should be designed as per the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications and the NYSDOT Steel Construction Manual (SCM). Bolts must be designed both for strength and for slip-critical loading using Class A surface conditions unless otherwise approved by the D.C.E.S. Bolt lengths shall be such that threads are excluded from the shear planes in the connection. Designers should reference NYSDOT SCM-Section 2 on bolting and splices (including fill plates, as appropriate). Use 7/8 inch bolts for typical girder splices. Unusual structures may require a larger bolt size.

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Structural Steel

Refer to the American Institute of Steel Construction Table titled Entering and Tightening Clearances and to Section 8.6.2 of this manual for a discussion of bolted connections. Computer Programs AISIsplice is the recommended program for splice design. For questions involving this program contact the Structures IT Systems Unit or Metals Engineering Unit. AISIsplice has the following limitations: C C C C C C It is limited to straight steel I-girders. It will not design hybrid splices, girders must be homogeneous. Flanges should be parallel at the location of the splice (do not locate the splice at a location the web depth is varying). Bolt patterns are limited to constant pitch, nonstaggered patterns. The program designs only symmetric splices, which may not be the most cost effective. The program may calculate section properties of the concrete deck slab incorrectly when the top flange of the girder is embedded into the slab.

Currently the department has no software which can design curved girder, tub girder, hybrid or box section splices. Contact the D.C.E.S. when designing splices for these types of girders. Estimate The splices should be paid for under the appropriate items. No additional weight calculations are necessary for typical structures, as the typical 3% accounts for the splice plates and bolts.

8.11.2

Rolled Beam Splices

When rolled beams are used for continuous structures, the field splices should be located in areas where no cover plates are required and consideration should be given to the fact that the fatigue strength of the section adjacent to the bolted connection (Category B*) is less than the fatigue strength of the base metal in areas where there is no splice (Category A*). * See Article 6.6.1.2 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or Article10.3.1 of the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

8.12

Framing Plans

Typical framing plans for steel structures are shown in the current structural steel BD sheets. Diaphragms shall be placed parallel to the skew angle for skews 20 and less. Diaphragms shall be placed perpendicular to the girders for skews over 20.

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8.13

Curved Girders

Diaphragms in curved girder structures are primary members and designed to carry dead and live load. Except for end diaphragms they should be placed radial to the girder in a single line across the bridge. A diaphragm should not be placed along the line of support at an interior skewed support. Curved girders have special diaphragm and lateral details that are shown on the current structural steel BD sheets. Curved girders that are designed as straight girders because their curvature does not exceed the limitation contained in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications still need special provisions for design and detailing. These girders must also use the diaphragm and lateral connections details for curved-girder bridges, with the exception that Type 3 (X-shaped) diaphragms in interior bays do not need a top strut.

8.14

Trusses

It is important to coordinate with the Metals Engineering Unit of the Office of Structures early in the design phase of a truss project to assure that fabrication concerns are addressed.

8.14.1

General Considerations

Trusses are a viable structural form when there are clearance restrictions on beam depth that would preclude the use of girder spans. Trusses also become an economic option when span lengths are long enough to make plate girders impractical. Trusses are a very efficient structural form in the use of material, however their complex fabrication tends to make them costly. They are also usually nonredundant structures which leads to special design considerations. A modified Warren truss (incorporates verticals) is usually appropriate for most highway bridge applications, although other truss forms can be considered. Skewed trusses should be avoided if possible. The skew makes fabrication difficult and costly and introduces out of plane bending problems to the structure. Small skew angles can often be eliminated by a small increase in the span length. End portals and sway bracing should be placed a minimum of 16N-6O clear above the roadway surface (includes usable shoulder), regardless of minimum vertical clearance requirements for that highway classification. It is desirable to keep sidewalks inside the trusses rather than placing them on outside cantilevers. A vertical faced concrete parapet should be used between a sidewalk and the truss. This provides more lateral stability to the structure and keeps traffic and road salts away from critical members. Adequate clearance should be maintained between the concrete barrier or parapet and the truss to accommodate formwork. When a metal railing system is used on bridge rehabilitation projects with concrete decks, it is preferred that the system be anchored in the deck and not attached to the truss elements. Consideration should be given to providing a clear zone to accommodate lateral deflection of the railing system. 8-26 January 2008

Structural Steel

Weathering steel is recommended for trusses because of its superior toughness. See Section 8.2.3 for painting guidelines. Galvanized steel may also be an option for trusses.

8.14.2

Truss Design Guidelines

Geometry: Truss and member proportions should follow the guidelines provided in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges. Sections: Designers should keep variations in member shapes and sizes to a minimum. To achieve this objective, it is often desirable to establish a constant out-to-out dimension for all chord members. Based on past experience, it is frequently more cost effective to use fabricated members than rolled sections because of their tighter tolerances. Rolled sections may vary for tilt and in-out by more than 316 in. and sometimes require further work to bring them into the necessary tolerances. Designers should use closed box sections for bottom chords whenever possible. Although closed box sections are more expensive to fabricate, they eliminate the long term maintenance and durability concerns associated with H-shaped sections. H-shape sections tend to trap debris and moisture. Framing: The floor system framing of trusses should be designed as simply supported although it is recognized that some negative end moments can and probably will develop. This should be considered when designing fatigue resistant details. Stringers should be framed from floorbeam to floorbeam. Stringers that run continuously over the tops of floorbeams have led to uplift and fatigue problems. Additionally, consideration should be given to framing stringers below the plane of the floorbeam top flange to eliminate the cope at the top of the stringer. Internal Diaphragms: Designers shall include internal diaphragms within fabricated closed box chord sections. These diaphragms are to be located at panel points, and elsewhere where required by design. Camber: Because the steel fabrication industry prefers assembling trusses in a fully cambered position, (i.e.: member lengths adjusted for deadload and vertical curve cambers), designers are advised to evaluate the secondary force effects which will arise when the truss is fabricated in this fashion. It should be noted however, that these secondary force effects are generally minor when the truss proportions follow the guidelines provided in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications or the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.

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Gusset Plates Design guidance for gusset plates can be found in Structure Design Advisory 08-001 (LRFD) and load rating guidance can be found in Technical Advisory 09-001 (LFD)

8.14.3

Truss Detailing Guidelines

Floor beam to truss connections should be blocked and never coped. Details should be used that allow accessibility to make field bolted connections. Hand holes in the bottoms of closed box sections will be needed for erection purposes. These holes shall be protected with screening to prevent roosting birds from entering. Details that allow accessibility for cleaning and high pressure washing are desirable. Fill plates in bolted connections are sometimes necessary. Fillers greater than or equal to thick shall be designed in accordance with Section 6.13.6.1.5 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Use Category C or better welded fatigue details on all fracture critical members. Internal diaphragms on closed box sections should be detailed as being fillet welded to three sides, and tight fit to the fourth. Designers shall include the following information on the contract plans, to facilitate the quality assurance review of the steel fabrication drawings: C C C Table of Fracture Critical Members Table of LRFD Member Forces: DC1, DC2, DW, LL + Impact (AASHTO HL-93 and NYSDOT Permit Vehicle) Truss Camber Diagram: Provide the lengths members must be lengthened or shortened to compensate for dead load and vertical camber. Dimensions provided should include total unfactored deadload (DC1 + DC2 + DW) and vertical curve camber. Truss Working Lines Diagram: Provide member lengths (with horizontal components adjusted for grades greater than 3%), and offsets to datum for grade.

8.15 8.15.1

Miscellaneous Details Bolsters

Bolsters are steel supports placed beneath the girder and above the bearing. They are typically used at piers when two spans have different depths. In new construction it is almost always preferable to step the concrete of the cap beam or pedestal instead of using bolsters. For aesthetic reasons it may be appropriate to investigate alternative designs that would not have adjacent spans with different girder depths. (See Section 23.)

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Structural Steel

When bolsters are used, they must be carefully designed and detailed. Two types of bolsters are available, based on their aspect ratios. C C Low bolster, A/B <1 High bolster, A/B 1 Use rolled section, See Figure 8.4 Use fabricated section, See figure 8.5

Bearing stiffeners on bolsters should meet the same design, detailing and fabrication requirements as bearing stiffeners on girders.

Note: weld sizes shown are minimums

Figure 8.4 Low Bolster Detail and Section A-A

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Note: weld sizes shown are minimums

Figure 8.5 High Bolster Detail

Bolsters shall be paid for separately under Item 564.70, Structural Steel Replacement. They are not included in the bearing item in order to assure that the steel fabrication is performed in the proper manner.

8.15.2

Safety Handrail

Safety handrails for use during bridge inspections shall be used on girders having a web depth of 5 ft. or greater. They should be used on both sides of interior girders and on the inside of fascia girders. Details of field-erected and shop-erected handrails are available on current BD sheets. Cost of handrails shall be included in the unit prices bid for the structural steel.

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8.16 8.16.1

Railroad Structures General Considerations

Railroad structures are commonly 2 or 3 girder structures that contain fracture critical elements. Contract plans shall include: C C C A listing of all primary/main members. Tension zones defined for floor-beams and girders A table of all fracture critical members.

8.16.2

Design

Design of railroad structures shall be in accordance with current A.R.E.M.A. specifications.

8.16.3

Details

The purpose of knee brackets is to brace the compression flange of through girders and support the ballast curb plate. The flanges of the knee brackets should not be interrupted by notching to accommodate the curb plates. Although this will cause the cover plates to be installed in multiple segments, the integrity of the knee bracket outweighs the ease of installation issue. Curb plates should be notched to fit around stiffeners and girder web attachments as needed. The curb and cover plate needs to be contiguous to protect the membrane system. Curb plates shall be bolted to knee braces and the girder web using clip angles. Welding should only be considered where access is a problem. Unless alternatives are impractical, curb plates should not be welded to the intermediate stiffeners. The deck plate may be welded to the curb plate. The knee bracket must be cut short to allow for the attachment of the curb plate to the deck plate. The deck plate needs to be installed under the knee bracket during construction. This leaves a gap underneath the knee bracket to allow the deck plate to be installed. The curb plate is configured to have a v-groove joint at the junction of the curb and deck that can be welded with a partial penetration grove weld in the field.

8.17

Movable Bridges

Design of projects of this complexity requires special consideration. Early involvement with the Metals Engineering Unit is highly recommended. A very different set of criterion must be followed on moveable structures, such as bascule or post-lift bridges. Specifically the nondestructive testing requirements for the machine parts, etc., for the electrical and mechanical portions of the bridge must be clearly defined on the contract plans. Additionally there may be stair wells, hatches, and other appurtenances that should be detailed and shown with the proper steel payment item on the contract plans.

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Contract plans should also include: Identification of main members and/ or tension components Identification of the tension or reversal zones. Listing of fracture critical members or members that must meet minimum toughness (CVN) requirements i.e. bascule lateral bracing or edge beams. Special Non-destructive testing requirements.

Designers should consult the AASHTO LRFD Movable Highway Bridge Design Specifications.

8.18 8.18.1

Pedestrian Bridges General

Pedestrian bridges may be detailed as I-beams, box girders or a prefabricated truss. I-beam or box girder pedestrian bridges should be completely designed and detailed in the contract plans. Prefabricated truss pedestrian bridges require a different approach because they are designed by the manufacturer after the contract has been awarded. See Section 2.6.4 for loading requirements. The contract documents must provide sufficient details so the manufacturer can supply the intended type of structure. Discussions with the owner should include any project specific aesthetic or architectural treatments required. The Regional Landscape Group can provide guidance on aesthetic or architectural treatments choices and any special requirements from the Americans with Disability Act (ADA). While the designer must provide the manufacturer with enough information so that an accurate bid can be prepared, the designer must also recognize that unnecessary restrictions may result in excessively high bids. Only specify those specific requirements absolutely necessary for the bridge to meet the projects safety, aesthetic and structural requirements.

8.18.2

Design Guidelines

The designer should follow the considerations and guidelines for trusses in Section 8.14. While Section 8.14 is intended for highway trusses, designer should review it for application to pedestrian trusses. Skewed supports should be avoided for prefabricated trusses. Grades greater than 5% should be avoided on pedestrian bridges because it involves additional ADA requirements.

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8.18.3

Detailing Guidelines

If a particular type of truss is required it must be clearly indicated in the contract plans. The truss types typically used are Warren, Pratt, Bowstring and Howe. Designers should indicate all acceptable truss types in the contract documents. For additional information see the following section on truss member styles. Deck joint and accessory details should be indicated but full details should not be shown, as they are included as part of the proprietary bridge superstructure. Bearings need to be shown on the plans but not detailed because they are designed by the contractors engineer in accordance with the pedestrian bridge specification. Truss Member Style: Top chords: The top chords may be sloped or horizontal. Trusses with sloping top chords or lenticular configurations are often preferred based on aesthetic considerations. Verticals: The locations of vertical members must be indicated on the contract plans, if required. Overhead/portal bracing: Overhead/portal bracing details must be shown if allowed or required. If overhead/portal bracing details are not allowed that must also be clearly indicated on the plans. If overhead bracing is allowed vertical clearance requirements shall be shown. Standard vertical clearances can be found in Section 2. Camber: The required camber shall be indicated in the contract plans for non-prefabricated bridges. For prefabricated bridges the camber is the responsibility of the fabricator. However, the designer should indicate desired final appearance of bottom chord (e.g., flat or follow profile) for aesthetic reasons. Finish: The required finish of the steel shall be indicated on the contract plans. Finish options include painted, weathered, or galvanized steel. When steel is to be painted, the required color must be indicated in the contract documents Weathering steel should be specified in accordance with the guidelines provided in Section 8.2.1. Weathering steel tubes shall not be specified when the bridge is expected to remain open during the winter months and will be salted. Deck Type: The type and specific details of decking are required on the contract plans. The designer may choose from many types of decking including concrete, timber (glulam), steel grating, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), or plastic (pvc or composite). Timber shall not be placed directly on weathering steel.

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The recommended minimum depth for a concrete deck is 6. Width Requirements/Guidelines: Horizontal clearance requirements shall be indicated on the contract plans, i.e. clear width between trusses/railing/curbing etc. Deck widths should generally be greater than span/22 when overhead bracing is not allowed and span/30 when overhead bracing is allowed. A minimum clear width of 10 feet is recommended for passage of emergency vehicles. Deck widths for prefabricated structures greater than 14 feet should be avoided, as they require a longitudinal splice in the bridge for shipment. Railing/Protective System: Indicate railing height, material type (steel tube or wood) and type of finish. Provide details for Horizontal safety rails, vertical pickets and protective fencing if required. When fencing is required provide: height, type (galvanized or epoxy-coated), color and maximum opening. Indicate minimum 5 toe rails located no more than 2 above the deck. Provide ADA compliant handrail when grade exceeds 5%. Indicate end treatment and approach railing types. Truss Accessories: Bollards, ramps, stairs, lighting, signing, and utility hangers are examples of items that can be provided on a pedestrian bridge. Specific details that are required must be shown on the contract plans and the item(s) under which they are to be paid must be indicated. Bollards should be used to limit vehicular traffic.

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Section 9 Prestressed Concrete


9.1 Introduction

Concrete is approximately ten times stronger in compression than in tension. Typical reinforced concrete design assumes that concrete under tensile loads will crack, and steel reinforcing bars are used to carry the tensile forces. Prestressed concrete design, on the other hand, applies compressive force to the anticipated tension zones of the concrete member by using pretensioned or post-tensioned, high-strength steel strands. When properly designed, tension in the member under service loads is reduced or eliminated and concrete cracking is reduced. Precast concrete members are especially advantageous in situations where quick erection is desired. Precast concrete members are fabricated year-round and can be delivered, erected, and put into service in a very short time. All prestressed concrete beams are produced using high strength, high performance concrete. The corrosion resistance of the prestressed beams is further enhanced by the addition of 5 gal/cubic yd. of 30% calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor and two coats of silane sealers. These beams are expected to provide long, maintenance-free service. A number of prestressed concrete bridge types are used in New York. Although adjacent box beams are the most commonly used, designs using I-beams and bulb-tee sections are also becoming common.

9.1.1

Pretensioning

Pretensioning a concrete member is accomplished by tensioning prestressing strands to the required tensile stress using external jacks and anchors, casting the concrete member around the tensioned strands and, releasing the external strand anchors after the concrete has achieved the required minimum strength. Precompression is induced by the transfer of force through the bond between the prestressing strands and concrete.

9.1.2

Post-Tensioning

Post-tensioning a concrete member is accomplished by tensioning unbonded prestressing strands using an external jack on one end of the member and an anchor placed directly against the hardened concrete on the other end. The strands are typically internal to the member, but may be placed externally. A second anchor is secured against the member and the jacking force is released to transfer the load into the member as a precompression force.

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9.2

Adjacent Prestressed Units

The three types of prestressed members that are used for adjacent prestressed unit superstructures are solid slab units, voided slab units, and box beams. The design concept for these types of units is identical and the only differences between them are the member depth, shape of the voids (if any), and the casting procedure. Adjacent prestressed concrete slab units and box beams are especially appropriate at stream crossings having limited freeboard because they provide a continuous flat surface along the bottom of the superstructure that prevents debris from becoming trapped under the bridge and impeding the hydraulic flow. In addition, their relatively shallow depth provides greater clearance than spread beam types of superstructures.

9.2.1

Unit Width

Standard box beam and slab units are available in widths of 4 ft. and 3 ft. Designs that use the fewest number of beams for a given superstructure will achieve the greatest economy in fabrication, shipping, and erection costs. Therefore, even if it results in a wider superstructure than is actually required, an adjacent precast concrete unit superstructure should be made exclusively out of 4 ft. wide units. A combination of 4 ft. and 3 ft. wide units may be selected if the required construction staging sequence or other constraint prevents the exclusive use of 4 ft. units. Configurations involving a single 3 ft. unit mixed with 4 ft. units are inefficient to fabricate and should be avoided. The overall beam deck width shall be shown on the contract plans. 4 ft. wide units should be used for the fascia beams to provide adequate space for the placement of the bottom railing anchor plates or concrete barrier reinforcing bars. This is especially important for alignments requiring curved railing or barrier.

9.2.2

Unit Depth

Typical prestressed sections are shown on the BD sheets. For multi-span bridges, a constant unit depth is preferable across all of the spans since variable depth units are difficult and expensive to construct.

9.2.3

Deck Overhangs

Overhangs on the reinforced deck of adjacent prestressed units shall be a minimum of 4Oand a maximum of 6O. Overhangs less than 4O require approval of the D.C.E.S. Overhangs greater than 6O are not allowed. The bottom of the overhang shall slope to drain away from the beam so that chloride-laden runoff water will not run down the side of the beam.

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9.2.4

Longitudinal Joints

The standard longitudinal joint size between adjacent prestressed units shall be a minimum of Oand a maximum of 114Oat the bottom. The use of larger joints requires approval of the D.C.E.S. Joints between stages of stage construction shall follow the details shown on the BD sheets.

9.2.5

Skew

The designer should make every reasonable effort to reduce or eliminate bridge skew. This may require early discussions with highway design personnel. The maximum allowable skew angle for a bridge using box or slab units is 50. Larger skews require approval of the D.C.E.S.

9.2.6

Diaphragms and Transverse Tendons

Internal diaphragms in adjacent precast concrete units shall be positioned parallel to the skew and have a minimum width of 1N-2O. Transverse tendons shall also be placed parallel to the skew of the unit and be placed as close to the middepth of the section as possible. Each transverse tendon consists of three O diameter low relaxation strands tensioned to 28,000 lb. per strand. Transverse tendons are tensioned after the shear keys have been grouted and before the deck slab has been placed. Internal diaphragms and transverse tendons within precast units shall be spaced as follows: C For span lengths less than 50 ft., a total of three transverse tendon locations are required. One group of tendons is located at each end of the unit approximately 7O from the centerline of bearings and another group of tendons is located at the centerline of the span. For spans greater than or equal to 50 ft., a total of five tendon locations are required: one group of tendons at each end approximately 7O from the centerline of bearings, one group of tendons at the centerline of the span, and one group of tendons midway between each end group and the centerline of the span. For stage construction placing of transverse tendons and diaphragms shall be as shown on the appropriate BD sheets.

The transverse tendon holes in all units and the transverse tendon blockout on the fascia units should be checked to ensure that they do not interfere with either the longitudinal prestressing strands or bar reinforcement.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

9.3

Spread Precast Concrete Beam Superstructures

Although a spread precast concrete beam superstructure requires a thicker concrete deck with heavier reinforcement and the necessary form work for the deck placements, the reduced number of beams used per span may prove economical for spans greater than 100 ft. In addition, bridge superstructures utilizing spread concrete beams have some advantages over adjacent precast concrete unit superstructures: C C C Spread beams have open bays to accommodate utilities when required. Spread beams can accommodate field adjustments due to variations in camber and/or camber growth, especially for staged construction. Spread beams are better suited to handle large deck cross slopes and curved alignments.

9.3.1

Spread Prestressed Box Beams

The provisions of Section 9.2 of this manual shall apply except as specifically noted below: C C Only 4 ft. wide box units should be used. Alternate widths require approval by the D.C.E.S. For spread box units, external diaphragms shall be placed as follows: End diaphragms are always required. No intermediate diaphragms are required for spans up to 65 ft. One intermediate diaphragm is required at midspan in spans over 65 feet and up to 100 feet. The external and internal diaphragms at midspan must be on the same line. It is not anticipated that spread boxes will be used over 100 feet. I-girders should be used for spans over 100 feet. C Contract plans and beam details shall show provision for attaching reinforcement in cast-in-place or precast concrete diaphragms to the spread box beams.

9.3.2

Prestressed I-Girders

The preferred I-Girder shape is the Bulb-Tee. C The framing plan for prestressed I-girders shall be as shown on the appropriate BD sheets. Contract plans shall normally show only galvanized steel diaphragms. The contractor shall be allowed to substitute cast-in-place diaphragms or precast concrete diaphragms as options. Occasionally, the designer may require concrete diaphragms because of site specific conditions. The cost of diaphragms shall be included in the cost of the beams. All inserts for diaphragm connections adjacent to a deck joint shall be stainless steel.

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Prestressed Concrete

No intermediate diaphragms are required for spans up to 65 ft. Midspan diaphragms are required for spans greater than 65 ft., and up to 100 ft. Spans greater than 100 ft. require diaphragms at the third points. For superstructures with cross slope greater than 4%, AASHTO I-beams should be considered. These shapes have narrower top flanges, which will eliminate the need for large haunches.

9.4

Segmental Precast Box Girders

Segmental precast box girder superstructures may be viable and economical alternates for the following type of structures:

9.4.1

Long Multi-Span Bridges

Segmental precast box girders are well suited for long multi-span bridges on straight or slightly curved alignments in locations where Temporary Traffic Control issues and/or environmental concerns require that field work be minimized. Repeated use of an erection set up for the box girder segments is the main advantage. The Span-by-Span method of erection is generally used for these bridges.

9.4.2

Long Span Bridge on High Curvatures

Segmental precast box girders are well suited to accommodate high curvatures on long spans due to their high torsional stability. The balanced cantilever method of erection is generally used for these bridges.

9.4.3

Aesthetics

When long open spans with clean visual lines are desired, segmental precast box girder superstructures are a good solution. Haunching of the segmental girders to improve the visual impact and structural efficiency is possible with this type of superstructure.

9.4.4

Durability

The expected durability of segmental box girder bridges is relatively high. Segmental precast box girder bridges utilize post-tensioning in both the longitudinal and transverse directions to be free of tensile cracks. This results in an expected substantial increase in the durability of the overall structure. However, there are areas of vulnerability unique to this type of bridge. 1. Since the deck slab is an integral part of the box girder system, the complete replacement of the bridge deck is nearly impossible. To reduce this risk, the structure should be designed so there is no tensile stress at the top surface of the segment under service load conditions both including and excluding time dependent effects.

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2. Deck run-off should not be allowed to flow over the grouted block-outs for tendon anchorages. When end anchorages are located in vulnerable areas, such as beneath a deck expansion joint, additional protective measures shall be provided. Post-tensioning ducts within the deck shall be polyethylene. Fabrication and erection of these structures shall be as per the Prestressed Concrete Construction Manual (PCCM).

9.5

Bearings for Prestressed Concrete Structures

All new prestressed concrete superstructure designs, with the exception of those using integral abutments, require elastomeric bearings of sufficient thickness to ensure that the bottom of the prestressed unit will be above the bridge seat a minimum of for box beams and for slab units. Cement mortar pads shall not be placed under the bearings. For rehabilitation projects that require mortar pad replacement, the designer should choose one of the following alternatives: C C C Replace the existing elastomeric bearings and mortar pads with thicker elastomeric bearings. Replace the mortar pad with a galvanized steel plate of equivalent thickness. Step the bridge seat or pedestal to an elevation sufficient to provide the necessary clearance (This option will normally require the use of Class DP Concrete, as specified in Section 582 of the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials).

When choosing an appropriate alternative, the designer should strive for the most cost effective solution. Bearings must be placed perpendicular to the centerline of the unit. The bearing width, at a minimum, must be the width of the unit measured perpendicular to the centerline of the unit. When the height difference across the width of the bearing due to camber and grade is in excess of the limitations set in the design specifications, then a tapered bearing (for adjacent box or slab units) or a constant thickness bearing with a tapered sole plate (for Bulb Tees and AASHTO I-beams) matching the required slope must be used.

9.6

Concrete Strength

High-Performance Concrete shall be the standard concrete for prestressed bridge elements. The minimum concrete strength fNcN for prestressed concrete bridge beams shall be 10 ksi. The concrete strength at transfer fNci can be taken as 0.7fcN unless the designer determines a higher transfer strength is necessary.

9.7

Prestressing Strand Type

Only 270ksi Low-Relaxation Prestressing Steel Strand shall be used. The standard diameter used by NYSDOT is 0.6 inch. Other diameters are available, but may only be used with

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Prestressed Concrete

approval of the D.C.E.S. Strength requirements and areas for the strand are available in ASTM A416.

9.8 9.8.1

Strand Pattern for Pretensioned Elements Precast Box and Slab Units

A 2O x 2O center to center grid pattern shall be used for the prestressing strands in prestressed concrete beams. Strands shall not be placed within 2O of the centerline of the beam to provide room for the anchor dowel holes at the end of the beam. Strands shall not be placed such that they will conflict with the transverse tendons or tendon recesses. For additional information, see the appropriate BD sheet. Prestressing strands shall be distributed evenly across a row to achieve uniform pretensioning in the end zones. Clustering of strands in the bottom corners of beams should be avoided as the uneven stresses can cause distortions to the beam. This is especially critical in longer beams with large skews.

9.8.2

Precast I-Girders

Prestressing strands are arranged in a 2O x 2O grid pattern as shown on the appropriate BD sheet. Prestressing strands shall be distributed evenly across a row to achieve uniform pretensioning in the end zones.

9.9

Tensile Stresses Due to Pretensioning

If higher than allowable tensile stresses are encountered during the design of prestressed members (usually at the top surface of the beam ends) the following design modifications are suggested in the order of preference: 1. Rearrange the strand pattern, including addition of strands near the surface exhibiting excessive tension. In general, four fully tensioned strands is a reasonable maximum number of strands to be placed near the tension surface for slab units. For box units, six is a reasonable maximum. For Bulb Tees and AASHTO I-Beams, 20% of the total number of strands (not including draped strands) is a reasonable maximum. In all cases, engineering judgment is required. 2. Drape strands for I-Girders (Bulb Tees and AASHTO I-beams). Note: Where draped strands are used, the total hold down force of all draped strands shall not exceed 75% of the total beam weight. Note: Prestressing strands in slab units or box units shall not be draped. 3. Debond some prestressing strands at the end of the unit to avoid excessive end stresses. Typically, this is accomplished in the fabrication plant by wrapping strand with a plastic sheath to prevent the bond from developing between the concrete and the prestressing strand.

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When debonding of prestressing strands is required, design shall be in accordance with the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications with the following criteria: a. b. c. d. e. f. The maximum allowable number of debonded prestressing strands is 25% of the total number of strands. No more than 40% of the number of prestressing strands in any one row may be debonded. The debonding pattern shall be symmetrical about the beam centerline. The spacing of debonded strands shall be a minimum of 4O. The outermost prestressing strands in a row shall not be debonded. The debonded length(s) shall be clearly detailed on the contract plans. A maximum of four prestressing strands are permitted to be debonded for a given length. A minimum difference of 2N-0O is required between debonding lengths. Do not debond prestressing strands in units 1-3Oor less in depth.

g.

4. Provide a reasonable amount of bonded reinforcement as per the provisions of the design specifications.

9.10

Prestress Losses

Loss of prestress is the difference between the initial tensile stress in prestressing tendons at the time the strands were seated in their anchorages, and the effective prestress at a particular time at the considered location. Losses that apply to both pretensioned and post-tensioned elements are Concrete Shrinkage, Elastic Shortening, Concrete Creep, and Steel Relaxation. Losses that apply only to posttensioned elements are Anchorage Set and Friction (for drape and wobble). Computation of the losses shall be as per the applicable provisions of the design specifications. Concrete Shrinkage - Shrinkage, after hardening of concrete, is the decrease with time of concrete volume. The decrease is due to changes in the moisture content of the concrete and physical-chemical changes, which occur without stresses attributable to actions external to the concrete. Shrinkage is conveniently expressed as a dimensionless strain under steady conditions of relative humidity and temperature. Elastic Shortening - The concrete beam shortens at transfer when the prestressed strands are released and the force in them is transferred to the concrete. This elastic shortening is immediate and results in a reduction in the strain of the prestressing steel and therefore a prestress loss. The loss from elastic shortening should be included in both initial and total loss computations. Concrete Creep - The time dependent increase of strain in hardened concrete subjected to sustained stress is defined as concrete creep. Steel Relaxation - Steel relaxation is very similar to concrete creep. With steel relaxation the length of the strand is held constant under stress and there is a time dependent loss in stress.

9-8

April 2010

Prestressed Concrete

The designer shall use a t of 18 hours for computing steel relaxation loss at transfer. This represents the shortest time that is likely to occur between jacking and detensioning. For initial stresses the main problem is overstressing the beam ends due to excessive prestressing force. Anchorage Set - Some loss of prestress occurs to post-tensioned tendons as the anchorage hardware deforms and sets at the transfer of tension. The amount of set is a function of the type of anchorage system used. The amount of prestress loss is a function of this anchorage set and the length between anchorages. Power seating of the chucks tends to reduce this loss. For design purposes assume anchor set as in. Friction - Tendons also lose some prestress due to friction inside the ducts during stressing operations. Total Losses - Some of the losses mentioned above are interdependent. Shrinkage and concrete creep reduce the strain in the prestressing steel, which reduces the force in the prestressing steel. The reduction in force in the prestressing steel affects elastic shortening, future concrete creep and steel relaxation.

9.11 9.11.1

Allowable Stresses Temporary Stresses

Temporary stresses correspond to the stresses that are present at transfer. Only initial losses should be considered when checking these stresses.

9.11.2

Final Stresses

Final stresses represent the stresses at service load after all losses have occurred. When AASHTO HL-93 live loading is used, the maximum allowable tension in the precompressed tensile zone shall be 0.0948 f c ksi, as per the LRFD specifications. When the NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle is used the maximum allowable tension shall be 0.14 f c ksi. The design allowable stresses shall be shown on the contract plans.

9.12

Reinforcement

Reinforcement in prestressed units shall not be epoxy coated with the exception of the composite stirrups extending into the deck, or the top longitudinal bar extending into the approach slab which may be epoxy coated or galvanized.

9.12.1

Shear Stirrups

Detailing of shear reinforcement shall follow the guidance shown on the appropriate BD sheets.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

9.12.2

Composite Design Reinforcement

Composite flexural members consist of prestressed members acting with a cast-in-place concrete deck. In order for the deck to act compositely, reinforcement must be provided extending out of the beams into the slab to resist the horizontal shear developed across this plane. Composite shear reinforcement shall be provided for the full length of prestressed concrete bridge beams, including the negative moment areas of continuous spans.

9.12.3

Anchorage Zone Reinforcement

When pretensioned strands are released and their stress is transferred to the hardened concrete bonded to the strands, the concrete at the beam ends experiences tensile stress perpendicular to the direction of prestressing. Anchorage zone reinforcement shall be provided to resist these stresses. For slab units and box beams, stirrups with multiple legs can be used to accommodate required reinforcing within the specified distance from the end of the beam.

9.13

Camber

Due to the eccentric nature of prestressing, prestressed concrete units are typically curved upward under low values of externally applied loads. The resulting upward deflection is called camber. Camber may increase or decrease with time, depending on the stress distribution across the member under sustained loads. Units shall be designed so that the algebraic sum of the beam camber at prestress transfer due to prestress force, the beam dead load deflections due to non-composite dead load, and superimposed dead load deflections due to applied superimposed dead loads results in a positive (upward) camber. The dead load from a future wearing surface shall be included in the determination of camber. Allowed camber deviations for beams (see Section 7 of the PCCM.) should be considered in determining minimum expected camber based on design calculations. The following minimum net positive cambers are recommended: Spans 80 ft and above: minimum Spans 50 ft to 80 ft: minimum Spans less than 50 ft: minimum The contract plans shall show the camber at prestress transfer and the deflections due to non-composite dead load and superimposed dead load.

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January 2008

Prestressed Concrete

9.14

Stage Construction Camber Differences

For a given project, fabricators typically cast all of the beams of a given size at the same time to minimize the time required to set up the casting beds. If these beams are subsequently erected at the same time, differential camber between beams is rarely a significant problem. On stage construction projects, the precast beams may be fabricated at relatively the same time and erected many months, even years apart. The haunch provided for spread prestressed box beams, AASHTO I-beams and Bulb Tees is sufficient to accommodate this differential camber growth and need not be considered. Since adjacent precast unit superstructures have no haunch, the differential camber due to time dependent effects shall be considered. The anticipated camber growth during storage of Stage 2 units may be assumed to be 50% of the camber at transfer. For all staged construction bridge superstructure projects, the minimum Stage 1 deck slab thickness shall be 7O in order to provide a minimum 6Odeck slab over the Stage 2 units. The additional Stage 1 slab thickness of 1O shall be considered as extra dead load in the unit design calculations. If the anticipated camber growth with no control measured during storage is greater than 1O, specific measures to control camber growth of the Stage 2 beams or other methods to limit the different camber growth between Stage 1 and Stage 2 must be specified in the contract documents. Typical notes in Section 17 of this manual must be placed on the contract plans. Example: Camber at transfer (w/o creep) = 1 inch Anticipated camber growth = 0.5 x 1 inch = inch

9.15

Simple Spans Made Continuous Design

Unless significant differential settlement between supports is suspected, all multi-span prestressed concrete superstructures shall be made continuous for live load. NYSDOT practice is to establish the construction joint at the same time as the placement of deck concrete. Hence, dead load due to the deck concrete will be resisted by prestressed beams as simply supported. All loads applied after the deck concrete hardens will be resisted by the continuous composite (beams and deck) structure. Because High-Strength, HighPerformance Concrete (HSHPC) used in all prestressed concrete bridge beams has very low creep and shrinkage, and the beams have a minimum age of 60 days prior to deck placement, construction joints at internal piers are expected to be fully effective. These bridges shall be designed as fully continuous at all limit states for loads applied after hardening of the deck concrete.

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9.16

Corrosion Inhibitors and Sealers

Prestressed concrete elements shall use corrosion inhibitor and penetrating silane sealer. See the PCCM for details.

9.17

Post-Tensioned Spliced Girder Designs

Prestressed concrete bridge beams may be spliced by joining two or more beam segments to form one beam. Typically, splicing is achieved by cast-in-place concrete along with longitudinal post-tensioning. Splicing of bridge beams is generally used for one or more of the following reasons: C C C C C C C C Increasing span lengths to reduce the number of sub-structure units and total project cost; Increasing the girder spacing to reduce the number of girder lines and total project cost; Increasing span lengths to improve safety by eliminating shoulder piers or interior supports; Minimizing structure depth through the use of long, continuous members to obtain required vertical clearance for traffic, waterways, and so forth; Avoiding the placement of piers in water to reduce environmental impact and total project cost; Placing piers to avoid obstacles on the ground, such as railroad tracks, roadways, and utilities; Improving aesthetics through various design enhancements, such as more slender superstructures, longer spans, of haunched sections at piers; Eliminating joints for improved structural performance, reduced long-term maintenance/increased service life, and improved rideability.

Whenever possible, part of the longitudinal post-tensioning shall be applied after the hardening of the deck concrete so that net tension on top of the deck surface is less than or equal to the modulus of rupture. The Contract plans shall show a recommended installation method and post-tensioning sequence. See current BD Sheets for additional guidance. The structural analysis should consider the effects of fabrication and erection tolerances on bridge performance.

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January 2008

Section Ten Timber


10.1 Introduction

Timber is an abundant and renewable resource. It can be used by itself or in conjunction with other construction materials such as concrete and steel for the construction of bridges. By using different types of construction techniques, timber can be used for a wide range of bridge spans. From a small stream crossing to an intricate long trestle, timber is a viable construction material. When and where timber should be considered for use as a possible bridge construction material requires an engineering evaluation of each site. First costs may be of great importance, but constructability, durability and compatibility with given site conditions is required when considering timber as a possible bridge construction material. Prior to starting design, the U.S. Forest Service Publication entitled Timber Bridges - Design, Construction, Inspection and Maintenance should be reviewed.

10.2

Characteristics and Properties of Wood as a Construction Material

Timber is relatively strong, light in weight, resilient and capable of supporting short-term overloads without sustaining permanent structural damage. Construction of timber structures is not affected by inclement weather conditions such as rain and cold and usually can be accomplished without the use of heavy equipment and highly skilled labor. The material properties of wood make it unsusceptible to damage resulting from freeze/thaw cycles and de-icing chemicals. Large wood members also offer a surprising resilience to damage by fire. Today's treated lumber provides a material that is highly resistant to decay, rot and attack by insects. Properly treated and maintained timber structures can be expected to provide a design life of 50 years or more. Treated timber does not have to be painted. Minor periodic maintenance such as the washing and removal of moisture laden debris from the timber elements will greatly increase their life expectancy.

10.3

Types of Construction

Timber bridges can be made entirely from wood or be a composite design utilizing other materials such as reinforced concrete and steel. Both superstructures and substructures can be made of wood in all or in part. The size and type of a structure will determine whether it is made of individual commercial sized pieces of lumber or of laminated units utilizing many pieces.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Glue-laminated (GLULAM) timber units first appeared in the late 1940s or early 1950s. Glulam members can be made into almost any size and shape unit. In recent years, improvements in the lamination process and adhesives have increased the potential for use in highway bridge design. In the late 1970s, stress-laminated procedures were developed in Ontario, Canada, as a new method of bridge construction. During the late 80s and early 90s, several installations and additional research have been conducted in the United States, using stress-laminated construction.

10.4

Selection Criteria

The criteria used to determine if the use of a timber bridge is appropriate are the same used for all bridge types. However, due to some preconceived notions on durability, the first selection criterion is the acceptance of a timber bridge by the owner. Concerns for fire resistance, rot, decay, insect attacks and long-term durability must be satisfied. All of these concerns can be adequately addressed, but the final decision belongs to the owner of the bridge. With the acceptance of timber, the following site conditions are considered: C C C C C C C C The length of the bridge and the span arrangement Available depth for the superstructure Debris and ice problems Aesthetics Type of roadway Traffic volumes and operating speeds Alignment and grade of the roadway Construction procedures

Generally, the depth of a timber unit for any span would be deeper than a composite steel or prestressed concrete bridge. Span length limitations would also require the use of multiple spans for long bridges. When the profile requires camber corrections, timber can be cambered to some extent. Wood structures blend nicely with the site and a variety of shapes and forms can be provided. Like its steel and concrete counterparts, the fabrication of a timber arch, truss or other special type structure will involve additional costs. Due to the smaller size and weight of normal timber units, the construction of a timber bridge may be accomplished with the equipment and personnel that many town and county highway departments have available. The various criteria and procedures previously outlined in Section 2 and Section 3 should be used to evaluate any site. If timber can meet the site criteria and is acceptable to the owner, it should be considered as an option. If the final decision is based on first costs, a superstructure cost savings of approximately 25% over a concrete or steel structure can be expected. The use of a concrete substructure is recommended. Only minor substructure cost savings should be expected between alternates involving steel, concrete, or timber multibeam, single-span installations.

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January 2008

Timber

10.5 10.5.1

Superstructure Components General

Timber can be used by itself or as a component of a bridge system. It can play a major or minor role. The use of timber in the superstructure can range from a timber railing system to a laminated arch with a timber deck design. Depending on span lengths and the allowable depths for the superstructure, a variety of timber and timber composite systems can be employed.

10.5.2

Railing

Timber bridge railing is a viable option when a rustic aesthetic look is desired. It is particularly recommended for use on all highways, except interstates, in the Adirondack and Catskill Parks.

10.5.3

Decking and Deck Bridges

Timber decking can employ four types of laminated construction: C C C C Nail-laminated plank decks Nail-laminated deck panels with interconnecting transverse stiffener beams Glue-laminated deck panels (doweled and undoweled) Stress-laminated decks

Except for stress laminated decks, the lamination can be placed either transversely or longitudinally depending upon the span and/or support configuration. Longitudinal deck panel bridge spans are limited by the depth available for the section. Stress-laminated longitudinal decks are efficient up to about a span of 40 ft. Nail- and glue-laminated deck panels can be placed on top of glue-laminated girders and steel wide flange beams. These panels can also be placed on a stringer/floorbeam support system for the deck of a wood, iron or steel truss.

10.5.4

Laminated Beam Sections

Glue-laminated rectangular shaped beams ranging in depths from 1.5 ft. to 6 ft. are capable of spans approaching 80 ft. Stress laminated parallel chord trusses, Ts'' and box sections can span the same range with the advantage of shallower section depths (see Figure 10.1 thru Figure 10.4 for typical stress-laminated sections).

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Figure 10.1 Longitudinal Stress Laminated Deck

Figure 10.2 Parallel Chord Truss 10-4 January 2008

Timber

Figure 10.3 'T' Section Bridge

Figure 10.4 Box Section Bridge

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

10.5.5

Special Types: Arches, Frames and Trusses

Large glue laminated units can be fabricated into numerous shapes. Through and deck arches, rigid frames and deck trusses or covered bridge thru trusses are the most familiar types of large timber designs. The fabrication of trusses or trestles can also be accomplished using small commercial-sized lumber and steel bolt and plate connections.

10.5.6

Timber Decks with Steel Beams

When using any type of steel beam, especially weathering steel beams, it is important to protect these members from extended periods of contact with moisture. Without adequate protection, timber decking can act as a source of moisture. To provide protection for bridges using timber decking with steel girders, the top flange of all steel girders supporting a timber deck should be isolated from the timber decking. This can be done by placing a strip of waterproof membrane material on the top and over the sides of the top flange. Tar paper is less durable, but an acceptable alternative. It is also recommended that the entire top flange of all girders be painted or galvanized. In addition to isolating the top flange from the decking, it is also recommended that some type of waterproof membrane be placed between any asphalt wearing surface and the timber deck. This membrane should extend over the fascia sides for a short distance (1O) below the bottom of the deck. This membrane should also extend beyond the ends of the bridge into the approach fills. Details concerning the most appropriate type of membrane for these uses should be obtained from the Materials Bureau.

10.6

Substructures

For the majority of cases, the use of a concrete substructure is encouraged. Since the vast majority of timber structures will cross water, the soil interface zone will be subjected to continuous cycles of wetting and drying and should be considered a hostile area for wood. Timber sheeting and timber piles with lagging walls, either tied or untied, are the typical types of timber substructure construction. Constructability, first cost and life-cycle costs are factors that must be considered prior to selecting a type of substructure. Timber piling can also be used, but the use of these piles in a zone of wetting and drying cycles is undesirable. Areas likely to contain marine borers and other types of wood destroying fungi should also be avoided. Wood pile bents can be protected to some degree by using protective sleeves in the trouble area. Timber piling installed in an area where it has been constantly wet is often found to be in good condition after many years of service. Prior to reusing existing timber piles, a test pit should be dug to gain access to evaluate their condition.

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January 2008

Timber

10.7

Wearing Surfaces

Timber bridge deck installations that are to be used as a permanent deck system must be protected from the abrasive wearing action of the traffic it carries. Traffic must also be provided with a skid resistant roadway surface, and a transverse cross sloped surface for drainage. The use of a wearing surface serves these important functions. The type of wearing surface used will often depend on the class of roadway and the traffic volume. The range varies from full-width asphalt pavements to single lane timber plank longitudinal strips. The use of a full width asphalt wearing surface with a geotextile membrane adjacent to the deck is recommended for the majority of cases. A minimum thickness of 2O is recommended for the asphalt wearing course. A low-volume, single-lane bridge would be considered as a possible candidate for the strip plank treatment.

10.8

Maintenance and Repairs

Maintenance of a timber bridge will require procedures that are unique to wood. With timber structures, maintenance starts with the proper treatment of the wood. If possible, all fabrication and installation details requiring drilling should be done prior to treating the wood with preservatives. An in-place application of preservatives to problem areas should also be continued throughout the life of the structure. Checks, splits and damaged areas should be treated as soon as possible. Field drilled holes should be treated with preservatives before installing bolts and other hardware. Moisture is the chief enemy of wood. Design details that trap moisture on the bridge should be avoided. Periodic washing will eliminate dirt and debris that hold moisture. A protective wearing surface and the maintenance of this surface are important. Deterioration caught early can be treated, controlled or eliminated. Splicing of members, in-field drilling and treatment with preservatives, the installation of protective jackets or component replacement are ways of dealing with problems. Delayed maintenance will only lead to further deterioration and the need for early repairs or replacement.

10.9

Conclusions

Timber is a versatile, economical and adaptable material that provides an alternative solution for a bridge repair and replacement program. It is an effective and economical answer for bridges with spans of 80 ft. and less where vertical clearance is not a problem. Variations in timber bridge designs can address, to some extent, vertical clearance limitations. Timber bridges can be aesthetically pleasing and simple to construct. When properly maintained they can be expected to last for 50 years or more.

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10-7

Section 11 Substructures
11.1 11.1.1 Foundations General

There are two basic types of substructure foundations, shallow and deep. Shallow foundations typically utilize spread footings to transfer structure loads to the soil at a relatively shallow level below the ground surface. Deep foundations utilize some type of driven pile, drilled shaft or caisson to transfer the structure load to some lower stratum of soil or rock. The choice of whether to use a shallow or deep foundation depends on soil conditions and the potential for scour at the site. Foundation recommendations are made to the bridge designer in the Foundation Design Report (FDR).

11.1.2

Spread Footings on Soil

Spread footings transfer the load directly from the bridge substructure to the subsurface. In the case of abutments, the footings must withstand dead and live loads associated with the bridge, horizontal and overturning forces from the retained earth, construction loads and any live load surcharges that might occur. Spread footings need to be designed to keep the bearing pressures and sliding forces within the allowable soil parameters. At the same time, they must be designed structurally to resist bending moments and shear forces. Abutment and retaining wall spread footings that are founded on soil should be designed according to Section 10 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. Footing design needs to be optimized to minimize toe and heel projections of the footing. Designers are cautioned that some computer programs do not automatically produce an optimum or economical footing design and, therefore, it is necessary to vary toe and heel projections until an economical design is achieved.

11.1.3

Spread Footings on Rock

Rock lines should be shown on the plans only when the footings are on rock or when drilled shafts or caissons are to be placed to rock. When rock lines are shown on the plans, they shall be marked as Assumed Rock Surface. The elevations of the rock are not to be labeled. When it is planned to place footings on or key footings into rock, the plans shall show the top of footing elevation and the minimum depth of footing. This will enable adjustments to be made in the depth of footing if the actual rock elevation differs from that assumed during design, while keeping the top of the footing elevation constant.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Rock removal shall be avoided whenever possible in the construction of footings. Footings shall not be detailed with keys or dowels into rock unless dictated by design requirements or other special circumstances. This will be noted in the FDR. When a footing must be keyed into rock, usually the entire footing is keyed into rock to simplify construction. When a footing is doweled into rock, the dowels shall be #9 reinforcing bars or larger and shall be embedded into the footing as well as into the rock to a depth noted in the FDR. The designer shall determine the required spacing between the rows of dowels, but in no case shall there be greater than 3 ft. between rows or less than two rows. Doweling is generally preferred to keying except where the rock is shale or is scourable. The recommendation of whether to key or dowel is contained in the FDR.

11.1.4

Pile Foundations

11.1.4.1 Pile Types


Pile foundations are used when it is necessary to carry the structure load through a zone of weak or compressible material to firmer foundation material at a deeper level. Piles are also used to found a structure below the depth of potential scour. End bearing piles develop their load capacity through their tip by bearing on hard material. Friction piles develop their load capacity by skin friction between the pile and soil over their length. Most piles used by NYSDOT are either steel H-piles or C.I.P. concrete piles. Other types of piles, such as prestressed concrete, timber, or micropiles, have also been used. Prestressed concrete piles are typically used in marine environments. Micropiles are used in areas where vibrations from pile driving are unacceptable, at pile installation locations where there is limited headroom or obstructions are present, and for retrofitting existing substructures. Most piles function as a combination of friction and end bearing. Steel H-piles are the better choice where it is anticipated there will be hard driving conditions. C.I.P. piles utilize a driven steel pipe that is later filled with concrete. Steel reinforcement shall be placed in the top 13 of the pile or 10 ft. whichever is greater. C.I.P. piles are usually the choice when friction capacity is important. Steel H-piles and C.I.P. piles shall have their tips reinforced to protect them during driving. See the Highway Design Manual, Chapter 9, for a more detailed discussion of Deep Foundation Types.

11.1.4.2 Pile Spacing and Placement Details


Timber piles shall be spaced not less than 2N-6O center-to-center. All other types of piles shall be spaced a minimum of three pile diameters or three pile widths center-to-center. Maximum pile spacing shall be 9 ft.

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January 2008

Substructures

The minimum distance from the center of a pile to the nearest footing edge should be 1N-6O. The minimum distance from the edge of a pile to the nearest footing edge shall be 9O. The minimum distance from the center of a pile to the nearest edge of the capbeam shall be 1N-6O. The minimum distance from the edge of a pile to the nearest edge of the capbeam shall be 1N-0O. The tops of C.I.P. piles shall be embedded 6O into the footing. The tops of all other piles shall be embedded 1N-0O into the footing. Additional embedment requirements apply to integral abutments (see Section 11.6.1.6). When a pier is composed of steel H-piles extending above the ground surface and embedded directly into a concrete capbeam, the piles shall be embedded a minimum of 2N-0O into the capbeam. The same embedment applies to C.I.P. piles unless the pile reinforcement projects into the cap. In this case, the embedment shall be 1N-0O. The front row of piles (at the toe) of all abutment and wall footings shall be battered. The outside rows of piles of all pier footings shall be battered. Minimum batter is 6 on 1; however, analysis may indicate that a greater batter is required. The maximum batter shall be 3 on 1. If a critical clearance problem exists (e.g., underground utilities), it may be possible to place some piles vertical that would ordinarily be battered. In this case, the Office of Structures Foundations and Construction Unit should be consulted. Horizontal forces must be resisted through a combination of the horizontal component of a battered pile and the lateral resistance of the soil to the pile. Lateral resistance of piles is specified in the Foundation Section of the latest NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications unless modified in the FDR.

11.1.4.3 Numbering and Tabulation of Piles


All piles used in a structure shall be numbered on the plans. The pile numbering shall begin with the number one (1) and proceed continuously through all piles in that substructure unit. The pile numbers shall restart with the number one (1) for each different substructure unit encountered. In order to record the actual driven length, a table shall be placed on the plans for each different substructure unit. The table shall include a column titled PILE NO. and a column titled LENGTH BELOW CUT-OFF. The length below cut-off of each pile shall be filled in by the E.I.C.

11.1.4.4 Pile Splices


Steel H-piles shall be spliced using complete penetration groove welds or mechanical splices. Mechanical splices cannot be used on piles subject to uplift loads. The shells of C.I.P. piles shall be spliced by welding. If stated in the FDR, C.I.P. piles may be spliced mechanically, although mechanical splices still require a seal weld. Mechanical splices are not permitted on C.I.P. piles in integral abutments because they may be subject to bending.

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When the estimated length of pile exceeds 30 ft., the designer's estimate shall allow for at least one-half the total number of piles to be spliced. This is a contingency to cover the situation where the actual length of driven pile exceeds the estimated length by more than 10 ft. Details of pile splices and reinforced tips are shown on the current BD sheets. These details shall be included in the contract plans.

11.1.5

Drilled Shafts

Drilled shafts are typically used as an alternative to piles. They are capable of carrying very large loads. Drilled shafts are usually advanced with a steel casing, although a slurry solution is sometimes used to keep the excavation open. The FDR may require that the shaft be socketed a minimum distance into bedrock to develop the necessary skin friction to support the applied loads. When the shaft is excavated, reinforcement is placed and the shaft is filled with concrete.

11.1.6

Pilasters

Pilasters are typically square concrete columns that are used when rock is located too near the surface to drive piles. They are capable of handling very large loads. Pilasters are usually constructed in an open excavation down to bedrock and may be socketed into bedrock a minimum distance.

11.1.7

Design Footing Pressures and Pile Capacities

Notes that specify either the maximum foundation pressure for spread footings or the maximum allowable pile load and ultimate pile capacity for pile foundations shall be shown on the contract plans. The wording and format of these notes are given in the FDR. For spread footings on rock, the actual design bearing pressure shown on the plans should be rounded to the nearest one-half ton/ft2.

11.1.8

Footing Depth

The depth to which footings are carried below the ground surface is usually determined by three factors: frost depth, scour action, and foundation type. Frost heaves in soil can cause displacement of the footing and damage to the structure. Spread footings founded on soil shall have their bottom of footing a minimum of 4 ft. below finished ground to assure that the bottom of the footing is below the maximum frost penetration. Spread footings on rock are not susceptible to frost heaves and, therefore, do not require the minimum 4 ft. depth. Spread footings on soil are not ordinarily used near water because of their vulnerability to scour action. If they are used near water, however, their bottom of footing needs to be well below any potential scour depth and special protective measures may be needed.

11-4

May 2011

Substructures

Although footings supported on piles or drilled shafts are not normally susceptible to frost action, they are often subject to erosion or scour action. Footings on piles, drilled shafts, or pilasters should be set at least 4 ft. below the (stream bed, river bed, lake bottom, etc.) or finished slope. The top of the footing should be at least 1 ft. below the finished ground surface, therefore, thicker footings may require more than a 4 ft. depth. If a stone apron is to be used for bank protection, sufficient room must be left to place the stone over the top of the footing.

11.1.9

Stepped Footings

Stepped footings introduce construction difficulties and, in the case of spread footings on soil, an increased risk of differential settlement. They are, therefore, very seldom used. The use of stepped footings may be warranted in some cases, such as a variable rock elevation or a long wall where the required bottom of footing elevation changes considerably. The most common reason for stepping footings is to accommodate spread footings on a sloping rock surface. Stepped footings on rock shall have steps at least 8 ft. in length and at least a 2 ft. change in height. Footing continuity is not required. Stepping spread footings on soil or pile foundations should only be done under wingwalls and retaining walls longer than 25 ft. The minimum length of each step section should be 12 ft and the change in height of each step should be at least 2 ft. Footing continuity is preferred for all steps up to 3 ft., but is not mandatory. Steps more than 3 ft. will require a construction or contraction joint to facilitate construction. Any joint introduced shall be continued up through the stem or walls above. Stepping of the leveling pad for a Mechanically Stabilized Earth System (M.S.E.S.) on embankments is permitted. The minimum length of a step section is the width of one panel. The minimum height of a step for this type of wall system is one half the panel height. The manufacturer of the mechanically stabilized earth system shall set the final configuration of the leveling pad as part of the panel layout. Any proposed steps in footings should be included in the Preliminary Structure Plan and approved by the Office of Technical Services Geotechnical Engineering Bureau.

11.1.10

Tremie Seals

A tremie seal is concrete placed under water through the use of a tremie placement tube. As the concrete is placed, water is displaced and the tube is gradually raised keeping the outlet below the level of the placed concrete. Tremie seals are usually used where piers need to be constructed in fairly deep water and it is difficult to dewater the excavation. A sheet piling cofferdam is usually placed to surround the excavation. Piles, if required, are driven inside the cell with water still inside. The tremie seal is then placed to a level where its submerged weight will exceed the hydrostatic pressure of the dewatered excavation. The water can then be pumped out of the excavation and the footing constructed on top of the tremie seal in the dry. The piles should be sufficiently long to project above the tremie seal and into the footing. Tremie

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concrete uses Class G concrete which has a higher cement content and slump range than Class A concrete. In the design of a tremie seal, the designer must remember to use the buoyant weight of the concrete in balancing the hydrostatic pressure. In calculation, the dry weight of the tremie seal should be conservatively taken as 140 lb/ft 3. Tremie seals are normally designed to resist the hydrostatic pressure at ordinary high water. The excavation should be designed to flood when the water level exceeds ordinary high water to prevent unequal hydrostatic pressure from floating out the tremie seal during construction. A minimum safety factor of 1.25 is recommended in tremie design. See Section 4 of this manual for further information on cofferdams and tremie seals.

11.1.11

Footing Thickness

The minimum footing thickness for spread footings shall be 2 ft. The minimum footing thickness for pile supported footings shall be 2N-2O for C.I.P. piles and 2N-6O for steel H-piles.

11.2

Forming Considerations

In heavily reinforced concrete structures, the labor and material costs for formwork often average between 30% to 50% of the total in-place cost of the structure. Within that total formwork cost, the labor cost to build and place the forms is generally two to three times the formwork material cost. In other words, an efficient structure is one that not only conserves cubic yards of concrete, but also reduces the labor involved in formwork. The shape should be such that large flat forms and large placements may be employed. Simplicity and repetition are the keys to achieving economy in forming. Configurations that lend themselves to commercially built forming systems will generally be less expensive than those requiring custom built forms. If special forms are required, the high initial cost of those forms may be offset if those forms can be used several times. Generally, in normal column construction the circular shape is the most economical to form because commercially prefabricated forms are available in many standard diameters. These forms are easy to set up, strip and require no form ties. Battered forms are more expensive than vertical forms and should be avoided whenever possible, especially on short wingwalls. If a thicker wall section is required at the base of a wall, the designer should consider using the thicker section for the full height of the wall or to a construction joint and stepping the thickness. If battered forms are used, the batter should remain constant. Battering only one side is the least expensive battering system. Battering on three or four sides always requires special forming and should only be considered when the hydraulic flow characteristics require special pier geometry.

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11.3

Substructure Joints

At locations where a waterstop is to be installed, the walls shall be laid out such that the rear faces of the two adjoining walls are flush at the joint in order to accommodate the waterstop. All joints required in conformance with this section shall be shown on the contract plans.

11.3.1

Contraction Joints

Contraction joints are defined as interruptions provided in the concrete placement to control the location of cracks forming in the concrete due to shrinkage of the concrete during curing. Reinforcement shall not extend through a contraction joint. All contraction joints shall be provided with a shear key and a Type "D" PVC waterstop, except where leakage through the joint is unlikely or where staining due to leakage would not be objectionable. Vertical contraction joints are required at 30 ft. maximum spacing in all retaining walls and wingwalls greater than 60 ft. long. In this case, contraction joints shall not extend through the footing.

11.3.2

Construction Joints

Construction joints are defined as interruptions in the concrete placement provided to facilitate construction. Vertical construction joints are sometimes detailed in abutment stems and backwalls to control the location of cracks forming due to shrinkage of the concrete during curing, thus performing a function similar to a contraction joint. Reinforcement shall always extend through construction joints. All construction joints shall be provided with shear keys, unless otherwise specified, and sealed with Type "D" PVC waterstops, except where leakage through the joint is unlikely or where staining due to leakage would not be objectionable. Vertical construction joints are required in long abutment stems and backwalls. The recommended maximum spacing for construction joints in abutments is 30 ft. When an abutment reaches 60 ft. in length construction joints should be considered. Placement of construction joints should be midway between pedestals at a fairly uniform spacing. Construction joints shall be placed between the abutment and flared wingwalls longer than 6 ft. Flared wingwalls less than 6 ft. long, shall not have a joint. Construction joints should not extend through the footing. Special attention is required for construction joints in stepped footings, see Section 11.1.9.

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11.3.3

Expansion Joints

Expansion joints shall be defined as interruptions in the concrete placement provided to allow for movements of the wall and footing due to thermal expansion. Reinforcement shall never extend through an expansion joint. Expansion joints in walls shall be provided with a shear key, a Type "E" PVC waterstop, and a layer of joint material separating the concrete surfaces. The requirements for expansion joints in footings shall be the same except that the waterstops will not be required. The maximum interval for expansion joints shall be 90 ft. in all retaining walls and wingwalls. When an abutment reaches 165 ft. in length expansion joints should be considered. Expansion joints shall extend through the footing. The footings on each side of an expansion joint shall be independently designed. For footings on piles, the pile spacing and edge distance, including distance to the joint, shall meet all current pile layout and design requirements.

11.4

Concrete for Substructures

Class HP concrete was developed to provide increased durability by limiting the absorption of salt-laden water into the concrete. Therefore, any substructure that might be exposed to chlorides through splashing, runoff, or leaking through joints, should be designated as Class HP concrete on the plans. Class A concrete should be limited to placements that will not be exposed to chlorides. Also, it is inefficient to use Class A concrete for small placements when Class HP concrete is the concrete primarily used on the job. If only a small amount of concrete might be designated Class A, then make all of the concrete Class HP.

11.5

Retaining Walls

A retaining wall is a structure that provides lateral support for a mass of soil. A properly designed retaining wall ensures the structure will not fail by overturning, sliding, excessive settlement, excessive bearing pressures or pile capacities and the structure itself possesses adequate strength to resist the applied earth and live loadings and surcharges. A retaining wall adjacent or abutting a bridge abutment is commonly referred to in bridge plans as a wingwall. The Highway Design Manual (Chapter 9) refers to cantilever walls supporting a highway embankment as a retaining wall.

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11.5.1

Retaining Wall Types

Fig. 11.1 Typical Retaining Wall Types

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11.5.1.1 Cantilevered Retaining Wall


Cantilevered retaining walls consist of a spread or pile supported footing that supports a relatively thin concrete stem that is structurally reinforced vertically along the back face. This is the most commonly used type of retaining wall for new bridges in NYSDOT. Cantilevered retaining walls remain stable due to their own weight and the weight of the soil located over the heel of the footing. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-30 ft.

11.5.1.2 Counterfort Retaining Wall


Counterfort retaining walls consist of a relatively thin vertical concrete face wall supported at intervals on the earth side by vertical walls (counterforts) that are perpendicular to the face wall. Both the face wall and the counterforts are connected to a footing slab that can be either spread or pile supported. The base is backfilled with soil between the counterforts. The vertical face wall is structurally reinforced horizontally to span between the counterforts. The counterforts are structurally reinforced to resist the tensile forces along their back. This type of wall is only used where economically justified, such as when the height of the wall is in excess of 30 ft., since forming is relatively expensive. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 30 ft.-60 ft.

11.5.1.3 Buttressed Retaining Wall


This is very similar to a counterfort retaining wall, except the counterforts are placed on the exposed front face of the wall due to limited construction access to the rear of the wall.

11.5.1.4 Crib Wall


Crib walls consist of individual structural units that are assembled at the site into a series of hollow cells called a crib. The cribs are backfilled with soil and/or rock and their stability depends on both the weight and the strength of the fill material to hold the units together. The structural units are usually constructed of precast reinforced concrete, although units with fabricated metal members and units with timber members have been used. Care should be taken to select the best structural unit type for the site conditions and desired service life. Crib walls are relatively inexpensive. For guidance in selecting the proper type of crib wall, see Highway Standard Sheets 632-1,-2,-3.

11.5.1.5 Gabions
A gabion is a special type of gravity wall. Gabions use wire-mesh baskets as the crib and are filled with rocks to provide the necessary weight and stability. The wire mesh can be vinyl coated or galvanized. These units are usually stacked on top of each other to create the retaining wall. Gabions are susceptible to damage from debris or ice flows in high water conditions and to corrosion of the wire mesh. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-25 ft.

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11.5.1.6 Gravity Retaining Wall


Gravity retaining walls are large masses of concrete or masonry that have nominal to no structural reinforcement in the back face of the stem. This type of retaining wall depends on its own large self weight to provide the lateral support and resist overturning forces. A large plan area at the base provides bearing on the soil or it may be pile supported. This type of retaining wall is usually no longer used for new bridges by NYSDOT.

11.5.1.7 Semigravity Retaining Wall


A semigravity retaining wall resembles a gravity retaining wall except the stem is somewhat thinner and vertical structural reinforcement is provided in the back face of the stem. The foundation uses either spread or pile supported footings. This type of retaining wall is no longer used for new bridges by NYSDOT.

11.5.1.8 Internally Stabilized Fill Type Retaining Walls


Mechanically Stabilized Earth System (M.S.E.S.) retaining walls consist of interlocking concrete shapes that create a wall face. Each of the concrete shapes has a soil anchoring system that mechanically reinforces the retained embankment and uses the weight of the fill as the stabilizing force to hold the panels in place. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 10 ft.-65 ft. Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structures (G.R.S.S.) are similar to M.S.E.S walls, in that layers of geotextile membrane are covered with soil. In place of the interlocking concrete shapes in M.S.E.S. walls, the exposed face of the embankment is formed by folding the lower layer of reinforcing geo-grid over the top of the layer of fill that covers it. Subsequent layers of geo-grid and soil are placed and compacted until the desired height of the embankment is reached. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-35 ft. See Section 11.6.1.4 for more information on M.S.E.S. systems. Mechanically Stabilized Wall Systems are a combination of M.S.E.S. and G.R.S.S. In this case, layers of geotextile membrane are covered with soil and anchored between prefabricated modular blocks that make up the exposed face of the embankment. Subsequent layers of block and reinforcing geo-grid are placed and compacted until the desired height of the embankment is reached. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-35 ft.

11.5.1.9 Cantilevered Sheet Pile Retaining Wall


Cantilevered sheet pile walls consist of a series of interlocking structural shapes that are set into the ground to a sufficient depth to mobilize enough passive earth pressure to withstand the active pressure from the retained soil. The structural shapes are most commonly made of steel and driven into the ground. Concrete shapes have also been used and jetted in place. Cantilevered sheet pile retaining walls are commonly used by NYSDOT for both temporary and permanent conditions. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-15 ft.

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11.5.1.10 Tied Back Sheet Pile Retaining Wall


Tied back sheet pile walls consist of a series of interlocking structural steel shapes that are driven into the ground to a sufficient depth so as to mobilize enough passive earth pressure to withstand the active pressure from the retained soil at the bottom, and utilize a tie-back or anchored bulkhead system to support the top of the sheet piling. This type of retaining wall is commonly used by NYSDOT for both temporary and permanent conditions. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 15 ft.-65 ft.

11.5.1.11 Soldier Pile and Lagging Retaining Wall


This retaining wall consists of two main structural parts, the piles and the lagging. The piles are driven into the ground or set into augured holes at regular spacings and to a sufficient depth so as to mobilize enough passive earth pressure to withstand the lateral load from the retained fill. That lateral backfill load is transferred to the piles through the lagging which spans horizontally between the piles and behaves like a simple beam between two supports. The piles are commonly steel H-piles and the lagging could be heavy wood timbers or precast concrete panels. This type of retaining wall is commonly used by NYSDOT for both temporary and permanent conditions. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 5 ft.-15 ft.

11.5.1.12 Tied Back Soldier Pile and Lagging Retaining Wall


Similar to a normal soldier pile and lagging wall with the addition of a tie back system. The piles are driven into the ground or set into augured holes at regular spacings and to a sufficient depth so as to mobilize enough passive earth pressure to withstand the lateral load from the retained fill at the base of the excavation. The tie back system supports the top of the retaining wall. This type of retaining wall is commonly used by NYSDOT for both temporary and permanent conditions. The efficient height range of walls of this type is 15 ft.-65 ft.

11.5.2

Proportioning of Cantilevered Retaining Walls

Since the cantilevered retaining wall is by far the most common type of retaining wall used, it is important to achieve as much efficiency in its design as possible. In general, the width (B) of the footing should range from 0.40 to 0.60 times the height (H) of the wall above the top of the footing. The B/H ratio is closer to 0.40 when the bearing soil is firm or when the footing is on piles. The B/H ratio increases as the quality of the bearing soil and coefficient of friction decreases, and the slope of the fill and any other surcharge behind the wall increases. The distance from the centerline of the wall stem to the front edge of the footing (D) should be approximately 0.30 to 0.50 times the width of the footing. The footing thickness (T) is generally between 0.10 and 0.15 times the height of the stem but should always meet the minimum footing thickness requirement for the type of foundation selected. The stem thickness (t) should be at least 0.10 times the height for an economically reinforced section.

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Fig. 11.2 Suggested Proportions of Retaining Wall Further information on retaining wall design is found in Chapter 9 of the Highway Design Manual.

11.5.3

Wingwall Type and Considerations

Wingwalls are simply retaining walls placed adjacent to the abutment stem to retain the fill behind the abutments. The orientation of the wall in relation to the centerline of bearings or centerline of the roadway determines the wingwall type. When the wingwalls are parallel to the roadway, they are called U-wingwalls. U-wingwalls are used primarily in fill situations where there are obstructions or limited right of way on either side of the roadway to build a wide embankment. The length of the U-wingwall is determined by equating the point where the embankment slope meets the shoulder break elevation from the roadway. The intersection shall occur at the inside corner of the top of the wingwall. The elevation of the end of the U-wingwall shall be at this intersection and stated on the plans.

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When the wingwalls are parallel to the centerline of bearings, they are called in-line wingwalls. These wingwalls are used when the abutment is relatively short and there are no obstructions or right of way limitations on either side of the highway. The end of an in-line wingwall is located where the slope from the shoulder break meets the underbridge embankment slope. The intersection shall occur at the rear corner of the wingwall. The elevation of the top of the wingwall shall be 8O higher than this intersection and stated on the plans. When the wingwalls are turned back toward the retained fill but not parallel to the roadway, they are called flared wingwalls. These wingwalls are used when the abutment fill would spill out too far for in-line wingwalls, but there are not enough restrictions to justify U-wingwalls. The end of a flared wingwall is located where the shoulder break from the roadway meets the underbridge embankment slope. The intersection shall occur at the rear corner of the wingwall. The elevation of the top of the wingwall shall be 8O higher than this intersection and stated on the plans. Curved wingwalls should be avoided whenever possible. If it is absolutely necessary to provide a curved wingwall, it is best to place a widened footing on a chord and only curve the top portion of the wall. Curved wingwalls should never be battered since the forming is extremely difficult. Wingwall foundations shall match the abutment foundation requirements (e.g., a pile supported abutment will always have pile supported wingwalls) except for integral abutments.

11.6

Abutments

Abutments serve two principal functions. They vertically support the bridge superstructure and horizontally support the retained earth of the roadway approach immediately adjacent to the bridge. Therefore, a bridge abutment combines the functions of a pier and a retaining wall.

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11.6.1

Abutment Types and Considerations

Figure 11.3 Typical Abutment Types (a) Cantilevered (b) Isolated Pedestal Stub (c) Spill Through (d) Gravity

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11.6.1.1 Cantilevered Abutment


Cantilevered abutments consist of a central stem supporting the bridge seat and pedestals. A backwall on top of the stem and wingwalls on either side of the stem retains the fill. The stem and wingwalls rest upon a continuous footing that can be either soil or pile supported. The structural reinforcing steel in a cantilevered abutment is designed to withstand the overturning forces that cause tension in the back of the stem and backwall. Also, design footing reinforcement is required and depends on the type of foundation selected. The large thickness of the abutment stem and backwall prevent horizontal bending from being a major concern in their design. Cantilevered abutments have no limit on the skew angle, however, bridges with less skew perform significantly better than highly skewed bridges. The superstructure length used with cantilevered abutments is not limited. The abutment shall be designed to support the applied superstructure loads. The thermal expansion of the superstructure shall be accounted for by the use of an expansion joint or appropriate jointless detail. There are three different forms of the cantilevered abutment. When the abutment is placed so that the abutment has as little reveal above the ground surface as allowed, it is called a stub cantilevered abutment. When the abutment has the largest possible reveal with respect to the clearances required for the feature crossed, it is called a cantilevered high abutment. An abutment that falls in between these two extremes is called a cantilevered semihigh abutment.

11.6.1.2 Isolated Pedestal Stub Abutment


Isolated pedestal stub abutments have tall pedestals that rest directly on the footing and have no bridge seat. They have a backwall between the pedestals and wingwalls on each side to retain the fill. The footing may be either soil or pile supported. The structural reinforcing steel in a stub abutment is designed to withstand forces that cause tension in the front of the backwall as it spans between the tall pedestals, and to withstand the forces that cause tension in the back of the backwall as it cantilevers above the footing. Also, design footing reinforcement is required and depends on the type of foundation selected. Isolated pedestal stub abutments are no longer used for new structures by NYSDOT, however, existing isolated pedestal stub abutments may be encountered on bridge rehabilitation projects.

11.6.1.3 Spill Through Abutment


The spill through, or open, abutment consists of two or more vertical columns carrying a beam that supports the bridge seat and pedestals. The fill extends on its natural slope from the bottom of the beam through the openings in the columns. In an extreme form, the spill through abutment is no more than a row of alternating vertical and battered piles driven through the fill and supporting a bridge seat and pedestals. The stem is usually provided with small wingwalls

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to keep the bridge seat free of soil. Although no longer commonly used, spill through abutments may be encountered on rehabilitation projects.

11.6.1.4 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Systems (M.S.E.S.) Abutments


M.S.E.S. abutments consist of a mechanically stabilized earth wall embankment supporting a short or stub abutment on top of the retained soil. Further information on M.S.E Systems is contained in Section 11.5.1.8. M.S.E. Systems are to be installed and paid for according to the provisions of the Fill Type Retaining Wall items. M.S.E. Systems are the only kind of Fill Type Retaining Wall currently approved to support an abutment as shown in the BD sheets. Concerns about the response of this system to a seismic event have been satisfied by additional experience and AASHTO design specifications. Designers may consider the use of this system where site conditions are appropriate. Guidelines for Use: This type of abutment system is most efficient when the height of the wall supporting the bridge abutment is 15 ft. or greater. When the use of this system includes wingwalls and/or retaining walls the average height of the entire system should be 10 ft. or greater. C C C C The project site should be predominately a fill area. If extensive excavation is required, this type of system would be inappropriate. Utilities of any nature shall not be placed within or underneath the reinforced zone. If the project site involves a railroad, the railroad must approve the use of this type of system. A copy of the railroads acceptance letter of this type of construction should accompany the Structure Justification Report submitted to the Office of Structures. In waterway areas where the anticipated depth of scour falls below the concrete leveling pad, the use of this type system within the affected waterway area will not be approved. If the concrete leveling pad is founded on sound rock or the M.S.E.S can be located a substantial distance from the affected area of scour, the use of this system could be considered. Additional guidance for the use of M.S.E.S. can be found in Article 11.10 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. When considering the use of M.S.E.S. for abutment support, the designer should consider the height of the M.S.E.S. as well as the sensitivity of the proposed structure to differential settlement or differential movement. The designer should be aware that M.S.E.S. fills are not rigid structures, and are designed to deflect slightly vertically and laterally under load. Movement of the wall may be due to the soils beneath the wall, and/or the compacted backfill. The risk of settlement and differential movement typically increases with height. Due to the potential of larger vertical and lateral movements with taller walls, it is not desirable to place abutments behind M.S.E.S. walls when the M.S.E.S. wall height exceeds 25 30 feet. The bottom of footing shall be as shown on BD-EE13E. It cannot be placed 4 feet below grade because of interference with the wall straps. This is acceptable because the gradation of the backfill will not allow development of frost heaves.

C C

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Design Guidelines: In addition to design requirements outlined in Article 11.10 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, the following criteria have been adopted by NYSDOT. C C C C As a preliminary starting point for determining the span length, the centerline of bearings should be assumed as 7N-6O behind the front face of the M.S.E.S. A minimum distance of 2 ft. shall be provided between the back of the M.S.E.S. panels and the front face of the abutment footing. The top of the M.S.E.S. panel in front of the abutment footing shall be set 1 ft. above the berm elevation. A minimum vertical clearance of 4 ft. shall be provided between the bottom of the superstructure and the berm in front of the abutment footing.

Review and Approval: The M.S.E.S. should be considered as an option for all bridge substructures and developed as a part of the Structure Study Plan. Use of this system should be compared with other abutment types to determine which option best meets project objectives, i.e., structure cost, functionality, construction time, aesthetics and other project specific parameters. The selected option shall then be progressed in the Structure Justification Report through the normal review and approval procedure as described in Section 3.

11.6.1.5 Gravity Abutments


Gravity abutments are large masses of concrete or masonry that have nominal to no design steel in the back face of the stem. This type of abutment uses its own large self weight to provide lateral support and resist overturning forces. A large plan area at the base provides bearing on the soil. This type of abutment is no longer usually used for new bridges by NYSDOT, but they may be encountered on rehabilitation projects.

11.6.1.6 Integral Abutments


In an integral abutment structure, a rigid connection is made between the primary support members of the superstructure and a pile supported substructure by encapsulating the support members into the abutment concrete. Unlike cantilevered abutments, integral abutments do not require a joint in the bridge deck or conventional bearings. An integral abutment does not have a footing, as the abutment is supported on a single row of piles extending out of the abutment stem. The piles are allowed to rotate and horizontally deflect as the abutment stem moves due to thermal expansion of the superstructure. Integral abutment bridges offer many advantages over conventional cantilevered abutments. Joints at bridge abutments are prone to leak, allowing water containing road salts to drain onto the underlying superstructure beams, bearings, abutment backwalls and bridge seats. By doing away with these joints, future maintenance associated with joint leakage is eliminated, thereby greatly reducing the life cycle cost of the structure. Integral abutments also cost less to construct. Having no footing, no bearings, fewer piles, and relatively simple concrete forming requirements makes integral abutments a cost effective alternative to conventional abutments.

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Another advantage of integral abutments is that they can be constructed in a much shorter time as compared to conventional abutments. Integral abutments should always be considered as the first choice of abutment because of their lower construction cost and superior long-term performance. Details of integral abutments for each type of superstructure can be found in the current BD sheets. Design Methodology There are two design methods for integral abutments: the approximate method and the refined method. In the approximate design method, the superstructure support members are assumed to be simply supported at the abutment end for design purposes. For the design of the piles, the vertical reaction from the superstructure and the dead load of the abutment is assumed to be uniformly distributed to each pile. Also, bending stresses in the piles are ignored. Horizontal reinforcement in the abutment stem of steel superstructure bridges is designed by considering the stem to be continuous between piles. The horizontal reinforcement in the front face of the stem is designed to withstand the positive moments between the beams due to full passive soil pressure. The horizontal reinforcement in the rear face is designed to withstand the negative moments at the beams caused by full passive soil pressure. Horizontal reinforcement in the abutment stem for prestressed concrete adjacent box beam superstructure bridges is usually nominal steel based on the prestressed beams fully supporting the abutment stem along its entire horizontal length. Vertical steel in the abutment stem is usually controlled by shear considerations. If the ratio of the abutment stem depth to spacing between the pile supports is 1:1 or greater, then deep beam considerations should be included in the design. In order to use the approximate design method for integral abutments, each of the following criteria must be met: The expansion length used to calculate the movement at an integral abutment shall be less than 165 ft. (The expansion length of an integral abutment structure shall be measured as half the distance between abutments for both single span structures, and continuous structures with expansion piers.) The skew shall not be more than 45. The reveal or dimension from the bottom of girder to the top of stone fill or finished grade shall not be less than 1 foot or more than 4 feet. For curved steel girder bridges, the horizontal geometry must be such that the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 4.6.1.2, allows the girders to be designed as straight girders.

If any one of the above criteria is not met, then the refined design method must be used. Before using the refined method to design an integral abutment, the designer must obtain the approval

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of the Deputy Chief Engineer (Structures). This should be done with submittal of the Structure Study Package for a Technical Quality Review (see Appendix 3D). In the refined design method, the effects due to skew, curvature, thermal expansion of the superstructure, reveal, and grade are considered. It may be necessary to analyze the superstructure and abutment as a rigid frame system by using either a three dimensional finite element model or a two dimensional frame model. Piles are designed for both vertical loads and for bending. The interaction between the piles and the surrounding soil is considered. For abutments with a large reveal, it may not be possible to design the horizontal reinforcement in the front and rear face of the abutment stem for full passive pressure. The soil pressure resulting from the actual superstructure thermal movement may have to be used. For additional guidance on designing integral abutments using the refined method contact the Office of Structures. Approach Treatments Integral abutment bridges with: C C C A length 100 ft. or less require no provision for expansion at the ends of approach slabs unless the highway pavement is rigid concrete. A length more than 100 ft. shall provide for expansion at the end of each approach slab. The span arrangement and interior bearing selection should be such that approximately equal movement will occur at each abutment.

C Pile Requirements Integral abutments have special foundation requirements. All integral abutments shall be supported on a single row of piles. C.I.P. or steel H-piles may be used for structures with lengths of 165 ft. or less. Only steel H-piles shall be used for structures with lengths more than 165 ft. When steel H-piles are used, the web of the piles shall be perpendicular to the centerline of the beams regardless of the skew, so that bending takes place about the weak axis of the pile. Orienting the piling for weak-axis bending offers the least resistance to thermal movement but increases the potential for flange buckling. For total bridge length of 245 ft. or greater, the designer shall investigate orienting the piles for strong-axis bending when the total lateral displacement causes buckling of the pile flanges. The Office of Structures' Foundation and Construction Unit, in coordination with the Office of Technical Services' Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, will select a pile type for integral abutments on a case by case basis. If C.I.P. piles are used, pile casing requirements will be provided in the Foundation Design Report. To accommodate expansion for bridge lengths of 100 ft. or more, each pile shall be inserted in a pre-excavated hole that extends 8 ft. below the bottom of the abutment. After driving the piles, the pre-excavated holes shall be filled with cushion sand. The cost of excavation, steel casings, and cushion sand shall be included in the unit price bid for the pile item. For bridges less than 100 ft., no special pre-excavation provisions are required for expansion purposes. All piles placed in pre-excavated holes shall be driven to a minimum penetration of 20 ft. This will provide for scour protection and assure sufficient lateral support for the pile, particularly

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when the top 8 ft. is excavated and backfilled with sand. If no pre-excavating for the piles is required, penetrations as low as 10 ft. can be used. A pile bent configuration is to be used for the integral abutment detail. For steel and spread concrete girder bridges, a minimum of one pile per girder shall be used. Wingwalls Unlike other abutments, the wingwalls for integral abutments have special requirements. In-line wingwalls cantilevered from the abutment are the preferred arrangement. Flared walls cantilevered from the abutment may be considered by the designer on a case by case basis. The use of flared wingwalls should generally only be considered at stream crossings where the alignment and velocity of the stream would make in-line walls subject to scour. Piles shall never be placed under flared wingwalls that are integral with the abutment stem. Generally, the controlling design parameter is the horizontal bending in the wingwall at the fascia stringer caused by the large passive pressure behind the wingwalls. In-line or flared wingwalls connected to the abutment stem with lengths in excess of 13 ft. should be avoided. Because of high bending moments due to passive soil pressure, it may be necessary to support long wingwalls (13 ft. measured along the wall) on their own foundation, which is independent of the integral abutment system. In this case, a flexible joint must be provided between the wingwalls and the backwall. The joint between the abutment and the wingwalls shall be parallel to the centerline of the roadway to accommodate the longitudinal movement of the bridge. A joint that is not parallel to the direction of movement will likely lead to binding between the abutment stem and wingwall. Separate wingwalls may be designed as conventional walls with a footing or a stem with a single row of alternately battered piles. The choice will be governed by the site and loading conditions, but walls using a single row of piles should generally be limited to a height of 13 ft. U-wingwalls cantilevered from the abutment stem shall be allowed only if in-line or flared walls cannot be used because of right-of-way or wetlands encroachment. The U-wingwalls shall not measure more than 6N-6O from the rear face of the abutment stem. No piles shall be placed under the U-wingwalls. This would inhibit the abutment's ability to translate and would cause internal stresses. The distance between the approach slab and the rear face of the U-wingwall should be a minimum of 4 ft. If the approach slab must extend to the U-wingwall, it shall be separated from the U-wingwall by a 2O joint filled with at least two sheets of Premoulded Resilient Joint Filler, Material Subsection 705-07. Utilities Rigid utility conduits, such as gas, water and sewer, are discouraged for use with integral abutments. If they are used, expansion joints in the conduits must be provided at each abutment. Sleeves through the abutment should provide at least 2O clearance all around the conduit. Flexible conduits for electrical or telephone utilities that are properly equipped with an expansion sleeve through the integral abutment are acceptable. Stage Construction When stage construction is used with integral abutments, the use of a closure placement between stages in the abutments shall be considered. The use of a closure placement can

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reduce the mismatch of the top of slab between stages caused by deflection from the superstructure. A closure placement in the abutment stem shall be required when the dead load deflection from the deck slab placement is calculated to be 3 inches or greater.

11.6.1.7 Semi-Integral Abutments


Description and Design Methodology Semi-integral abutments use conventionally designed abutments where superstructure girders are supported by bearings and pedestals on a bridge seat. The girders extend over the bridge seat and are embedded in a backwall that hangs behind, but is not connected to, the abutment stem. Full integral abutments have been used successfully by NYSDOT since the late 1970s. Their performance in terms of durability and first cost has been clearly superior to conventional abutments. This has mainly been due to the elimination of the deck expansion joint and the simple concrete forming required. Unfortunately, site condition criteria sometimes prevent their use. This is usually caused by rock being too close to the ground surface preventing the driving of piles or the necessity of using high abutments because of geometric constraints. When site conditions have prevented the use of integral abutments, jointless decks at abutments have often been used. Jointless decks at abutments are conventionally designed but the deck slab extends and slides over the backwall. While jointless decks at abutments have performed better than conventional abutments with deck joints, there have been some problems with transverse deck cracking near the abutment backwall. Jointless decks at abutments are also limited to a maximum expansion length of 200 ft. Semi-integral abutments should be considered for use where site conditions prevent the construction of full integral abutments. Semi-integral abutments are designed as conventional abutments with the following exceptions: C C C C C Backwalls must be designed for full passive soil pressure. Wingwalls must be independent from the backwall to allow movement. Clearance details are shown on the applicable BD sheets. Adequate clearance to handle expected movements must be provided between the suspended backwall and the abutment stem. Provision for expansion at the ends of approach slabs should be provided in accordance with the details on the applicable BD sheet. The top reinforcement in the decks slab at the end of the span should be designed for the negative moment produced from the reaction of half the approach slab dead load and a live load reaction placed on the backwall. The dead load of the backwall should not be included because the backwall is constructed in a separate placement before the deck and will not contribute to tensile stress in the deck slab.

Stage Construction When stage construction is used with semi-integral abutments, the use of a closure placement between stages in the backwall shall be considered. The use of a closure placement can reduce the mismatch of the top of slab between stages caused by deflection from the superstructure. A

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closure placement in the backwall shall be required when dead load deflection from the deck slab placement is calculated to be 3 inches or greater. Selection Criteria and Details C C C C C C C C C C C Maximum skew = 30. Maximum expansion length = 230 ft. (distance to nearest fixed bearing). No restriction on abutment height. No restriction on maximum grade. No restriction on footing type (spread or pile foundation). Utility restrictions are the same as integral abutments. See 11.6.1.6 of the Bridge Manual. Single-span bridges should have one of the abutment bearings fixed. Multiple-span, continuous bridges can have both abutments with expansion bearings as long as there is a fixed bearing at a pier. Curved girder structures are allowed if the curved girders are designed as straight as provided in NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 4.6.1.2. Backfill procedures are the same as for Integral Abutments. The hanging backwall may have its bottom surface cast on the ground or formed at the option of the Contractor. Polyethylene curing covers need not be placed under the hanging backwall.

11.6.2

Abutment and Wall Details

11.6.2.1 Stem Thickness


The stem thickness of cantilevered high abutments is almost always governed by the size of the bridge seat required for clearance between the superstructure and the backwall, the bearings and the backwall, and seismic criteria. For bridges with a pier, seismic criteria may dictate the support length at the ends of beams. The minimum support length (N) in the longitudinal direction should be measured perpendicular to the centerline of bearing. The minimum support length (N) in the transverse direction should be measured perpendicular to the centerline of the beam. The minimum support length shall meet the requirements of NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 4.7.4.4. The minimum bridge seat width is 3 ft. for steel, bulb tee and AASHTO I-beam superstructures and 2 ft. for adjacent concrete beam superstructures.

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Figure 11.4 Bridge Seat Width The stem thickness of integral and semi-integral abutments shall be as shown in the current BD-ID series. The centerline of the piles and the centerline of bearings of the beams shall always line up.

11.6.2.2 Pedestal Dimensions


The minimum height of the shortest pedestal is 6Owhen used with elastomeric bearings. If multirotational bearings are used, then the minimum height shall be 8O. The extra 2O is added for tolerance to allow the use of a taller multi-rotational bearing than the one used in the design and still provide a minimum pedestal height of 6O. If the difference in height between fascia pedestals is more than 6O then a sloping bridge seat should be used with both fascia pedestals being set at the minimum height. Pedestals more than 1N-6O high should usually be avoided for aesthetic reasons. Pedestals greater than this height should be investigated for their strength acting as a column. The minimum distance from the center of the bearing anchor bolt to any exposed vertical face of the pedestal shall be 8O. In addition, the minimum distance from the edge of the masonry plate to any vertical face of the pedestal shall be 3Ounless otherwise accounted for in the design. Masonry plate corners may be cropped to satisfy this requirement. The front face of all pedestals shall be flush with the front face of the abutment.

11.6.2.3 Drainage
The fill material behind all walls shall be effectively drained and weepholes shall be placed at a maximum spacing of 25 ft. In counterfort walls, there shall be at least one weephole for each pocket formed by the counterforts. Weepholes shall be located so that their invert is 6O above finished grade or low water in the case of stream bridges. Integral abutments generally do not require weepholes because of their minimal exposed height above finished ground.

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11.7

Bridge Piers

For the purposes of this section, the term pier is defined as an intermediate support for a bridge superstructure, between the abutments, extending from below the ground surface to the bottom of the superstructure. Piers may be required because of long spans, beam depth restrictions, or both. The pier may be a support point along a continuous superstructure, or it may be at the end of one simple span and the beginning of another. In either case, the pier must be designed to safely handle the dead, live, seismic and other loads introduced from the superstructure while at the same time handling any loads acting on the pier from flood water, ice flow, wind, and vehicular or ship impact. Suggested proportions of bridge piers can be found in Section 23.

11.7.1

Pier Types

Fig. 11.5 Typical Pier Types (a) Solid (b) Hammerhead (c) Multi-column (d) Pile Bent

11.7.1.1 Solid Pier


Solid piers consist of a solid mass of reinforced concrete, without overhangs, that is usually rectangular in plan. Solid piers are used primarily for river or stream crossings, low-clearance bridges, bridges over divided highways with narrow medians, and where short columns on wide bridges would have high stress due to shrinkage. Solid piers can also be used to meet crash protection requirements adjacent to railroads. This type of pier is currently used by NYSDOT for new bridges.

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11.7.1.2 Hammerhead Pier


With increasing pier height and narrow superstructures, the hammerhead pier becomes more economical by reducing the required amounts of material and forming. Hammerhead piers consist of a single large column with a capbeam overhanging on either side. Both the column and cantilevered ends of the capbeam support the superstructure beams. When located in a waterway, pier protection may be required. The overhangs of hammerhead piers may need to be investigated for the bracket and corbel effect as described in Section 15.10. This type of pier is currently used by NYSDOT for new bridges.

11.7.1.3 Multi-Column Pier


When piers need to be tall and wide, a multiple-column pier is usually the best choice. This pier type consists of two or more columns that can be either rectangular or circular. The columns are usually connected by a capbeam that supports the superstructure at points between the columns. For some highly skewed bridges with large beam spacing, it may be necessary to place individual columns under each bearing and to connect the top of the columns with a simple tie strut. When there are only two columns with overhangs, this pier is called a (pi) pier. The overhangs may need to be investigated for bracket and corbel effects as described in Section 15.10. These types of piers are currently used in NYSDOT for new bridges. A feature of most multi-column piers is the presence of the capbeam. This capbeam is subject to many design considerations that are not applicable to any other type of pier. The width of the capbeam is governed by the necessary width to support the bridge bearings with sufficient cover for the anchor bolts and the required support length for the beams. When the simply supported end of a beam rests on a pier, seismic criteria dictates the support length required. Support length (N) in the longitudinal direction should be measured perpendicular to the centerline of bearings. Support length (N) in the transverse direction should be measured perpendicular to the centerline of the beam. See Section 11.6.2.1. Round columns require that the capbeam be at least 2O wider than the columns on all sides. For seismic response reasons, high concrete columns (slenderness >60) in multi-column piers shall have reinforced concrete struts between the columns in the middle half of the column height.

11.7.1.4 Pile Bents


Pile bents are the simplest and least expensive piers to construct. This pier consists of driven piles with a concrete cap beam cast over the top of the piles to support the superstructure. This type of pier is inexpensive because there are no footings or columns to form or cast. Pile bents are not frequently used by NYSDOT due to concerns about aesthetics, corrosion of the exposed steel piles or steel pile casings, and the closely spaced piles trapping debris during a flood and reducing the available hydraulic opening.

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11.7.2

Pier Protection

Bridges in navigable waterways that are subjected to heavy commercial traffic may require additional protection according to AASHTO Guide Specification and Commentary for Vessel Collision Design of Highway Bridges. Additional information can be found in Section 2 of this manual. For stream bridges, a recommendation shall be obtained from the Office of Structures' Hydraulic Design Unit regarding the need for and type of ice breaker for pier noses. If required, the ice breaker shall consist of a steel angle or other device secured to the concrete by a suitable anchor system. For solid piers, this breaker may be attached to the pier stem. For hammerhead piers and multi-column piers, a plinth may be required to provide sufficient strength against the anticipated ice flows. A plinth is a solid mass of concrete that surrounds the pier to an elevation 2 ft. above the 100-year flood or flood of record, whichever is higher. In a navigable stream, the plinth should be carried to 3 ft. above design high water or maximum navigable pool elevation, whichever is higher. For piers between opposing directions of traffic, appropriate care must be taken to ensure that minimum horizontal clearances and highway traffic barrier requirements are satisfied. For more information, refer to the Highway Design Manual and Standard Sheets. For multi-column or hammerhead piers adjacent to railroad tracks, the need for crash walls must be investigated based on the proximity of the pier to the tracks in accordance with current AREMA Specifications. Additional information can be found in Section 2 of this manual.

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Section Twelve Bridge Bearings


12.1 Bearings Types

Bridge bearings transfer superstructure loads to the substructure while also providing for the thermal movement and rotation of the superstructure. Although many different types of bridge bearings have been used by the NYSDOT, elastomeric and multi-rotational bearings are the only general types of bridge bearings currently being used on new bridges of short to moderate length. Major-span bridges require special bearings to handle their extreme loads, movements, and rotations. These special bearings will not be covered in this section.

12.1.1

Steel Rocker Bearings (Type S.R.)

A steel rocker bearing consists of a pinned joint to accommodate rotation and a rocker to accommodate longitudinal movement at the expansion end of the structure. At the fixed end, there is no rocker, as the bearing is rigidly attached to a masonry plate. Steel rocker bearings do not allow for transverse movement. These bearings were widely used in New York through the 1970s. Steel rocker bearings have fallen out of favor due to concern regarding their performance in extreme site conditions (e.g., steep grade) or during a seismic event. The relatively tall bearings could tip over and cause the superstructure to drop a considerable distance or, in the worst-case scenario, to fall off of the bridge seat. Steel rocker bearings also require periodic maintenance to ensure their performance. This bearing type is no longer used on new bridges.

12.1.2

Steel Sliding Bearings (Type S.S.)

Steel sliding bearings consist of a pinned joint to accommodate rotation and a sliding element to accommodate longitudinal movement. The sliding element is usually some form of lubricated bronze plate. Steel sliding bearings do not allow for transverse movements. These bearings were widely used in NYS through the 1970s. Steel sliding bearings also require periodic maintenance to ensure their performance. This bearing type is no longer used on new bridges.

12.1.3

Elastomeric Bearings

The main component of all elastomeric bearings is a neoprene pad that distributes the loads from the superstructure to the substructure and uses its material flexibility to accommodate the rotation and longitudinal movement of the superstructure. Elastomeric bearings may use thin steel laminate reinforcement between the elastomer layers to provide for greater strength, a steel sole plate to allow attachment to steel superstructures, and may use a steel masonry plate. Elastomeric bearings perform well during seismic events because of their relatively large plan dimensions and low height, and the natural dampening effect of the elastomer material.

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Elastomeric bearings require very little maintenance to ensure their performance. This bearing type is currently being used on new bridges.

12.1.3.1 Plain Elastomeric Bearings (Type E.P.)


The plain elastomeric bearing is the least expensive bearing system. Due to its relatively low compressive strength, the plain elastomeric pad is only used under shorter prestressed concrete box beams and slab units. Since its longitudinal expansion capacity is limited, the main function of this bearing is to take up any misalignment of the beams with the surface of the bridge seat. The expansion bearing is provided with a hole through which a 1 inch diameter anchor dowel is inserted and compressible material is injected. The fixed bearing is also provided with a hole, through which a 1 inch diameter anchor dowel is inserted and an approved noncompressible epoxy or grout is placed. In both cases, the anchor dowel is intended to prevent walking of the bearing.

12.1.3.2 Steel Laminated Elastomeric Bearings (Type E.L.)


Longer prestressed concrete box beam bridges require that the bearings accommodate higher loads and greater thermal expansions. In order to increase the longitudinal movement and rotational capacity of elastomeric bearings while increasing their compressive strength, thin steel laminate reinforcement is placed between the elastomeric pads. The greater height of total elastomer allows for more movement, while the steel load plates prevent excessive bulging of the elastomer. The expansion bearing is provided with a hole through which a 1 inch diameter anchor dowel is inserted and compressible material injected. The fixed bearing is also provided with a hole through which a 1 inch diameter anchor dowel is inserted and an approved noncompressible epoxy or grout is placed. In both cases, the anchor dowel is intended to prevent walking of the bearing.

12.1.3.3 Steel Laminated Elastomeric Bearings With Sole Plate (Type E.B.)
This bearing is to be used with steel girder and prestressed NEBT and I-beam superstructures. It is identical to the Type E.L. bearing except there is a 1 inch minimum thickness steel sole plate vulcanized to the top of the bearing. The steel sole plate is welded or fastened to the beams. This sole plate may be beveled to take up any grade differences in order to achieve a level top elastomer surface if the longitudinal grade of the bottom flange is one percent or more or the required taper is inch or more. Type E.B. bearings are vulcanized to a steel masonry plate that is bolted to the substructure. For fixed Type E.B. bearings, a minimum 1 inch diameter pin is press fit through the masonry plate to prevent the bearing from translating longitudinally or transversely.

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12.1.4

Multi-Rotational Bearings (Type M.R.)

Multi-rotational bearings are generally used in high load situations, or where the thermal movements are excessive for elastomeric bearings. Multi-rotational bearings consist of a confined elastomeric element (Pot design) or an unconfined polyether urethane disc (Disc design) to accommodate rotation, and a sliding element to accommodate movement. The expansion bearings of this type may be guided, allowing movement in one direction, or non-guided, allowing movement in any direction. At locations where large movements are expected or where large sole plates are required, consideration shall be given to using four bearing stiffeners to better distribute the load rather than two located at the centerline of bearing. If four stiffeners are used, they shall be spaced apart at least the width of the stiffener. When using guided expansion bearings on very wide structures or curved structures, it may be necessary to increase the standard clearance between the guide bars and the bearing body to accommodate the transverse movement due to thermal expansion. The coefficient of friction used for the design of the bearings shall be 5%, whereas the maximum coefficient of friction specified to the manufacturer is 3%. Multi-rotational bearings require more regular maintenance to ensure their performance than elastomeric bearings. This bearing type is currently being used on new bridges. When shims are required on multi-rotational bearings with a capacity greater than 500 kips, the minimum shim plate thickness shall be 316 inch in lieu of the normal inch.

12.2 12.2.1

General Design Considerations Design Method

The provisions of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications shall be used for the design of bridge bearings. The design thermal movement for the design of bearings shall be calculated using Procedure B for bridges with a concrete deck that have concrete or steel girders and using Procedure A for all other bridge types (see NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specification Section 3.12). Note: the design thermal movement has to be factored by 1.2. Elastomeric bearings shall be designed using Method A (see NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specification Section 14.7.6). Multi-rotational bearings shall be designed by the fabricator. Design examples of various bearing types can be found in the Office of Structures Mathcad Library.

12.2.2

Live Load on Bearings

Impact shall not be included in the live load when designing elastomeric bearings. Impact shall be included in the live load when designing multi-rotational bearings.

12.2.3

Minimum Loads on Bearings

Elastomeric bearings used with steel superstructures have a minimum pressure requirement due to dead load plus superimposed dead load of 200 psi to ensure the rubber element does

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not walk out of position. Elastomeric bearings used with prestressed box beams or slab units do not have a minimum load requirement due to the presence of the anchor dowel. The minimum load on multi-rotational bearings due to dead load plus superimposed dead load is 20% of the capacity of the bearing to ensure proper operation of the bearing.

12.2.4

Uplift

Bridges with severe skews, curved girders, or unbalanced continuous spans may experience uplift of one or more of the beams. The preferred method of resisting uplift is to design a concrete counterweight over the bearings to weigh down the beam end and provide the minimum load for the bearing. If it is not possible to design a counterweight heavy enough to hold the beam end down, other possible solutions include changing the continuous spans to simple spans, making the uplift end of the beam the fixed end and providing uplift restraints that allow rotation in any direction, or changing the span or skew arrangement to eliminate the conditions creating the uplift. Care must be taken in designing uplift restraints that allow longitudinal movement. Anchor rods embedded in the pedestal passing through slotted holes in the girder usually do not work well due to a tendency for the anchor rods to bind. For specific design requirements for uplift, see the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications.

12.2.5

Bearings for Curved Girders

When setting bearings for curved girders, the assumed direction of expansion between points of support is a straight line chord between the fixed bearing and each expansion bearing along the continuous curved girder. However, the actual direction of expansion is in two planes. Bearings need to be designed to accommodate these movements. Multi-rotational bearings are recommended for curved girders on skewed supports because they are better able to resist torsional forces in the superstructure.

12.3

Bearing Selection Criteria

Elastomeric bearings are preferred for most structures. Multi-rotational bearings are used when large loads and movements cannot be efficiently accommodated by elastomeric bearings. Only one type and size of bearing shall be used for each line of bearings. When the required design load or movement exceeds the limits of the standard elastomeric bearings given below, the elastomeric bearings shall be specially designed or multi-rotational bearings shall be used. Round elastomeric bearings should be considered for situations where there are sizable vertical loads or large skews where the use of rectangular bearings would necessitate a very wide bridge seat or pier cap. For single span, non-integral structures the fixed bearing should be set at the low end of the bridge (the lowest bridge seat). This will reduce some of the stresses on the bearing as the structure will only expand uphill. Multi-span structures are more complex as fixed bearing placement will depend upon the number of spans and the shape of the profile. The first choice 12-4

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should be to place a fixed bearing near the center of the bridge. However, whenever possible, consideration should be given to forcing the majority of the expansion movement uphill.

12.4

Painting of Bearings

The steel parts of all bearings, including weathering steel, shall be painted due to concern for the bearing steel being in contact with water for long periods of time and the resulting durability concerns with uncoated weathering steel. Painting of the bearing steel is covered under the NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Construction and Materials and the cost is included in the bearing items.

12.5

Standard Bearing Designs

Standard bearing design tables assume a total induced rotation of 0.007 radians (dead load rotation of 0.000 radians, live load rotation of 0.005 radians, and a rotation of 0.002 radians to account for installation uncertainties). The designer is responsible for determining specific required rotations and sizing the bearings accordingly. The following are descriptions for the titles in the elastomeric bearing design tables. Bearings sizes in bold italics are preferred sizes, and should be used whenever possible.

Length Width Max. Load Min. Load N ni Max. Move. hrt Shape Factor Comp. Area* Shear Area*

Measured along the girder centerline Measured perpendicular to the girder centerline Maximum allowable compressive load Minimum load to ensure adequate bearing performance Number of elastomer layers Number of internal elastomer layers Maximum Movement: Maximum allowable bearing movement Total elastomer height (n x height of 1 layer) As defined by NYSDOT LRFD Section 14.7.5.1 Compressive Area: Plan area of the steel laminate reinforcement Plan area of the elastomer layer

* Included reduction for 2 diameter hole Table 12-1 Bearing Nomenclature

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STANDARD TYPE E.L. ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS


Length (in) 6 8 10 Width (in) 34 34 34 Max. Load (kips) 90 150 225 ni hrt (in) 1 1 2 Max. Move. (in) 1 Shape Factor* 4.66 5.96 7.15 Comp. Area* (in2) 190.92 258.42 325.92 Shear Area* (in2) 200.86 268.86 336.86

1 2 3

* Area of a 2 diameter hole for a pin was subtracted. Table 12-2 Bearing Design Standard Type E.L Elastomeric STANDARD TYPE E.B. ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS
Len. (in) Wid. (in) Max Load (kips) 110 110 110 190 190 190 190 280 280 280 280 Min Load (kips) 35 35 35 50 50 50 50 62 62 62 62 N hrt (in) Max Mov (in) 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 S Fact (Exp) S Fact (Fix)** Comp Area 2 (in ) (Exp) 173.06 173.06 173.06 244.06 244.06 244.06 244.06 315.06 315.06 315.06 315.06 Comp Area 2 (in ) (Fix)** 170.99 170.99 170.99 241.99 241.99 241.99 241.99 312.99 312.99 312.99 312.99 Shear Area 2 (in ) (Exp) 180 180 180 252 252 252 252 324 324 324 324 Shear Area 2 (in ) (Fix)** 178.23 178.23 178.23 250.23 250.23 250.23 250.23 322.23 322.23 322.23 322.23

10 10 10 14 14 14 14 18 18 18 18

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

3 4 5 5 6 7 8 7 8 9 10

1 2 2 2 3 3 4 3 4 4 5

6.43 6.43 6.43 7.88 7.88 7.88 7.88 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00

6.43 6.43 6.43 7.88 7.88 7.88 7.88 9.00 9.00 9.00 9.00

** A 1 diameter pin is assumed. The pin hole is not subtracted from the Shape Factor calculation because it is tightly fit. It is accounted for in the compression and shear area. Table 12-3 Bearing Design Standard Type E.B. Elastomeric

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12.6

Rehabilitation Projects

When a designer is evaluating a structure for rehabilitation, replacement of the existing rocker or slider bearings with maintenance free elastomeric bearings should be explored.

12.6.1

New Bearings on Existing Pedestals

For bridge rehabilitations where new bearings are to be put on existing pedestals, the designer shall detail the bearings so that the total bearing system heights will accommodate the bottom of steel elevations and top of pedestal elevations from the existing as-built plans. When there are more than 20 bearing replacements in a project, the designer shall include Item 564.51.nnnn, Structural Steel, to pay for any shim plates that may be required due to differences in pedestal heights between actual field conditions and what is shown in the contract documents. To estimate the quantity for this steel, designers should assume that half of the bearings will require a 1/2" thick shim plate the same length and 1" wider than the sole plate. The shim plates shall be detailed on the bearing drawings in the contract plans. Include note 104 on the contract plans.

12.6.2

New Bearings on New Pedestals

Shim plates shall not be used on bridge rehabilitation projects with new bearings on new pedestals. Pedestal elevations shall be detailed based on the proposed bearing height and the bottom of steel elevations from the existing as-built plans. Include note 103 on the contract plans.

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Section 13 Approach Details


13.1 13.1.1 Approach Slabs Purpose

Approach slabs provide a smooth transition between the bridge deck and the highway approach. The approach slab helps to reduce the "bump" that can be created when the approach fill settles at the end of the structure. New York State DOT requires approach slabs to be used on all State-owned bridges except for buried structures. On local bridges the owner is given the option of requesting approach slabs. This resulted from a request by many local authorities to reduce the cost of new bridge projects. Local bridges usually have low volumes of high speed truck traffic, therefore, the need for approach slabs is reduced. Unless specifically requested otherwise, approach slabs are not required on local bridge projects unless the type of structure used demands them, such as integral or jointless.

13.1.2

Length Determination

Approach slab length is determined by taking 1.5 times the height of the abutment, measured from the bottom of footing to top of pavement, and dividing it by the cosine of the skew angle of the abutment. This length is taken along the station line and then rounded to the next higher foot. The maximum approach slab length is limited to 25 ft., while the minimum length is 10 ft. See Section 13.1.4 for length determination with skews greater than 30.

13.1.3

Width Determination

The width of approach slabs used with conventional abutments and joint systems shall be from the edge of travel lane to edge of travel lane plus 1 ft. on each side. However, if the bridge is on a superelevated roadway where the crown line is at the edge of the travel lane, the approach slab should not extend the 1 ft. beyond the crown line. When the highway approach has curbs, the approach slab shall be placed from curb to curb. For conventional abutments with U-wingwalls, the distance between the approach slab and the rear face of the U-wingwall should be a minimum of 4 feet to provide sufficient space for placement and compaction of shoulder material. If the 4 foot minimum can not be provided carry the approach slab to the rear face of the U-wingwall. A 1Ogap filled with two sheets of an appropriate bond breaker shall be placed between the approach slab and the face of the Uwingwall to allow the approach slab to move vertically. Past experience shows that a single sheet of bond breaker material is insufficient.

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On integral and jointless abutments the approach slab shall typically be full width from face of railing to face of railing when the approaches are straight and flared or in-line wingwalls, are shown. Curved approaches should be dealt with on a case by case basis. Approach slabs shall extend under any sidewalk on integral and jointless abutments. See current approach slab BD sheets for corner details. U-wingwalls are undesirable on integral abutments and at the expansion end of jointless abutments. If they are used, the minimum gap between the approach slab and the U-wingwall shall be 2O and filled with at least two sheets of Premoulded Resilient Joint Filler, Material Subsection 705-07. Past experience has shown that binding has occurred with smaller gaps damaging both the wall and slab. See Section 5.2 for additional criteria for jointless decks and Section 11.6.1.6 for additional criteria for integral abutments.

13.1.4

Skewed Approach Slabs

For conventional abutments with skews of 30 or less, the end of the approach slab shall be parallel to the skew. For skews greater than 30, the end of the approach slab should be squared off, and the length of the approach slab is measured along the shorter side at the edge of travel lane. In cases of wide bridges with large skews, the length of the long edge of the approach becomes excessive. In these cases the end of the approach slab shall be parallel to the skew. For integral and jointless abutments the end of the slab shall be parallel to the skew for all skew angles. On curved structures the end of the approach slabs are typically placed radially. To simplify construction, the sides of the approach slabs should be on a chord, rather than on the curve. If the strict interpretation of the above criteria creates excessively wide or long approach slabs, consideration shall be given to alternative details.

13.1.5

End of Approach Slab Details

When an approach slab meets a concrete approach pavement, a pressure relief joint/sleeper slab is required. When an approach slab with a conventional jointed abutment meets a flexible highway approach pavement, a pressure relief joint/sleeper slab is not required. For span length requirements of integral abutments, abutments with jointless details and details of sleeper slabs see the BD-SA sheets. Pressure relief joint and sleeper slab lengths are in addition to the approach slab length calculated in Section 13.1.2.

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Approach Details

13.2 13.2.1

Approach Drainage Details Purpose

Large volumes of water running along the highway approach pavement can result in unacceptable spread of water on bridge superstructures. If the spread encroaches into the travel lane, it can cause dangerous hydroplaning. It is important to redirect water that runs along the highway approach pavement away from the structure and into a controlled channel to prevent erosion. Also, it is important that water that collects on the bridge be redirected into a controlled channel for erosion control. Proper handling of approach drainage will reduce or eliminate the need for scuppers on the bridge. See Section 5.4 for design criteria for bridge deck drainage.

13.2.2

Superstructures with Curbs or Barriers

On the upgrade end of bridges where curbs are used on the approaches a catch basin (CB) located in front of the curb should be provided. It should be located approximately 10 ft. from the end of the bridge wingwall or reinforced concrete approach slab, whichever is farther from the bridge, to collect the highway drainage before it reaches the bridge. Stone curb shall be used between this point and the bridge. At the ends of all curbed bridges where curbs are not used on the approaches, a stone curb transition section shall be installed as indicated on the appropriate BD sheet. Stone lined gutters shall be provided where required to carry the drainage down the slope of the embankment.

13.2.3

Superstructures without Curbs or Barriers

No special drainage details are required on the structure or highway approach sections.

January 2008

13-3

Section 14 Bridge Plan Standards and Communication of Design


14.1 Overview

Historically, the standard method for communicating bridge design information was through paper plan sheets and reports. These printed products were used for review, approval, estimating, constructing and documenting the work proposed in a bridge project. Today, electronic data is gaining importance and in some instances it is replacing paper as the preferred method for conveying design information. Electronic data is a broad category of products covering a wide range of uses. These products include; computer program outputs, 2D and 3D CADD models, and traditional material such as plans, reports and photos in a digital format. Regardless of how information is transferred, it is of paramount importance that standard practices are followed for developing and managing this information at all phases of a project. Standard practices allow for accurate understanding and efficient use of the information by all parties involved. This chapter presents standard practices for the preparation of both paper bridge plans and electronic bridge data. This guidance varies in form from required policy to recommended best practices. Because many of the best practices establish guidance where none currently exists, this information is conveyed in considerable detail. The Highway Design Manual should be considered a companion document to this chapter. Plans shall be prepared consistent with the Highway Design Manual and Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual to ensure a quality product, legibility and standard electronic data. Plans shall be prepared to ensure legibility of ledger size copies provided to reviewers during the project development process and to potential bidders at the time of plan sales.

14.2 14.2.1

Bridge Model Management General

The increased use and broad acceptance of graphic models as the primary method for both superstructure and substructure layout, contract plan production and the desire of users downstream from the design effort to use these models, has led to the development of Bridge Model Management. This section provides guidelines and standards for the successful use of Bridge Model Management. Bridge Model Management shall be utilized, to the full extent possible, on all NYSDOT Bridge projects. Within Bridge Model Management, a model is defined as a CADD element or elements that are drawn to represent a specific component of proposed work or a feature of the existing physical world. This graphical information is placed in a Microstation model space. A model space is a sub-file within a Microstation file used to compartmentalize the file. Additionally, a bridge designer is defined as an individual (engineer or technician) tasked with developing any part of a proposed bridges geometry.

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14.2.1.1 CADD File Types


Bridge Model Management aims to standardize the organization of CADD efforts used to facilitate design, detailing and construction of bridge projects. This organization is achieved by grouping all CADD work into five categories. Each group is associated with a specific file type. The five file types are the Bridge Design File, the Bridge Front File, personal work files, bridge drawing files, and the Bridge Estimate File. All file types are Microstation .dgn files and are discussed in detail below. Files of all types shall be created from the appropriate seed file and reside in the proper Projectwise folder for the life of the project. Seed files are located in the Projectwise Resource Information Folder.

14.2.1.2 Workflow Continuity


All CADD files created for any project development work shall remain active throughout the life of the project. Drawing and estimate files are developed as a network of references to the Bridge Design File and the Bridge Front File. Copying and renaming these files between project milestones breaks these associations. Therefore, files used for creation of preliminary plans shall be used to produce the final design plan set and (if necessary) amendment and field revision sheets. Files shall not be copied and/or renamed. Refer to section 14.9 of this chapter for design phase record plan procedures and refer to section 14.10 of this chapter for project archiving procedures as it relates to field revision sheets.

14.2.2

Bridge Design File

The Bridge Design File shall be a single file containing all modeled components of the bridge design. Modeled components are placed in an appropriately named model space alone, or with complementary components. The Bridge Design File shall be the only place this information exists. This provides a single source of data for design, detailing, and estimating. This eliminates confusion on projects with multiple designers making changes to the same elements in different models. All groups involved with the project will have direct access to the most up-todate information at any time in the bridge project lifecycle, from preliminary design thru construction. The Bridge Design File serves several important purposes. It is a complete graphical representation of the bridge designers intentions regarding location-critical components. The file shall only contain elements of the proposed work for which the bridge designer is principally responsible and those elements are modeled in their correct coordinate positions. Only information that meets these requirements shall be placed in the Bridge Design File. Each bridge in a project shall have its own Bridge Design File. It is important that all elements of the bridge that are modeled and included in the Bridge Design File be accurate and complete. A design model that is either inaccurate or incomplete can lead to confusion or error during construction. Design models shall be independently checked by graphical methods or through the use of coordinate geometry. The accuracy of the models in the Bridge Design File must be within a 0.25 inch tolerance.

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The Bridge Design File shall include a model space named [ ] REVIEW. The Review Model is an empty model space with all the design models referenced to it. The Review Model of the Bridge Design File can be referenced to a personal work file, with a nest depth equal to 1, to quickly see all of the proposed bridgework. The [ ] symbol in the model name represents the empty model space and brings that model to the top of an alphabetical list. Design models can consist of lines, shapes, solids or layouts. All design models shall be placed in the correct coordinate space using the State Plane Coordinate System and shall be drawn to true scale. 2D layout models shall be drawn at elevation zero and 3D line, shape and solid models shall be drawn at their proposed elevations. When constructing a layout model, such as a superstructure framing plan, it is important to draw the lines in the correct direction. For example, a centerline of bearings line shall be drawn from left to right looking up station and a centerline of beam line shall be drawn in an up station direction. This is so the graphic elements can be imported into InRoads to create alignments that can be used by Construction Most modeled bridge components have a corresponding Microstation level. Elements that do not may be placed on the default level. The list of model spaces in the Bridge Design File will vary depending on job specifics and designer preferences. Designers can use level controls to combine several elements into a single model space thereby reducing the total number of model spaces needed. Alternatively, the designer could create separate model spaces for each modeled element resulting in a long list of model spaces. What is important is that models are clearly named so that individuals not familiar with the file can easily find components of interest. Examples of models that could be included in the Bridge Design File are: [ ] REVIEW APPROACH DRAINAGE ARMORLESS JOINTS BACKFILL BARRIER/ RAILING TRANSITIONS BEARINGS BEGIN ABUTMENT BEGIN ABUTMENT APPROACH SLAB END ABUTMENT END ABUTMENT APPROACH SLAB EXCAVATIONS FRAMING PLAN MSES WALL PREFABRICATED COMPOSITE STRUCTURAL DRAIN PIER 1 SUPERSTRUCTURE SLAB UTILITIES ON BRIDGE

As an example, the Bridge Design File for the first bridge in PIN 1234.56 would be named: 123456_fea_brd_70_design.dgn. Note that the file name is specific to a given bridge.

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14.2.3

Bridge Front File

The Bridge Front File shall be a single file containing graphical information that is not the result of the bridge design effort, but benefits from residing in a centrally located file. Most of the models in the Front File can be created early on in a project because the majority of the information comes from the Site Data Package. This up-front work can then be referenced into other files as needed later on in the project. The Bridge Front File also provides a place for project information that fails to meet the requirements for inclusion in the Bridge Design file. Bridge Front File models are existing structures, existing site features, bridge design elements that are not in the correct coordinate space or work products that are the responsibility of other groups such as borings and roadway alignments. Additionally, if a Master Border is used in the drawing files it should be placed in the Bridge Front File and referenced into the drawings. Examples of models that could be included in the Front File are: BORINGS CONTOURS CUT/FILL SLOPE LINES EXISTING SUBSTRUCTURES HORIZONTAL ALIGNMENTS MASTER BORDER PAVEMENT MARKINGS PROFILES ROADWAY SECTIONS

As an example, The Bridge Front File for the first bridge in PIN 1234.56 would be named: 123456_fea_brd_70_front.dgn. Note that the file name is specific to a given bridge.

14.2.4

Personal Work Files

Because multiple designers cannot work in either the Bridge Design or Bridge Front File simultaneously, it is a good idea for each person working on a project to have a personal work file. Personal work files are used to develop models for the Bridge Design or Bridge Front Files, negating the need to work in those files. After a portion of work on a model is complete, it is imported into either the Design or Front Files as necessary. The model should then be deleted from the personal work file. Duplicate models can lead to confusion about correct information. Additionally the personal work file is used to develop ideas, check for conflicts, and store alternatives that may not have been selected. Personal work files should also be used for cutting cross sections, creating surfaces or developing alignments.

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Examples of models that could be included in a personal work file are: WORK 4-23-08 BEGIN ABUTMENT W/ INLINE WINGWALLS SECTION AT END OF WALL EAL CROSS SECTIONS ALONG UNDER ROAD

As an example, a personal work file for Tom P. Smith working on PIN 1234.56 would be named: 123456_work_tps.dgn. Note that in this case the file name is specific to the person and the project but not a bridge.

14.2.5

Bridge Drawing Files

The purpose of a bridge drawing file is to generate a single reproducible sheet that can be placed into the contract documents. Detailers shall reference the appropriate individual models from the Bridge Design File to show proposed bridgework. Similarly, models from the Bridge Front File shall be referenced to a drawing file when that information is needed in the drawing. By doing this the plans always have the most current information as the bridge design evolves. Drawing files shall never reference models from a personal work file. References to BD sheets or other files external to the Projectwise folder shall be detached upon completion of the drawing to avoid errors when the job is archived. Whenever possible, reference files should be attached coincident with the drawing file. If the referenced elements are located in the correct state plane coordinates, the details will be as well. In some cases it is necessary to move or scale a reference file to efficiently layout the drawing. In such cases, the scale and location of the plan view shall be preserved and the detail or elevation view shall be modified. If the drawing contains two or more plan views the scale and location of the first one, taken up-station, shall be preserved. When modifying reference files, to accommodate placing multiple details on a single sheet, the reference files should not be rotated. Drawing files may include an empty model space that references the Review Model of the Bridge Design File. This model space is called Reference to Review and includes the empty model space symbol [ ] in the name. This model space must use Live Nesting with a nest depth equal to 1 in order to see the elements of the Bridge Design File. This gives the detailer easy access to all of the bridge design information. This is particular helpful when detailing a drawing that includes model references that have been moved or folded from their correct coordinate location. Examples of models that could be included in a drawing file are: PLOT DETAIL SECTION A-A REINFORCEMENT PLAN [ ] REFERENCE TO REVIEW PATTERNING

Drawing files shall be named in accordance with Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual.

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14.2.5.1 Drawings with Hidden Lines


It is not recommended to show all of a solids hidden lines in an elevation view. The designer should consider which hidden lines show important information and include only those hidden lines. For example, an approach slab notch out in the abutment backwall is necessary to show as a hidden line so the notch out elevations can be called out. The appearance of solid models referenced into drawing files is controlled by modifying the reference presentation settings. Unfortunately, this only allows a designer the option of including all hidden lines or none. Therefore, it is recommended that hidden lines be turned off in the reference file and be drawn in the detail model of the drawing file.

14.2.5.2 Drawings with Cross Sections


Cross sections are different than plan view and elevation view drawings, as they are not directly referencing the design models from the Bridge Design File. The design models are used to generate sections in a drawing file. Once a section is created from a referenced solid model, the reference display is turned off. This difference between cross section drawings and other types of drawings is important to understand, because if the design model changes the section will not automatically update. The old sections must be deleted and generated again.

14.2.6

Bridge Estimate File

The intention of the Bridge Estimate File is to provide a single centralized location for quantity estimates done using CADD models. Any item that is estimated using CADD models must have its own model space, named using the item number, in the Bridge Estimate File. This model space is referred to as the item model. In general, item models will be empty with the design models representing the associated work referenced in from the Bridge Design File. The individual quantities are measured and then recorded on the estimate computation sheet. The estimate computation sheet shows the work-up from the point when quantities are measured in CADD to the calculation of the item total. The computation sheet must also include the name of the Bridge Estimate File and the name of the item model used. When the referenced design model contains multiple components, the computation sheet should also include the features, specified by level, that were measured. These methods give the designer the ability to quickly and accurately obtain quantities directly from the design models used to produce the contract plans. Because the design models are located in the correct state plane coordinates the estimate file has the additional advantage of allowing the designer to assess the appropriateness of the estimate by referencing adjacent design elements. Some bridge share items are not appropriate for estimating using CADD models and should not be shown in the Bridge Estimate File. These include items whose associated work were not modeled in the Bridge Design File or were not modeled in a way that allows for measurement of the quantity. In the second case, elements can be drawn in the item model to represent the quantity to be measured.

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Examples of models that could be included in the Bridge Estimate File are: ITEM 202.19 ITEM 203.0801 ITEM 203.21 ITEM 206.01 ITEM 207.16 ITEM 553.020007 ITEM 555.08 ITEM 555.09 ITEM 557.0102 ITEM 559.1896_18 ITEM 568.70

As an example, the estimate file for the first bridge in PIN 1234.56 would be named: 123456_est_brd_70.dgn. Note that the file is specific to a given bridge.

14.2.7

Three-Dimensional Models

Three-Dimensional (3D) models are very beneficial to bridge design, detailing and estimating efforts. Some of the benefits include; visualizing alternatives during conceptual design, checking elevation calculations, creating Plan and Elevation drawings, generating cross sections, and measuring volumes directly for estimates. In addition to the benefits 3D models offer the bridge designer, they are an excellent choice to convey substructure geometry to others involved in the design and construction phases. Solid models allow the highway designer to detect conflicts between his/her work (drainage, utilities, etc) and the proposed substructures. They also allow highway designers to visualize proposed work for the purpose of evaluating project aesthetics. Contractors and state Construction personnel have both showed significant interest in using 3D models in construction activities. Currently, information taken from solid models is used to layout structure excavations and verify placement of formwork. It is anticipated that as accurate 3D models become more available, their use in construction will increase.

14.2.7.1 2-D vs. 3-D


At the start of a project the Designer must decide which components of a bridge design shall be modeled in 3D. Even a designer experienced in 3D modeling needs more time to model a component in 3D than in 2D. Therefore it is only reasonable to demand that the benefits of having the 3D model justify the increased effort to create and maintain it. Unfortunately, the results of this qualitative cost-benefit analysis are not always clear. For example, novice 3D modelers will initially need to invest more effort to create a 3D model. The return on this investment may not justify the time spent. In this case, it is acceptable to consider this period of lost productivity as staff development, provided it is short term. Formal, as well as on-the-job training is an essential part of transitioning the bridge industry from 2D to 3D centered design.

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Generally, it is recommended that designers look at how the individual models could be used and pick the simplest form that meets the needs of the design team, Construction and the contractor.

14.2.7.2 Substructures
For new and replacement bridge projects, proposed substructures shall be solid modeled in all cases. For rehabilitation or superstructure replacement projects, designers should consider the amount of substructure work proposed. Generally, if the backwall is being reconstructed, the proposed work should be solid modeled. Solid models are not necessary for pedestal reconstruction alone. The abutment backwall is usually the most difficult element of the bridge to solid model. In addition to retaining the approach fill, the backwall must support several different parts of the bridge and approach roadway. For example, the backwall may need to support a joint system, an approach slab, a curb placement or a special post plate. This results in an irregular top-ofbackwall geometry that is not easily solid modeled. The top-of-backwall geometry can be complicated by the elevation differences that occur due to roadway grade. Accounting for elevation differences between the front and back faces of the backwall is not easy and creates confusion when detailing the abutment Elevation. This can be further complicated by the effect of skew on an abutment located within a vertical curve of the roadway profile. In this case the resulting theoretical top-of-backwall surface is warped within the roadway. Although solid models can be created that have warped surfaces this is difficult and results in models that cannot be correctly detailed. The primary purpose of the solid model is to facilitate the production of the contract plans. Therefore, top-of-backwall geometry shall be simplified into a set of planes that are oriented orthogonal to the abutment Elevation. This will produce Elevation drawings that can be easily detailed, as they will have a single line representing the top-of-backwall. These planes shall be constructed using elevations calculated at the front face of the backwall at all cross slope breaks within the roadway section. As mentioned above, for skewed abutments located within a vertical curve, this simplification will not accurately represent the actual shape of the front face top-of-backwall. For this case the engineer shall determine the error calculated at the middle of the plane. If the difference between the elevations found using the highway data and the solid model is greater than 0.25 inches then additional points of slope break shall be added to the top-of-backwall. In other words, if describing a section on the top-of-backwall with a single plane introduces significant error, then that section of the backwall shall be modeled using two or more planes to more accurately represent the curved surface of the actual substructure. For substructures that include architectural treatment, it is not necessary to include the appearance of this treatment in the solid model. Instead it is more useful to model the pay limits of the treatment as 3D shapes on the face or faces where it is to be applied. These shapes shall be shown on the drawings and included in the Bridge Estimate File. For substructures that include aesthetic recesses, the recesses should be included in the solid model as they are considered part of the concrete form work and are paid for in the concrete item. Note that, if a proposed recess/patterning is expected to significantly affect the price of the concrete item, the patterning should be considered architectural treatment and paid for under that item.

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14.2.7.3 Superstructures
Rarely will the extensive effort needed to accurately model the superstructure in 3D be justified. As solid models are used more and the modeling process becomes easier, it is likely that more of the structure will be modeled in 3D. Occasionally, approximate superstructure models are needed for the purpose of developing visualizations. The task evaluating the aesthetics of a proposed structure usually occurs early on in the design process. In this case, it is appropriate to approximate dimensions of the bridge geometry that have not yet been designed. These inexact models have limited use and should not be placed in the Bridge Design File.

14.2.7.4 Earthwork
For new and replacement bridge projects proposed earthwork should be modeled in 3D. Having a complete set of earthwork models is particularly useful in the design of complicated earthwork such as staged construction of replacement bridges. By generating detailed cross sections at any location within a project a designer can have a better understanding of what he or she is proposing. This is done using Microstation to generate sections though the earthwork and substructure solids and InRoads to drape the existing, proposed and excavation ground lines from the surface models. This results in an accurate representation of the proposed work revealing any conflicts or constructability concerns. Because most earthwork items have their own level, earthwork models can be easily managed from a few model spaces. A designer might choose to put all excavation models in one model space and all backfill models in another. The exception to this would be stage construction. In this case, excavation and backfill model spaces should be created for each stage. This will allow earthwork elements to be displayed independently on their proper levels.

14.2.7.4.1 Surface Models


The designer will determine how a given element of earthwork is modeled; as a surface, a solid or 3D shape. This will depend on what is being modeled and what the model will be used for. In general, elements whose volume is measured against the existing ground, such as embankments and excavations, should be surface modeled. Other elements such as select backfills, slope protection, drainage and wall systems (sheeting, GRSS, T-Wall, MSES) should be modeled as solids or 3D shapes. Surface models are created by drawing 3D lines, also known as features, in a model space of the Bridge Design File. Earthwork models are products of the bridge design effort and therefore should always be located in the Bridge Design File. The 3D lines can be manually placed or drawn using an InRoads tool such as Generate Sloped Surface. Each point on a feature line represents a single ground elevation at that coordinate location. These features can be imported into an InRoads surface and then triangulated. The triangulated surfaces can then be used to drape surface data into cross sections generated by Microstation. Triangulated surfaces are also used for estimating excavation and embankment volumes. Excavation and embankment feature models are often combined into a few model spaces in the Bridge Design File, but each triangulated surface should be in their own DTM file, appropriately named and kept in Projectwise.

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Surfaces are usually constructed from three kinds of features; source features, transverse features and catch point features. Typically source features are bottom-of-excavation or shoulder break lines. Source features are the starting point for generating transverse features that represent slope lines. Both source features and transverse features should have their pointtype set to breakline. Catch point features represent the intercepts of the transverse features and the original ground surface. Catch point features are typically the embankment toe or topof-slope and should have their point-type set to exterior. Setting the point-type to exterior will prevent InRoads from triangulating beyond the extent of the data. Placing these three kinds of features on different levels allows their view to be controlled when they are referenced into drawing files. From a workflow perspective, it is helpful to think of the feature model, 3D lines drawn in the Microstation model space, as the core data and creation of the triangulated surface a downstream process. In the event that a surface needs updating, the feature model should be changed and then the triangulated surface recreated by importing the new feature model into InRoads. This will insure that earthwork elements displayed in drawings are the same as those used for design and estimating.

14.2.7.4.2 Excavations
An excavation surface is created using the proposed substructure and the existing or original ground surface. When rock is anticipated in an excavation the designer should work with the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau to create an assumed rock surface in the area of the substructure. The assumed rock DTM file should be appropriately named and kept in Projectwise. The excavation surface is then created using the proposed substructure, the assumed rock surface and the existing or original ground surface. In some cases the proposed excavations will overlap. For example, an excavation for removal of an existing substructure overlaps the excavation for an adjacent proposed substructure. In this case, assuming the excavations are to be made simultaneously, the two excavations should be drawn separately and then combined into a single feature model. Whenever estimating an excavation that includes an existing substructure, the volume of the substructure removal must be subtracted out. This is necessary because the existing ground surface always includes the existing substructures and removal of existing structures is not paid for under the excavation item.

14.2.7.4.3 Solid and 3D Shape Models


Earthwork modeled as solids and 3D shapes should be simple volumes or areas that represent the proposed work, not the detailed geometry of the actual installations. For example, sheeting could be modeled as a vertical slab with a thickness of a few inches. The front face would locate the sheeting wall. There would be little or no benefit in modeling the actual geometry of the individual sheet pile sections.

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14.3 14.3.1

Detailing Standards Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets

Bridge Detail (BD) Sheets are provided to assist in bridge plan standardization. These sheets serve as a guide in the preparation of the contract plans and may be accessed in CADD format through Projectwise or in PDF format through the DOT website.

14.3.2

Title Blocks

Care should be taken to ensure consistency in the TITLE BLOCKS of all sheets within a set of plans, including multiple bridge projects. Most Title Block information is filled out using the Plans Plan Sheet Border and/or Plans Detail Sheet Border interfaces in Projectwise. For an overview of document attributes, see Section 2.6 in Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual. For a complete list of standard Projectwise interfaces, see Section 2.7 in Appendix 14 of the Project Development Manual. The bridge label featured in the LOWER TITLE BLOCK should be shown like this (format may be varied because of space constraints):
FEATURE CARRIED OVER FEATURE CROSSED

14.3.3

Scales and Scale Bars

Refer to Section 20.9 in Chapter 20 of the Highway Design Manual for a discussion of scales. Scale bars shall be provided for larger scale drawings that are site oriented such as the General Plan and Elevation, General Subsurface Profile and earthwork and embankment plans. Scale bars shall not be shown on roadway profiles. All details that are drawn proportionally shall be fully dimensioned and shall not display a numeric scale or scale bar. Any drawings intentionally drawn not to scale shall be labeled NOT TO SCALE and shall be fully dimensioned. Note # 12 shall be included on the General Notes sheet.

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The following are suggested scales (based on B-sized sheets, 11x17) to be used by detailers in the preparation of contract plans: Preliminary Plan Abutments Plan and Elevation Reinforcement Piers Plan and Elevation Reinforcement Transverse Section Railings Bearings Superstructure Slab Prestressed Concrete Excavation Plans Sections Approach Slabs Steel Framing Plan Girder Elevations Joints 1 = 40 1/4 = 1-0 no smaller than 1/8 = 1-0 1/4 = 1-0 no smaller than 1/8 = 1-0 1/4 = 1-0 no smaller than 1/8 = 1-0 1/4 = 1-0 no smaller than 1/8 = 1-0 1/4 = 1-0 1/2 = 1-0 1/2 = 1-0 1 = 10, 1 = 20 1/8 = 10, 1/4 = 1-0 1 = 10, 1 = 20 1/8 = 1-0, 1 = 10 1/8 = 1-0 1 = 10, 1 = 20 Not to scale Not to scale Table 14-1 Suggested Sheet Scales

14.3.4

Dimension and Table Value Rounding

The following is presented as a guideline to rounding dimensions and table values on the contract plans: Concrete Steel Reinforcement Length Bent Bars Reinforcement Length Straight Bars Stations Elevations Camber Table Haunch Table Design Load Table Moment Table Shear Table Skew Angle Bearing Azimuth Nearest in Nearest 116 in Nearest in Nearest 1 in Nearest 0.01 ft Nearest 0.01 ft Nearest 0.01 ft Nearest 0.01 ft Nearest 0.01 kip/ft Nearest 0.01 kip-ft Nearest 0.01 kips Nearest 1 second Nearest 1 second

(rounded down) (rounded down)

Table 14-2 Dimension Rounding Guidelines 14-12 May 2011

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14.4

Bridge Plan Organization

The bridge plans shall, as closely as possible, follow the order and content specified below. General Plan and Elevation Typical Sections Profiles Estimate of Quantities and Index of Drawings General Notes Boring Location Plan General Subsurface Profile Excavation and Embankment Beginning Abutment Plan and Elevation Beginning Abutment Details Pier 1 Plan and Elevation Pier 1 Details (Subsequent up-station piers shall be numbered sequentially and shall follow in order) Ending Abutment Plan and Elevation Ending Abutment Details Bearings Transverse Section Framing Plan (Bridges with Steel Girders or Spread Prestressed Concrete Beams) Beam Layout (Bridges with Adjacent Prestressed Beams) Girder Details (Bridges with Steel Girders) Beam Details (Bridges with Prestressed Concrete Beams) Haunch Table Superstructure Slab Approach Slabs Joint System Barrier (Bridges with Concrete Barrier) Railing (Bridges with Steel Railing) Approach Drainage Miscellaneous Details Bar Bending Diagrams Bar Lists In many cases, several sheets are necessary to clearly portray the drawings required content. This is referred to as a drawing series. The sheets of a drawing series are named by indicating the sheet number within the sequence and the total number of sheets in that series. For example, the barrier drawing series includes barrier layout, plans, elevations, sections, numerous details and notes. The barrier drawing series can require six sheets to completely describe all associated work. In this case, the first barrier drawing in this series is named Barrier (Sheet 1 of 6).

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Drawings that show work that is not completely detailed within its drawing series needs to reference the drawing number where that information is shown. When a drawing series portrays a large continuous view, the view must be split by use of named and labeled match lines. Bridge plan drawings are to be numbered in the format STn-xx, where n is the structure number and xx is the location of the drawing within the set. For contracts containing only one bridge the structure number n may be omitted. For example, the first drawing in a contract with only one bridge is numbered ST-01. Similarly, the first drawing of the first bridge in a contract with more than one bridge is numbered ST1-01.

14.5

Bridge Plan Content

As a guide for both plan preparation and review, a specific checklist of required content has been provided in Appendix 14A. Bridge plan drawings shall illustrate project information using feature file references whenever possible. Attached reference files shall be those created and maintained by the originating work groups such as Structures Design, Highway Design, Geotechnical, Survey, Photogrammetry or Consultant. The drawings shall depict elements of the proposed structure by referencing the Bridge Design File whenever possible. Similarly, the drawings can show site data and other information from the Bridge Front File by referencing that file. The following list gives guidance on preparing a drawing or series of drawings for inclusion in the Bridge Plans: GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION The intent of this drawing is to convey an overview of the proposed work. It shall contain a plan view, elevation view and any necessary tables and notes. TYPICAL SECTIONS This drawing shall show the bridge section and approach section. If the approach sections are different at the beginning and end of the bridge, both sections should be shown. Additionally, for projects with stage construction and/or staged removal, this drawing shall show stage construction sections for each stage that changes the MPT on the Bridge. This drawing shall also include a longitudinal section for bridges composed of three sided structures. PROFILE This drawing shall show the roadway profile and expanded banking diagram of the roadway carried, all roadways crossing under the bridge and any stream realignment.

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ESTIMATE OF QUANTITIES AND INDEX OF DRAWINGS This drawing shall include the Estimate of Quantities and the Index of Drawings tables. The Estimate of Quantities table shall be created using the Estimate Wizard program and the estimate file from Trns-port Estimator. It is not necessary to list all the pay items contained in the bridge fiscal share in this table. Overhead items such as mobilization, survey and stakeout, Work Zone Traffic Control, construction signs, etc. do not need to be included. GENERAL NOTES This drawing shall include all standard notes from Chapter 17 that pertain to the proposed work. These standard notes must be checked, and in some cases edited, to insure that they specifically pertain to the proposed structure. BORING LOCATION PLAN This drawing shall show the geotechnical boring hole locations relative to the bridge and will be provided by the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. GENERAL SUBSURFACE PROFILE This drawing shall show a generalized geotechnical profile at the borings and will be provided by the Geotechnical Engineering Bureau. EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT The intent of this drawing is to illustrate all earthwork proposed in the area of the bridge. This includes excavations, designed excavation support, backfills, embankments, substructure removals, proprietary wall systems and geosynthetically reinforced soil systems (GRSS). This drawing shall show sufficient plan views and sections to convey construction details and pay limits for all bridge earthwork items. The legend of earthwork symbols shall be shown on the first sheet of the excavation and embankment drawing series and shall show the earthwork items, where possible. In the case of stage construction, plan views and sections shall be shown for each stage of construction. In the event that the necessary substructure removal cannot be completely shown in the plan and section views, the designer may show separate isometric views of existing substructure with areas of removal hatched. In this case, it is not necessary to completely detail the existing substructures dimensions and elevations. Only the dimensions and elevations necessary to perform the substructure removal should be shown. ABUTMENT/PIER PLAN AND ELEVATION The intent of this drawing is to locate and detail concrete dimensions of a single substructure. It shall contain a plan view, elevation view and any necessary tables and notes. All substructure elevation views except the begin abutment shall be taken looking up station.

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ABUTMENT/PIER DETAILS The intent of this drawing is to provide all details necessary to construct the substructure not shown on the Plan and Elevation drawing. This drawing shall include pile layout, reinforcement plans, reinforcement elevations, sections, details, and any necessary tables and notes. When two or more substructures share an identical detail the detail may be shown only on the first substructure drawing and then referred to later by note. The designer shall ensure that the drawing includes enough sections to clearly define where all reinforcement is located. When indicating applicable bar marks, if corrosion protection is applicable, designate epoxy (E), galvanized (G), stainless steel clad (C) or solid stainless steel (S). BEARINGS This drawing shall include all information required for the bearing manufacturer to produce the proposed bearings. If the bearings consist of plain rubber pads or elastomeric bearings without masonry plates, as used with prestressed box beams and slab units, then they can be detailed on the Beam Details drawings. TRANSVERSE SECTION This drawing shall show the transverse section and the diaphragm details. Diaphragm details should be shown in a separate detail but may also be shown in the transverse section as an example. A fascia detail should also be provided. FRAMING PLAN (steel and spread prestressed concrete superstructures) This drawing shall show a plan view line drawing representation of the girders or beams and cross frames. BEAM LAYOUT (adjacent prestressed concrete superstructures) This drawing shall show a plan view representation of the proposed beams. GIRDER DETAILS (steel superstructures) The intent of this drawing is to provide all details necessary to fabricate the girders that are not shown in the framing plan. This drawing shall include girder elevation, girder sections, miscellaneous steel details, camber table, camber diagram, moment and shear table combined for both HL-93 and NYSDOT design permit vehicle, design load table, field splice details, and necessary notes. BEAM DETAILS (prestressed concrete superstructures) The intent of this drawing is to provide all details necessary to fabricate the prestressed beams that are not shown in the framing plan or beam layout. This drawing shall include beam plan, beam reinforcement plan, beam reinforcement elevation, beam sections, end block reinforcement detail, design load table; beam reinforcement table and bar bending diagrams, miscellaneous prestressed beam details, camber table, design load table and necessary notes.

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HAUNCH/SLAB THICKNESS TABLES This drawing shall include the haunch table and haunch details for steel and spread prestressed concrete superstructures and a slab thickness table for adjacent prestressed concrete superstructures. SUPERSTRUCTURE PLAN This drawing shall include the slab reinforcement plan, end section, structural slab optional forming systems, and miscellaneous slab details. APPROACH SLAB This drawing shall include the slab reinforcement plan, end section, and miscellaneous slab details. JOINT SYSTEM The intent of this drawing is to show all information required for the joint manufacturer to produce, and the Contractor to install the joint system. This drawing shall include the joint plan, sections and table. BARRIER This drawing shall include enough detail so that the contractor can construct the proposed barrier. This drawing shall include the barrier layout, transition plan, transition elevation, transition details, sections, barrier details, pedestrian fencing, snow fencing and necessary notes. These details can mostly be assembled from the Bridge Detail sheets. These standard details must be checked, and where necessary, modified to insure that they specifically pertain to the proposed structure. RAILING This drawing shall include enough detail so that railing manufacturer can produce and the contractor can install the proposed railing. This drawing shall include the railing layout, transition plan, transition elevation, transition details, sections, railing details, pedestrian fencing, snow fencing and necessary notes. These details can mostly be assembled from the Bridge Detail sheets. These standard details must be checked, and where necessary, modified to insure that they specifically pertain to the proposed structure. APPROACH DRAINAGE This drawing should include drainage plan, sections and all necessary details assembled from the Bridge Detail sheets. MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS This drawing should include all necessary details that have not otherwise been included in the contract plans.

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BAR BENDING DIAGRAMS This drawing depicts all standard bar bending shapes. BAR LIST(S) These drawings show the number, size, shape and mass of the reinforcing bars used in the project. Bar lists for deck slabs, approach slabs and concrete barrier shall be included even though the reinforcement bars for these items are not paid for separately.

14.6

Professional Engineer Stamping

Every construction plan sheet and field change sheet must bear the seal and signature of the professional responsible for its production. Professionals sealing a design work shall place supporting material in the project file, in accordance with the requirements of 8NYCRR 29.3a3, and will have access to the file for a minimum of six years. The supporting material may include, but is not limited to; drawings, specifications, reports, calculations and references to applicable codes and standards.

14.7

Resolving Reviewer Comments

Designers shall resolve reviewer comments within a reasonable time from receiving them. Comments that are agreed to shall be incorporated into the plans. Comments that are not agreed to require the designer to respond to the reviewer in writing as to why the comment was not incorporated into the plans.

14.8

Amendments and Field Revisions

Occasionally after the bridge plans are incorporated into the PS&E submittal, it is necessary to change information shown on the original plans. Formal alteration of the plans by addition, deletion or substitution of plan sheets is done through amendment and field revision. An Amendment is issued when changes are needed to sheet(s) prior to the amendment deadline. If changed sheets cannot be issued before the amendment deadline, changes are made by field revision. When an Amendment sheet is needed the designer should classify the extent of the change as either extensive or minor as the amendment deadline varies with the magnitude of the change. To determine the amendment deadline consult the Construction Contract Letting Schedule published by Program and Project Management Bureau. Additional information and departmental requirements for amendment sheets can be found in Section 21.10 of the Highway Design Manual. Bridge plan field revision sheets will be one of three types; Field Change Sheets, Major Changes to Professionally Sealed Contract Plans or Minor Changes to Professionally Sealed Contract Plans. The first type, Field Change Sheets, is used when a major change in project scope, limits or cost occurs, requiring regulatory and/or programmatic approvals. Field Change Sheets must be

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Bridge Plan Standards and Communication of Design

sealed by the licensed professional that was responsible for their production. Field Change Sheets affecting a bridge structure must be approved by the DCES. The second type of field revision sheet, Major Changes to Professionally Sealed Contract Plans, is used when a change require a significant departure from the original design. These field revision sheets require sealing and signing by the original designer or by another licensed professional familiar with the original design. Sealing and signing must occur prior to proceeding with the revised work. Major Changes to Professionally Sealed Contract Plans affecting a bridge structure must be approved by the DCES. The third type of field revision sheet, Minor Changes to Professionally Sealed Contract Plans, is used when only minor design changes are needed. New or altered plan sheets for minor changes do not necessarily have to be sealed and signed prior to implementation of the approved change. These Minor changes can be made by licensed professionals in the Construction Group without formal review. Additional Information and requirements for production of field revision sheets can be found in the Manual of Uniform Record Keeping (MURK) Part 1A Contract Administration Manual (CAM) Revision No. 2, Section 91. Refer to section 14.2.1.2 of this chapter for Bridge Model Management workflow as it relates to production of amendment and/or field revision sheets.

14.9

Design Phase Record Plan Sets

At each project milestone the designer shall create a PDF copy of the entire plan set along with any supporting documentation such as notes, preliminary estimate worksheet, estimate of quantities and Structure Justification Report. PDF plan sets should be made at a 400 x 400 resolution. At a minimum, PDF plan sets should be made at the following milestones: Advanced Preliminary Plans Signed Preliminary Plans Advanced Detail Plans PS&E Plans.

For example, the Advanced Preliminary Plans for the first bridge in PIN 1234.56 submitted for review on May 9, 2008, would be named: 123456_cpb_70_plans_05-09-2008.pdf. The description field should be filled in with the bridge name and type of review, such as Rte 4 over CSX - Advanced Preliminary Plans. All PDF plans shall be kept in the Projectwise job folder.

14.10

Project Archiving

Sometime after Project Acceptance and prior to a job being removed from the NYSDOT folder on Projectwise, projects are archived by the Regional Data Manager. This archive is done for all projects and preserves the CADD files for possible future use as they are at Project Acceptance. In the event that a project requires bridge field change work, the designer shall request the Regional Data Manager perform an As-let archive of the job folder, prior to starting any field change work. Once the designer has confirmed the archive, the original CADD files shall be modified as necessary to accommodate the needed field change work.

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14.11

Electronic Data Transfer

In an effort to facilitate the Departments electronic data transfer initiative bridge designers shall create a Bridge Alignment File containing centerline of bearings and centerline of girder horizontal alignments. A separate horizontal alignment shall be created for each element, paying close attention to the direction of the elements. This alignment file should be created before PS&E and placed in Projectwise. As an example, the Bridge Alignment File for the first bridge in PIN 1234.56 would be named: 123456_70_fea_brd.alg. Note that once again the file is specific to a given bridge. Upon request, the Regional Office will provide Contractors copies of project CADD information in Microstation DGN and InRoads DTM and ALG formats. For bridge projects this CADD Information in Microstation DGN format will include all documents containing contract plan sheets and their associated reference documents (cpb and fea document categories). This includes the Bridge Design File, the Bridge Front File, all drawing files and the Bridge Alignment File. It does not include the Bridge Estimate File or personal work files. When available for bridge projects, CADD information provided in InRoads DTM format will include the proposed finished grade DTM in the area of the bridge, and all substructure excavation DTMs. For further guidance regarding electronic data transfer to Contractors refer to Chapter 20 of the Highway Design Manual.

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Appendix 14A Contract Plan Review Checklist


The following is a checklist of items that are, at a minimum, to be shown on the contract plans for new structures, if applicable. Special situations may require details in addition to those listed. It is the responsibility of the designer to provide the details that will allow the contractor to complete the project as intended. Superstructure replacement projects should use this checklist, which may need to be modified on a specific project basis. GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION PLAN Scale Bar Oriented with over road up station to the right and centerline at horizontal, if possible North arrow Baseline Station line and Horizontal Control Line (HCL) with azimuths of tangents PC, PT, TS, ST, SC and CS for station lines on curved alignment within the scope of the plan Table of horizontal curve data of curved alignment Location of the Theoretical Grade Line (TGL) Equality stations for intersection of over road and under road, stream or tracks below Existing substructure and superstructure from existing plans or field survey Traffic direction on track or highway (i.e., to Syracuse ) Skew angle structure makes with station line for tangent structures; azimuth of substructures for curved alignments Centerline of bearing stations and azimuths Location of point of minimum vertical clearance Actual minimum horizontal clearances Span lengths and out-to-out bridge width Lane, shoulder and mall widths for approaches Limits and type of slope protection Approach drainage details (gutters/catch basins) Location of utilities on and off the structure Location of lighting appurtenance Sign location if supported on structure Guide rail/traffic barrier/screening location and type Section marks for Elevation View Temporary detour details (if in vicinity of structure) including centerline of alignment and width Direction of river/stream flow Stations of stone filling parallel to stream and roadway 14A-1

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Bridge begins and ends stations Length of reinforced concrete approach slab Approach pavement begins and ends stations Scupper location and type Limits of all toe of slopes Berm location and width Wingwall angles Proposed and existing ROW lines

ELEVATION Scale Bar Approximate existing ground line Datum elevation line Slopes of embankments and type of slope protection Bottom of footing elevations on spread on earth or pile footings Top of footing elevations and minimum depth of footing if founded on rock Aesthetic treatments Guide rail/traffic barrier/screening Existing and/or proposed utilities Section under roadway , station line, HCL, TGL and point of rotation of under roadway Cross slopes of under roadway Actual minimum horizontal clearance Actual minimum vertical clearance over travel lane, usable shoulder, or railroad track Type and thickness of slope protection Berm location and width Stream section; bottom angle width and elevations or reconstruction section Design High Water (DHW) elevation at structure Actual minimum freeboard over DHW Navigation lights Track dimensions if railroad is involved Label expansion and fixed bearings at piers and abutments Pile type and location Finished ground line

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

MISCELLANEOUS Load Rating Table (LRFR and LFD or ASD) Hydraulic Data Table Curve Data Table Electrical Safety Note Temporary Structure Design Live Load Note Design Data Table (Three Sided Structures) Geotechnical Design Data Table (Three Sided Structures) Assumed Footing Loads Table (Three Sided Structures)

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TYPICAL SECTIONS BRIDGE SECTION Oriented looking up station Widths and cross slopes of pavement Width and cross slope of sidewalk Median width station line, HCL, TGL and point of rotation Slab thickness, wearing surface type and thickness Railing/barrier/screening Curb type and height If steel composite superstructure, show steel studs If steel superstructure, show girders and spacing If prestressed superstructure, show box beams, slab units, bulb tees or I-beams If steel or prestressed bulb tee or I-beam superstructure, indicate dimension from centerline of fascia stringer to edge of slab If prestressed box beam or slab unit superstructure, indicate dimension from edge of fascia beam to edge of wearing surface. Utilities Configuration of top of pier

APPROACH SECTIONS Pavement, curb, sidewalk and shoulder widths Slab thickness Cross slopes Transitions (If required) Median widths and railing/barrier Curb type and height Transition guide rail and dimensions , station line, HCL, TGL and point of rotation Appropriate ditch details Embankment and/or cut slopes U-walls

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April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

STAGE CONSTRUCTION SECTION Existing and proposed sections for each stage Identify removal (dashed) and new construction Temporary (dashed) and permanent railing or barriers Temporary lane widths, sidewalks and shoulders/offsets Cross slopes may be omitted due to space constraints Concrete closure placement location and width Horizontal relationship of cut and build lines to or HCL Vertical relationship between existing and proposed must be shown accurately Curb type and height or HCL, station line, TGL, and point of rotation Any required temporary support A Staging Plan View may be needed to convey staging strategy

LONGITUDINAL SECTION FOR CULVERTS/THREE SIDED STRUCTURES , station line, HCL, TGL and point of rotation Curb types, guide rail and dimensions Widths and cross slopes of pavement and sidewalk Pavement and shoulder types Earth cover Slope of invert and top of structure Direction of flow Utilities Cutoff wall Invert and headwall elevations Apron type, depth and length Foundation details Wingwall Data Table Additional requirements may be found in Section 19.6.1 of the Highway Design Manual

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PROFILES

ROADWAY PROFILE PVI station, elevation, middle ordinate and sight distance Show grade lines and percentage grade Length of vertical curves Station ordinate line Show ordinate for centerline of improvement and intersecting station Banking diagram (See figure 2.10 or 2.11) Show expanded banking diagram if significant variance in cross slope occurs

EXPANDED BANKING DIAGRAM See Figure 2.12 Stations should increase from bottom to top Show lanes and shoulders Stations at normal crown, high side level, reverse crown and full bank Stations at bearings and end of approach slabs or HCL, TGL and point of rotation

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

ESTIMATE OF QUANTITIES TABLE AND INDEX OF DRAWINGS ESTIMATE OF QUANTITIES TABLE Item number Description of item Units of measurement Engineers estimate Space for final quantity

INDEX OF CONTRACT PLANS Sheet number Drawing number Description

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GENERAL NOTES GENERAL NOTES Applicable general notes Applicable substructure notes Applicable superstructure notes Prestressed concrete notes Conservation notes Foundation notes Special requirement notes Railroad maintenance notes Construction procedure for unusual conditions Notes for removing existing substructure and superstructure Maintenance table or description of maintenance responsibility (Important on EGC and RR Law projects)

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April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT MISCELLANEOUS PLAN Scale Bar North arrow Centerline bearing stations Station line Outline of new and existing substructures Limits of removal items Limits of earthwork items Limits of prefabricated composite structural drain Limits of cofferdams (if required) Limits of excavation support system (if required) Location of underground utilities Legend of earthwork symbols used on the drawing with item numbers Embankment notes

SECTIONS New and existing substructures Bottom of footing elevations, or if spread footings on rock, top of footing elevations Limits of removal items Limits of earthwork items Any sections required to clarify any complicated or overlapping removal or earthwork limits Prefabricated composite structural drain Weep holes Approximate existing ground

EXCAVATION SUPPORT SYSTEM See appropriate Bridge Detail (BD) sheets

MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH SYSTEM (MSES) See appropriate Bridge Detail (BD) sheets

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ABUTMENT PLAN AND ELEVATION MISCELLANEOUS PLAN North arrow Outline of the abutment and wingwalls (Show suspended backwall as dashed lines for semi-integral abutments) Station line Tangent azimuth of station line at the centerline of bearings Centerline of bearing station, and Bridge Begins or Ends station Azimuth of centerline of bearings Skew angle Azimuth of stringers or angle stringers make with centerline of bearings Center to center spacing of the centerline of the beams measured perpendicular to the beam azimuth Center to center spacing of the centerline of the beams measured along the centerline of bearings azimuth and tied to a working line Girders/beams numbered Pedestal widths and anchor bolt location Waterstops labeled All dimensions and angles required to construct the abutment and wingwalls tied to the centerline of bearings and station line Expansion, construction or contraction joints labeled and tied down to working line High point on backwall dimension tied to working line Wash requirements of bridge seat Concrete Table of placement numbers, item numbers and volume estimates See Foundation Design Report (FDR) for appropriate notes.

ELEVATION Outline of abutment and wingwalls (Show suspended backwall as dashed lines for semi-integral abutments) Indicate concrete placement number Weep holes (if required) Sleeve openings for utilities (if required) High point on backwall elevation All elevations required to construct the abutment and wingwalls Wash requirements of bridge seat Finished ground line in front of abutment

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

ABUTMENT DETAILS PILE LAYOUT North arrow Any notes required from the FDR Outline of footing plan Station of intersection of the centerline of bearings and station line Tie the pile spacing to the intersection of the centerline of bearings and station line Show pile batter and location of battered piles Splice detail Reinforced tip for steel piles detail Reinforcement details for concrete piles Estimated pile length Pile cut off elevation Number all piles and include table for actual driven length Pile item number

FOOTING REINFORCEMENT PLAN (Omit for integral abutments) Outline of footing All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in or originating in the footing Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Laps lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to a bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

STEM AND LOWER WINGWALL REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of stem and lower wingwalls (Include dashed outlines of piles and partial dashed outlines of girders/beams for integral abutments) All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in the stem and lower wingwall except bars extending into the pedestal (lower wingwall bars in flared wingwalls are normally omitted and referenced to the wingwall reinforcement elevation) Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

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BACKWALL AND UPPER WINGWALL REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of backwall and upper wingwalls (Include partial outlines of girders/beams for integral abutments) All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in or originating in the backwall and wingwall (upper wingwall bars in flared wingwalls are normally omitted and referenced to the wingwall reinforcement elevation) If the bridge has concrete barriers, add note: Barrier bars originating in u-wingwalls not shown, refer to barrier reinforcement plans. Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Header and approach slab blockout for bridges with joint systems

HEADER REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of header All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in the header Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

ABUTMENT AND WINGWALL REINFORCEMENT ELEVATION (integral abutments only) Outline of abutment and wingwalls All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the abutment and wingwalls that cant be called out in the plan views. Usually this consists of horizontal reinforcement bars that cant be called out with clarity in the plan views. Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

WINGWALL REINFORCEMENT ELEVATIONS (flared wingwalls only) Outline of wingwalls All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in the wingwalls Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

ABUTMENT AND WINGWALL SECTIONS Outline of abutment and wingwalls at section. (Include superstructure slab and approach slab at section for integral abutments. Exclude outline of suspended backwall at abutment section for semi-integral abutments) Indicate concrete placement numbers All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Bottom and top of footing elevations (if footing shown) Pile size and type (if on piles) Pile cutoff elevation (if on piles) Weep hole location Wash requirements of bridge seat

PEDESTAL DETAILS Outline of pedestal Indicate concrete placement numbers All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Embedment length of bars Wash requirements of bridge seat Pedestal Elevation Pedestal Hoop Table

ANCHOR BOLT LAYOUT Outline of pedestal Outline of masonry plate Label anchor bolts Centerline of bearings Wash requirements of bridge seat Chamfer shown and dimensioned Centerline of beam All dimensions necessary to set the anchor bolts tied to the centerline of bearings and the centerline of girder/beam

April 2010

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SUSPENDED BACKWALL REINFORCEMENT PLAN (semi-integral only) North arrow Outline of suspended backwall along with partial outlines of approach slab, superstructure slab, girders or beams and wingwalls Station line Tangent azimuth of station line at the centerline of bearings Expansion, construction or contraction joints labeled and tied down to working line All dimensions and angles required to construct the backwall tied to the centerline of bearings and station line Centerline of bearing station, and Bridge Begins or Ends station Azimuth of centerline of bearings All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in or originating in the backwall Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

SUSPENDED BACKWALL REINFORCEMENT ELEVATION (semi-integral only) Outline of backwall All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the suspended backwall that cant be called out in the plan view. Usually this consists of horizontal reinforcement bars that cant be called out with clarity in the plan view. Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

ABUTMENT SECTION (semi-integral only) Outline of abutment should include partials of superstructure slab, approach slab, girders or beams and bearings at section All applicable bar marks totally contained or originating in the suspended backwall and superstructure slab only Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Limits of longitudinal sawcut grooving for superstructure slab

MISCELLANEOUS Sections at abutment/wingwall corners (semi-integral only) Joint recess detail (semi-integral only) Abutment construction procedure (integral and semi-integral only)

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PIER PLAN AND ELEVATION MISCELLANEOUS PLAN North arrow Outline of the pier Station line Tangent azimuth of station line at the centerline of bearings Centerline of bearing station Azimuth of centerline of bearings Skew angle Azimuth of stringers or angle stringers make with centerline of bearings Center to center spacing of the centerline of the beams measured perpendicular to the beam azimuth Center to center spacing of the centerline of the beams measured along the centerline of bearings azimuth and tied to a working line Girders/beams numbered Pedestal widths All dimensions required to construct the pier tied to the centerline of bearings and station line Expansion, construction or contraction joints labeled and tied down to working line Anchor bolt location Wash requirements of pier cap Concrete Table of placement numbers, item numbers and volume estimates See Foundation Design Report (FDR) for appropriate notes.

ELEVATION Outline of the pier Indicate concrete placement numbers Column spacing All elevations and dimensions required to construct the pier Wash requirements of pier cap

SECTION OR END ELEVATION Outline of section or end of pier elevation Indicate concrete placement numbers All elevations and dimensions required to construct the pier Wash requirements of pier cap Keyway between footing and column/plinth/pier stem

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PIER DETAILS PILE LAYOUT North arrow Outline of footing plan Station of intersection of the centerline of bearings and station line Tie the pile spacing to the intersection of the centerline of bearings and station line Show pile batter and location of battered piles Splice detail (if not shown on abutment sheets, otherwise reference where detail is located) Reinforced tip for steel piles detail (if not shown on abutment sheets, otherwise reference where detail is located) (per FDR) Reinforcement details for concrete piles (if not shown on abutment sheets, otherwise reference where detail is located) Any note required from the FDR Estimated pile length (per FDR) Pile item number Pile cut off elevation Number all piles and include table for actual driven length (per FDR)

FOOTING REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of footing All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in or originating in the footing Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Laps lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to a bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

PIER REINFORCEMENT ELEVATION Outline of pier All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in or originating in the pier except the bars extending into the pedestals Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Separate Cap Beam Reinforcement Elevation may be required for clarity.

PIER REINFORCEMENT SECTION Outline of pier section

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

Indicate concrete placement numbers All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Keyway between footing and column/plinth/pier stem

SECTIONS (plinth, columns, caps, etc.) Outline of all required sections Indicate concrete placement numbers All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces (if different from standard cover note) Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

PEDESTAL DETAILS Outline of pedestal Indicate concrete placement numbers All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed face (if different from standard cover note) Embedment length of bars Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Wash requirements of pier cap Pedestal elevation Pedestal Hoop Table

ANCHOR BOLT LAYOUT Outline of pedestal Outline of masonry plate Label Anchor bolts Centerline of bearings Wash of pier top Chamfer shown and dimensioned Centerline of beam All dimensions necessary to set the anchor bolts tied to the centerline of bearings and the centerline of beam

MISCELLANEOUS Welded splice details for spiral reinforcement Chamfer detail

April 2010

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BEARING DETAILS BEARING DETAILS Bearing table Bearing plan and elevation Bearing section(s) Anchor bolt details, size and embedment Sole and masonry plate details Elastomeric internal plate size and number of elastomer layers Indicate each bearing location

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Contract Plan Review Checklist

TRANSVERSE SECTION (Steel Superstructures) TRANSVERSE SECTION Overall width of structure TGL, Station line/HCL and POR Limits of structural slab item Limits of sawcut grooving Limits of protective sealing Travel lane widths Shoulder widths Usable shoulder to fascia dimension Cross slopes Crown of roadway Concrete structural slab thickness All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab All applicable sidewalk bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Girders numbered Girder spacing dimensioned Stud shear connectors Overhang lengths dimensioned Railing/barrier/screening Utilities Slab closure placement detail

FASCIA DETAIL Partial Railing/barrier/fencing shown but not dimensioned (to be shown on the Railing/barrier/fencing sheets) All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab sidewalk or brush curb Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab/sidewalk/brush curb reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Indicate relationship between reinforcement placement and railing anchorage Slab depth dimensioned Fascia depth dimensioned Overhang dimensioned

April 2010

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

DRIP GROOVE DETAIL Locate and dimension drip groove in relationship to fascia Drip groove note Modify drip groove location to maintain minimum concrete cover to anchor bolts or reinforcement, if required.

DIAPHRAGMS Each diaphragm type numbered sequentially with D1 being the end diaphragms. All angles labeled All members labeled Proper weld symbols Weld length measured along the side of the angle that has the shortest lap length Gusset plate thicknesses Connections plate shown and labeled Number and size of bolts Section used as top member and labeled (end diaphragm) Bearing stiffener shown and labeled (end diaphragm) Concrete slab haunched down on the top member for decks with joints (end diaphragm) Bottom lateral gusset plate (verify clearance to bearing/sole plate) (end diaphragm) Outstanding leg of top angle shown away from the slab (fascia diaphragm) Proper weld symbols Weld length measured along the side of the angle that has the shortest lap length Gusset plate thicknesses Connection plates shown and labeled Bottom lateral gusset plate (if required) Top strut not shown for intermediate diaphragms (except fascia bays and curved girders)

UTILITY SUPPORT Show in bay where they will be located (show required extra details to the side) Members labeled Proper weld symbols Weld length measured along the side of the angle that has the shortest lap length Gusset plate thicknesses Connection plates shown and labeled Enough detail shown to properly construct the specialty diaphragm

CURVED GIRDER DIAPHRAGMS Place intermediate diaphragms radial to the girder in a single line Do not place along the line of an interior skewed support Bottom lateral system April 2010

14A-20

Contract Plan Review Checklist

FRAMING PLAN (Steel Superstructures) FRAMING PLAN Centerline of bearing stations Centerline of bearings azimuth Centerline of each beam Expansion and fixed bearings labeled Span length(s) Beam azimuths and numbers Beam spacing dimensioned and tied to station line/HCL Diaphragm spacing, type and orientation Connection plates dimensioned and labeled Bearing stiffeners dimensioned and labeled Intermediate stiffeners dimensioned and labeled Field splice location tied to centerline of bearing station and/or diaphragm connection plates and lateral bracing gusset plates Lateral bracing size and spacing Curved girder diaphragm spacing table Curved bridge-straight girder schematic layout

April 2010

14A-21

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

GIRDER DETAILS (Steel Superstructures) GIRDER ELEVATION Overall beam length Span length(s) Beam overhang over centerline bearing Rolled beam size or Plate sizes labeled in Width x Thickness x Length Butt splices labeled as CPGW welds Web to flange welds Centerline expansion and fixed bearings labeled Bearing stiffeners dimensioned and labeled Connection plate dimensioned and labeled Intermediate stiffeners labeled (if required) Centerline of safety handrail labeled Stud shear connectors spacing shown Tension zones for top and bottom flanges (continuous girders only) Field splice location tied to centerline of bearing station, flange transition and/or diaphragm connection plate Indicate serialized steel item number (multi-bridge projects)

GIRDER SECTIONS Sections cut through the girder showing: The bearing stiffener at abutment The interior girder connection plate Fascia girder connection plate Bearing stiffener at pier Transverse stiffener At point of deadload contraflexure Each detail showing the correct weld symbols Each detail showing the proper connection plate/bearing stiffener label and dimensioning The proper connection of vertical plate to compression/tension flange

MISCELLANEOUS STEEL DETAILS Drip bar detail - when weathering steel is used Flange thickness taper Flange width taper Flange width taper at abutments (width of taper 1 inch less than sole plate of bearing) Stud shear connector detail with item number Safety handrail - when depth of girder is more than 5 ft.

14A-22

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

CAMBER TABLE Separate groups of the following rows for each beam: Steel dead load (I) Concrete dead load (II) Superimposed dead load (III) Vertical curve correction (IV) (NOTE: no negative vertical curve correction is allowed) Total of (I+II+III+IV)

CAMBER DIAGRAM Camber diagram plotted along each span to represent the actual beam showing the actual deflected shape of the fully cambered beam and a straight line between the top corners of the beam.

MOMENT AND SHEAR TABLES One table for HL93 and NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle Dead load moment (kip-ft) and shear (kips) Superimposed dead load moment and shear Live load positive moment and shear Live load negative moment and shear

DESIGN LOAD TABLE Dead loads listed in units of kips/ft for each beam (If different): Slab Haunch Girder SIP/FSIP forms Diaphragms Utilities

Superimposed dead loads listed in units of kips/ft for each beam (If different): Railing or barrier Future wearing surface Sidewalk

Live load listed in HL-93 truck notation and NYSDOT Design Permit Vehicle: Live load denoted below table

FIELD SPLICE DETAILS Splice location All plate sizes and thicknesses Size, number, spacing and edge distance of bolts Appropriate notes

April 2010

14A-23

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

TRANSVERSE SECTION (Concrete Bulb Tee and I-Beam Superstructures) TRANSVERSE SECTION Overall width of structure TGL, Station line/HCL and POR Limits of structural slab item Limits of sawcut grooving Limits of protective sealing Travel lane widths Shoulder widths Usable shoulder to fascia dimension Cross slopes Crown of roadway Concrete slab thickness Applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab All applicable sidewalk bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Beams numbered Beam spacing dimensioned Composite shear bars Overhang dimensioned Railing/barrier/screening Utilities Slab closure placement detail

FASCIA DETAIL Partial Railing/barrier/screening shown but not dimensioned (to be shown on the Railing/barrier/screening sheets) Concrete slab thickness Applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab sidewalk or brush curb Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Slab depth dimensioned Fascia depth dimensioned Overhang dimensioned Indicate relationship between reinforcement placement and railing anchorage

14A-24

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

DIAPHRAGMS Each diaphragm type numbered sequentially with D1 being the end diaphragms. Diaphragms should be shown in the transverse section, if possible. Otherwise, they should be shown in separate details to the side of the Transverse Section. Diaphragm type; steel, precast or cast-in-place Connection detail Utility support details Reinforcement details of diaphragms Section of precast or cast-in-place diaphragms

April 2010

14A-25

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

FRAMING PLAN (Concrete Bulb Tee and I-Beam Superstructures) FRAMING PLAN Centerline of bearing stations Centerline of bearings azimuth Centerline of each beam Expansion and fixed bearings labeled Span length(s) Beam azimuths and numbers Beam spacing dimensioned and tied to station line Diaphragm spacing, type and number Connections dimensioned and labeled Splice location (post-tensioned) Segment numbers (post-tensioned)

14A-26

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

BEAM DETAILS (Concrete Bulb Tee and I-Beam Superstructures) BEAM PLAN Overall beam length Span length(s) Centerline of bearings Diaphragm lengths Beam overhang over the centerline of bearings Overall beam length Flange clipping detail (skews over 15) Indicate Beam Item number Continuous connection details

BEAM REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of beam All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

BEAM REINFORCEMENT ELEVATION Outline of beam All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Enough sections taken to clearly define the beam and its reinforcement

BEAM SECTIONS Reinforcement details Strand pattern Dimensioned Cover Composite shear bars

April 2010

14A-27

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

END ZONE REINFORCEMENT DETAIL Outline of beam end All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

DESIGN LOAD TABLE Dead loads (kips/ft), max. shear (kips) at support and moment (kips-ft) at midspan: Beam Slab Diaphragms Haunch SIP/FSIP forms Utilities

Superimposed dead loads (kips/ft), max. shear (kips) at support and moment (kips-ft) at midspan: Sidewalk Railing or Barrier Future wearing surface

Live load in HL-93 truck notation and NYSDOT Permit Vehicle: Live load information denoted below table BEAM REINFORCEMENT TABLE AND BAR BENDING DIAGRAMS All bar marks and bar bending diagrams required to construct the beam

CAMBER TABLE Camber due to prestressed force and beam dead load at transfer Camber due to deflection due to slab dead load Camber due to deflection due to superimposed dead load Total camber

14A-28

May 2011

Contract Plan Review Checklist

STAGE CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Plan Tendon details Concrete Closure placement detail

DEBONDING OR DRAPED STRANDS DETAIL Number of debonded strands Length of debonded strands Draped tendon profile Sections showing draped strands at midpoint and end

POST-TENSIONED DETAILS Duct location Post-tensioning notes End block recess detail End zone reinforcement (Elevation and Sections) Clearance requirements for ducts at anchorage and midspan Post-tensioning duct profile Assumed construction sequence Grout tube schematic and vent details Splice detail end view Splice detail section Shear key details

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS Threaded insert/mechanical connectors details Embedded bearing plate details Fascia details Anchor stud clearance detail Haunch details Continuity reinforcement and diaphragm details at piers

April 2010

14A-29

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

TRANSVERSE SECTION (Prestressed Box Beams and Slab Units) TRANSVERSE SECTION Overall width of structure TGL, Station line/HCL and POR Limits of structural slab item Limits of sawcut grooving Limits of protective sealing Travel lane widths Shoulder widths Usable shoulder to fascia dimension Cross slopes Crown of roadway Concrete slab thickness Applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab All applicable sidewalk bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Beams numbered Joint widths dimensioned Overhang dimensioned Transverse tendon Railing/barrier/screening Utilities Slab closure placement detail

FASCIA DETAIL Partial Railing/barrier/screening shown but not dimensioned (to be shown on the Railing/barrier/screening sheets) Concrete slab thickness Applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab sidewalk or brush curb Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Slab depth dimensioned Fascia depth dimensioned Overhang dimensioned Indicate relationship between reinforcement placement and railing anchorage

14A-30

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

BEAM LAYOUT (Prestressed Box Beams and Slab Units) BEAM LAYOUT Beam numbers Centerline of bearing stations Expansion and fixed bearings labeled Span length(s) Beam azimuths Centerline of bearings azimuth Centerline of transverse tendon and centerline of diaphragms Beam spacing dimensioned and tied to station line

April 2010

14A-31

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

BEAM DETAILS (Prestressed Box Beams and Slab Units) BEAM PLAN Centerline of bearings Void lengths Internal Diaphragm lengths End block lengths Beam overhang over the centerline of bearings Transverse tendon location Overall beam lengths Drain dimensions and locations Anchor dowel location Indicate beam item number

BEAM REINFORCEMENT PLAN Outline of beam Outline of voids All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

BEAM REINFORCEMENT ELEVATION Outline of beam Outline of voids All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Enough sections taken to clearly define the beam and its reinforcement

BEAM SECTIONS Reinforcement details Strand pattern Dimensioned Cover to exposed faces Composite shear bars

14A-32

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

END BLOCK REINFORCEMENT DETAIL Outline of beam end Outline of voids All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

DESIGN LOAD TABLE Dead loads (kips/ft), maximum shear (kips) at support and moment (kips-ft) at midspan: Beam Slab Haunch (spread beams only) Girder SIP/FSIP forms (spread beams only) (Include internal diaphragms in beam loading)

Superimposed dead loads (kips/ft), maximum shear (kips) at support and moment (kips-ft) at midspan: Sidewalk Railing or Barrier Future wearing surface Utilities

Live load in HL-93 truck notation and NYSDOT Permit Vehicle Live load information denoted below table

BEAM REINFORCEMENT TABLE AND BAR BENDING DIAGRAMS All bar marks and bar bending diagrams required to construct the beam

CAMBER TABLE Camber due to prestressed force and beam dead load at transfer Camber due to Deflection due to slab dead load Camber due to Deflection due to superimposed dead load Total camber

STAGE CONSTRUCTION DETAILS Plan Tendon details Concrete Closure placement detail

April 2010

14A-33

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

ANCHOR DOWEL DETAIL Hole opening diameter Anchor dowel diameter Hole filler placed in top of hole opening

INTERNAL DIAPHRAGM DETAILS Outline of beam end Outline of voids All applicable bar marks Cover to exposed faces Spacing of reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

DEBONDING DETAILS Number of debonded strands Length of debonded strands

POST-TENSIONED DETAILS See Bulb Tee and I Beam Details

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS Transverse tendon plan, section and elevation Continuity reinforcement and diaphragm details at piers Shear key detail Bearing placement Bearing pad placement (integrals)

14A-34

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

HAUNCH/SLAB THICKNESS TABLES HAUNCH TABLE (Steel and Spread Prestressed Concrete Superstructures) Separate groups of the following rows for each girder at 1/10 points: A. Required bottom of slab elevation B. Top of steel elevation (Field measure) C = A B. (Difference between bottom of slab and top of steel elevation) D. Concrete + Superimposed dead load deflection E. = C + D. Depth of haunch required equal to the sum of the concrete and superimposed dead load deflections and the difference between the bottom of slab and top of steel elevations

GIRDER HAUNCH DETAIL (Steel and Spread Prestressed Concrete Superstructures) Actual dimension measured from top of web to bottom of slab at the centerline of bearings

SLAB THICKNESS TABLE (Adjacent Prestressed Concrete Beams) Separate groups of the following rows for each beam at 1/4 or 1/10 points: (number of points depends upon length of structure and amount of change occurring) A. Required top of slab elevation @ centerline of beam B. Top of beam elevation (field measure) C = A B. (Difference between top of slab and top of beam elevation) D. Slab and SDL deflection E. Actual slab thickness = C + D

April 2010

14A-35

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

SUPERSTRUCTURE SLAB SLAB REINFORCEMENT PLAN Overall length of structure TGL Station line Limits of structural slab, sawcut grooving and protective sealing items All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained or originating in the slab If the bridge has concrete barriers, add note: Barrier bars originating in slab not shown, refer to barrier reinforcement plans. Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Indicate section marks (end section) Centerline of bearing stations

END SECTION Outline of the slab, top of the abutment and the beginning of the approach slab All applicable bar marks of all bars Limits of sawcut grooving Cover to exposed faces Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Gap between the slab and the backwall (conventional abutment only)

MISCELLANEOUS SLAB DETAILS Continuous deck slab placement detail Concrete table of area of superstructure slab, area of sawcut grooving and the area of protective sealer with item numbers Do not haunch slab down to end diaphragm at jointless abutments Indicate direction of placement if true grade exceeds 3% Haunch reinforcement detail Sidewalk reinforcement plan with item number

SUPERSTRUCTURE SLAB OPTIONAL FORMING SYSTEMS Permanent corrugated metal form detail Prestressed concrete form unit details (Omit for Isotropic Deck Reinforcement or when their use isnt required (most cases)) Form unit notes

14A-36

May 2011

Contract Plan Review Checklist

APPROACH SLABS APPROACH SLAB REINFORCEMENT PLAN Length and width of approach slabs and sleeper slabs (if required) TGL Station line Limits of approach slab and protective sealer items Limits of sawcut grooving item All applicable bar marks of all bars totally contained in the approach slabs and sleeper slabs Cover to exposed faces Lap lengths Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of approach slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face Indicate section marks (taken transversely through the end of the approach slabs and sleeper slabs)

END SECTION Outline of the slab and sleeper slabs from the abutment to the beginning of the approach roadway Thickness of approach slab All applicable bar marks of all bars Cover to exposed faces Indicate if a bar is lapped to another bar with a different bar mark Spacing of slab reinforcement tied down to an exposed face

MISCELLANEOUS APPROACH SLAB DETAILS Provide table of area of approach slab and sleeper slabs, area of sawcut grooving and area of protective sealer with the appropriate item numbers Corner plan details Connection detail to abutment for integral and jointless details Joint recess/sealing detail

May 2011

14A-37

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

JOINT SYSTEM JOINT DETAILS Plan view(s) Sections; longitudinal and transverse End and miscellaneous details Fascia, barrier and sidewalk details Joint table Indicate each joint location and item number

14A-38

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

BARRIER/RAILING BARRIER LAYOUT PLAN Outline of superstructure slab and abutments Outline of barriers TGL and Station/Horizontal Control Line Centerline of bearings Pay limits of the barrier item Pay limits of the railing transition item

BARRIER PLANS Outline of barriers All applicable bar marks of all barrier bars (this includes barrier bars originating in the superstructure slab or abutment u-walls) Length of barriers and barrier transitions dimensioned Indicate item number

BARRIER TRANSITION ELEVATION Outline of barrier transition Pipe sleeves indicated and located for attaching box beam guide rail transition Dimensions required to construct barrier transition

BARRIER REINFORCEMENT SECTIONS Outline of barrier at sections All applicable bar marks of all barrier bars (this includes barrier bars originating in the superstructure slab or abutment u-walls)

BARRIER SECTIONS Outline of barrier at sections All dimensions required to construct the barrier and barrier transition Dimension the location of box beam guide rails and indicate its attachment to barrier at transition

CONCRETE BARRIER GROOVE SPACING Outline of barrier in elevation and section showing construction groove spacing, details and notes

PLAN AND ELEVATION OF RAILING/BARRIER TRANSITION TO HIGHWAY BOX BEAM Indicate and locate all transition railing components Indicate item number

May 2011

14A-39

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

RAILING LAYOUT PLAN Outline of superstructure slab and abutments TGL Station line Centerline of end posts tied down to the front face of the backwall Even spacing between the posts Pay limits of the railing item Centerline of railing anchorage Station and offset distance to post from HCL Indicate item numbers

RAILING DETAILS Outline of railing in section and elevation showing anchorage into superstructure Indicate, locate and dimension all railing and railing anchorage components Show anchor plate(s) and base plate details

RAILING SPLICE ELEVATION Show minimum distance from railing post to centerline of fixed and expansion splice assembly

RAILING SPLICE DETAILS Indicate and dimension all railing splice assembly components

SPECIAL POST DETAILS Indicate and locate on abutment backwall in plan view Show elevation at post, indicate and dimension all components Show anchor plate and base plate details

SNOW AND PEDESTRIAN FENCING DETAILS Outline of fencing in section and elevation showing attachment to railing/barrier Show fencing pay limits and item number on railing layout sheet or in case of barriers, show pay limits dimensioned from end of barrier in the elevation view Indicate, locate and dimension fencing and fencing attachment/anchorage components Show post anchor plate or pipe clamp anchor details, whichever is applicable Indicate and dimension all railing splice components

14A-40

April 2010

Contract Plan Review Checklist

APPROACH DRAINAGE LAYOUT OF DRAINAGE CURBING AND STONE GUTTER All components and dimensions required to layout curbing with concrete backing and stone gutter

ELEVATION OF CURB TAPER Indicate and dimension curb taper

ALTERNATE CURB JOINT DETAIL Indicate concrete repair material fill for curb joint

DRAINAGE PLAN Outline of bridge rail/barrier transition to highway box beam, stone curbing, stone gutter and abutment/wingwall Indicate and dimension limits of optional asphalt mowing strip from face of curb Indicate and dimension shoulder break lines from face of curb Dimension first heavy post spacing from end of barrier or last bridge railing post Dimension transition railing post spacings Indicate centerline of stone gutter, face of rail, face of curb, embankment slope from shoulder beak lines and limits of railing included in bridge or highway estimate

SECTIONS Outline of section taken at first heavy post through stabilized shoulder, curb and shoulder break indicating all components and required dimensions Outline of section taken at highway post through stabilized shoulder and shoulder break indicating all components and required dimensions Outline of section taken through stone gutter indicating all components and required dimensions Outline of section taken through stone gutter and stabilized shoulder indicating warped transition from normal shoulder to meet 1-0 gutter dish

April 2010

14A-41

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS Waterstop and keyway details Scupper details and item number Curb details and item number Lighting details and item number Miscellaneous pile details Any other details not previously shown on the previous sheets

BAR BENDING DIAGRAMS - Insert sheet

BAR LISTS(S) Reinforcement quantities with their respective item numbers MISCELLANEOUS Inventory Forms Completed and sent to Office of Structures Inventory Unit with a copy to the Regional Structures Engineer Virtis load rating file sent to the Office of Structures Load Rating Unit Level 1 Load Rating Package as out lined in EI 05-034

14A-42

April 2010

Appendix 14B Checklist for Constructability Review


PIN _________________ D#__________________ Designer____________________________ Projected Letting Date _________________ Date Review Started __________________ Date Review Completed _______________ Reviewer(s) _________________________ __________________________

The following is a checklist of project items (if applicable to the project) that need to be reviewed to assure constructability of the project:
Description I. BIDDABILITY The clarity of the final plan and proposal to the bidders so that they may submit a fair and accurate bid. 1 Are bidders unnecessarily restricted in their bids, or has appropriate degree of flexibility been included in the bidding documents? Information sufficient to avoid major field changes? Permits identified and sufficient time allowed to secure? MP&T plans adequate? MP&T plans too restrictive? Items appropriate? Items omitted? Cross referencing between various contract documents consistent? Yes No N/A More Info Needed

2 3 4 5 6 7 8

January 2008

14B-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Description II. BUILDABILITY The accuracy and completeness of the contract plans so that the design as shown on the final plans can be built. A. Site Investigation Sufficient field investigation been done to ascertain that contract work can be performed as shown on plans? Subsurface exploration? Utility investigation? Current traffic counts? Structural inspection? Emergency/interim structural repairs been considered? Right of Way Equipment, material and hazardous waste storage? Staging? Access to work areas? Construction Staging Phased to provide minimum number of stages and reasonable work areas and access? Are there areas with restricted access? Does staging cause special conditions (i.e., structural adequacy/stability)?

Yes

No

N/A

More Info Needed

2 3 4 5 6 B. 1 2 3 C. 1 2 3

14B-2

January 2008

Checklist for Constructability Review

Description 4 Proposed adjacent contracts, restrictions, constraints identified and accounted for? Can the details as shown on the plans be constructed using standard industry practices, operations and equipment? M&PT / Traffic Control M&PT requirements realistic for site conditions? Are lane closures reasonable for traffic volumes? Can construction operations be carried out safely under M&PT and staging? Design adequate for averting delays/congestion? Is a detour necessary for averting delays/ congestion? Schedule Is sequence of construction reasonable? Seasonal limits on construction operations? Utility relocation schedule reasonable? Regulatory permit restrictions? Materials ordering, fabrication and delivery requirements All necessary construction operations identified? Impact of additional work ? Time related specs - completion/milestone realistic?

Yes

No

N/A

More Info Needed

D. 1 2 3 4 5 E. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

January 2008

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Description F. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Special Materials / Conditions Pertinent provisions and restrictions clearly indicated? Any special (unique / proprietary) materials, methods of technologies required for contract? Special coordination required, RR, Permits, Regulatory Presence of asbestos, hazardous waste or toxic materials? Safety requirements, fall protection, electric lines, and other utilities, RR requirements Winter concreting and the schedule for delivery of concrete?

Yes

No

N/A

More Info Needed

Additional Comments: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

14B-4

January 2008

Section 15 Concrete Reinforcement


15.1 Introduction

This section is intended to aid the bridge designer and detailer in the area of concrete reinforced design and detailing. The tables in this section simplify the design and detailing of concrete reinforcement splices and required covers. Also included are suggested details intended to ease the construction process and provide seismic resistance.

15.2

Spacing

The minimum spacing shall meet NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specification Section 5.10.3.1 requirements. The maximum clear spacing between parallel bars shall not be more than 1N-6O. The clear space between bars shall also apply to the clear distances between the contact splices and adjacent splices of bars. Bar spacings as indicated are always between the center of the bars unless otherwise noted as a clear distance. When reinforcement in beams or girders is placed in two or more layers, the bars in the upper layers shall be placed directly above those in the bottom layer.

15.3

Cover

The following list pertains to the minimum cover for plain, epoxy and galvanized reinforcing bars. Refer to Section 5 for cover of monolithic decks. Top of sidewalk slabs ................................................................................................ 1 O Beams and Columns ...................................................................................................... 2O Pedestal (Top)................................................................................................................. 2O Pedestal (Sides) .............................................................................................................. 3O Walls and Piers above footing (Including those adjacent to water)................................. 2O* Footings (Including unformed bottom) ............................................................................ 3O** Approach slab (Top)........................................................................................................ 3O Approach slab (Bottom and Sides) ................................................................................. 3O Bottom of bottom slab of cast-in-place culvert ................................................................ 3O Bottom of top slab of cast-in-place culverts and rigid frames.......................................... 2O All other cast-in-place culvert faces ................................................................................ 2O Top of top slab of precast culverts (Fill <2 feet) .............................................................. 2O Top of top slab of precast culverts (Fill 2 feet) .............................................................. 1O All other precast box culvert faces .................................................................................. 1O Exposed faces of precast three-sided culverts ........................................................... 1 O All other faces of precast three-sided culverts ................................................................ 2O Arches (Intrados and extrados) ....................................................................................... 2O

January 2008

15-1

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

Precast and cast-in-place piles ....................................................................................... 2O Precast piles exposed to sea water ................................................................................ 3O Post-tensioned cylindrical piles (Centrifugally cast, no slump concrete exposed to sea water)................................................................................................. 1 O All other surfaces exposed to sea water ......................................................................... 4O * When aesthetic treatment (formliner) is used, the maximum relief of the treatment shall be added to the minimum cover. ** May be increased to accommodate piles when necessary. Table 15-1 Minimum Reinforcement Cover

15.4

Reinforcing Bar Guidelines

Grade 60 is the standard strength reinforcing bar to be used on Department projects. Grade 75 reinforcing bar is available, though in limited quantities and at greater cost. Use of Grade 75 reinforcing bars should be limited to areas of high tensile stresses where the number of Grade 60 reinforcing bars results in insufficient spacing between the bars for concrete placement. TABLE A STANDARD REINFORCING BAR PROPERTIES Size Area (in2) Dia. (in) #4 0.20 0.500 #5 0.31 0.625 #6 0.44 0.750 #7 0.60 0.875 #8 0.79 1.000 #9 1.00 1.128 #10 1.27 1.270 #11 1.56 1.410

15.4.1

Maximum Bar Lengths

Most reinforcing bar plants in the United States produce bars in a standard length of 60 feet except solid stainless steel is only available in maximum lengths of 40 feet. Therefore, plans should not include any straight bars or bent bars with a length in excess of 60 feet (40 feet for solid stainless). Due to handling concerns, the maximum length of a bar that requires a hook on both ends should be limited to 30 feet.

15.4.1.1 Deck Slab Bars


Refer to Section 5.1.5.4 Deck Overhangs for guidance on deck slab bars.

15-2

April 2010

Concrete Reinforcement

15.4.1.2 Abutment and Pier Bars


When designing abutments and piers, it is important to envision how the contractor may build the structure and to provide details that make construction easier. Vertical bars should not extend more than 16 ft. out of the placement that they originate in due to handling concerns. Instead, two bars with a lap splice should be used. This is suggested as a guide, and a designers judgment must be used. Obviously, if a bar has a length of 17 ft., a lap should not be introduced for the small amount of extra length required.

15.4.2

Reinforcement Splicing

15.4.2.1 General Splicing Guidelines


For #11 bars or smaller, splices can be made by lap splices with wire ties, mechanical connectors (from the Materials Bureau approved list), or by welding provided it is in accordance with the New York State Steel Construction Manual (SCM), Section 7, Part D. Tack welding is not permitted. Splices for bars larger than #11 shall use either mechanical connectors from the Materials Bureau Approved List or welds in accordance with the proper welding procedure. No additional payment is made for reinforcement splices. However, if the situation mandates the use of mechanical connectors or welded splices, this shall be noted on the Contract Plans.

15.4.2.2 Splicing Vertical Reinforcement in Walls


For #5, #6, and #7 bars, the splicing of the main vertical reinforcement to the reinforcement emerging from the footing may be made directly over the footing. In some cases, it may be practical to eliminate splices by extending the bars emerging from the footing to the top of the wall. Number 8 and larger bars emerging from the footing shall be extended to a distance above the footing where bars of a smaller diameter may be spliced to them. The lap length for such splices shall be based on the smaller bar.

15.5

Minimum Anchorage, Lap and Embedment

The following notes apply to the tables in this article: 1. All tables are based on formulas found in Section 5 Concrete Structures of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specification. 2. Lengths are based on: 60 ksi and 3.0 ksi. 3. When an area of steel provided is more than that required to develop the ultimate moment capacity of the section, the basic development length indicated may be reduced by the ratio: As(required) As(provided). 4. Galvanized, stainless steel clad and solid stainless steel bars are treated as uncoated bars for splice and embedment lengths. 5. Top bars are defined as horizontal reinforcement located where there is more than 1 ft. of fresh concrete cast below the development length or splice. January 2008 15-3

NYSDOT Bridge Manual

15.5.1

Basic Development Length for Bars


TABLE B BASIC DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR COMPRESSION BARS

Size Ld

#4 11

#5 1-2

#6 1-5

#7 1-8

#8 1-10

#9 2-1

#10 2-4

#11 2-7

TABLE C BASIC DEVELOPMENT LENGTH OF HOOKED DOWELS IN TENSION Size Uncoated - Ldh Epoxy-Coated Ldh #4 1-0 [1-0] 1-2 [1-0] #5 1-2 [1-0] 1-5 [1-0] #6 1-5 [1-0] 1-8 [1-2] #7 1-8 [1-2] 1-11 [1-5] #8 1-10 [1-4] 2-3 [1-7] #9 2-1 [1-6] 2-6 [1-9] #10 2-4 [1-8] 2-10 [2-0] #11 2-7 [1-10] 3-1 [2-2]

Table C Criteria (Length in Brackets requires following criteria to be met) #11 bar or smaller Side Cover 2 O 90 Hook: cover 2O See Article 5.11.2.4.2 of the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

FIGURE 15.1 Hooked Dowel

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TABLE D BASIC DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR STRAIGHT UNCOATED DOWELS & TENSION BARS (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6 Spacing < 6 #4 1-0 1-1 #5 1-1 1-4 #6 1-5 1-9 #7 1-9 2-4 #8 2-6 3-1 #9 3-2 3-11 #10 4-0 5-0 #11 4-11 6-1

TABLE E BASIC DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR STRAIGHT UNCOATED DOWELS & TENSION BARS (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-3 1-6 #5 1-6 1-10 #6 2-0 2-5 #7 2-8 3-4 #8 3-6 4-4 #9 4-5 5-6 #10 5-7 6-11 #11 6-10 8-6

TABLE F DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR STRAIGHT EPOXY-COATED DOWELS & TENSION BARS (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-4 [1-1] 1-7 [1-4] #5 1-7 [1-4] 2-0 [1-7] #6 2-1 [1-8] 2-7 [2-1] #7 2-10 [2-3] 3-7 (N/A) #8 3-9 [3-0] 4-7 (N/A) #9 4-8 [3-9] 6-8 (N/A) #10 5-11 [4-8] 7-5 (N/A) #11 7-4 [6-8] 9-1 (N/A)

The lengths in parentheses can only be used as described in TABLE H

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TABLE G DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR STRAIGHT EPOXY-COATED DOWELS & TENSION BARS (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6OO Spacing < 6O #4 1-6 #5 1-10 #6 2-4 #7 3-3 #8 4-2 #9 5-4 #10 6-9 #11 8-3

1-8

2-3

2-11

4-0

5-3

6-11

8-5

10-4

TABLE H THE LENGTHS IN PARENTHESES CAN ONLY BE USED IF BOTH OF THE FOLLOWING CIRCUMSTANCES ARE TRUE Size Cover (in) Bar Spacing (in) #4 1 3 #5 1 4 #6 2 5 #7 2 6 #8 3 7 #9 3 7 #10 3 8 #11 4 10

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15.5.2

Length of Splices for Tension Bars

Modification of Basic Development Length TABLE I Max (%) of As Spliced within Required Lap Length As (Provided) As (Required) 2.0 50% Class A Class B 75% Class A Class C 100% Class B Class C

< 2.0

The minimum lap length for a tension splice shall be as required for Class A, B, or C splice, but not less than 1-0: Class A Splice = 1.0 x Ld Class B Splice = 1.3 x Ld Class C Splice = 1.7 x Ld The following Lap Splice Selection Guidelines table is only a recommendation. The designer assumes final responsibility for selecting a splice length for a given location.

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Superstructure Slab Longitudinal Bars (Top of Slab) Longitudinal Bars (Bottom of Slab) Transverse Bars (Top of Slab) Transverse Bars (Bottom of Slab) Longitudinal and Transverse Bars (Adj. Prestress Units) Concrete Barrier (Longitudinal) Hammerhead and Multi-Column Pier Cap Beam Longitudinal Bars (Top Primary Reinforcement) Longitudinal Bars (Bottom Primary Reinforcement and Distribution Reinforcement) Pier Column Footing (Steel Pile Foundation) Longitudinal Bars (Top of Footing) Longitudinal Bars (Bottom of Footing) Footing (Concrete Piles or Spread Footing) Longitudinal Bars (Top of Footing) Longitudinal Bars (Bottom of Footing) Conventional Abutment Stem and Retaining Walls Rear Face of Wall (Horizontal) Rear Face of Wall (Vertical) Front Face of Wall (Horizontal) Front Face of Wall (Vertical - Conventional Abutment) Front Face of Wall (Vertical - Jointless Abutment) Bridge Seat/Top of Solid Pier (Longitudinal)

Splice Type Class C (Not Top Bars) Class C (Not Top Bars) Class B (Not Top Bars) Class B (Not Top Bars) Compression Splice Class C (Not Top Bars) Splice Type Class B (Top Bars) Class B (Not Top Bars) Class C (Not Top Bars) Splice Type Class C (Top Bars) Class C (Top Bars) Splice Type Class C (Top Bars) Class C (Not Top Bars) Splice Type Class B (Not Top Bars) Class C (Not Top Bars) Class B (Not Top Bars) Class B (Not Top Bars) Class C (Not Top Bars) Compression Splice

Table P P N N R L, P

K J, N L, P

M M

M L

J, N L, P J, N J, N L, P R

LAP SPLICE SELECTION GUIDELINES Table 15-2

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TABLE J CLASS B SPLICE-UNCOATED (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-2 1-5 #5 1-5 1-9 #6 1-10 2-3 #7 2-6 3-1 #8 3-3 4-0 #9 4-1 5-1 #10 5-2 6-5 #11 6-4 7-11

TABLE K CLASS B SPLICE-UNCOATED (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-7 1-11 #5 2-0 2-5 #6 2-6 3-2 #7 3-5 4-3 #8 4-6 5-7 #9 5-8 7-1 #10 7-3 9-0 #11 8-10 11-0

TABLE L CLASS C SPLICE-UNCOATED (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-6 1-10 #5 1-10 2-3 #6 2-4 2-11 #7 3-3 4-0 #8 4-2 5-3 #9 5-4 6-8 #10 6-9 8-5 #11 8-3 10-4

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TABLE M CLASS C SPLICE-UNCOATED (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 2-0 2-6 #5 2-7 3-2 #6 3-3 4-1 #7 4-6 5-7 #8 5-10 7-4 #9 7-5 9-3 #10 9-5 11-9 #11 11-6 14-5

TABLE N CLASS B SPLICE-EPOXY COATED (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-8 [1-4] 2-1 [1-8] #5 2-1 [1-8] 2-7 [2-1] #6 2-8 [2-2] 3-5 [2-8] #7 3-8 [2-11] 4-7 (N/A) #8 4-10 [3-10] 6-0 (N/A) #9 6-1 [4-11] 7-7 (N/A) #10 7-8 [6-2] 9-6 (N/A) #11 9-6 [7-7] 11-10 (N/A)

The lengths in parentheses can only be used as described in TABLE H.

TABLE O CLASS B SPLICE-EPOXY COATED (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 1-11 2-4 #5 2-4 2-11 #6 3-1 3-10 #7 4-2 5-2 #8 5-6 7-6 #9 6-11 8-8 #10 8-9 10-11 #11 10-9 13-5

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TABLE P CLASS C SPLICE-EPOXY COATED (NOT TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 2-2 [1-9] 2-9 [2-2] #5 2-9 [2-2] 3-5 [2-9] #6 3-6 [2-10] 4-5 [3-6] #7 4-9 [3-10] 6-0 (N/A) #8 6-4 [5-1] 7-10 (N/A) #9 8-0 [6-4] 9-11 (N/A) #10 10-1 [8-1] 12-7 (N/A) #11 12-4 [9-11] 15-5 (N/A)

The lengths in parentheses can only be used as described in TABLE H.

TABLE Q CLASS C SPLICE-EPOXY COATED (TOP BARS) Size Spacing 6O Spacing < 6O #4 2-6 3-1 #5 3-1 3-10 #6 4-0 5-0 #7 5-5 6-9 #8 7-1 8-11 #9 9-0 11-3 #10 11-5 14-3 #11 14-0 17-5

15.5.3

Length of Splices for Compression Bars

TABLE R Size Beams Tied Columns Spiral Columns #4 1-4 1-1 1-0 #5 1-8 1-5 1-3 #6 2-0 1-8 1-6 #7 2-3 1-11 1-8 #8 2-7 2-2 2-0 #9 2-11 2-5 2-2 #10 3-3 2-9 2-6 #11 3-8 3-0 2-9

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15.6

Marking of Bars for Bar Lists

Bars shall be marked consecutively, beginning with the number one (1), through each structural unit. A structural unit, such as an abutment, includes all concrete subdivisions (abutment footing, abutment stem, wingwall footing, wingwall stem, etc.) which together comprise the entire unit. In the bar list, structural units are to be identified by a general heading (e.g., Beginning Abutment). Appropriate subheadings shall also precede the listing of bars in each subdivision (e.g., Wingwall 1, Beginning Abutment Stem). When a subdivision is still further divided into more than one concrete placement, the listing of bars in each placement shall also be preceded by appropriate identification (e.g., Beginning Abutment Stem, Placement 1). Typical bar marks shall specify the bar size, structural unit the bar originates in, whether the bar is plain, epoxy coated (E), galvanized (G), stainless steel clad (C) or solid stainless steel (S), and the bar number. Exception: The dowels between all types of Permanent Concrete Traffic Barrier and Parapet for Structures and the structural slab or U-wingwall shall not be listed in the structural slab or wall bar list even though the bars originate in the slab or wall. These bars are to be paid for in the traffic barrier item and placed in the standard bar list table. These bars shall not appear in the superstructure slab bar list. The reason for this policy is that the bars associated with all types of Permanent Concrete Traffic Barrier and Parapet will change if the contractor chooses the precast option for the barrier. See Notes 69 and 70 in Section 17.3. In applying the bar marks where two or more structure units are involved, such as two or more similar abutments, piers, spans, etc., it is desirable that the same bar marks be applied to bars in similar locations in the structure unit. The fact that two bars lying in different structure units may have the same bar mark but have different lengths, or they may have the same length but have different sizes, or any combination of these factors will not be confusing to the fabricator due to the practice of providing a separate bar list, properly titled, for each structure unit. For varying length bars, give minimum, maximum and average lengths of bars. Give number of sets of bars, even if the number of sets is one. Any deviation from the above system of marking bars must have the approval of the D.C.E.S. See Section 15.13 for guidance on projects without bar lists.

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15.7

Footing Reinforcement

Footing reinforcement shall be designed for the applied loads, but the following minimum requirements shall be provided to maintain the integrity of the footing in the event of seismic loading: 1. The bottom reinforcement mat in footings with piles shall be placed 2 clear above the tops of the piles. In special cases, where design requirements dictate and the pile pattern permits, the bars may be located between piles. In this case, a minimum clear distance of 3 shall be maintained between the reinforcing bars and the piles. 2. The vertical compression reinforcement of all abutment stems and walls shall be doweled into the footing. These dowels should have 90 hooks on the bottom end. See Table C of Section 15.5.1 for required embedment length. Minimum reinforcement shall be as per NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications thermal and shrinkage requirements 5.10.8. 3. The minimum top reinforcement for a continuous pier footing shall be #6 bars at 1-0 in both the transverse and longitudinal directions. 4. The minimum top reinforcement for an individual pier footing shall not be less than 50% of the area of the designed bottom reinforcement or #6 bars at 1-0 in both the transverse and longitudinal directions.

15.8

Abutment Reinforcement

The top layer of bridge seat reinforcement for steel girder, prestressed concrete I-beams, and spread prestressed concrete box beams shall be #8 bars at 6. For adjacent prestressed concrete box and slab unit structures, the top layer of bridge seat reinforcement shall be #8 bars at 8. Dowels on the compression side of the abutment stem shall meet the requirements of Note 2 of Section 15.7. The minimum reinforcement on non-exposed faces shall be #5 bars at 1-6. The entire capacity of these bars shall be developed by embedment or lapping the bar.

15.9

Column Reinforcement

Lap splices shall not be located within the plastic hinge zones (LRFD 5.10.11.4.1.c). Dowels shall extend at least of the column height or 10 feet, whichever is greater. Splices in the vertical design reinforcement shall be staggered. Vertical reinforcement shall be extended into the pier cap for the full embedment length. Continuous ties shall surround the vertical reinforcement. Ties shall be not less than #4 bars. Spacing of lateral ties in the interior length of pier columns shall not exceed the least plan dimension of the compression member or 1-0, whichever is less. In plastic hinge zones vertical spacing of ties shall be as specified in NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5.10.11.4.1.e. All stirrups shall be provided with 135 hooks. When spirals are provided in lieu

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of lateral ties, the pitch is as AASHTO specifies. Spirals should stop at the level of the footing or the capbeam and circular ties shall be used for a distance equal to the greater column plan dimension, but not less than 1-3 into the footing or cap beam. In lightly reinforced footings, where there would be minimal interference between the spiral and the footing reinforcement, spirals may continue in lieu of the circular ties into the footing and the cap beam. Lateral ties shall be as specified in NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5.10.11.4.1d. For seismic reasons, when a plinth is provided at the base of a column, the design vertical reinforcement of the columns shall extend into the footing. Additional reinforcement in the plinth may be required due to other design forces.

15.10

Pier Cap Reinforcement

The splices of top bars in the cap beam shall be staggered so no more than 50% of the bars are spliced at one location. The splices shall be located in areas of low negative moment. The splices of bottom bars in the cap beam shall be staggered so no more than 50% of the bars are spliced at any one location. The splices shall be located in areas of low positive moment. When pier cap bars are spliced, the lap splices of the bars shall be in a vertical plane so the bars will be in the proper position for attachment to stirrups. To accommodate this type of splice, where more than one layer of reinforcement is required, it may be necessary to increase the distance between the layers of reinforcement. Capbeams with overhangs require special attention. Two cases need to be investigated based on the geometry of the applied loads on the overhang region of the capbeam. First, AASHTO requires that shear due to concentrated loads within a distance "d" (d = capbeam depth) from the column face be included in the flexural design shear. For capbeam cantilever ends where the fascia beam load falls within a distance "d" from the column face, the actual behavior of the cantilever end may not be compatible with beam theory and must be checked against the requirements of NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5.13.2.4, Special Provisions for Brackets and Corbels. An alternative method to analyze such cantilever ends is the strut and tie method described in the NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5.13.2.4.2. Both the Bracket and Corbel and the Strut and Tie methods recognize that direct shear is the primary behavioral mode instead of flexure, and is resisted by tension reinforcement across the shear plane. As a result of these methods, more reinforcement may be required in the top of the overhang than would be required if a normal cantilevered beam is assumed.

15.11

Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement

Temperature and shrinkage reinforcement design shall be in accordance with NYSDOT LRFD Bridge Design Specifications 5.10.8.

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15.12

Protecting Reinforcement from Corrosion

Corrosion of reinforcing steel is a major concern for an aging infrastructure. Repairing and replacing damaged concrete caused by rusting reinforcing steel requires time, money and an imposition on the traveling public. There are technologies that slow or prevent this corrosion but this protection comes at a price. A balance must be struck between the higher initial cost of these technologies and the long term benefits of enhanced performance. As such, use of these technologies should not be indiscriminately included where the costs obviously outweigh the perceived benefit. However, the designer is encouraged to investigate the applicability of these technologies and recommend their use where appropriate. The designer has three choices available for protecting reinforcement: corrosion inhibitors, coating the reinforcement (epoxy, galvanized) and corrosion resistant metal (stainless). The decision of which protection(s) to specify is dependent on a variety of factors including location within a structural element, cost, durability, ease of placement, expected service life, and importance of the structure. See the Prestressed Concrete Construction Manual (PCCM) for details on corrosion inhibitors. In general, uncoated (plain) steel is the most economical choice when the concrete members provide adequate cover, and the reinforcement is not exposed to chlorides or other severe environments. For most other applications, epoxy or galvanized reinforcement is the proper choice. Solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement are appropriate when the added durability reduces cost, either long-term or during construction. This can occur when environmental conditions are particularly severe, when the cost of repairs is unusually high, due to heavy traffic or construction conditions, when design of concrete sections as uncracked under service load is not feasible and when cover is less than standard. In these situations solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement will continue to be effective because it will not detrimentally corrode. Examples of situations where other than plain, epoxy-coated or galvanized bars might be used include: C C C Work on a signature structure where construction work is difficult and detracts from the image that the structure conveys about the surrounding community. High-volume (AADT = 44,000) roadways where the additional cost for more durable reinforcement is outweighed by the costs associated with traffic delays, safety of the workers and traveling public and costs to businesses served by that roadway. Extreme environments such as in a cap beam beneath an expansion joint or a substructure located in or near a body of salt water.

Although there are situations where use of a more durable reinforcing steel may be justified, the engineer must remember that the situations where epoxy-coated, galvanized and plain bars are the better choice are far more common. Use of solid stainless steel and stainless steel clad reinforcement is unnecessary in concrete members that have adequate cover, no exposure to chlorides, and corrosion protection methods are used such as low-permeability concrete or corrosion inhibitors.

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Table 15-3 compares approximate current cost ratio estimates for reinforcing bars at the time of publication using plain reinforcing bars as a base. Please note that prices change over time and vary by geographic location. Designers should check current prices when cost is a consideration.

Bar Protection Type Solid Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Clad Galvanized Epoxy Coated Plain

In-Place Cost Ratio 2.0 1.6 1.1 1.1 1.0

Table 15-3 Approximate Reinforcement Cost Comparison A review of the average bid prices (in place costs) indicates that the cost to fabricate, ship, and place plain reinforcing bars is $0.56/lb over the material cost. The cost to fabricate, ship, and place epoxy-coated bars is an additional $0.14/lb ($0.70/lb over the material cost) due to the extra care required during placement and repair to the epoxy coating after placement. In the above table, it was estimated that the cost to fabricate, ship, and place solid stainless steel bars is similar to the cost for plain bars and that the cost for stainless steel clad bars falls between the costs for plain and epoxy-coated bars. The cost of solid stainless steel bars is expected to fall in the future. See Section 15.12.4. Table 15-4 illustrates the expected service life for the different types of reinforcing bars in conventional concrete with standard cover exposed to a corrosive environment:

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Bar Protection Type Solid Stainless Steel Stainless Steel Clad Galvanized Epoxy Coated Plain

Expected Service Life 100+ 100 40 40 20

Table 15-4 Expected Service Life These values are approximate and are based on information obtained from industry sources, university research studies, and professional journals.

15.12.1

Epoxy-Coated Reinforcement

Epoxy-coated reinforcement is the most frequently used type of corrosion protected reinforcement. Extra care is required during placement of epoxy coated reinforcement. Repair is required of epoxy coating that is damaged before or during placement. If there is a mix of uncoated and coated reinforcements in the same structural element, epoxy coated reinforcement is the preferred alternative.

15.12.2

Galvanized Reinforcement

Galvanized reinforcement may be used anywhere corrosion protected reinforcement is required as long as it is not mixed with uncoated bars in the same structural element. When uncoated bars are used in the same element with galvanized bars, the zinc on the galvanized bar sacrifices itself to protect the uncoated bar. This results in a reduced service life after the zinc is consumed and corrosion and spalling can develop. Galvanized bars shall not be used in prestressed beams. The current standard is to use calcium nitrite corrosion inhibitor in prestressed elements, which negates the need for other corrosion protection measures. The standards for reinforcing bars are given in ASTM A615 and A996. These documents include the minimum dimensions for bending the various diameters and grades of bars. Unfortunately, some of these dimensions are not suitable for galvanized reinforcing bars. The bends sometimes have microcracking that is exacerbated by the galvanizing process, resulting in reinforcing that can be broken by hand. The standard bends for galvanized reinforcing bars are given in ASTM A767.

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Table 15-5 gives the minimum bend diameters that should be used for detailing reinforcing when galvanized reinforcing is specified. The bar list program (Barlist.EXE) will account for these changes when the bar is coded as galvanized. For galvanized bar sizes up to and including #6 the bend diameter for end hooks is the same. Because of this, no change will be required for most bridge deck applications of galvanized reinforcing.

End Hook 180E Bar Size English 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1 1.128 1.27 1.41 1.693 2.257 5 6 7 8 11 13 15 17 19 27 36 3 4 5 6 8.75 10 11.75 13.25 14.75 21.75 28.5 6 8 10 12 15 17 19 22 24 32 41 4 5 Bar Diameter A or G J 90E A or G

Stirrup or Tie Hooks 135E A or G H 90E A or G

Seismic Stirrup or Tie Hooks 135E A or G H

2.5 3 4.5 5.5 6.5

4 5 12 15 17

4.5 5 6.5 8 10.25 11.5

3 3 3.75 4.5 5.5 6.5

6.5 8 10.25 11.5

3.75 6.25

Table 15-5 Hooks for Galvanized Bars (in)

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15.12.3

Stainless Steel Clad Reinforcement

The use of stainless steel clad reinforcement requires approval by the D.C.E.S. due to limited field experience and will be considered on a case by case basis. Bends, development length, and lap splice requirements are similar to plain bars. The primary difference between stainless steel clad and solid stainless steel is that stainless steel clad has a plain core that must be protected after cutting, leading to increased time and effort in the field. If this operation is not performed well, there is some risk that the inner core could corrode. Stainless steel clad reinforcement may be applicable in extreme environments such as in a cap beam beneath an expansion joint or a substructure unit located near or in a body of salt water. Stainless steel clad reinforcement is also applicable in superstructure deck slabs. When used in a superstructure deck slabs, both reinforcement mats shall be stainless steel clad reinforcement. At this time this material has no US manufacturers. If stainless steel clad reinforcement is planned for a project a Buy USA waiver is required.

15.12.4

Solid Stainless Steel Reinforcement

The use of solid stainless steel reinforcement requires approval by the D.C.E.S. due to its substantial cost and will be considered on a case by case basis. Bends, development length, and lap splice requirements are similar to plain bars. Solid stainless steel reinforcement is applicable to every situation where galvanized or stainless steel clad would be used. The additional cost for stainless steel reinforcement will be offset to a degree by the reduced thickness of the slab (see Section 5.1.1) and reduction of the foundation cost due to the reduced dead load. The reduction in cost will be greater when you have poor soils and/or longer spans. The base cost for stainless steel reinforcement is expected to go down due to the allowance of additional lower cost alloys approved in EI 09-032. In some cases it may be possible that the cost of stainless steel reinforcement will approach the cost of stainless steel clad reinforcement. In addition, the designer should consider the fact that reinforcement is a small percentage of the overall cost when deciding type of reinforcement.

15.12.5

Protection of Reinforcement in Substructures

Corrosion-resistant reinforcement shall be used for the faces of substructure components that are exposed to chlorides. It is typically not necessary to use corrosion-resistant reinforcement in the rear faces of retaining walls and abutments. A substructure face is considered to be exposed to chlorides as described below. 1. Footings immersed in seawater are considered to be exposed to chlorides on all faces. All other footings are not considered to be exposed to chlorides. 2. Reinforcement extending from the footing into substructure components shall be considered exposed to chlorides if that substructure face is also considered exposed to chlorides.

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3. A substructure face is considered exposed to chlorides from water containing de-icing salts if the substructure is located under: an open steel grating deck. any bridge deck joint system. a bridge deck with an open railing.

Exception: The primary longitudinal reinforcement in cap beams of piers shall not have an epoxy coating. This exception is made to improve the bond between the reinforcement and concrete for better crack control. Shear and vertical reinforcement shall follow the normal criteria. 4. A substructure is considered to be exposed to chlorides from splash or spray of water containing de-icing salts from the roadway below if the substructure is located within 30 feet horizontally of the edge of the under roadway pavement. Exception: If the substructure is tall, reinforcing bars beginning with the first splice at 16 feet or higher above the pavement are not considered to be exposed. 5. A substructure is considered to be exposed to chlorides from splash or spray of seawater if the substructure is located within 30 feet horizontally of the edge of seawater at mean high water or, within 100 feet horizontally of the edge of seawater if large waves frequently exceed the mean high water level. Exception: If the substructure is tall, reinforcing bars beginning with the first splice at 16 feet or higher above mean high water are not considered to be exposed. The height shall be increased to 50 feet above mean high water where large waves frequently exceed the mean high water level. 6. All substructure components immersed in seawater are considered to be exposed to chlorides on all faces.

15.13

Reinforcing Bar Lists

Contract Plans shall include reinforcing bar lists. Contract Plans without reinforcing bar lists are no longer allowed.

15.14

Drilling and Grouting

Three specifications are available for use when drilling and grouting of anchor rods (bolts or reinforcing bars) is required. The specifications are 586.02 Drilling and Grouting Bolts or Reinforcing Bars, 586.03 Drilling and Grouting Bolts or Reinforcing Bars with Pullout Test and 586.04 Drilling and Grouting Bolts, Overhead or Sustained Tension, with Pullout Test.

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Specification 586.02 shall be used when it is determined that proof load testing is not required. Some examples of where proof load testing of anchor rods is not required include: 1. Rods are in compression under all load cases. 2. Anchorage of temperature and shrinkage steel 3. Resisting shear forces only 4. Used to tie an existing wall to a new one. Specification 586.03 shall be used when it is determined that proof load testing of the installation will be required, and where there are no sustained tensile loads and/or overhead applications. Proof load testing is defined as random pullout testing of installed anchor rods and can only be performed on straight rods. The testing equipment can not fit over bent bars. Some examples of where proof load testing is required for this specification include the following: 1. Attaching replacement bridge railing. 2. Inserting anchor rods into an existing footing and splicing to vertical reinforcing bars for a new column. 3. Anchoring bearings that could be subjected to uplift. 4. Attaching signs to fascias of bridges. Specification 586.04 shall be used for sustained tensile load and/or overhead applications including any vertical applications where failure would result in risk or injury to the public. Proof load testing is required. This specification eliminates the option of using 70107 Anchoring Materials Chemically Curing in these situations. Contact the Bridge Standards Unit for additional guidance when requiring this specification. If drilling and grouting is being used in a project it is recommended that the Designer should include a note directing the Contractors attention to the special note in the Proposal titled Anchoring Materials Chemical Curing. Several factors play a role in determining embedment depths including edge distances and bar spacing and manufacturers recommendations. Due to the complexity of determining these depths, it is recommended that designers consult the Bridge Standards Unit when drilling and grouting is required. It should be noted that the length provided by the Standards Unit is for estimating purposes only and the actual length provided in the field will be determined by the specific grout manufacturer.

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Section 16 Estimate of Quantities


16.1 General

The Engineers Estimate is the Departments estimate of the construction cost of the project. The bridge estimate is an important component of that estimate and the contract plans for many reasons. Besides providing a list of quantities to the contractor, the estimate also provides some very important internal information to the Department. By breaking down the materials and tasks required for a bridge into measurable standard units and then dividing the bid price by the number of units, it is possible to establish a per-unit cost for each item bid for that particular project. These per unit costs are averaged with the per-unit costs from other similar projects. These averages can then applied to future projects to estimate the bid price. Once these averages are well established, they can be used to determine the most cost efficient design between competing alternates. As an example, a determination could be made whether two continuous shorter spans with a pier are more economical than a single longer span bridge. Since there is usually some highway approach work associated with a bridge project, the bridge estimate in most cases is only a part of the larger project estimate. The total project estimate is usually coordinated by the functional area having overall project management responsibility or responsibility for the highway portion of the project estimate. All estimate calculations, and any sketches associated with them, shall be verified and preserved as part of the design computations. Estimate work up sheets are usually requested by the E.I.C. and should be provided before construction begins. Further information on estimates can be found in Section 14.2.6, Bridge Estimate File, and in Chapter 21 of the Highway Design Manual.

16.2

Precision Versus Practicality

It is important to consider the items being estimated and the relative amount of precision required for that item. For example, it may be necessary to estimate a certain item, such as a concrete placement, to the nearest tenth cubic yard in a concrete table, while it may be unnecessary to apply this level of accuracy to a less precise item such as earthwork items. The following is a sample list of the desired level of precision for the Estimate of Quantities Table:

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ITEM Select Structure Fill Steel Bearing Piles Perm. Steel Sheet Piling Concrete for Structures Structural Steel Armored Joint System Perm. Conc. Traffic Barrier Type E.B. Bearings Reinforcing Steel Stone Bridge Curb

UNITS Cubic Yards Foot Square Foot Cubic Yard Pound Foot Foot Each Pound Foot

Level of Accuracy Round to the nearest 5 cubic yards Round to the nearest foot Round to nearest square foot Round to nearest cubic yard (to nearest tenth in a placement table) Round to the nearest 100 lbs Round to nearest foot Round to the nearest foot Give exact number required Round to nearest pound Round to nearest foot

Table 16-1 Precision for Estimate of Quantities

16.3

Utility Share of Bridge Estimate

It is common for bridges to carry utility lines (water or natural gas pipes, telephone or electrical lines, etc.) in addition to vehicular and pedestrian traffic. These projects may have separate utility shares in the Engineers Estimate. See Section 7.5 for more information on utility shares.

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Estimate of Quantities

16.4

Lump Sum Price Analysis

For items designated as Lump Sum items, there is no per-unit cost. In this case, a logical procedure for determining the estimated cost must be included in the design folder and kept for future reference. Although structural steel is estimated on a lump sum basis, the amount of steel shall be stated on the plans in pounds. The total weight of beams, diaphragms, angles, and gusset plates are accounted for by totaling the volume of these components and then multiplying by 490 lb/ft3 (unit weight of steel). Additionally, the total weight shall be increased by 3% to account for the weight of welds and bolts and then rounded to the nearest 100 lbs.

16.5

Alternate Bid Procedure

Periodically, a major structure may require that two competing design alternates be prepared (e.g., prestressed concrete vs. steel superstructures). Since the designs may be quite dissimilar, separate estimates for each design shall be prepared for bid. Further information on alternate bid procedures is available in Chapter 21 of the Highway Design Manual.

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Section 17 Standard Notes


17.1 Introduction

Standard notes are an important element of a complete PS&E package since they provide necessary additional information for a project that cannot easily be included in a detail drawing. Standard notes are included in the contract proposal or included in the contract plans. This section presents a compilation of standard notes and serves as a guide for their use. The use of standard notes is intended to further explain or provide information in the contract plans. While the use of standard notes is necessary and appropriate, designers are cautioned against overuse. Instead of presenting an excessive list of every possible standard note because they might apply on a particular project, designers need to carefully evaluate each of the standard notes compiled in this section for its need and applicability. The goal is to present a list of notes on the plans that is no less and no more than what is needed. When notes are used in profusion, important items can be lost in a sea of notes that may not be applicable. Further information on the use of notes can be found in Chapter 21 of the Highway Design Manual.

17.2

Standard Proposal Notes

Standard notes to be placed in the proposal and included with the PS&E submission include the special bridge foundation notes. Bridges over navigable waterways also require notes to be placed in the proposal. The following sections contain a compilation of the standard proposal notes.

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Standard Notes

PROTECTION AND OVERLAYING OF MEMBRANE WATERPROOFING SYSTEM FOR STRUCTURAL SLABS The bituminous concrete overlay shall be placed on the structural slab preferably within 24 hours but not later than seven (7) days after the placement of the membrane waterproofing system. For the Bituthene and Protecto-Wrap Preformed Sheet Membrane Systems, the temperature of the first course of bituminous paving material, at the time of placement, shall be not less than 275EF nor greater than 300EF. For the Royston Preformed Sheet Membrane System, the temperature of the first course of bituminous paving material, at the time of placement, shall be not less than 290EF nor greater than 325EF. On grades, bituminous paving equipment shall be operated in the downhill direction to minimize damage to the membrane. Only that equipment necessary for transporting, placing, and compacting the overlay shall be allowed on the completed membrane system. Bituminous concrete pavers shall be rubber-tired. Vehicles transporting the overlay material shall be rubber-tired and operated at slow speeds (not to exceed 5mph). All vehicles shall avoid making sharp turns, sudden stops and starts, or other movements on the membrane that may cause breaks, lifting, or other damage. If vehicle tires cause pick-up of the membrane, small quantities of talc, cement, or powdered limestone may be used to dust the tires. Any damage to the membrane waterproofing system during the overlay operation shall be repaired immediately and prior to the placement of bituminous concrete. A quantity of repair material shall be kept on hand for any such repairs. No additional payment will be made for any areas that require repairs. Blisters that may raise during the overlay operation shall be vented to insure adhesion of the membrane system and overlay to the deck. Blistered areas will be most noticeable during the rolling operation. Venting shall be done by inserting an ice pick or other suitable instrument into the affected area. These vent holes need not be repaired. Compaction of Asphalt Overlays on Bridge Decks Compaction of asphalt overlays within the 6 ft. width immediately adjacent to the headers or joints shall be obtained using a vibratory roller only in static mode and having a maximum width of 3 ft. The vibratory roller shall appear on the Department's current Approved List for Bituminous Concrete Vibratory Compaction Equipment - Small Vibratory Rollers. Compaction in accordance with 402-3.07 Compaction shall overlap this area and proceed as near as practical to headers or joints.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

NOTES FOR USE WITH PROJECTS INVOLVING NAVIGABLE WATERS AND OTHER WATERWAYS The following five Special Proposal Notes have been written for use on projects involving Navigable Waters and other Waterways. The Designer is urged to contact the Office of Structures Hydraulic Engineering Unit for guidance in the choice of which set of Special Notes to choose for a particular project, as well as needed modifications for the particular project. The five Special Notes are as follows: New and Replacement Bridge Project - Non-Canal Area, U.S.C.G. Permit Required, In-Stream Work New and Replacement Bridge Project - Canal Area, U.S.C.G. Permit Required, In-Stream Work Rehab Project - Non-Canal Area, No Formal U.S.C.G. Permit Minor Rehab Project - Canal Area, Painting Contracts Etc., No In-Stream Work Minor Rehab Project - Non-Canal Area, Painting Contracts Etc., No In-Stream Work

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Standard Notes

USE FOR NEW & REPLACEMENT BRIDGE PROJECT NON-CANAL AREA, U.S.C.G. PERMIT REQUIRED, IN-STREAM WORK SPECIAL NOTES Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways 1. Responsibilities:

and the navigation The Contractor's attention is directed to (Waterway Name) channel therein. It shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor to conduct operations to comply with all the regulations and requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, The New York State Department of Transportation, the New York State Department of State and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, in connection with but not limited to, the maintenance of navigation and water pollution control. The Contractor shall submit six (6) copies of the plan and schedule of operations to the New York State Department of Transportation, Region # , (Address) for approval at least 35 days prior to commencing any work in or over the navigable waterway. Two copies of the Contractor's plan and schedule of operations approved by the NYSDOT shall then be submitted by the Contractor to the U.S. Coast Guard for their approval at least 21 days prior to commencement of work. The plan and schedule or sequence of operation shall include: A sketch of the waterway, the location of any restrictions that will be placed in the waterway, such as barges, anchors and anchor lines, the location and height above mean high water of any scaffolding or netting, the placement, type and dimensions of cofferdams, dolphins, spars, etc., if used, method of screening silt from dewatering operations and a projected set of dates and length of time each operation will take. The schedule shall also include the hours of operation and whether or not equipment will be removed at night. 2. Laws and Regulations:

The State has applied for a permit for the construction of this project from the U.S. Coast Guard. It is anticipated that the U.S. Coast Guard Bridge Permit will be available for examination at the Office of the Regional Director, Region # . The Contractor shall comply with the requirements and provisions of this permit which are applicable to the construction work of this contract and shall pay all costs in connection therewith including but not necessarily limited to, the cost of any Notice to Mariners, the cost of relocating existing navigation aids and the cost of services performed by the U.S. Coast Guard, as required, such as special surveys in connection with misplaced material in waterways or making dumping inspections. The cost to the Contractor for compliance as aforesaid shall be included in the prices bid for the various items scheduled in the Proposal. The Contractor should be familiar with the regulations of Sections 301, 302, 306, and 307 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816; The General Bridge Act of 1946-(33 USC 525), Sections 9 & 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of March 3, 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403); Section 404, Stat. 816, Public Law 92-500; Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 86 Stat. 1052, Public Law 92-532 as they relate to the proposed construction activities. Proposed activities in the waterway which

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extend beyond the purview of the State's Permits as granted by the Coast Guard and/or the Corps of Engineers may be affected or restricted by these regulations. All costs and delays incurred in securing authorization for extraneous work activities not included in the Permits granted as stated herein, shall be borne by the Contractor and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. The Contractor shall obtain all other permits and licenses and pay all charges and fees incurred. The Contractor shall give all notices necessary and incident to the due and lawful prosecution of the work, and shall comply with all laws, ordinances, rules and regulations of the Federal Government, the State, the City (Cities) and other bodies having jurisdiction over the work and encompassed by their Contract. 3. Maintenance and Protection of Navigation:

a. All work shall be so conducted that the free navigation of the waterway is not unreasonably interfered with and the present navigable depths are not impaired. The construction of falsework, pilings or other obstructions, if required, shall be accomplished in accordance with plans submitted to and approved by the NYSDOT (E.I.C.), and the U.S. Coast Guard prior to work being performed. At no time during construction, shall restrictions be placed upon navigation without first receiving approval of the E.I.C. and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor shall contact both Offices at least (15) fifteen days prior to the proposed restriction periods. All dredged material taken from the waterway beds shall be removed in accordance with the conditions as stated and/or required by the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, the New York State Department of State and the Certification of Compliance with Water Quality Standards issued in accordance with Section 401(a)(1) Public Law 92-500, by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for this project. b. Signal Lights and Markers:

Permanent navigation lights shall be installed in accordance with Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 118.70. The Contractor shall display signal lights, including any other aids to navigation whether permanent or temporary, and conduct operations in accordance with the General Regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor will be required to comply with all the provisions of the Coast Guard's Inland Rules of the Road governing all aspects of this project as they relate to navigable waters. The Contractor shall service and maintain all Aids to Navigation (lights, fog horn, buoys, etc.) from the time they are installed until all work of the contract has been completed, at which time they shall be left in place and their maintenance taken over by others or removed as ordered by the State of New York and/or the Coast Guard. Specific approval of the lights proposed to be furnished shall be obtained in writing from the State of New York and the Coast Guard by the Contractor. The Contractor shall submit for approval by the State, drawings and catalogue cuts of the lights, relays and batteries proposed to be furnished, including details for mounting and securing same, in accordance with New York Standard Specifications, Item 16665.9710 in effect at the time.

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Standard Notes

The Contractor shall also furnish and install warning signs along the banks of the waterway as specified by the Contract Plans and/or the E.I.C. where they may be readily seen by mariners approaching the bridge. These signs shall warn mariners that they are approaching a bridge construction area and that caution should be observed. Size, construction and lettering of the signs shall conform to the N.Y.S. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. All costs incurred in connection with these signs shall be included in the lump sum price bid for Item 619.02 - Construction Signs, or subsequent Item in effect at that time. c. Notice to Mariners:

The Contractor shall notify the Coast Guard and the E.I.C. thirty (30) days in advance of work completion so that the appropriate notice can be given to mariners. The Contractor shall keep all offices apprised of conditions existing at the site, which relate to navigation, so that marine traffic may be notified accordingly, on a timely basis. d. Temporary Removal of Navigation Aids:

The temporary removal or changes in location of channel markers may be required to facilitate navigation. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer and the U.S. Coast Guard at least 10 days prior to the desired removal of any channel marker in order that appropriate permission may be obtained and navigation interests fully informed in advance of the proposed change in location. e. Preservation of the Existing Waterway:

It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to insure that the waterway and channel depths are not affected by the work. Should it be suspected that the waterway or channel depths may have been impaired or that an obstruction may exist from the work, the Contractor shall upon the request of the Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers or the E.I.C., provide the necessary equipment and personnel to undertake a survey to determine the presence of any obstructions, objects or silting that may have occurred during construction. Before commencement of work in or near the waterway, the Contractor shall conduct a fathometric survey (soundings) of the waterway bottom based on U.S.G.S. Datum for the full width of the waterway and for a distance 150 ft. upstream and downstream of the work site (new structure, bridge being replaced). Soundings shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid. A copy of the soundings shall be submitted to the E.I.C. Upon completion of the contract, an inspection of the waterway shall be performed again to insure that all construction wastes have been completely removed from the waterway. This inspection shall consist of both a fathometric (soundings) survey and a wire drag. The survey shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid and cover the area previously surveyed. The wire drag shall be performed after a review and comparison of the soundings have been made by the Engineer-InCharge. f. Misplaced Materials:

Should the Contractor, during the progress of the work, lose, dump, throw overboard, sink or misplace any material, plant, machinery or appliance, which may be dangerous or obstruct navigation, the Contractor shall promptly recover and remove the same. The

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Contractor shall give immediate notice of such obstruction to the Coast Guard and the E.I.C. The Notice shall give a description and location of any such object and action taken or being taken to protect navigation. Until removal can be effected, the object(s) shall be properly marked in order to protect navigation. Should the Contractor neglect to remove, or refuse to promptly remove any such obstruction, the E.I.C. shall have the same removed and charge the costs against monies due to the Contractor or recover under his Bond. g. Obstruction of Channel and Waterway:

Should the Contractor's plant obstruct the channel and waterway so as to endanger the passage of vessels, as defined in the River and Harbor Act, it shall be promptly moved to the extent necessary to afford a practicable passage. Upon completion of the work, the Contractor shall promptly remove the plant, including ranges, buoys, piles, anchors and other markers placed by the Contractor under the Contract, either on shore or off shore. 4. Payment

Payment for all of the aforesaid items contained in these SPECIAL NOTES - Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways shall be included and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. No separate payment will be made for compliance with the conditions stated herein.

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Standard Notes

USE FOR NEW & REPLACEMENT BRIDGE PROJECT CANAL AREA, U.S.C.G. PERMIT REQUIRED, IN-STREAM WORK SPECIAL NOTES Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways 1. Responsibilities:

The contractor's attention is directed to the Erie Canal and the navigation channel therein. It shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor to conduct operations to comply with all the regulations and requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, the New York State Department of Transportation, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the New York State Canal Corporation in connection with, but not limited to, the maintenance of navigation and water pollution control. The State has applied for a permit for the construction of this project from the U.S. Coast Guard. It is anticipated that the permit will be available for examination at the Office of the Regional Director, Region # , (Address) . The contractor shall comply with the requirements of all permits (USCG, Corps of Engineers, NYSDEC 401/Wetlands,) which are applicable to the construction work of this contract. This shall include the payment of all costs in connection therewith including, but not necessarily limited to, the cost of any Notice to Mariners, the cost of relocating existing navigation aids and establishing additional navigation aids during the course of construction and the cost of services performed by the U.S. Coast Guard, and the New York State Canal Corporation as required, such as special surveys in connection with misplaced materials in waterways. The Contractor shall submit a **** plan and schedule of operations to the following governmental agencies for approval before work may commence in or over the waterway. The NYSDOT must approve the plan before submission to other agencies having jurisdiction. Please note minimum review times required: a) NYSDOT - Three copies, 45 days prior to commencement of work. Send to Regional Director, Region #___,_________(Address)_________ b) U.S. Coast Guard- One copy, 30 days before work is commenced. Send to Commander (obr),_____Coast Guard District,_________(Address)__________. c) Division Canal Maintenance Engineer - One copy, 21 days prior to commencement of work. Send to New York State Canal Corporation, ________(Address)________ requesting (a) plan approval, (b) a Work Permit for project construction over Canal property, (c) permission to temporarily occupy Canal Corporation property for the length of time needed to complete construction (including sufficient area for storage of equipment and supplies). d) Director, New York State Canal Corporation - One copy, 21 days prior to commencement of work. Send to 200 Southern Boulevard, P.O. Box 189, Albany, N.Y. 122010189. The Contractor should consider sending the plan and schedule of operations to all agencies simultaneously after receiving NYSDOT approval to provide ample time for

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coordination of comments before actual work is begun. The NYSDOT is not responsible for delays attributable to any Office of the Canal Corporation or the Coast Guard. ****The plan and schedule or sequence of operation shall include where applicable: A sketch of the waterway, the location of any restrictions that will be placed in the waterway, such as barges, anchors and anchor lines, the location and height above mean high water of any scaffolding or netting, the placement, type and dimensions of falsework, pilings, temporary access fills, cofferdams, dolphins, spars, etc., if used, method of screening silt from dewatering operations and a projected set of dates and length of time each operation will take. The schedule shall also include the hours of operation and whether or not equipment will be removed at night. The Contractor is hereby informed that in the remainder of these Special Notes, all references to the New York State Canal Corporation shall be understood to mean the Division Canal Maintenance Engineer (DCME). 2. Laws and Regulations:

The Contractor should be familiar with the regulations of Sections 301, 302, 306, 307, 401 and 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816; the General Bridge Act of 1946 (33 USC 525), Sections 9 and 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Appropriations Act of March 3, 1899 (33 USC 403); Section 103 of the Marine Protection and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, Public Law 92-532 as they relate to proposed construction activities. Proposed activities in the waterway which extend beyond the purview of permits and/or certifications granted to the NYSDOT by the Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, New York State Department of State and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation may be affected or restricted by these regulations. All costs and delays incurred in securing authorization for extraneous work activities not included in the permits granted as stated herein, shall be borne by the Contractor and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. 3. Maintenance and Protection of Navigation:

a. The Contractor is hereby advised that the navigation season on the Canal extends from approximately April 10th to December 1st. The operations of the Contractor may be restricted during this period. All work shall be so conducted that the free navigation of the waterway is not interfered with and the present navigable depths are not impaired. At no time during construction shall restrictions be placed upon navigation, or channel markers be moved without first receiving approval of the E.I.C., the New York State Canal Corporation and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor shall contact all Offices at least 21 days prior to the proposed restriction. b. Signal Lights and Markers:

Permanent navigation lights shall be installed in accordance with Title 33, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 118. The Contractor shall display signal lights, including any other aids to navigation whether permanent or temporary, in accordance with the General Regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard. Specific lighting requirements are indicated on the Contract Plans and the U.S.C.G. Lighting Authorization. The Contractor will also be required to

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Standard Notes

comply with all the provisions of the Coast Guard's Inland Rules of the Road governing all aspects of the construction of this project as they relate to navigable waters. Specific approval of the lights proposed to be furnished shall be obtained in writing from the NYSDOT by the Contractor. All permanent navigation lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible against background lighting at a distance of at least 6000 ft. on 90% of the nights of the year. The Contractor shall also furnish and install warning signs along the banks of the waterway at locations specified by the NYSDOT where they may be readily seen by approaching mariners. These signs shall warn mariners that they are approaching a bridge construction area and that caution should be observed. Wording of the signs shall be approved by the Engineer-In-Charge. Size, construction and lettering shall conform to the N.Y.S. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. All cost incurred in connection with these signs shall be included in the lump sum price bid for Item 619.02 - Construction Signs or subsequent Item in effect at that time. The Contractor shall service and maintain all Aids to Navigation (lights, fog horn, buoys, etc.) from the time they are installed until all work on the contract has been completed, at which time they shall be left in place and their maintenance taken over by others or removed as ordered by the NYSDOT and/or the Coast Guard. c. Notice to Mariners:

The Contractor shall notify the Coast Guard, E.I.C. and the New York State Canal Corporation thirty days in advance of work completion so that the appropriate notice can be given to mariners. The Contractor shall keep all offices apprised of conditions existing at the site which concern navigation, so that marine traffic may be notified accordingly and on a timely basis. d. Preservation of the Existing Waterway:

Before commencement of work in or near the waterway, the Contractor shall conduct a fathometric survey (soundings) of the waterway bottom based on U.S.G.S. datum for the full width of the waterway and for a distance of 150 ft. upstream and downstream of the work site (understood to mean the new bridge and/or bridge being replaced or rehabilitated including any detour structure (structures) that may be required as part of this contract). Soundings shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid. It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to insure that the waterway and channel depths are not affected by the work. Should it be suspected that the waterway or channel depths may have been impaired or that an obstruction may exist from the work, the Contractor shall, upon request of the Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers or the E.I.C., provide the necessary equipment and personnel to undertake a survey to determine the presence of any obstructions, objects or silting that may have occurred during construction. The Contractor shall give immediate notice of such obstruction to the E.I.C. and the Coast Guard. Notices shall give a description and location of the objects and action being taken to protect navigation. Until removal can be effected, the object(s) shall be properly marked in order to protect navigation. Should the Contractor neglect to remove or refuse to promptly remove any such obstruction, the

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E.I.C. shall have the same removed and charge the costs against monies due to the Contractor or recover under his Bond. Upon completion of this Contract, an inspection of the waterway bottom shall be performed again to insure that all bridge construction wastes have been completely removed from the waterway. This inspection shall consist of both a fathometric survey (soundings) and a wire drag. The survey shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid and cover the area previously surveyed. The wire drag shall be performed after a review and comparison of the soundings have been made by the Engineer-In-Charge. 4. Payment

Payment for all of the aforesaid Items contained in these Special Notes shall be included and reflected in the prices bid for various Contract Items. No separate payment will be made for compliance with the conditions stated herein.

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Standard Notes

REHABILITATION PROJECT NON-CANAL AREA, NO FORMAL U.S.C.G. PERMIT SPECIAL NOTES Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways 1. Responsibilities:

and the The Contractor's attention is directed to (Waterway Name) navigation channel therein. It shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor to conduct operations to comply with all the regulations and requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, the New York State Department of Transportation, the New York State Department of State, and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in connection with, but not limited to, the maintenance of navigation and water pollution control. The Contractor shall submit four (4) copies of the plan and schedule of operations to the New York State Department of Transportation, Region # , (Address) for approval at least 35 days prior to commencing any work in or over the navigable waterway. Two copies of the Contractor's plan and schedule of operations approved by the NYSDOT shall then be submitted by the Contractor to the U.S. Coast Guard for their information at least 21 days prior to commencement of any work in the waterway. The plan and schedule or sequence of operation shall include: A sketch of the waterway, the location of any restrictions that will be placed in the waterway, such as barges, anchors and anchor lines, the location and height above mean high water/maximum navigable water of any scaffolding or netting, the placement, type and dimensions of cofferdams, dolphins, spars etc., if used, method of screening silt from dewatering operations and a projected set of dates and length of time each operation will take. The schedule shall also include the hours of operation and whether or not equipment will be removed at night. 2. Laws and Regulations:

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements and provisions of all U.S. Coast Guard regulations that are applicable to the construction work of this contract and shall pay all costs in connection therewith including, but not necessarily limited to, the cost of any Notice to Mariners, the cost of relocating existing navigation aids and the cost of services performed by the U.S. Coast Guard, as required, such as special surveys in connection with misplaced material in waterways or making dumping inspections. The cost to the Contractor for compliance as aforesaid shall be included in the prices bid for the various items scheduled in the Proposal. The Contractor should be familiar with the regulations of Sections 301, 302, 306, 307 and 401 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816; The General Bridge Act of 1946-(33 USC 525), Sections 9 & 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of March 3, 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403); Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 86 Stat. 1052, Public Law 92-532 as they relate to his proposed construction activities.

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To the best of our knowledge, this project does not require a formal U.S. Coast Guard bridge permit. Work in the waterway is being progressed under a Corps of Engineers Nationwide Permit in accordance with 33 CFR 330.5(A)#__. The Contractor should note that while a formal permit requirement is not anticipated, this waterway is a navigable waterway of the U.S. under jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard and Corps of Engineers. Any cost and delays incurred in securing authorization for work activities not previously approved shall be borne by the Contractor and reflected in the prices bid for various contract items. The Contractor shall obtain all other permits and licenses and pay all charges and fees incurred. The Contractor shall give all notices necessary and incident to the due and lawful prosecution of the work, and shall comply with all laws, ordinances, rules and regulations of the Federal Government, the State, the City (Cities) and other bodies having jurisdiction over the work and encompassed by their Contract. 3. Maintenance and Protection of Navigation:

a. All work shall be so conducted that the free navigation of the waterway is not unreasonably interfered with and the present navigable depths are not impaired. The construction of false work, pilings or other obstructions, if required, shall be accomplished in accordance with plans submitted to and approved by the NYSDOT E.I.C. and the U.S. Coast Guard prior to construction. At no time during construction shall restrictions be placed upon navigation without first receiving approval of the E.I.C. and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor shall contact all Offices at least (21) twenty one days prior to the proposed restriction periods. All dredged material taken from the waterway beds shall be removed in accordance with the conditions as stated and/or required by the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers and the Certification of Compliance with Water Quality Standards issued in accordance with Section 401(a)(1) Public Law 92-500, by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation for this project. b. Signal Lights and Markers:

The Contractor shall display signal lights, including any other aids to navigation whether permanent or temporary, and conduct operations in accordance with the General Regulations of the U. S. Coast Guard. Specific lighting requirements are indicated on the contract plans and the U.S.C.G. Lighting Authorization. The Contractor will be required to comply with all the provisions of the Coast Guard's Inland Rules of the Road governing all aspects of this project as they relate to navigable waters. The Contractor shall also furnish and install warning signs along the banks of the waterway at locations specified by the NYSDOT where they may be readily seen by approaching mariners. These signs shall warn mariners that they are approaching a bridge construction area and that caution should be observed. Wording of the signs shall be approved by the Engineer-In-Charge. Size, construction and lettering shall conform to the N.Y.S. Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. All cost incurred in connection with these signs shall be included in the lump sum price bid for Item 619.02 - Construction Signs or subsequent Item in effect at that time.

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Standard Notes

c.

Notice to Mariners:

The Contractor shall notify the Coast Guard and the E.I.C. thirty (30) days in advance of work completion so that the appropriate notice can be given to mariners. The Contractor shall keep all offices apprized of conditions existing at the site, which relate to navigation, so that marine traffic may be notified accordingly, on a timely basis. d. Temporary Removal of Navigation Aids:

The temporary removal or changes in location of channel markers may be required to facilitate navigation. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer and the U.S. Coast Guard at least 21 days prior to the desired removal of any channel marker in order that appropriate permission may be obtained and navigation interests fully informed in advance of the proposed change in location. e. Preservation of the Existing Waterway:

It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to insure that the waterway and channel depths are not affected by the work. Should it be suspected that the waterway or channel depths may have been impaired or that an obstruction may exist from the work, the Contractor shall, upon the request of the Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, or the E.I.C., provide the necessary equipment and personnel to undertake a survey to determine the presence of any obstructions, objects or silting that may have occurred during construction. Before commencement of work in or near the waterway, the Contractor shall conduct a fathometric survey (soundings) of the waterway bottom based on U.S.G.S. Datum for the full width of the waterway and for a distance 46 m upstream and downstream of the work site (new structure, bridge being replaced). Soundings shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid. Upon completion of the contract, an inspection of the waterway shall be performed again to insure that all construction wastes have been completely removed from the waterway. This inspection shall consist of both a fathometric (soundings) survey and a wire drag. The survey shall be taken on a 10-ft. grid and cover the area previously surveyed. The wire drag shall be performed after a review and comparison of the soundings have been made by the E.I.C. f. Misplaced Materials:

Should the Contractor, during the progress of the work, lose, dump, throw overboard, sink or misplace any material, plant, machinery or appliance, which may be dangerous or obstruct navigation, the Contractor shall promptly recover and remove the same. The Contractor shall give immediate notice of such obstruction to the Coast Guard and the Engineer. The Notice shall give a description and location of any such object and action taken or being taken to protect navigation. Until removal can be effected, the object(s) shall be properly marked in order to protect navigation. Should the Contractor neglect to remove, or refuse to promptly remove any such obstruction, the Engineer shall have the same removed and charge the costs against monies due to the Contractor or recover under his Bond.

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g.

Obstruction of Channel and Waterway:

Should the Contractor's plant obstruct the channel and waterway so as to endanger the passage of vessels, as defined in the River and Harbor Act of 1899, it shall be promptly moved to the extent necessary to afford a practicable passage. Upon completion of the work, the Contractor shall promptly remove the plant, including ranges, buoys, piles, anchors and other markers placed by him under the Contract, either on shore or off shore. 4. Payment:

Payment for all of the aforesaid items contained in these SPECIAL NOTES - Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways shall be included and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. No separate payment will be made for compliance with the conditions stated herein.

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Standard Notes

MINOR REHABILITATION PROJECT - CANAL AREA USE FOR PAINTING CONTRACTS ETC., NO IN-STREAM WORK SPECIAL NOTES Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways 1. Responsibilities:

and the The Contractor's attention is directed to the (Waterway Name) navigation channel therein. It shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor to conduct operations as to comply with all the regulations and requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in connection with, but not limited to, the maintenance of navigation and water pollution control. To the best of our knowledge, this project does not require a formal U.S. Coast Guard bridge permit. However, this waterway is a navigable waterway of the U.S. and as such, is under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers and the New York State Canal Corporation. The Contractor shall notify the U.S. Coast Guard 30 days in advance of commencing work over the waterway so that a Notice to Mariners may be published in a timely manner. Coast Guard approval of the plan and schedule of operations is not necessary for this type of bridge work. The Contractor is required to submit a plan and schedule of operations***to the following governmental agencies for their review 30 days before work may commence. a) NYSDOT: Four copies. Send to Regional Director, Region # , New York State Department of Transportation, (Address) for approval at least 35 days prior to commencing any work. b) Division Canal Maintenance Engineer: One Copy. At least 21 days prior to commencement of work. Send to New York State Canal Corporation, (Address) requesting (a) plan approval, (b) a Work Permit, (c) permission to temporarily occupy Canal Corporation property for the length of time needed to complete construction (including sufficient area for storage of equipment and supplies). c) Director, New York State Canal Corporation: One copy for information. Send to 200 Southern Boulevard, P.O. Box 189, Albany, N.Y. 12201-0189. ***The plan and schedule or sequence of operation shall include: A sketch of the waterway, the location of any restrictions that will be placed in the waterway, such as barges, anchors and anchor lines, the location and height above mean high water/maximum navigable water of any scaffolding or netting, the placement, type and dimensions of dolphins, spars etc., if used, and a projected set of dates and length of time each operation will take. The schedule shall also include the hours of operation and whether or not equipment will be removed at night.

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2.

Laws and Regulations:

The Contractor should be familiar with the regulations of Sections 301, 302, 306 and 307 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816; The General Bridge Act of 1946-(33 USC 525), Sections 9 & 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of March 3, 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403); Section 404, Stat. 816, Public Law 92-500; Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 86 Stat. 1052, Public Law 92-532 as they relate to his proposed construction activities. Proposed activities which extend beyond the purview of permits, certifications and/or approvals previously granted to the NYSDOT for this project by the Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers and/or the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation may be affected or restricted by these regulations. All cost and delays in securing authorization for extraneous work activities not included in the aforementioned approvals shall be borne by the Contractor and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. 3. Maintenance and Protection of Navigation:

a. All work shall be so conducted that the free navigation of the waterway is not unreasonably interfered with and the present navigable depths are not impaired. At no time during construction shall restrictions be placed upon navigation without first receiving approval of the E.I.C., the Canal Corporation and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor shall contact all Offices at least 21 days prior to the proposed restriction periods. b. Signal Lights and Markers:

The Contractor shall display signal lights, including any other aids to navigation whether permanent or temporary, in accordance with the General Regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor will be required to comply with all the provisions of the Coast Guard's Inland Rules of the Road governing all aspects of this project as they relate to navigable waters. c. Notice to Mariners:

The Contractor shall notify the Coast Guard, the Canal Corporation and the E.I.C. thirty (30) days in advance of work completion so that the appropriate notice can be given to mariners. The Contractor shall keep both Offices apprized of conditions existing at the site, which relate to navigation, so that marine traffic may be notified accordingly, on a timely basis. d. Temporary Removal of Navigation Aids:

The temporary removal or changes in location of channel markers may be required to facilitate navigation. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 21 days prior to the desired removal of any channel marker in order that U.S. Coast Guard/Canal Corporation permission may be obtained and navigation interests fully informed in advance of the proposed change in location.

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Standard Notes

e.

Preservation of the Existing Waterway:

It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to insure that the waterway and channel depths are not affected by the work. Should it be suspected that river or channel depths may have been impaired or that an obstruction may exist from the work, the Contractor shall, upon request of the E.I.C. or the U.S. Coast Guard, provide the necessary equipment and personnel to undertake a survey to determine the presence of any obstructions, objects, or silting that may have occurred during construction. f. Misplaced Materials:

Should the Contractor, during the progress of the work, lose, dump, throw overboard, sink or misplace any material, plant, machinery or appliance, which may be dangerous or obstruct navigation, the Contractor shall promptly recover and remove the same. The Contractor shall give immediate notice of such obstruction to the Coast Guard, the Canal Corporation and the Engineer. Notices shall give a description and location of any such object and action taken or being taken to protect navigation. Until removal can be effected, the object(s) shall be properly marked in order to protect navigation. Should the Contractor neglect to remove, or refuse to promptly remove any such obstruction, the Engineer shall have the same removed and charge the costs against monies due to the Contractor or recover under his Bond. Upon completion of the work, the Contractor shall promptly remove the plant, including ranges, buoys, piles, anchors and other markers placed by the Contractor, either on shore or off shore. 4. Payment

Payment for all of the aforesaid items contained in these SPECIAL NOTES shall be included and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. No separate payment will be made for compliance with the conditions stated herein.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

MINOR REHABILITATION PROJECT - NON-CANAL AREA USE FOR PAINTING CONTRACTS ETC., NO IN-STREAM WORK SPECIAL NOTES No In-Stream Work - Series One - Non Canal Area Work in Navigable Waters and Other Waterways 1. Responsibilities:

The Contractor's attention is directed to the (Waterway Name) and the navigation channel therein. It shall be the sole responsibility of the Contractor to conduct operations to comply with all the regulations and requirements of the U.S. Coast Guard, the Corps of Engineers, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and the New York State Department of State in connection with, but not limited to, the maintenance of navigation and water pollution control. The Contractor shall submit five (5) copies of plan and schedule of operations to the New York State Department of Transportation, for approval at least 40 days prior to commencing any work over the navigable waterway. Two (2) copies of the plan and schedule approved by the Department shall in turn be submitted by the Contractor to the U.S. Coast Guard for their information at least 30 days prior to commencement of work. The plan and schedule or sequence of operation shall include: A sketch of the waterway, the location of any restrictions that will be placed in the waterway, such as barges, anchors and anchor lines, the location and height above mean high water/maximum navigable water of any scaffolding or netting, the placement, type and dimensions of dolphins, spars etc., if used, and a projected set of dates and length of time each operation will take. The schedule shall also include the hours of operation and whether or not equipment will be removed at night. 2. Laws and Regulations:

The Contractor shall comply with the requirements and provisions of all U.S. Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, New York State Department of State and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations that are applicable to the construction work of this contract and shall pay all costs in connection therewith including, but not necessarily limited to, the cost of any Notice to Mariners, the cost of relocating existing navigation aids and the cost of services performed by the U.S. Coast Guard, as required, such as special surveys in connection with misplaced material in waterways or making dumping inspections. The cost to the Contractor for compliance as aforesaid shall be included in the prices bid for the various items scheduled in the Proposal. The Contractor should be familiar with the regulations of Sections 301, 302, 306, 307, 401 and 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, Public Law 92-500, 86 Stat. 816; The General Bridge Act of 1946-(33 USC 525) Sections 9 & 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of March 3, 1899 (33 U.S.C. 403); Section 404, Stat. 816, P.L. 92-500; Section 103 of the Marine Protection Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, 86 Stat. 1052, Public Law 92-532 as they relate to proposed construction activities.

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Standard Notes

To the best of our knowledge, this project does not require a formal U.S. Coast Guard bridge permit. However, this waterway is a navigable waterway of the U.S. under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Coast Guard and Corps of Engineers. Any cost and delays incurred in securing authorization for work activities not previously approved shall be borne by the Contractor and reflected in the prices bid for various contract items. The Contractor shall obtain all other permits and licenses and pay all charges and fees incurred. The Contractor shall give all notices necessary and incident to the due and lawful prosecution of the work, and shall comply with all laws, ordinances, rules and regulations of the Federal Government, the State, and other bodies having jurisdiction over the work encompassed in this Contract. 3. Maintenance and Protection of Navigation:

a. All work shall be so conducted that the free navigation of the waterway is not unreasonably interfered with and the present navigable depths are not impaired. At no time during construction, shall restrictions be placed upon navigation without first receiving approval of the E.I.C. and the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor shall contact both Offices at least 21 days prior to the proposed restriction periods. b. Signal Lights and Markers:

The Contractor shall conduct operations in accordance with the General Regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard. The Contractor will be required to comply with all the provisions of 33 CFR Part 118 and the Inland Rules of the Road governing all aspects of this project as they relate to navigable waters. c. Notice to Mariners:

The Contractor shall notify the Coast Guard and the E.I.C. thirty (30) days in advance of work completion so that the appropriate notice can be given to mariners. The Contractor shall keep both Offices apprized of conditions existing at the site, which relate to navigation, so that marine traffic may be notified accordingly, on a timely basis. d. Temporary Removal of Navigation Aids:

The temporary removal or changes in location of channel markers may be required to facilitate navigation. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer at least 30 days prior to the desired removal of any channel marker in order that U.S. Coast Guard permission may be obtained and navigation interests fully informed in advance of the proposed change in location. e. Preservation of the Existing Waterway:

It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to insure that the waterway and channel depths are not affected by the work. Should it be suspected that river or channel depths may have been impaired or that an obstruction may exist from the work, the Contractor shall, upon request of the E.I.C. or the U.S. Coast Guard, provide the necessary equipment and personnel to undertake a survey to determine the presence of any obstructions, objects, or silting that may have occurred during construction. Should an obstruction be found, the Contractor shall give

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

immediate notice of such obstruction to the E.I.C. and the Coast Guard. Notices shall give a description and location of the object(s) and action being taken to protect navigation. Until removal can be effected, the object(s) shall be properly marked in order to protect navigation. Should the Contractor neglect to promptly remove any such obstruction, the E.I.C. shall have the same removed and charge the cost against monies due to the Contractor or recover under his Bond. 4. Payment:

Payment for all of the items contained in these SPECIAL NOTES shall be included and reflected in the prices bid for the various contract items. No separate payment will be made for compliance with the conditions stated herein.

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January 2008

Standard Notes

17.3

General Notes Sheet/Superstructure Slab Sheet

The following is a compilation of the standard notes that are usually placed on the General Notes sheet and the Superstructure sheet of the contract plans. Standard notes to be placed on the plans are in bold upper case font. Commentary and advice to designers are in normal lower case font. Notes are numbered here; they shall generally not be numbered on the plans. An index of the standard note numbers is given below: NOTES GENERAL NOTES SHEET (This sheet also usually includes the estimate of quantities) General Notes Foundation Notes Substructure Notes Cofferdam Notes Superstructure Notes Removal Notes Reconstruction Notes Structural Slab Concrete Overlay Notes Miscellaneous Notes 31 39 49 75 1 29 30 38 48 74 84 NUMBERS

85 - 111 112 - 119 120 - 136

Precast Precompressed Concrete/Steel Composite Superstructure 137 - 154 (Inverset) Bridge Notes

SUPERSTRUCTURE SLAB SHEET Deck Placement Notes Stage Construction Notes Prestressed Concrete Beam Notes 155 - 170 171 - 182 183 - 186

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

GENERAL NOTES SHEET


1. GENERAL NOTES

In the following notes, insert the month and year of the PS & E:
2. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS: NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES WITH ALL PROVISIONS IN EFFECT AS OF __________. (FOR DESIGN PURPOSES, COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE FOR SUBSTRUCTURES AND DECK SLABS AT 28 DAYS: f'c = 3000 psi.)

or
3. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS: NYSDOT LRFD BRIDGE DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS WITH ALL PROVISIONS IN EFFECT AS OF _________ (FOR DESIGN PURPOSES, COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE FOR SUBSTRUCTURES AND DECK SLABS AT 28 DAYS: f'c = 3000 psi.)

The following live load notes are to be used for new and replacement bridges. On superstructure replacements, the existing substructures shall not be upgraded solely to accommodate these live load criteria.
4. LIVE LOAD: HS25 OR TWO 24,000 LB AXLES SPACED 4 FEET ON CTRS.

(Use only for bridges carrying either the mainline of Interstate highways or the Southern Tier Expressway designed with NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.)
5. LIVE LOAD: HS25

(Use for all other highway bridges designed with NYSDOT Standard Specifications for Highway Bridges.)
6. LIVE LOAD: AASHTO HL - 93 AND NYSDOT DESIGN PERMIT VEHICLE.

(Use for bridges designed by the LRFD specifications.)


7. THE TEMPORARY STRUCTURE SHALL BE DESIGNED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CURRENT STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR HIGHWAY BRIDGES FOR A DESIGN LOAD OF __________.

Use the following two notes for structures carrying railroads.


8. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS: CURRENT AMERICAN RAILWAY ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE ASSOCIATION MANUAL FOR RAILWAY ENGINEERING. RAILROAD LIVE LOAD: COOPER E80. CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS SPECIFICATIONS: STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS, NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION, OFFICE OF ENGINEERING, DATED MAY 1, 2008, WITH CURRENT ADDITIONS AND MODIFICATIONS.

9. 10.

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Standard Notes

11.

DETAILS ON THE DRAWINGS LABELED AS NOT TO SCALE ARE INTENTIONALLY DRAWN NOT TO SCALE FOR VISUAL CLARITY. ALL OTHER DETAILS FOR WHICH NO SCALE IS SHOWN ARE DRAWN PROPORTIONAL AND ARE FULLY DIMENSIONED. ALL SHOP DRAWINGS SUBMITTED FOR THIS PROJECT SHALL BE IN US CUSTOMARY UNITS. THE COST OF WATER USED FOR COMPACTION OF SELECT FILL ITEMS SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR ITEM 203.1601 APPLYING WATER (INCLUDED IN THE HIGHWAY ESTIMATE).

12.

13.

The following note may be used in lieu of the previous note:


14. THE COST OF WATER USED FOR COMPACTION OF SELECT FILL ITEMS SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR ITEM 203.21 SELECT STRUCTURE FILL.

If an investigation of assumed construction loads determines that bracing beyond that typically necessary is required, the following note shall be placed on the plans to notify the Contractor:
15. THE CONTRACTORS ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE LARGE DECK OVERHANGS FOR THIS STRUCTURE. THE FASCIA GIRDER DESIGN ASSUMES TYPICAL CONSTRUCTION LOADS DURING PLACEMENT OF THE CONCRETE DECK. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PROVIDE ADEQUATE TEMPORARY SUPPORT AND BRACING TO PREVENT THE FASCIA GIRDER FROM TWISTING OR EXCESSIVELY DEFLECTING UNDER THE LOADS OF THE CONCRETE DEAD LOAD AND THE CONSTRUCTION LOADS. ALL DESIGN EFFORT REQUIRED BY THE CONTRACTORS ENGINEER TO ASSURE THAT THE CONSTRUCTION LOADS DO NOT ADVERSELY AFFECT THE FASCIA GIRDER ARE AT THE CONTRACTORS EXPENSE. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL SUBMIT OVERHANG FORMING DESIGN CALCULATIONS AND DETAILS TO THE D.C.E.S. FOR APPROVAL. THE COST OF ALL JOINT MATERIAL SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICES BID FOR THE VARIOUS ITEMS OF THE CONTRACT, UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ON THE PLANS. THE CONTRACTOR'S ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO SUBSECTION 105-09, WORK AFFECTING RAILROADS, OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS.

16.

17.

The following note shall be used when Fracture-Critical Members are used in new construction. Designers shall also provide a table of fracture critical tension members on the Contract Plans. The designer should consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to confirm which items should be included in the table.
18. THIS STRUCTURE CONTAINS FRACTURE-CRITICAL MEMBERS. THESE MEMBERS ARE IDENTIFIED ON THE PLANS. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL COMPLY WITH THE APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 9 OF THE NEW YORK STATE STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (SCM).

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The following note shall be used when Fracture-Critical Members are present in a rehabilitation project. Designers shall also provide a table of fracture critical tension members on the Contract Plans. The designer should consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to confirm which items should be included in the table.
19. THIS STRUCTURE CONTAINS FRACTURE-CRITICAL MEMBERS. THESE MEMBERS ARE IDENTIFIED ON THE PLANS. IF REPAIRS TO THESE MEMBERS OR ADJACENT MEMBERS NEED TO BE DONE, THE CONTRACTOR SHALL COMPLY WITH THE APPLICABLE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 9 OF THE NEW YORK STATE STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (SCM).

The following note shall be included on steel viaduct and rigid frame bridge projects. The designer shall consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to confirm which items in the list require testing to meet minimum CVN values. Note: Fracture critical tension members must be identified in a table on the contract plans, as they require higher CVN values.
20. IN ADDITION TO THE ITEMS LISTED IN 715-01, THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS OF BIN XXXXXXX SHALL BE FURNISHED TO MINIMUM CHARPY V-NOTCH FRACTURE TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS:

CANTILEVER BRACKETS AND TIE PLATES BENT COLUMNS AND BRACING SUBJECT TO TENSION

The following note shall be included on steel arch bridge projects. The designer shall consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to confirm which items in the list require testing to meet minimum CVN values. Note: Fracture critical tension members must be identified in a table on the contract plans, as they require higher CVN values
21. IN ADDITION TO THE ITEMS LISTED IN 715-01, THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS OF BIN XXXXXXX SHALL BE FURNISHED TO MINIMUM CHARPY V-NOTCH FRACTURE TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS: ARCH RIB FLANGE AND WEB PLATES SUBJECT TO TENSILE STRESS ARCH RIB SPLICE PLATES HANGERS ARCH RIB LATERAL BRACING

The following note shall be included on steel movable bridge projects. The designer shall consult with the Metals Engineering Unit to confirm which items in the list require testing to meet minimum CVN values. Note: Fracture critical tension members must be identified in a table on the contract plans, as they require higher CVN values.
22. IN ADDITION TO THE ITEMS LISTED IN 715-01, THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS OF BIN XXXXXXX SHALL BE FURNISHED TO MINIMUM CHARPY V-NOTCH FRACTURE TOUGHNESS REQUIREMENTS: TENSION FLANGES AND WEBS PLATES OF BASCULE GIRDERS CANTILEVER BRACKETS AND TIE PLATES SPLICE PLATES VERTICAL GUSSET PLATES TOP AND BOTTOM LATERAL BRACING

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Standard Notes

23.

SWAY FRAMES END PORTAL FRAMES TENSION COMPONENTS OF LIFTING BOXES AND LIFTING FRAMES

THE LOAD RATINGS ARE IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE AASHTO MANUAL FOR BRIDGE EVALUATION FIRST EDITION 2008.

The following note shall be used when preparing structural plans:


24. DIMENSIONS FOR THICKNESSES OF STEEL ROLLED ANGLE SHAPES AND STRUCTURAL TUBING ARE SHOWN ACCORDING TO THE AISC MANUAL.

Maintenance Guideline Note (use for new and replacement contracts):


25. THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE MAINTAINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE GUIDELINES CONTAINED IN THE CURRENT EDITION OF THE AASHTO MAINTENANCE MANUAL: THE MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF ROADWAYS AND BRIDGES.

Maintenance Guideline Note (use for rehabilitation contracts):


26. THIS BRIDGE, INCLUDING EXISTING ELEMENTS AND THOSE REPAIRED OR REPLACED UNDER THIS CONTRACT, SHALL BE MAINTAINED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE GUIDELINES CONTAINED IN THE CURRENT EDITION OF THE AASHTO MAINTENANCE MANUAL: THE MAINTENANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF ROADWAYS AND BRIDGES.

The following asbestos caution notes shall be used when materials containing asbestos exist on a bridge and are not to be disturbed or removed:
27. THE CONTRACTOR IS CAUTIONED THAT MATERIALS CONTAINING ASBESTOS ARE BELIEVED TO EXIST AT VARIOUS LOCATIONS ON OR IN CERTAIN STRUCTURES OF THIS CONTRACT. THESE MATERIALS WERE NOTED ON THE ORIGINAL CONTRACT PLANS OF THE STRUCTURES AND/OR DURING FIELD INSPECTIONS. UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED ON THE PLANS, WORK TO BE PERFORMED UNDER THIS CONTRACT DOES NOT REQUIRE THE DISTURBING, DESTRUCTION OR REMOVAL OF ANY KNOWN MATERIALS CONTAINING ASBESTOS. UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED ON THE PLANS, IT IS THE EXPRESS INTENT OF THIS CONTRACT THAT THESE MATERIALS NOT BE DISTURBED IN ANY WAY. SHOULD THE CONTRACTOR BE FORCED TO DISTURB IN ANY WAY ANY SUCH MATERIALS, THE CONTRACTOR SHALL FIRST BE FAMILIAR WITH INDUSTRIAL CODE RULE 56 OF THE N.Y.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL ALSO OBTAIN WRITTEN PERMISSION OF THE REGIONAL DIRECTOR OF TRANSPORTATION BEFORE PROCEEDING.

28.

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NYSDOT Bridge Manual

The following note shall be placed on the General Plan of each bridge which is in proximity to high voltage (600 volts or more) electric lines or systems:
29. HIGH VOLTAGE ELECTRICAL LINES ARE IN PROXIMITY TO THIS BRIDGE. REFER TO SUBSECTION 107-05 OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONTRACTOR SAFETY REQUIREMENTS. FOUNDATION NOTES

30.

Indicate on the Contract Plans those notes recommended by the Foundations and Construction Unit in the "Foundation Design Report" (FDR).
31. 32. SUBSTRUCTURE NOTES ALL PLACEMENTS OF SELECT STRUCTURE FILL, ITEM 203.21, SHALL BE COMPACTED TO 95 PERCENT OF STANDARD PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY. WHERE PILES ARE TO BE PLACED THROUGH THE EMBANKMENT (6 INCH TOPSIZE), THE EMBANKMENT SHALL BE COMPACTED TO 95 PERCENT OF STANDARD PROCTOR MAXIMUM DENSITY. HIGHWAY EMBANKMENT MATERIAL (HIGHWAY ESTIMATE) AND SELECT STRUCTURE FILL, ITEM 203.21, SHALL BE PLACED SIMULTANEOUSLY, IN CONTACT, ON BOTH SIDES OF THE VERTICAL PAYMENT LINE.

33.

34.

Use the following note when the deck slab is continuous over the backwall.
35. TOP OF BACKWALLS SHALL BE STEEL TROWEL FINISHED. SHEET GASKET (TREATED BOTH SIDES), 728-06, SHALL BE PLACED ON THE TOP OF THE BACKWALLS OF FIXED AND EXPANSION ABUTMENTS. TWO SHEETS SHALL BE USED; PAYMENT SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR THE APPROACH SLAB ITEM. CLEANING CONCRETE EXPOSED TO VIEW:

36.

If cleaning all or a portion of the substructure concrete is not required, as determined by the Regional Office, the following special note shall be included in the plans for the structure. The note shall be modified as required for use when only portions of piers or abutments will be cleaned, or when a pier or abutment is cleaned and the rest of the substructure elements are not.
37. THE PROVISIONS OF SECTION 555-3.08, FINISHING, WITH REGARD TO REMOVING RUST STAINS FROM CONCRETE EXPOSED TO VIEW ARE WAIVED. RUST STAINS SHALL NOT BE REMOVED FROM THE SUBSTRUCTURE ON THIS BRIDGE.

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Standard Notes

38.

THE CONTRACTOR, WITH THE PERMISSION OF THE D.C.E.S., MAY ELECT TO INTRODUCE CONSTRUCTION JOINTS IN THE ABUTMENTS AT LOCATIONS NOT SHOWN ON THE PLANS. THESE CONSTRUCTION JOINTS SHALL BE PROVIDED WITH SHEAR KEYS AND WATERSTOPS. VERTICAL CONSTRUCTION JOINTS INTRODUCED IN THE BACKWALL SHOULD PREFERABLY BE PLACED MIDWAY BETWEEN THE PEDESTALS.

Cofferdam Notes
39. SHOULD THE CONTRACTOR ELECT TO LAY BACK A PORTION OF THE EXISTING EARTH ADJACENT TO AN EXCAVATION REQUIRING A COFFERDAM, ANY REQUIRED EXTENSIONS OF THE COFFERDAM NECESSARY TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING THE EXCAVATION SHALL BE FURNISHED AND PLACED AT NO COST TO THE STATE. WHERE A COFFERDAM IS USED, THE COST OF DEWATERING THE ENTIRE EXCAVATION, REGARDLESS OF SOURCE OF WATER, SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR THE COFFERDAM ITEM. DELETED SHOULD FIELD CONDITIONS REQUIRE A CHANGE FROM THE TYPE OF COFFERDAM SYSTEM CALLED FOR ON THE PLANS, THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE SHALL CONTACT THE D.C.E.S. FOR COORDINATION WITH APPROPRIATE AGENCIES TO APPROVE THE CHANGE.

40.

41. 42.

Include the following note on the contract plans when cofferdams are used with a tremie system:
43. THE COFFERDAM AND TREMIE SYSTEM SHALL BE DESIGNED TO AUTOMATICALLY FLOOD BY NON-MECHANICAL MEANS WHEN THE WATER ELEVATION EXCEEDS ___________.

Include the following notes on the contract plans as applicable:


44. IF MULTIPLE COFFERDAMS ARE REPLACED BY A SINGLE SYSTEM, AS PERMITTED BY THE REGIONAL HYDRAULICS ENGINEER, PAYMENT SHALL BE BASED ON ALL OF THE APPLICABLE COFFERDAM ITEMS INDICATED ON THE PLANS. DEWATERING OF THE COFFERDAM SHALL BE ACCOMPLISHED BY PUMPING THE WATER TO AN APPROVED UPLAND VEGETATED AREA OUTSIDE OF THE STREAMBED AS SHOWN ON THE PLANS AND/OR APPROVED BY THE E.I.C. TEMPORARY SOIL EROSION AND WATER POLLUTION CONTROL, SUCH AS HAY BALES OR APPROVED EQUAL, MAY BE REQUIRED AS DETERMINED BY THE ENGINEER-IN-CHARGE. NO SETTLEMENT BASIN SHALL BE CONSTRUCTED. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL HAVE THE OPTION OF INSTALLING A SEPARATE COFFERDAM OR INCORPORATING THE PERMANENT SHEETING INTO THE COFFERDAM ITEM.

45.

46.

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47.

IF THE CONTRACTOR ELECTS TO INCORPORATE THE PERMANENT SHEETING IN THE COFFERDAM ITEM, THE CONTRACTOR SHALL BE REQUIRED TO PROVIDE ANY ADDITIONAL BRACING REQUIRED TO STRENGTHEN THE PERMANENT SHEETING SYSTEM AND PROVIDE ANY WORK NECESSARY TO RETURN THE PERMANENT SHEETING TO ITS INTENDED FUNCTION AFTER THE COFFERDAM FUNCTION IS COMPLETE.

The following note shall be provided to specify water elevations developed for use at this location. They have been obtained by field observations from Regional forces at the time of preparation of the Bridge Site Data submission and they are included in Bridge Data Sheet #2.
48. ORDINARY HIGH WATER IS ESTIMATED TO BE _____. THIS IS DEFINED AS THE WATER SURFACE ELEVATION FOR THE MEAN ANNUAL FLOOD, WHICH IS THE FLOOD THAT HAS A RECURRENCE INTERVAL OF 2.33 YEARS. ORDINARY WATER IS ESTIMATED TO BE_______. THIS IS DEFINED AS THE HIGHEST SURFACE WATER ELEVATION LIKELY TO BE ENCOUNTERED DURING ONE CONSTRUCTION SEASON (OTHER THAN MAJOR FLOODS). IT IS ALWAYS LESS THAN THE ORDINARY HIGH WATER ELEVATION AND IT IS USUALLY AN OBSERVED ELEVATION RATHER THAN A COMPUTED ONE. LOW WATER IS ESTIMATED TO BE ______. THIS WATER ELEVATION IS THE NORMAL LOW WATER ELEVATION PREVALENT DURING ONE CONSTRUCTION SEASON FOR MORE THAN 25% OF THE TIME. IT IS AN OBSERVED ELEVATION RATHER THAN A COMPUTED ONE. 49. SUPERSTRUCTURE NOTES

Use the following note to designate the type of structural steel to be used. Use ASTM designations. If different types of structural steel are used for different components, modify the note accordingly.
50. 51. ALL STRUCTURAL STEEL SHALL CONFORM TO ASTM A709 GRADE ________. THE CONTRACTOR'S ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR SUPERSTRUCTURE SLABS, WHICH ALLOW THE OPTION OF 3 FORMING SYSTEMS FOR THE UNDERSIDE OF THE SLABS.

However, if the designer believes that one or more of the form options is inappropriate for a given bridge, or if isotropic reinforcement is used in the deck, the following shall be added to the previous note:
52. HOWEVER, ON THIS BRIDGE, ONLY THE FOLLOWING OPTION(S) WILL BE PERMITTED: (List options. In the case of isotropic deck reinforcement, only permanent

corrugated metal and removable wooden forms are allowed).

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Standard Notes

Use the following note when a structural slab is to be placed on steel girders if the depth of the girder web exceeds 4 ft.
53. IN ORDER TO PREVENT MOVEMENT OF THE BRIDGE OVERHANG BRACKET DURING THE DECK CONCRETE PLACEMENT, AS WELL AS TO PREVENT LATERAL DISTORTION OF THE GIRDER WEB, A DEEP OVERHANG BRACKET THAT IS BRACED BY THE BOTTOM FLANGE SHALL BE USED. NO DEVIATIONS FROM THE HAUNCH DETAILS SHOWN ON THESE PLANS MAY BE MADE WITHOUT THE PERMISSION OF THE D.C.E.S. CLEANING CONTROLLED OXIDIZING STRUCTURAL STEEL ASTM A709 GRADE 50W. A. IN THE FABRICATION SHOP GIRDERS SHALL BE BLAST CLEANED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SSPC-SP6 (COMMERCIAL BLAST CLEANING). HEAVY COATINGS OF OIL OR GREASE SHALL BE REMOVED BEFORE BLASTING IN ACCORDANCE WITH SSPC-SP1 (SOLVENT CLEANING). B. IN THE FIELD THE OUTSIDE SURFACE OF THE FASCIA STRINGERS SHALL BE CLEANED SO THAT ALL DIRT, GREASE, PAINT OR OTHER FOREIGN MATERIAL IS REMOVED AT THE COMPLETION OF THE BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION. THE PURPOSE OF THE CLEANING IS TO RETURN THE FASCIA SURFACES TO THE CONDITION IN WHICH THEY LEFT THE FABRICATION SHOP. 56. THE COST OF CLEANING THIS STEEL IN THE FABRICATION SHOP AND THE FIELD SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICES BID FOR THE VARIOUS ITEMS IN THE CONTRACT.

54.

55.

One of the following special notes shall be included with the superstructure for all steel bridges:
57. THE STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR THIS BRIDGE SHALL NOT BE PAINTED.

or
58. THE STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE COMPLETELY PAINTED. FINISH COAT COLOR SHALL BE__________. THE COLOR SHALL CONFORM TO __________. VIEWING SHALL BE DONE UNDER NORTH STANDARD DAYLIGHT. (Designer shall designate color and either Federal Color Standard No. 595 number or Munsell Book Notation number to which color conforms.) THERE ARE__________SQUARE FEET OF PAINTED STRUCTURAL STEEL ON THIS BRIDGE. (Designer shall indicate area to nearest 100 ft2.)

or
59. THE STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE PARTIALLY PAINTED. FINISH COAT COLOR SHALL BE __________. THE COLOR SHALL CONFORM TO __________. VIEWING SHALL BE DONE UNDER NORTH STANDARD DAYLIGHT. THE FOLLOWING PORTIONS OF THE STEEL SHALL BE PAINTED: ALL EXPOSED SURFACES OF THE FASCIA STRINGERS INCLUDING ANY STIFFENERS OR CONNECTION PLATES, AND __________. (Designer shall designate color and either Federal Color Standard No. 595 number or Munsell Book Notation number to which color conforms, and any additional surfaces

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that are to be painted). THERE ARE _________SQUARE FEET OF PAINTED STRUCTURAL STEEL ON THIS BRIDGE.

or
60. THE STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE PARTIALLY PAINTED. FINISH COAT COLOR SHALL BE ___________. THE COLOR SHALL CONFORM TO ____________. VIEWING SHALL BE DONE UNDER NORTH STANDARD DAYLIGHT. THE FOLLOWING PORTIONS OF THE STEEL SHALL BE PAINTED: ALL EXPOSED SURFACES OF THE STRINGERS THAT ARE WITHIN A DISTANCE OF 1.5 TIMES THE DEPTH OF THE GIRDER FROM THE BRIDGE JOINTS INCLUDING ANY STIFFENERS OR CONNECTION PLATES. (Designer shall designate color and either Federal color Standard No. 595 number or Munsell Book Notation number to which color conforms, and any additional surfaces that are to be painted.) THERE ARE _________ SQUARE FEET OF PAINTED STRUCTURAL STEEL ON THIS BRIDGE. (This note shall be used on jointed bridges constructed of weathering steel where the steel is to be painted within a distance of 1.5 times the depth of the girder from the joint. The designer shall indicate the painting limits on the plans.)

or
61. THE STRUCTURAL STEEL FOR THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE PARTIALLY PAINTED. FINISH COAT COLOR SHALL BE ___________. THE COLOR SHALL CONFORM TO ____________. VIEWING SHALL BE DONE UNDER NORTH STANDARD DAYLIGHT. THE FOLLOWING PORTIONS OF THE STEEL SHALL BE PAINTED: ALL EXPOSED SURFACES OF THE STRINGERS THAT ARE WITHIN A DISTANCE OF 1.5 TIMES THE DEPTH OF THE GIRDER FROM THE BRIDGE JOINTS INCLUDING ANY STIFFENERS OR CONNECTION PLATES AND ALL EXPOSED SURFACES OF THE FASCIA STRINGERS INCLUDING ANY STIFFENERS OR CONNECTION PLATES. (Designer shall designate color and either Federal color Standard No. 595 number or Munsell Book Notation number to which color conforms, and any additional surfaces that are to be painted.) THERE ARE _________ SQUARE FEET OF PAINTED STRUCTURAL STEEL ON THIS BRIDGE. (This note shall be used on jointed bridges constructed of weathering steel where the steel is to be painted within a distance of 1.5 times the depth of the girder from the joint and the fascia girders are to be painted. The designer shall indicate the painting limits on the plans.)

The following note shall be placed on the plans when Galvanized Surfaces are to be painted:
62. ANY GALVANIZED SURFACES REQUIRED TO BE PAINTED SHALL BE PAINTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF SECTION 657 OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS. FINISH COAT COLOR SHALL BE _________. THE COLOR SHALL CONFORM TO _________. VIEWING SHALL BE DONE UNDER NORTH STANDARD DAYLIGHT. THE COST OF THIS WORK SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR ITEM __________.(The designer shall designate color from Section 708-05 or either Federal Color Standard No. 595 number or Munsell Book Notation number to which color conforms. In addition, the designer shall choose the proper pay item to cover painting work of this type. Generally, if the project employs structural steel painting items, galvanized surface painting costs can be included in those items. If not, the designer should choose the most appropriate item; e.g., railing, downspout etc.)

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Standard Notes

63.

FOR THE VARIOUS LUMP SUM STRUCTURAL STEEL ITEMS IN THE CONTRACT, THE "TOTAL WEIGHT FOR PROGRESS PAYMENT" IS AS FOLLOWS: ITEM ______________ ______________ TOTAL WEIGHT FOR PROGRESS PAYMENT __________ POUNDS __________ POUNDS BIN __________ __________

THESE WEIGHTS SHALL BE USED IN DETERMINING PARTIAL PAYMENTS AND PROGRESS. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES SHALL THE "TOTAL WEIGHT FOR PROGRESS PAYMENT" BE USED FOR FINAL PAYMENT PURPOSES. THE CONTRACTOR IS ADVISED NOT TO USE THE "TOTAL WEIGHT FOR PROGRESS PAYMENT" AS A BIDDING TOOL. DISCREPANCIES WHICH MAY OCCUR BETWEEN THE TOTAL WEIGHT SHIPPED AND "TOTAL WEIGHT FOR PROGRESS PAYMENT" SHALL NOT BE A BASIS FOR ADDITIONAL COMPENSATION.

One of the following notes shall be included with the superstructure for all steel bridges with straight girders that do not have integral abutments:
64. DIAPHRAGMS FOR SKEWED STRAIGHT GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURES SHALL BE FABRICATED TO FIT GIRDERS ERECTED WITH THEIR WEBS LAID OVER (OUT OF PLUMB) UNDER THE STEEL DEAD LOAD CONDITION. GIRDER WEBS SHALL BE VERTICAL AFTER APPLICATION OF FULL DEAD LOAD.

or
65. DIAPHRAGMS FOR NONSKEWED STRAIGHT GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURES SHALL BE FABRICATED TO FIT GIRDERS ERECTED WITH THEIR WEBS VERTICAL UNDER STEEL AND FULL DEAD LOAD CONDITIONS.

The following note shall be included with the superstructure for all steel bridges with curved girders that do not have integral abutments:
66. DIAPHRAGMS FOR ALL CURVED GIRDER SUPERSTRUCTURES SHALL BE FABRICATED TO FIT GIRDERS ERECTED WITH THEIR WEBS LAID OVER (OUT OF PLUMB) UNDER THE STEEL DEAD LOAD CONDITION. GIRDER WEBS SHALL BE VERTICAL AFTER APPLICATION OF FULL DEAD LOAD.

The following notes A1 or A2 and note B shall be used when structural steel is to be erected. Use note A1 if the girder fails the stability check or A2 if the girder passes the stability check based on the results required by NYSDOT LRFD Blue Page 6.10.3.1a:
67. STEEL ERECTION NOTES: A1. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PROVIDE FOR THE STABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEEL DURING ALL PHASES OF ERECTION AND CONSTRUCTION , AS PROVIDED IN SUBSECTION 204 OF THE NEW YORK STATE STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (SCM). THE GIRDERS ON THIS BRIDGE SHALL BE STABILIZED DURING ERECTION BY USE OF FALSEWORK, TEMPORARY BRACING, COMPRESSION FLANGE STIFFENING TRUSSES, CHOOSING ALTERNATE PICKING POINTS, OR BY USE OF A HOLDING CRANE UNTIL A SUFFICIENT NUMBER OF GIRDERS HAVE BEEN ERECTED AND CROSS FRAMES INSTALLED. THE METHODS USED BY THE CONTRACTOR SHALL BE

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DOCUMENTED ON THE ERECTION DRAWINGS WITH ALL SUPPORTING STABILITY CALCULATIONS SUBMITTED AND STAMPED BY A LICENSED NEW YORK STATE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER AND SUBMITTED TO THE DCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SCM. A2. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PROVIDE FOR THE STABILITY OF STRUCTURAL STEEL DURING ALL PHASES OF ERECTION AND CONSTRUCTION , AS PROVIDED IN SUBSECTION 204 OF THE NEW YORK STATE STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (SCM). THE METHODS USED BY THE CONTRACTOR SHALL BE DOCUMENTED ON THE ERECTION DRAWINGS WITH ALL SUPPORTING STABILITY CALCULATIONS SUBMITTED AND STAMPED BY A LICENSED NEW YORK STATE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER AND SUBMITTED TO THE DCES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SCM. THE DESIGN OF THIS STRUCTURE ASSUMES THAT THE STRUCTURAL STEEL IS COMPLETELY ERECTED BEFORE IT IS ALLOWED TO DEFLECT UNDER ITS OWN DEAD LOAD. DEFLECTIONS INCURRED DURING THE VARIOUS STAGES OF THE ERECTION METHOD ARE NOT CONSIDERED. THEREFORE, THE ACTUAL ERECTION METHODS AND SEQUENCES EMPLOYED BY THE CONTRACTOR MAY HAVE A SUBSTANTIAL EFFECT ON THE FINAL STEEL PROFILE. THE CONTRACTOR SHALL BE RESPONSIBLE FOR TAKING ALL NECESSARY COMPENSATORY ACTION TO ENSURE THAT THE FINAL ALIGNMENT AND PROFILE OF THE ERECTED STEEL CONFORMS TO SUBSECTION 1213, 1214, AND 1215 OF THE NEW YORK STATE STEEL CONSTRUCTION MANUAL (SCM). ANY CORRECTIVE WORK NECESSARY TO RE-POSITION PREVIOUSLY ERECTED STEEL TO ACHIEVE ACCEPTABLE ALIGNMENT AND PROFILE MUST BE APPROVED BY THE D.C.E.S., AND SHALL BE PERFORMED AT NO ADDITIONAL COST TO THE STATE.

B.

68.

IF THE CONTRACTOR ELECTS TO MOVE THE SPLICE LOCATION SHOWN ON THE PLANS, IT IS THE CONTRACTORS RESPONSIBILITY TO HAVE A NEW YORK STATE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER REDESIGN THE SPLICE. COST OF REDESIGN TO BE INCLUDED IN THE STEEL BID ITEM.

Use one of the following two notes if a Concrete Barrier, the payment for which includes its reinforcement, is used on the bridge:
69. THE DETAILS FOR THE BARRIER REINFORCEMENT ARE FOR THE SLIP-FORMED OR CAST-IN-PLACE OPTION ONLY. COST OF BARRIER AND ANCHORAGE REINFORCEMENT ORIGINATING IN THE SLAB SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR THE BARRIER ITEM.

or
70. THE DETAILS FOR THE BARRIER REINFORCEMENT ARE FOR THE SLIP-FORMED OR CAST-IN-PLACE OPTION ONLY. COST OF BARRIER AND ANCHORAGE REINFORCEMENT ORIGINATING IN THE SLAB SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR THE BARRIER ITEM. COST OF BARRIER ANCHORAGE REINFORCEMENT ORIGINATING IN THE PRESTRESSED UNIT SHALL BE INCLUDED IN THE UNIT PRICE BID FOR THE PRESTRESSED UNIT ITEM.

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Standard Notes

Use the following note if single slope concrete barrier is specified and service level TL-5 is required:
71. THE CONTRACTORS ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE CURRENT SPECIFICATIONS FOR PERMANENT CONCRETE TRAFFIC BARRIER FOR STRUCTURES, WHICH ALLOWS THE OPTION OF THREE CONSTRUCTION METHODS: CAST-IN-PLACE, SLIP FORMED, OR PRECAST. HOWEVER, ON THIS BRIDGE, ONLY CAST-IN-PLACE AND SLIP FORMING ARE ALLOWED.

Use the following note if steel bridge railing is used on the bridge and any of the situations described in section 6.9 of this manual occur:
72. FOR BIN XXXXXXX, SHOP DRAWING SUBMITTALS ARE REQUIRED FOR THE FOLLOWING BRIDGE RAIL/TRANSITION ITEMS: 568.XX,

Use the following note when Protective Sealer is to be applied to new bridge decks and approach slabs:
73. TOP SURFACES OF NEW BRIDGE DECKS AND APPROACH SLABS SHALL BE SEALED ACCORDING TO ITEM 559.1896 18PROTECTIVE SEALING OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ON NEW BRIDGE DECKS AND BRIDGE DECK OVERLAYS.

Use the following note whenever Open Steel Floor Grating is used on structures. If the grating is specified to be painted, Note 61 shall also be used.
74. OPEN STEEL FLOOR GRATING SHALL BE GALVANIZED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE REQUIREMENTS OF 719-01 GALVANIZED COATINGS AND REPAIR METHODS OF THE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS. REMOVAL NOTES

75.

The following two notes shall be used when the project is replacing an existing structure. The preliminary bridge plans must indicate location on General Plan or Location Plan:
76. EXISTING SUBSTRUCTURE SHALL BE REMOVED WITHIN THE LIMITS SHOWN ON THE PLANS UNDER ITEM 202.19 IN THE BRIDGE ESTIMATE. EXISTING SUPERSTRUCTURE SHALL BE REMOVED UNDER ITEM 202.12nnnn IN THE BRIDGE ESTIMATE.

77.

Use one of the following two notes when structures longer than 20 ft. are being removed. Refer to Appendix 17A for guidance on determining whether a removal plan prepared by a Professional Engineer is required.
78. THE CONTRACTOR'S ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF SUBSECTION 202-3.01 GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS. A REMOVAL PLAN, SIGNED BY A REGISTERED PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK, SHALL BE SUBMITTED TO THE ENGINEER THIRTY (30) DAYS PRIOR TO BEGINNING THE DEMOLITION.

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or
79. THE CONTRACTOR'S ATTENTION IS DIRECTED TO THE REQUIREMENTS OF SUBSECTION 202-3.01 GENERAL AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS. A REMOVAL PLAN SHALL BE SUBMITTED TO THE ENGINEER FIFTEEN (15) DAYS PRIOR TO BEGINNING THE DEMOLITION. THE REQ