Heat transfer pumps

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January / February 2008 • Volume 20, Number 1 • www.baumpub.com January / February 2008 • Volume 20, Number 1 • www.baumpub.com
Drainage system
critical to Red
River Floodway
project - 16
Device monitors air
pollution from space - 9
Third generation
level transmitter
- 8
JanFebCEP5.indd 1 1/17/2008 3:48:15 PM
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Pompe péristaltique
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No. N°
JanFebCEP5.indd 2 1/17/2008 1:00:50 PM
Tories dragging heels on
carbon tax
Like the old saying goes, the only cer-
tainties in life are death and taxes. When
it comes to saving the environment,
however, this well-worn adage could be
updated by proclaiming: Without some
kind of a tax on polluters, our planet will
slowly, but surely, die.
As the evidence of human-caused
global warming continues to mount –
such as disappearing glaciers and the
death of coral reefs due to excess acid-
ity in the ocean from too much carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere – the idea of a
“carbon tax” is rapidly gaining traction.
Simply put, a carbon tax would tax pollution at its source, and
could take the form of a tax on gasoline, say, four cents a litre to
start, and a tax on businesses that pump greenhouse gases into the
Quebec has already introduced a tax on oil companies, and B.C.’s
finance mininster has hinted heavily that a carbon levy will be includ-
ed in the upcoming provincial budget.
The move to tax carbon provincially is falling on deaf ears in Ot-
tawa, however, with the Harper government soundly rejecting an ad-
visory panel’s recommendation to implement such a tax.
According to the National Round Table on the Environment and
the Economy, a panel of experts from environmental and business
groups, Canada could achieve a 65 percent reduction in greenhouse
gas emissions by 2050 by setting a price on carbon.
The tax would have minimal impact on the economy, says the pan-
el, compared to the costs of not making deep cuts to GHG emissions,
which “carry unnecesssarily higher environmental and economic
risks” and “the very real risk of not achieving our targets at all.”
These findings jibe with climate change experts like Mark Jaccard
from Simon Fraser University, who in his recent book Hot Air argues
that the only way for Canada to reverse the trend of rising GHG emis-
sions is to implement a carbon tax, likely in combination with a cap
and trade system whereby the government sets a cap on pollution
levels from businesses.
Those that exceed the cap would be forced to buy credits from
companies that are below the limit, with the credits bought and sold
on a public market similar to a stock exchange.
Granted, the idea of a carbon tax is not exactly new. Environmen-
talists have been trying to get governments to tax polluters for years.
While some countries, for example Norway and Britain, went ahead
and imposed the tax and have gradually seen their GHG emissions
decline, here in North America, we are still loathe to do it.
No one likes taxes, but if a carbon tax is crafted properly, it could
raise the required revenues without exacting too heavy a burden on
businesses and consumers.
If governments are smart, they’ll make the tax “revenue neutral”,
meaning another tax, like sales tax or income tax, is lessened by the
equivalent amount, resulting in no net tax increase.
If it’s the federal government raising the tax, all monies collected
could be plowed back into the provinces from which they came, a
method that could assuage Alberta’s fear of being hit hardest.
From a business standpoint, a carbon tax should be applied na-
tionally, so that no province is allowed to gain a competitive advan-
tage over others by not charging the tax.
The federal government had a golden opportunity to show some
leadership in this area, by setting a national carbon tax, but it appears
to have dropped the ball. Instead of the carbon tax, the Tories are
leaning on the cap and trade system and making vague promises of
“mandatory pollution standards and regulations,” while provinces like
B.C. and Quebec go it alone.
Such a fragmented approach can only be bad for business, and
we would have expected more from a prime minister who purports to
be a leader not a follower.
January / February 2008
Volume 20, Number 1

9 Spies in space
Device riding aboard satellite monitors
air pollution.
10 Bulb recycling
Recycling company, commercial real estate firm
team up to streamline waste managment.
12 Go with the flow
New data control system makes the drains run
on time in Halifax.
13 Catching carbon
Study to examine carbon capture in Alberta.
18 Canadian Snapshot
Regional director of Environment Canada wins
prestigious award. We talk to Pradeep Kharé
about his distinguished career in environmental
3 Editorial
4 Industry News
5 New Technologies
14 Marketplace
15 Focus on Geosynthetics
18 Canadian Snapshot
18 Advertiser Website Directory
MARCH 12–14
Entries are now being accepted for the 7th annual GLOBE Awards, Canada’s
highest profile national acclaim for environmental excellence. The awards identify
and showcase companies that have leveraged their commitment to environmental
leadership into a competitive advantage. They will be presented at the closing gala
of the GLOBE 2008 Conference and Trade fair, in Vancouver, British Columbia, on
Friday March 14, 2008. Visit the GLOBE Awards website at www.theglobeawards.
ca. The deadline for submissions is February 1, 2008.
Andrew Topf, Editor
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 3
JanFebCEP5.indd 3 1/17/2008 1:00:53 PM
4 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
Member of the
CCAB, Inc.
Member of
the CBP
Published by Baum Publications Ltd.
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January / February 2008
Volume 20, Number 1
A Baum Direct Response Publication
We acknowledge the financial
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Program towards our mailing costs.

Maple Reinders turns 40
The past few years have seen increased
demand for sustainability and environ-
mentally responsible design and con-
struction practices. The Maple Reinders
Group, with offices in Mississauga, Cam-
bridge, Calgary, Edmonton and Kelowna,
has not only kept pace with this demand,
but has also provided inroads for innova-
tive European environmental technology
for implementation in Canada.
Celebrating a major milestone this
year, for 40 years the Group has been
involved in the construction of industrial,
commercial, and institutional buildings;
and over 400 water and wastewater treat-
ment facilities. Since its inception in
1967, Maple Reinders has experienced
substantial growth, forging new paths in
environmental work and design/build/
operate project delivery systems.
Montreal named
Supavac headquarters
President Robert Spicer is pleased to an-
nounce that Supavac Canada Inc.’s new
North American headquarters will be lo-
cated in Montreal.
Supavac solids pumps reliably transfer
sludge, slurries and even sand and rock
where submersible, centrifugal and dia-
phragm pumps cannot. Advanced vacuum
loading pressure discharge technology
is the key to the successful operation of
these pumps. With no rotating parts or
electricity and with no moving parts in
direct contact with the flow, extremely
high reliability has been the experience.
Not normally having to add makeup wa-
ter to pump most sludge and slurries is
a major savings in water usage, haulage
and process costs. Applications include:
abrasive slurries; muck; drilling mud
waste and cuttings; hydrocarbon sludge;
sand and rock; effluent; corrosive sludge
and hazardous waste. While new to
Canada, this patented Australian technol-
ogy has been the choice of major players
like Halliburton since the last century.
Big pumps and systems are available for
rental and purchase at authorized dealers
and Supavac.
HSE, TEAM form alliance
HSE Integrated Ltd. entered into an alli-
ance agreement with the Canadian divi-
sion of TEAM Industrial Services Inc.
of Houston, Texas. The purpose of the
alliance is for both companies to focus
on their core services to better serve their
clients and to expand their respective
TEAM is a leading international sup-
plier of specialized industrial repair,
inspection and maintenance services
for plants, manufacturing and process-
ing facilities. and safely with minimal
downtime. HSE is Canada’s only national
supplier of an integrated suite of health,
safety and environment services for the
same client base as that served by TEAM.
Odotech wins Top 10
Montreal-based Odotech recently won
Canada’s Top 10 competition in the
Cleantech category. The jury picked
Odotech based on the fact that the com-
pany has established itself as a world
leader in continuous, real-time monitor-
ing of environmental odor emissions, via
its OdoWatch electronic-nose network.
The system incorporates sensors and
mathematical atmospheric dispersion
modelling, allowing plant operators to
see in real time, and as a forecast, the
odour “cloud” or plume emitted by their
BioteQ building demo plant
BioteQ Environmental Technologies Inc.,
based in Vancouver, B.C., entered into
a development agreement with mining
firm, Freeport McMoRan Copper and
Gold, to construct and operate a demon-
stration plant in southern Arizona for the
removal of sulphate and other dissolved
solids. The plant is to be constructed in
BIOREM makes Chinese sale
BIOREM Technologies Inc., based in
Guelph, Ontario, recently announced
another purchase of its Biofiltair Odour
Control System by China. The Biofiltair
unit being sold to China is specifically
designed for wastewater treatment facili-
ties and yields a 99 percent reduction of
S and a 90 percent reduction in odour.
Over the past six months, China has
placed three orders to BIOREM for a to-
tal of $500,000.
New ISO standards in place
ISO has just published three standards
providing guidelines for service activities
relating to drinking water supply systems
and wastewater sewerage systems. These
international standards are designed to
help water authorities and their opera-
tors to achieve a level of quality that best
meets the expectations of users and the
principles of sustainable development.
ISO secretary-general Alan Bryden
said: “These ISO standards will play
a primary role in promoting access to
safe drinking water and basic sanita-
tion through improved governance at all
levels. Their publication is a first step
towards responding to the United Na-
tions’ concern in recognizing that access
to water is an essential human right. The
UN has set ambitious goals to increase
access to drinking water and wastewater
services, particularly in developing coun-
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JanFebCEP5.indd 4 1/17/2008 2:02:25 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 5

Pumps run at low water
levels without overheating
Four models of dewatering and sludge
pumps offer continuous operation at
low water levels and extended dry runs
without overheating the motor. The low-
water model will pump down to 3/16
of an inch. It includes synthetic rub-
ber wear parts and vortex impeller for
durability. All pumps and hoses feature
fire-hose-style, quick-connect fittings,
and a V-ring to protect the shaft seal from
Allegro Industries offers a complete
line of work equipment for use in confined
spaces. Included in the line are work tents,
a tent heater, umbrellas, guard rail, guard
rail winch, manhole signs, shields, lid lift-
ers, and portable dewatering pumps. All
the equipment is uniquely designed for
convenience and durability.
Allegro Industries
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Universal Mag Driver pump
series adds sealless option
Viking Pumps’ line of Universal Mag
Drive series adds a sealless option to the
Universal Series pumps. Dimensionally
interchangeable with Viking’s most popu-
lar heavy duty packed and sealed pumps,
the Universal Mag Drive series provides a
proven simple solution for upgrading exist-
ing pumps. This sealless pump features a
thrust-controlled design that allows short-
term run-dry capabilities and bi-directional
pump operation for enhanced application
Available in cast iron, steel and stainless
steel, these sealless pumps eliminate seal
leakage and environmental concerns, along
with downtime due to seal replacement.
They are ideal for hazardous, hard-to-seal
liquids or for applications where very low
maintenance is a requirement.
The adjustable rotor clearance enables
high volumetric efficiency, whether pump-
ing thin or viscous liquids. Extended pump
life is made possible thanks to Viking’s in-
canister bushing and hollow shaft design,
which generates positive internal cooling
The Universal Mag Drive series includes
multiple port location options, sizes, types
and ratings including threaded, flat- and
raised-face flanged. Jacketing options are
also available. This series of pumps offers
flow rates of up to 114 m3/hr (500 gpm),
with pressures to 14 bar (200 psi) and at
temperatures ranging from -51ºC to 260ºC
(-60ºF to 500ºF).
Viking Pump, Inc.
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Vacuum-assisted solids
handling pump
Thompson Pump & Manufacturing Co.,
Inc. introduces its 4-inch, vacuum-assisted
solids handling pump, the 4V-DDS-3-
With a two-inch solids handling capac-
ity, this pump is versatile enough to handle
sewage bypass pumping and general con-
struction dewatering. The 4V is capable
of flows up to 650 gpm and heads up to
105 feet. The unit contains an innovative
cooling system that allows the pump to
run completely dry without damage while
handling suction lifts up to 28 feet.
This vacuum-assisted pump leads the
industry in construction, industrial and
municipal applications. Utilizing Thomp-
son’s Super Suction vacuum system, the
4V provides the fastest priming in the port-
able pump dewatering industry, all while
preventing discharge of pumping effluent
onto the ground. This system eliminates the
need for a waste hose and the pump housing
does not have to fill with water to obtain
original prime at start-up.
Thompson Pump
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com now of-
fers the Promi-
nent Concept-
plus series of
chemical feed
pumps. These
pumps easily
mount onto a
tank or wall-
mount bracket and are available in a variety
of liquid ends for all water and wastewater
treatment applications.
In addition to manually setting the stroke
frequency, the pump can also be set up for
external control for use with contact water
meters for flow proportional chemical ad-
dition, or accept a signal from any control
system which can provide a voltage-free
pacing signal.
Enter #1006 on Reader Reply Card
Chemical feed pumps
(800) 328-3665
Order online at:
The waterMONITOR series of submersible
datalogging level transducers takes "smart
transducers" to a new level of intelligence for
water resource management. It blends the
reliability of our proven line of KPSI level
transducers with Pressure Systems' renowned
embedded microcomputer expertise.
The waterMONITOR delivers high-performance
datalogging of well, groundwater, lake,
stream, and reservoir levels with these
unique features:
• Storage of up to 600,000 measurements
(level, temperature, time stamp)
• Compliance to the demanding accuracy
requirements of the USGS Office of
Surface Water
• Networkable RS-485 interface with
SDI-12 protocol
• Also available in baroMONITOR
configuration for atmospheric pressure
• Intuitive application software for data
management, real-time sampling, and
graphic display
• Level ranges up to 700 ft. (210m) H
• Quick-connect cable attachment
• Field-replaceable batteries and
upgradeable firmware
For more details on the waterMONITOR, visit
or contact us directly today!
Our waterMONITOR dataloggers give
you a higher level of intelligence.
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JanFebCEP5.indd 5 1/17/2008 3:50:28 PM
6 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008

Multi-channel controller
measures toxic gases
The Q4C is a multi-channel controller
display and alarm unit that utilizes digital
communications to interface with a maxi-
mum of four remote digital QEL transmit-
ter/sensors.These are used to measure a
wide variety of toxic gases such as CO,
, NH
, HS
, SO
, refrigerants, and
combustibles. The RS-485 communication
is connected via a 4-wire multidrop daisy
chain configuration to reduce the overall
installation costs of the system. Alarm
setpoints are set through the front keypad
or through QEL-supplied software that is
downloaded to the controller from a PC or
laptop computer. Common relay configura-
tions include voting, averaging, delay on
actuation and de-actuation, normally or
not-normally energized and latching.The
audible alarm has three buzzer settings,
continuous, intermittent and double-tap
intermittent. An additional feature includes
24 VDC transistor outputs for a horn and
Alpha Controls & Instrumentation
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M340 controller is a
compact powerhouse
S c h n e i d e r
Electric’s new
Te l e me c a -
nique Modicon
M340 PLC is a
rugged, com-
pact, and user-
friendly controller ideally suited for most
applications. Its small size packs surpris-
ingly high performance and allows the
M340 to fit seamlessly into solutions for
factory automation, packaging, mining,
and the oil and gas industry. The M340
joins Schneider Electric’s rugged family of
Modicon PLCs including the Modicon Pre-
mium and the Modicon Quantum, known
for their dependability and power.
The USB port offers users a simple
and high-performance connection to the
programming PC. Users can program
online, transfer programs, access data files
and manage remote operation and diag-
nostics thanks to open TCP standards and
the embedded Web server functions. This
openness ensures users can access their ma-
chines in complete security from anywhere
on the floor, the office or remotely.
Schneider Electric
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Safety Shutdown and Control
System is fully scalable
The DE-3000
Safety Shut-
d o wn a n d
Control Sys-
tem uses state-
of-the-art mi-
and surface-
mount PCB
assembly technology to provide users of
compressors and other critical rotating
equipment with a sophisticated, yet reli-
able, means of protecting and controlling
both the prime mover and the load machine
(compressor, pump, etc.). Incorporating
an “intelligent” add-on board system, the
DE-3000 system is fully scalable, allow-
ing users to incorporate a single control
system technology across a wide range of
Features of the DE-3000:
• Completely scalable and expandable
system allowing for use across a range of
low, medium, and high-spec applications.
• Automatically and continuously opti-
mizes speed and capacity control.
• Integral auto-start functionality for
unmanned or highly-cyclic applications
• All system inputs can be individually
• Large display and keypad offer easy
access to system operating information and
for user adjustment of parameters.
• ModBus-RTU compatible, and easily
configurable via included WindowsTM-
based terminal program.
• CSA-certified for use in Class I, Divi-
sion 2, Group C and D hazardous areas.
Altronic, Inc.
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Stand-alone controller has
patent-pending technology
Tyco Flow Con-
trol announces
t he West l ock
XR linear/rotary
control monitor,
the industry’s
first versatile,
s t a n d - a l o n e
field device that
includes patent-
pending technol-
ogy required to
create a dynamic
baseline signa-
ture. The Westlock XR also uses state-of-
the art technology to provide a host of other
features for valve actuation applications
while remaining compatible with all types
of installation in a broad range of process
From the non-contact sensor for posi-
tioning to the fully encapsulated electron-
ics modules for detailed Automated Valve
Package performance information, the XR
is intelligently designed to convey critical
information to process managers quickly
and in a wide range of formats. The XR
controller’s patent-pending technology
captures the variables required to develop
a pressure profiling baseline dynamically
– while in service. Additionally, its alarm
logic uses enhanced technology to provide
more meaningful alarms when there are
changes in process conditions.
Tyco International Ltd.
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Pumps ideal for high-temperature heat transfer liquids
KSB’s HPK-L family of pumps for
high-temperature heat transfer liquids
combine high performance with energy
efficiency and low maintenance costs.
These versatile performers are designed
for industrial processes or large-scale heat-
ing plant applications. HPK-L pumps are a
complement to the company’s successful
Etanorm heat transfer pumps, but are rated
for higher discharge pressures (40 bar, or
580 psi, versus 16 bar for the Etanorms).
This means that they can handle temperatures up to 240°C with water, or 350°C with
thermal oil. With discharge nozzle diameters ranging from 25 mm to 250 mm, the
HPK-L series can deliver flow rates as high as 1,600 m3/hr (7,000 gpm) and heads
up to 222 metres.
These pumps feature medium-lubricated ceramic plain bearings and standardized
mechanical seals. A heat barrier separates the hot operating area from the air-cooled
seal chamber, preventing the heat-sensitive components from being exposed to the
high temperatures. As a result, HPK-L pumps will operate reliably at high temperatures
without any need for cooling water, significantly reducing installation and operating
costs. The special back pullout design allows the casing to remain in the pipeline
when the pump is dismantled for overhauls, making these pumps relatively easy and
inexpensive to service. Like other KSB products, HPK-L pumps feature carefully
optimized hydraulics to ensure high energy efficiency.
With their combination of high performance, reliability and low total cost of
ownership, KSB’s HPK-L series pumps can meet the most demanding requirement
for high-pressure industrial process and heat transport applications.
KSB Pumps Inc.
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Vacuum recover tons of sludge and slurry
Pressure discharge up to 3,000 feet away
Like no other pump or vacuum truck can!
Abrasives • Concrete & Drilling Mud Waste • Reclaim
Sumps • Settling Ponds • Sand Media • Muck & Rock
Oily Sludge • Pneumatic Transfer • Spills • X-P Zones
Cleanup sumps with innovative pickup nozzles.
Pump >60 m3/h of sludge with maximum d.s vs.
2,000-4,000 gpm centrifugals with 5-10% solids.
Big Supavac pump systems vacuum recover tons of hydrocarbon sludge from tank bottoms.
Flowable sludge and slurries - abrasive, toxic, volatile, hot and thick. Optional 316 stainless.
Rent and purchase Supavac™ solids transfer pumps.
Slash maintenance, handling, spills and water usage.
Operator adjusts pickup nozzle air inlet valve to
supply the right amount of ambient air at nozzle
inlet to entrain heavy sludge and drier material.
Submersible pumps unearthed, restoring
critical drainage sump operation. And with
no rotating parts, reliability is the experience.
Transfer settled product and waste from tanks
and containment, normally without adding water.
Zero leakage ensures environmental integrity.
Tel: (866) 735-9005 info@SupavacCanada.com www.SupavacCanada.com
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JanFebCEP5.indd 6 1/17/2008 1:02:17 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 7
The CY670 Series silicon diodes offer a more accurate reading of temperature ranges compared to
previously marketed silicone diodes. Conforming to the curve CY670 standard voltage vs. temperature
response curve, sensors within the CY670 Series are interchangeable, and for many applications they do
not require individual calibration. CY670 Series sensors in the SD package are available in five tolerance
bands: three for general cryogenic use across the 1.4 to 500K temperature range, and one that offers
superior accuracy for applications from 30K to room temperature. The CY670 Series sensors also come
in a tolerance band (E), which is available only as a bare die. For applications requiring greater accuracy,
CY670-SD diodes are available with calibration across the full 1.4 to 500K temperature range.
The CY670E bare die sensor provides the smallest physical size and fastest thermal response time of
any silicon diode on the market today.
This is an important advantage for applications where size and thermal response time are critical,
including focal plane arrays and high temperature superconducting filters for cellular communication.
Suitable for use in heat treating, aerospace, ic manufacturing.
OMEGA Engineering, Inc.
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TROLL 100 datalogger
In-Situ Inc.announc-
es the new Level
TROLL 100, an eco-
nomical, absolute
(non-vented) data
logging instrument
for monitoring and
recording changes
in water level, pressure, and temperature.
The Level TROLL100 body and nose cone
are constructed of a corrosion resistant
Acetal alloy and use a ceramic pressure sen-
sor which makes it ideal for monitoring in
all types of waters including seawater. The
unit comes with enough memory to record
32,000 data points including date, time,
level, pressure, and temperature, plus has
linear, fast linear, and event measurement
log tests. The Level TROLL 100 is operated
by Win-Situ software and a USB or RS232
Docking Station is used for programming
and downloading water level data. The in-
strument is deployed with suspension wire
with depth ranges of 0 to 30 ft, 0 to 100 ft,
or 0 to 250 ft.
In-Situ Inc.
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Data Acquisition Package
captures data directly to PC
Supercritical Fluid Technologies introduces
a new Data Acquisition Package (DAP)
as an option for the SFT Phase Monitor II
instrument. The DAP provides real time
image and data capture directly to a PC. The
video image, along with the temperature
and pressure data, is displayed on the PC
monitor and may be archived directly to
the hard drive. In addition, the current date
and time are recorded and the user has the
ability to enter a short text comment.
To capture the video signal, the pack-
age includes a PXI (frame grabber ) card
which needs to be installed into the user’s
PC running Windows 2000, NT, XP, or
Me. The software is based on LabView. All
cables and connectors required to complete
the installation are provided. The user is
responsible for providing a suitable PC
computer withWindows OS.
A powerful analytical tool for determin-
ing the solubility of various compounds and
mixtures of compounds in subcritical and
supercritical fluids, it provides direct, visual
observation of materials under conditions
which may be controlled precisely by the
researcher. Experiments may be performed
in liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide or
in other compressed gases. Additionally,
the effect of co-solvents on the solubility
of compounds of interest in supercritical
carbon dioxide can be investigated with
this instrument.
Supercritical Fluid Technologies
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Cryogenic temperature sensors

Enter #1019 on Reader Reply Card
For more information visit www.met-pro.com or call us at 215-723-6751 Ext. 216
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JanFebCEP5.indd 7 1/17/2008 1:02:27 PM
8 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008

Rugged gas detector
GfG’s new intrinsically safe G460 is a
rugged, compact instrument for simultane-
ous detection of up to six gases. Installed
sensor options include infrared (NDIR) for
and PID for VOC measurements. The
G460 offers completely automatic calibra-
tion, one-button operation, top-mounted
display and interchangeable battery packs.
GfG’s concussion-proof boot, along with
the highly dust and water resistant hous-
ing, protect the instrument in the harshest
environments. Datalogging and event log-
ging are standard.
GFG Instrumentation, Inc.
Enter #1020 on Reader Reply Card
High-accuracy weigh scales
OMEGA’s new count and weigh scales
boast high accuracy 6-digit displays, with
capacity from 2.2 to 220 pounds. Both the
CS7500 and CS7600 feature fast, one-
button counting, and auto-sample update
for improved accuracy. The CS7500 has a
high internal resolution up to 1:16 million
and two user-selectable units of measure.
The CS7600 has an internal resolution of up
to 1:1 million and functions that include in-
put and display of piece weight, tare weight
plus 6-digit ID number, sample quantity
and gross/net weights. These scales are well
suited for all general-purpose benchtop
weighing applications.
OMEGA Engineering, Inc.
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Third generation
sonar technology
Hawk Measure-
ment offers the
new ORCA Sonar
Seri es Int erface
level transmitter, a
“third generation”
sonar application.
There are two ma-
j or deci pher i ng
factors between all
the existing “first
generation” sonar
t echnol ogy and
Hawk’s “third generation” ORCA Sonar
Series. The first difference involves the
number of sonar transducer frequencies
employed by each generation of technol-
ogy, and the second difference deals with
the algorithms that control sonar interfaces
the scum-cleaning capabilities.
All existing sonar transmitter technologies
utilize only one sonar transducer frequency,
and are thus severely limited as to where
they can be successfully employed. The
ORCA Sonar Series’ third generation
sonar range offers seven different sonar
transducer frequencies, so the appropriate
frequency can be selected according to the
density of the interface that is being control-
led and monitored.
Hawk Measurement
Enter #1021 on Reader Reply Card
Wet/wet differential
pressure gauge
Crystal Engineering
Corporation has de-
veloped the XP2i-
DP, a new digital
Wet/Wet differential
pressure gauge with
0.1% reading accu-
racy. The XP2i-DP
provides rugged,
safe, ATEX certi-
fied, high accuracy
long term vacuum measurement.
Most wet/wet differential gauges are
damaged when the media leaks on the
low pressure side as a result of long term
over-pressure or high vacuum use. “The
XP2i-DP’s unique design provides a reli-
able solution against this problem,” says
Tom Halaczkiewicz, president of Crystal
Engineering. “The burst disc is a key fea-
ture that we implemented in the XP2i-DP
Portable gas standards
generating station
The Span Lab
Cal Cart by Kin-
Tek Laboratories,
Inc. integrates the
elements of a gas
standards gener-
ating system for
creating complex,
trace concentra-
tion mixtures into
a convenient, roll
around unit that
can be easi l y
moved between
various analyzer
The Cal Cart
i s d e s i g n e d
around the Kin-
Tek 491M Modu-
lar Gas Standards Generating System. Up
to six modules can be installed in the cart
together with supporting dilution gas cylin-
ders. Internal battery power is available to
minimize the time required for moving and
start-up at each different analyzer station.
NIST traceable permeation tubes are
used to dispense the analyte vapours for
blending ppm and ppb mixtures. The Cal
Cart can be configured with up to six in-
dependently controlled permeation ovens.
This allows generation of very complex
mixtures, or to have several different span
mixtures instantly available. The system
can be used with over 400 different com-
KIN-TEK Laboratories, Inc.
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to protect the sensor from over-pressure on
the low side connection.”
All XP2i-DP gauges are tested and cali-
brated inside environmental test chambers
using computer controlled pressure control-
lers. They are CE certified and are manufac-
tured under a ISO 9001 registered quality
system. The XP2i-DP is customizable for
panel mounting and portable configura-
tions, it has datalogging capabilities and
can be programmed for custom engineer-
ing units.
Crystal Engineering Corporation
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Ultrasonic level transmitters
Emerson Proc-
ess Management
has expanded its
extensive range
of level measure-
ment instrumen-
tation with the in-
troduction of the
Rosemount 3100
Series Ultrasonic
level transmitters. The new range offers
Rosemount reliability and predictive intel-
ligence in an easy to install and configure
package. The 3100 Series transmitters are
ideally suited for monitoring liquid level in
tanks and open air applications where long
maintenance intervals are a key requisite.
The non-contact sensor in the 3100 is
made from an inert material offering su-
perior corrosion resistance and low main-
tenance requirements. The integral or re-
mote mounted temperature sensor enables
automatic corrections where temperature
changes in the tank free space could other-
wise result in an inaccurate reading.
Available with threaded or flanged
connections and suitable for the chemical,
oil and gas, power, water and wastewater
industries, the transmitters are easy to
install and also, thanks to several pre-
programmed laws and strapping tables,
easy to configure.
Emerson Process Management
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pumps • filters • tubing • www.waterra.com • bailers • water level sensors
(Canada) Waterra Pumps Limited waterra@idirect.com • tel: 905.238.5242 (USA) Waterra USA Inc. waterra@openaccess.org • tel: 360.738.3366
Groundwater Monitoring Equipment & Supplies
TheWaterra Inertial Pumping System is the most widely
used pump for monitoring wells in Canada. For developing,
purging and sampling — nothing else comes close.
our most popular — The Standard Flow System is best suited for 2” wells and can provide
lifts up to 150 feet. This system can be used in wells of varying diameters and a variety of sampling environments.
deep well sampling — The High Flow System is designed to be used in 2” wells or larger where
a high pumping rate is desired. This system is also an excellent well development tool in 2” piezometers.
piezometer sampling — The Low Flow System is designed to be used in small diameter piezometers
(usually 1" ID to 0.75" ID). This system is also useful for sampling in damaged or obstructed monitoring wells.
micro wells — The Micro Flow System is popular for use in direct push technology micro well installations.
JanFebCEP5.indd 8 1/17/2008 1:02:36 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 9

Enter #1032 on Reader Reply Card
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Tough Cleaning Requirements? Vac Truck or Waterblasting Required?
Environmentally Sensitive Project? Confined Space Project?
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• Industrial Cleaning / Response to all Types of Spills
• Waterblasting and Vac Truck Services
by Andrew Topf
York University professor wants
to put the freeze on global warm-
ing, and he sees the solution to
the problem beginning in space.
Dr. Brendan Quine, director of space
engineering at York, has developed a
device that rides aboard a satellite to ac-
curately detect sources of industrial pol-
lution on earth.
“This should be a Canadian first, the
ability to pinpoint polluters, and really,
if we are serious about doing something
about the climate, then these are the kinds
of activities we have to do,” said Quine.
The Argus microspectrometer is small
enough to fit in the palm of your hand,
and can identify sources of pollution up
to a range of one kilometre by measuring
carbon dioxide and methane in the earth’s
atmosphere. It will fly aboard the Univer-
sity of Toronto’s CanX-2 microsatellite,
which is planning to launch in February,
While scientists have developed tech-
niques to measure air pollution at given
points on earth, the microspectrometer
will give a global picture of where pollut-
ants cluster in the atmosmosphere.
It will also allow scientists to discover
the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide
emissions, something that is not currently
well understood, Quine said.
Quine said a large pollution event nor-
mally takes just two weeks to spread into
the hemisphere where it was released,
and he pointed to carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide from slash burning in
South America, and pollution from heavy
industry in China and the United States,
as recent examples.
“Pollution here today will very shortly
be other people’s problems in other coun-
tries,” Quine said. “You need to map the
planet in order to determine the transport
of pollution.”
While it’s not the first time satellites
have been used to measure pollutants,
Quine said the miscrospectrometer is
more accurate because it has a higher
resolution than current space-based in-
“The thing that’s unique about Ar-
gus is it measures the radiation coming
from a one-kilometre square pixel on the
ground,” he explained. “All the other in-
strumentation currently in orbit measures
pollution on a much larger scale, maybe
between 20 kilometres and 500 kilome-
“The problem with that is it means
you can’t actually pinpoint particular
emissions to more than the resolution of
the footprint.”
The downside is the microspectrom-
eter can’t see through clouds – something
all orbiting instruments have in com-
mon – but with a smaller footprint on
the ground, there’s less chance of clouds
getting in the way than a satellite with a
larger footprint, Quine said.
The satellite will orbit earth at about
seven kilometres per second, and Quine
estimates it will take a few months for
the microspectrometer to cover the entire
surface of the earth.
The data will be downlinked to a local
ground station, then sent via the Internet
to researchers, who will create a global
map of air pollution.
But Quine said the objective at this
point is not to present a complete picture;
but rather to test the technology by zero-
ing in on specific areas and pollution
“Our plan is to go after targets of
interest, so when pollution events occur
we will switch the instrument on over
those periods. We will also be measuring
carbon dioxide levels over ocean regions
where we understand the composition
better, and comparing it to urban areas,
for instance.”
Microsizing the
equipment has allowed
Quine to create what he
calls “sustainable space instrumentation.”
“When people think of space instru-
ments, there’s this image of clunky ma-
chines that cost millions upon millions of
dollars and are destined to become mas-
sive pieces of space junk,” says Quine.
In contrast, Argus has a price tag of
roughly $75,000.
“The low cost means you can fly nu-
merous spectrometers to achieve regular
global coverage relatively inexpensive-
ly,” he said.
Ultimately, however, while data col-
lection and pollution mapping are im-
portant goals, Quine said the ultimate
objective is far more simple: to identify
polluters from space.
He said the Kyoto Protocol and other
climate treaties rely on industy to report
their level of emissions, but without an
effective monitoring system, unscrupu-
lous companies will continue to under-
report emissions to avoid or pay less
pollution taxes.
The microspectrometer, then, could
not only keep companies honest, it could
also provide a means for ethical compa-
nies to have their emissions monitored
from space in order to reduce their pollu-
tion taxes and liability.
“It doesn’t just have to be used as a
stick; it can be used in a positive way as
well,” Quine said.
York University
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Device travelling aboard satellite
monitors air pollution from space
JanFebCEP5.indd 9 1/17/2008 1:02:48 PM
10 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
Company earns green credentials
with interactive website
ark Polhemus joined CB Richard Ellis when
the commercial real estate firm acquired his
previous employer, the Trammell Crow Com-
pany. His initial assignment was daunting: find better
methods for recycling fluorescent bulbs and other waste
for all CBRE assets. Fortunately, Polhemus had already
championed a successful recycling program for Tram-
mell Crow, with the help of Rod Kincaid, vice president
of Virginia-based Esquire Environmental Services, a
consulting firm.
It was Kincaid who introduced Polhemus and Tram-
mell Crow to Air Cycle Corporation. The Illinois-based
firm pioneered unique web-based programs, such as the
EasyPak Pre-Paid Recycling Program, which allows
companies to ship spent fluorescent lamps and batteries
to recycling facilities in United Nations-approved con-
tainers. And it invented the Bulb Eater for large facilities
that prefer crushing their lamps on site prior to having
them recycled.
Air Cycle recently appointed a Canadian distributor
in White Rock, B.C., and is now selling directly into the
eastern provinces. A company spokesman said Canadian
sales of the Bulb Eater have doubled in the past year, go-
ing primarily to manufacturing companies, warehouses,
schools and hospitals.
Polhemus quickly embraced Air Cycle’s various pro-
grams and found success. But the size of the CBRE port-
folio, which includes about 4,500 properties in the U.S.,
presented a whole new logistical hurdle.
For Kincaid it was a conundrum: how to provide
standardized practices with customized solutions. After
all, even though CBRE assets were mostly office build-
High-tech solution to
fluorescent light bulb
ings, each would require a different combination of re-
cycling services. And each would benefit from a direct
conduit to updated recycling information and guidelines
for various types of wastes. The answer came to Kin-
caid one day while walking his dog: a customized, ded-
icated web-based program that allowed corporations to
refer to and manage their vast waste management needs.
Also, Kincaid saw the necessity of a website specific
to CBRE. The old practice of a firm sending prospective
clients to the URL of its waste management provider
was passé, in Kincaid’s opinion, because it provided no
marketing advantage.
“Imagine trying to prove how green you are. When
you can go to your own dedicated website with your
own corporate branding and you can demonstrate your
own programs, we think it’s far more powerful,” he
said. “North America wants to be green and do business
with other businesses that are green.”
Kincaid presented his idea to Air Cycle CEO Scott
Beierwaltes, whose staff began to brainstorm and de-
velop the idea. Kincaid, who is a film buff, likened the
Left: A commercial real estate company developed a website to
better manage its waste recycling; Below: fluorescent bulbs can
be crushed on site or boxed and shipped to a recycling facility.

process to watching the creation of a major motion pic-
ture, from concept to final cut.
“Witnessing the realization of a concept that I shared
with someone was incredible. Better, more creative
minds took it, and it evolved into this green business
masterpiece. It’s the ‘Gone with the Wind’ of the envi-
ronmental world,” he said.
The profound organizational implications of the Air
Cycle program were obvious to all concerned. And while
such an initiative would be an investment, for CBRE it
far outweighed the price of possible environmental dam-
age and potentially falling short of U.S. laws concerning
mercury content in fluorescent lamps. Indeed, It is easy
to comply with environmental regulations when fluores-
cent bulb recycling efforts are automatically updated and
And then there is the matter of public perception.
A company that defiles the environment is not a good
neighbour, which could cause ill will within the com-
“We have a huge variety of different tenants and cus-
tomers. This program allows our real estate managers
to have at their fingertips the local laws to make sure
tenants properly dispose of hazardous waste and keep
mercury out of the landfills,” Polhemus said. “It costs
a little bit. But we assume as environmental sensitivity
continues to grow, you would see the cost stabilize as
this becomes mainstream. It’s just like any new product.”
In the past the California-based company, which
manages more than 1.7 billion square feet of buildings
around the world, was challenged by complex tangle of
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and local juris-
dictional rules for ballast, battery, and lamp recycling.
And the firm was forced to rely on a tangled network
of waste management suppliers that made it difficult to
standardize and replicate services in various locales.
Polhemus explains: “It was a lot more difficult. You
were never sure you were up to speed with all EPA
standards. And we were looking through the Yellow
Pages to find services.”
Polhemus, who oversees engineering staff and opera-
tions for 400 locations, a total of 42 million square feet
of assets, now has his environmental responsibilities at
his fingertips. Thanks to an innovative, custom-built, us-
er-friendly website, Polhemus can quickly procure serv-
ices for new and existing assets, access a summary of
universal waste recycling results, and research recycling
advances and new programs that might interest clients.
Also, new staff engineers are immediately enrolled into
the record-keeping system when they join the firm.
As a result, the company is years ahead of most com-
petitors, and prospective clients can swiftly compare an
actual “green” track record with the vague promises of
other property management companies.
The website has morphed into a marketing tool that
advances CBRE’s position as the leader in the “green”
building movement. Recently CBRE was the first com-
mercial real estate services company to announce plans
to go carbon neutral in its own operations – with a target
to achieve this goal by 2010. At the properties it is man-
aging for clients, CBRE has made a longterm commit-
ment to an environmental sustainability program known
as Sensible Sustainability. This development comes at a
time when building owners who distribute requests for
management proposals have begun to require a detailed
account of environmental standards and practices. The
website, therefore, is an ideal presentation tool for pro-
spective clients and proof of CBRE’s sustainability com-
“It’s live. It gets updated as information changes. It
gives us a distinct market advantage over our competi-
tors,” Polhemus said.
Air Cycle Corporation
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JanFebCEP5.indd 10 1/17/2008 1:03:11 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 11

Envirosight’s compact, steerable crawlers are
able to navigate around broken pipe, debris
and protrusions.
ewer Technologies Inc. of Port
Perry, Ontario is considered one of
Canada’s leading trenchless sewer
rehabilitation companies. Sewer Tech-
nologies (Sewer Tech to their industry
colleagues) provides sewer rehabilita-
tion services to municipalities, as well as
engineering and construction companies.
Recently, the company made an invest-
ment in video inspection crawlers and
zoom cameras, which has increased their
business and made bidding and estimat-
ing easier.
With a staff of 30 highly trained em-
ployees, Sewer Tech utilizes Envirosight
camera systems to perform all aspects
of video inspection, for agencies such as
the Ministry of Transportation, Ministry
of Environment, City of Toronto and To-
ronto Transportation Commission.
According to Chris Manners, Sewer
Tech’s owner and operations manager, the
new inspection equipment allows field
techs to inspect greater distances with
more precise detail before, during and
after rehab.
“The time savings has increased our
business tremendously and we’re get-
ting word-of-mouth referrals. For our
municipal jobs, the QuickView zoom
camera is operated from above ground, so
it’s safer than confined space entry,” he
said. “Even though we’re confined space
certified, it’s always better not to send
someone in.”
Since employing zooming technol-
ogy, Sewer Tech can assess infrastructure
conditions quickly and accurately without
pulling in the big CCTV unit. “This tool
is a must-have when bidding on jobs,”
said Brent Giles, VP sales and marketing,
Sewer Tech. “We credit the new system
with the increased growth of both our
municipal and construction projects.”
Other customers use the system for com-
prehensive infrastructure surveys and
detailed manhole inspections.
Purchased in fall 2006, the ROVVER
125 (for pipe 6 inches and larger) and
225 (for 9-inch and larger pipe) replaced
their older, outdated crawlers and CCTV
systems. By upgrading their capabilities,
Sewer Tech has propelled itself to the top
of the pipeline inspection field.
“The compact, steerable crawler with
adjustable-focus pan/tilt/zoom camera
gives us tremendous versatility and al-
lows us to succeed where most other
sewer rehabilitation companies have yet
even to venture,” said Manners.
When Sewer Tech set up to perform
CCTV inspections in the past, they used
track crawlers rather than steerable
wheeled crawlers, so they were limited
on manoeuvring. In the pipe, the crawler
must navigate around broken pipe, debris
and protrusions.
“Since you can’t remove it, you
have to be able to steer around it or be
able to zoom the rest of the way,” he
explained. “And, having different wheel
options is very helpful in addressing vari-
ous pipe conditions and materials. “The
compact crawler allows us to do this, and
saves a tremendous amount of time.”
Sewer Technologies, Inc.
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Envirosight LLC
Enter #1036 on Reader Reply Card
Sewer cameras go where others can’t
The world‘s Number One trade fair for the environment
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Enter #1038 on Reader Reply Card
Advance your career with our
online environment programs.
Royal Roads University is the only public university in Canada
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or visit www.royalroads.ca
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JanFebCEP5.indd 11 1/17/2008 1:03:17 PM
12 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
Enter #1040 on Reader Reply Card
With over 25 years of proven experience in advanced
water quality solutions, ACG Technology Ltd.has established
itself as a leading provider of wastewater treatment equipment and we
recognize that secondary and even tertiary treatment may be required to
meet surface water discharge limits.
The ACG package treatment system uses compact modular components to provide the necessary
environment for nature’s processes of sewage decomposition and treatment. Utilizing the
extended aeration aerobic digestion process, it works by maintaining sufficient oxygen, mixing
and detention time to allow the micro-organisms to decompose the treatable wastewater into
harmless carbon dioxide, water and ash.
Quality controlled from design board to job site, ACG package treatment systems offer
secondary or tertiary effluent quality and economical treatment plant operation under the
most adverse conditions. Unit processes include screening, aeration, clarification, filtration
(if necessary) and disinfection. Such features as non-clog reversing, comminutor, self-cleaning
froth control nozzles and non-clog aeration diffusers make for consistently dependable, high
quality effluent treatment and an ease of operation and maintenance.
ACG Technology package treatment systems are ideal for installation as communal systems
for residential/commercial/industrial developments located beyond municipal sewer service
or remote construction/mining/exploration camps. They provide the flexibility of adding
future parallel modules—a most economical means of meeting the needs of any growing
sewage loads, or for the removal, reuse, or resale of the units as municipal sewer facilities
extend into development areas.
By o,ering the highest quality of equipment and systems available today, ACG Technology Ltd.
continues to meet the operational needs and compliance concerns for our valued customers.
The way we see it, the solution is both pure and simple.
For more information regarding our package sewage treatment
systems please contact us:
131 Whitmore Road, Unit 13 Woodbridge, ON L4L 6E4
t. 905.856.1414 f. 905.856.6401 e. sales@acgtechnology.com
w. www.acgtechnology.com
by Martin Jetté

he Halifax Regional Water Com-
mission (HRWC), responsible for
supplying drinking water to rough-
ly 325,000 people in the Halifax region,
treats 25–30 millions of gallons of water
daily. A wholly municipal-owned, self-
financed utility, the HRWC has a staff
of 180 employees, which was expected
to double last fall when the organization
took over responsibility for wastewater
management. The HRWC is a leader in
water loss control and has participated in
two recent American Water Works Asso-
ciation projects.
This expertise results from the util-
ity’s efforts in recent years to improve its
way of doing things. In 1999, the HRWC
set about to align its management meth-
ods with the best practices recommended
by the International Water Association
(IWA), a water treatment research or-
ganization. Consequently, HRWC carried
out an in-depth review of its information
technology (IT) methods, which led to
the development of a five-year plan for
improving its IT systems.
The first observation made by man-
agement was that information used by
the organization was divided among sev-
eral completely independent data silos.
Consequently, the people in charge did
not have easy access to the information
they needed to carry out their tasks. As a
result, producing reports was needlessly
difficult; creating graphs and tables re-
quired collecting data from several differ-
ent systems that were not interconnected.
This took a lot of time and sometimes
could not be done at all, particularly
when the data stretched over long periods
of time (such as a full year).
These problems meant that such
things as generating night flow analysis
reports were problematic. Night flow
analyses are carried out for each of the 65
areas monitored in the HRWC districts; at
night, water demand is at its lowest and
flow rate and leaks are most easily meas-
ured or detected. Preparing these reports
required assembling data from different
HRWC facilities, and had to be done
manually, on paper.
To improve its operational efficiency
and cost-effectiveness, the HRWC want-
ed to create a single data warehouse con-
taining both production and distribution
data, which it could use to quickly obtain
the information it needed. With this goal
in mind, the IWA suggested a proven
performance management solution that
could extract the data needed and provide
the information required in real time to
any employee requesting it (such as per-
sonnel responsible for detecting leaks).
The HRWC chose OSISoft’s PI system.
“We were looking for a product that
could help us achieve our objectives,
based on International Water Association
practices, and that met the criteria speci-
fied in our 2000 study on IT practices,”
said HRWC’s technical supervisor, Gra-
ham McDonald. “We chose the PI system
because of its capacity for producing
meaningful graphics, data archiving capa-
bility, connectivity with our SAP system
and ability to provide value-added data in
The system was installed in 2002.
Only one day’s work by the OSIsoft
integrator was needed for the system to
start providing data to staff. HRWC spe-
cialists programmed a driver beforehand
to transfer proprietary data from the or-
ganization’s legacy systems to the new PI
system. Another day was required to train
employees on the new system so that they
could take advantage of all its functions.
“In the process, instrumentation problems
that we had never noticed before were
pointed out to us immediately,” McDon-
ald explained.
Today, the night flow analysis reports
are posted on HRWC’s Intranet, where
everyone can peruse the data gathered
during the previous night. Any malfunc-
tion is tagged with a colour code. Ow-
ing to this feature and the fact that large
numbers of employees now have access
to these reports – compared to only a few
previously – missing a major leak has be-
come virtually impossible. All in all, the
HRWC estimates it is saving $600,000
a year due to better water loss manage-
ment. A significant part of this is due to
the new IT system, McDonald said.
The addition of a performance man-
agement system infrastructure has also
allowed an in-house application, the
Water Loss Calculator, to be developed.
This enables the HRWC to calculate the
volume of water or losses experienced
under normal flow conditions in specific
circumstances, such as flushing. This
Microsoft Excel-based program uses
the Datalink spreadsheet add-in, which
serves as a gateway between Excel and
PI, to gather and analyze information and
generate spreadsheet-format reports.
Further, public utilities are required to
meet strict government standards on con-
tact time the time chlorine is in contact
with water. Contact time depends on such
factors as water temperature and pH. By
having access to real-time data on these
parameters, the HRWC no longer has to
rely on the old tables it used to carry out
these analyses. This saves time, improves
the accuracy of calculations and ensures
a safer water distribution system in terms
of water quality and public health. Data
on these conditions is archived, which fa-
cilitates any subsequent checks required
by the authorities.
HRWC does not plan on resting on its
laurels and has several other projects in
the works. Measuring instruments have
been installed at a dozen of its major wa-
ter clients, so that they can detect leaks
in their own underground infrastructures
using the new performance management
system, which they can access through
the Internet. In this way, HRWC hopes
its clients can achieve significant savings
while saving water and protecting the en-
vironment in the process.
About the author: Martin Jetté is gen-
eral manager for OSIsoft in Montréal.
Enter #1039 on Reader Reply Card
New data control system makes the drains run
on time at Halifax Regional Water Commission
A new IT system has made the water commmission in Halifax significantly more efficient.

JanFebCEP5.indd 12 1/17/2008 1:03:21 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 13
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Companies slow to
adopt strategies on
climate change
Lack of executive accountability,
together with ongoing regulatory
uncertainty, are the key factors
explaining why Canadian com-
panies are slow to adopt climate
change strategies, according to
a recent Deloitte survey, “Manag-
ing greenhouse gas emissions”.
The second annual Deloitte
survey of Canadian emitters
shows that while 94 percent of
respondents possessed a gen-
eral awareness of GHG emis-
sions issues, only 18 percent had
secured executive-level involve-
ment, and less than a quarter
(24%) had established a budget
for reducing GHG emissions.
Although the impact of cli-
mate change cuts across multi-
ple business areas, responsibility
for developing GHG policies
usually falls to the head of en-
vironment or sustainability. Fifty
percent of companies surveyed
assigned responsibility at this
mid-tier management level. This
lack of senior involvement may
explain why there has been little
strategic alignment of the organi-
zation’s GHG emissions reduc-
tion efforts with its overall busi-
ness strategy. While three-quar-
ters of the companies surveyed
have completed an emissions
inventory and many (55%) have
even publicly released the results
of their emission management
programs, just over a quarter
(28%) of respondents felt they
had successfully integrated their
emissions management efforts
with their business strategy.
According to the survey, the
most frequently cited obstacle
to the development of a GHG
emissions management plan is
regulatory uncertainty. Forty-
three percent of companies con-
sidered regulatory uncertainty
as a significant barrier towards
implementing a comprehensive
GHG emissions management
strategy, compared with just 20
percent who considered ‘cost
to implement’ to be the primary
barrier. Tax incentives, energy
efficiency standards, emissions
limits and emissions trading with
intensity-based caps were con-
sidered to be the preferred public
policy tools to help guide firms
through their response to climate
On a more optimistic note,
many Canadian companies are
seeing the upside – 56 percent of
companies see climate change
as an overall opportunity with
energy efficiency cost-savings,
innovation, new technologies,
new market opportunities and
emissions trading being cited as
potential opportunities.
Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada
(PTAC) and the Alberta Energy Research
Institute (AERI) are conducting a study
into the capture and re-use of carbon di-
oxide emitted from oil refineries in north-
ern Alberta.
The PTAC Carbon Capture Storage
(CCS) Project will provide design and
cost estimates for a C0
collection system
from sources in the Fort Saskatchewan
area, and CO
transportation through a
common pipeline system.
PTAC president Soheil Asgarpour said
its large concentration of upgraded oil re-
fineries, with ready supply of CO
, makes
Fort Saskatchewan an ideal location for
enhanced oil recovery in Alberta.
Conducted by SNC-LAVALIN, the
study will pinpoint sources of carbon
dioxide emissions in order to understand
the cost of collecting CO
– widely seen
as a major contributor to greenhouse-gas
emissions. Carbon capture and storage
involves containing carbon dioxide at its
source and piping it into underground
cavities that once contained oil and gas.
The C0
can be sealed for permanent
storage in secure geological formations,
or injected into depleted oil reservoirs in
a process known as “enhanced oil recov-
ery.” It is estimated between five and 15
percent of the leftover oil can be extract-
ed for refining using this process.
The PTAC study will review the
merits of a common compression site to
achieve the pressure required for pipeline
transport to major oil pools. It will only
include pipeline infrastructure needed to
gather CO
to a common location, not
pipelines to enhanced recovery fields.
The study’s findings are expected to
be available in February.
Petroleum Technology Alliance
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Study to examine carbon capture in Alberta
Enter #1042 on Reader Reply Card

JanFebCEP5.indd 13 1/17/2008 1:03:24 PM
14 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
Enter #1051 on Reader Reply Card
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For more information on how to take
advantage of this excellent marketing
opportunity contact:
David Gilmour at 604-291-9900 ext.
244; E-mail: dgilmour@baumpub.com
Enter #1050 on Reader Reply Card
Waterra has added to its
line of water level and
oil/water interface
meters with tapes
that are now available
in lengths from 100
meters to 500 meters.
www.waterra.com • waterra@idirect.com • tel: 905.238.5242
Groundwater Monitoring
Equipment & Supplies
Enter #1052 on Reader Reply Card
Extreme Conditions, Exceptional Results
Amiad Filtration Systems
An industry leading manufacturer of
water filtration systems for industrial,
municipal, and irrigation markets.
- Automatic Self-Cleaning Filters
- Manual Filters
- Fertilizer Injectors
- Control Valves
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Pump sludge, slurries and waste
and transfer dry sand and cuttings
... like no other pump can!
New advanced vacuum recovery and
pressure discharge patented technology.
Seeing is Believing
Tel: (866) 735-9005 info@SupavacCanad.com
Overwhelmed submersible pump
unearthed, sump operation restored.
Transfer muck and rock,
often without adding water.
The Waterloo Biofilter is a free-
draining absorbent trickling filter
that effectively treats residen-
tial and communal sewage
wastewater. The compact and
versatile Biofilter can be placed
virtually anywhere: bedrock,
clay, high-water table, tight lots and waterfront property. The
self-contained above ground ISO shipping containers are avail-
able in attractive 20,000 and 40,000 L/d units – ready to plug
in on-site. Important features include long-term robustness,
50-60% TN removal, low maintenance and energy use, no
aerobic sludge handling, and small space requirements.
Waterloo Biofilter effectively
treats wastewater
Waterloo Biofilter Systems Inc. www.waterloo-biofilter.com
Pressure Systems now offers an
easy-to-use, Windows Mobile™-
based derivative of its sophisticated
K-ware applications software to
operate its KPSI™ waterMONI-
TOR submersible, datalogging
level transducers with a handheld
Pocket PC. K-ware Mobile provides
much of the functionality of K-ware, designed for desktop or laptop PCs, with
an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) for simplicity. K-ware Mobile gives
field technicians easy access to the site management tools required to get data
efficiently. The new software enables the user to determine operational status,
view live data, configure up to 16 test profiles and extract logged data.
Pressure Systems, 34 Research Drive, Hampton, VA 23666; 800/328-3665;
fax: 757/865-8744; e-mail: sales@PressureSystems.com.
Pressure Systems
Pressure Systems introduces K-ware
mobile for pocket PC operation of its KPSI™
submersible datalogging level transducer
Six essential weather measurements
in one instrument.
The WXT510 revolutionizes weather
measurement: it measures wind
speed and direction, liquid precipita-
tion, barometric pressure, tempera-
ture and relative humidity — in a
single device! WXT510 is compact,
durable, simple to install and easy
to integrate. With no moving parts, it
requires little to no maintenance.
Vaisala Weather Transmitter WXT510
Revolutionizes Weather Measurement
Vaisala Inc.
Website: www.vaisala.com
Toll free: 1-888-VAISALA (824-7252)
E-Mail: instruments@vaisala.com
OMEGA Engineering, Inc.
OMEGA’s New Controlcat® New Horizons® in
Temperature, Flow, and Pressure features 138
Dilbert Cartoons and over 190 full colour pages
of the latest products for the temperature, flow,
environmental, pressure, DAS and heaters
market including Accelerometers, Calibrators,
Temperature and Pressure, Chart Recorders,
Controllers, Data Acquisition Systems,
Data Loggers, Displacement, Flowmeters,
Heaters, Flexible, Immersion and Strip;
Infrared Handheld Instruments, Load Cells, pH
and Conductivity Instrumentation, Pressure
Transducers, Proximity Sensors, RTDs, Signal
Conditioners, Strain Gages, Thermocouples, Timers, Transmitters, Valves,
Wind Tunnels and much more. Every product can be purchased online.
Dilbert® Controlcat® New Horizons® in
Temperature, Flow and Pressure Version No. 21
For more information, go to omega.com/literature.
14 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
JanFebCEP5.indd 14 1/17/2008 1:04:06 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 15
Enter #1062 on Reader Reply Card Enter #1063 on Reader Reply Card Enter #1061 on Reader Reply Card
by Ian Peggs, P.Eng., P.E., Ph.D
hen a liner fails by sliding down a steep slope
or as a result of “whales” (bubbles in the liner
material that may result from gas building
below a leak in the liner) getting entangled in aerator
blades, there is often a great pile of mangled liner to re-
move and replace as quickly as possible. Similarly, failed
pipe fusion welds need to be repaired as soon as possi-
ble. Often, the old material is discarded altogether. Then
there is an investigation to determine what happened,
often with insurance companies and lawyers involved, to
determine who is at fault.
A little forethought can save much wasted time and
money later by removing key samples before tearing
everything out. A tangled mess of liner does not destroy
the evidence of the cause of the failure, but if all the ma-
terial is removed by bulldozer or excavator, it just makes
the liner features of interest that much more difficult to
find. And in the worst case, one can lose a case as a re-
sult of prematurely disposing of the evidence.
Fault lines
A 20-mil (0.5-mm) high-density polyethylene (HDPE)
liner for a decorative pond turned out to be a 16-mil
slit film HDPE woven with 2 mil of linear low-density
(LLDPE) on each surface. It leaked like a sieve, liter-
ally. To ensure there was sufficient water in the pond for
the development’s opening (and major sales weekend),
the contractor ripped the liner out, disposed of it, and
replaced it with the intended homogenous HDPE liner.
Despite retaining excess unused material that also leaked
like the same sieve, the case brought by the contractor
against the liner supplier/installer was dismissed because
the installed material was no longer available; the evi-
dence had been destroyed.
With appropriate materials science knowledge, it is
quite easy to trace the initiating site(s) of the failure and
to recover appropriate samples for detailed examination
if required. The fracture edges and fracture faces, like
the rings of a tree, tell the complete history of the fail-
ure – exactly where it started, at what feature, on which
surface or internally, which way it propagated, how it
propagated (fast or slow, steadily or in steps), then where
it transitioned into the large displacement event. Even if
a unique initiation location cannot be identified on site,
a few key samples can be selected that together will tell
the complete story. With these critical samples preserved,
the balance of the unusable material can then be removed
and repairs made.
In one case many years ago, the liner on the whole
side slope (200 ft by 40 ft) of a surface water run-off
pond on a hazardous waste site had shattered by rapid
crack propagation (stress cracking), but the initiation
site was quickly traced to a fusion seam that had been
“repaired” by extrusion welding. A sample of the seam
was removed for detailed microscope examination in
the laboratory. The precise initiation site was found on
the underside of the weld at a crimp made by overheat-
ing – clearly a combination of a poor material and poor
In another case where stress cracking occurred at ex-
trusion and butt welds in a thick HDPE embedment liner
in a mine facility, the installer was faulted by the owner
and engineer for improper installation. However, the
welds were made well and the material was good. In fact,
the liner manufacturer suggested that a chemical resist-
ance test be performed but the engineer claimed it was
unnecessary. So, a saving of $10,000 resulted in a multi-
million dollar failure. Fortunately, in-situ samples were
taken before the liners were ripped out.
In two sewer pipe liner failure projects, one liner was
removed before proper samples could be obtained for
the optimum materials science examination. In the other
case, samples were able to be gathered from the sewer
pipe before repairs were made. The second case was
much more effectively presented.
In a very large evaporation pond containing precipi-
tated salts, damage to the liner was claimed to be slit-type
punctures made by large chisels done as an act of vandal-
ism in the final stages of construction. Under the micro-
scope it was apparent that the slits were not punctures
but were shear cuts made, in fact, by the precipitate and
fractured as a result of the chisel impacts during removal
of the precipitate. The contractor was absolved of respon-
sibility, the damage becoming an operations concern.
If a lined slope fails and tears the liner, examination
of the liner’s fracture faces will determine if, perhaps,
the liner failed first and caused the soil to start sliding.
Thus, if the geomembrane, geogrid, geocomposite, high
strength geotextile, or any other geosynthetic fails be-
cause it is overloaded, the cause of failure is not the geo-
synthetic. However, if the geosynthetic fails when it is
not overloaded – i.e. at stresses below the yield or break
strength of the material – then the geosynthetic may be
the cause of the failure, or may contribute to it.
Therefore, as soon as the failure has occurred, call in
a materials performance expert to identify samples that
should be taken and retained before the bulk of the geo-
synthetic is removed and stored or replaced, or repaired.
Even if a few defects require patches, it could be helpful
to remove the flaw before the patch is placed rather than
putting the patch on the flaw and hiding it.
About the author: Ian Peggs is owner of I-CORP
International Inc., which can be found online at www.
I-CORP International Inc.
Enter #1064 on Reader Reply Card
Take precautions to avoid liner failure
Inappropriate design was the cause of this failure at a shopping
centre. The repair costs were double the initial cost of the wall.
If the edges of the break are ductile, the soil-imposed stresses
have simply overloaded the liner.
In this instance, slow crack growth stress-cracking started at
an overheating crimp on the underside of an extrusion-weld-
repaired fusion seam.
Spill Prevention – Mini-Berm™
The Mini-Berm is a
durable and easy-to-use
environmental safeguard
used for the secondary
containment of toxic
materials in many appli-
cations to help industries
meet today’s strict guide-
lines on environmental
protection. The Mini-Berm is easily placed under valves and
fittings, trucks, and machinery.
SEI Industries Ltd.
7400 Wilson Avenue
Delta, BC, Canada V4G 1E5
Tel: 604-946-3131
Fax: 604-940-9566
Email: seisales@sei-ind.com
Comprehensive Weather Data in
a Rugged, Compact Package
Climatronics’ rugged and reliable All-In-One (AIO)
Compact Weather Station is only slightly larger
than a can of tennis balls, yet accurately measures
temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direc-
tion, and barometric pressure. Compatible with most
data logging systems, the AIO features low power
consumption and a small footprint, an integrated
Sonimometer™ wind sensor, and self-alignment via a
built-in flux gate compass. It is a professional grade,
next-generation solution with no mechanical compo-
nents and a proven field-use history. Accessories in-
clude a carrying case, lightweight tripod and external
power options. Complete and custom packages are
available for HAZMAT and air quality applications.
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 15
JanFebCEP5.indd 15 1/17/2008 1:04:30 PM
16 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
n July, 2007, Layfield Environmental
Systems completed a prefabricated
vertical drain project for the Red Riv-
er Floodway Expansion project in Mani-
toba. The prefabricated vertical drains
(also known as PVDs or wick drains)
were installed in preparation for the con-
struction of railway embankments for
a new bridge across the Floodway. The
drains will accelerate the consolidation of
the clay subsoil under the embankment
allowing the bridge project to proceed on
The two embankments, one on ei-
ther side of the Floodway, are part of a
railway bridge embankment that is part
of the Red River Floodway Expansion
project. The PVD drainage area will
eventually be underneath 1,200 meters of
railway track and cover an area of about
32,000 m
. At this site there is a 20-metre
layer of glaciolucustrine silty clay over
silt till on top of limestone bedrock. Con-
solidation of this thick clay layer takes
a long time unless additional drainage is
The geotechnical engineer on this
project, Faris Khalil, P.Eng, of UMA/
AECOM, indicated that on this project
a substantial percentage of subsoil
consolidation needed to be completed
within the available two-year construc-
tion window. The design objective for
this project was to have 50 millimetres
of post-construction settlement. Usually
the options in this part of Manitoba were
to use staged construction, vertical sand
drains, or PVDs. The choice of PVDs
was based on cost, short installation time,
and less interference with the construc-
tion process.
The concept behind Prefabricated
Vertical Drains (PVDs) is to install a ma-
trix of drainage channels into the subsoil
under the embankment to reduce drain-
age paths. Typically PVDs are installed
in a grid pattern with a spacing range
between 1.5 to two metres centre to cen-
tre, depending on the compressible layer
thickness, the waiting period available,
and the loading condition. The PVDs are
installed into the ground for the full or
partial depth of the compressible layer
depending on the design objective. In this
case the depth was 20 metres, which was
the depth of the clay layer under the site.
Over 130,000 lineal metres of wick drain
were punched into the subsoil beneath the
proposed embankment.
A granular drainage mat was used
to provide a drainage path for the water
that comes up from the PVDs, allow-
ing the water to drain to the sides of the
embankment area into the side ditch.
The embankment is then built on top of
the drainage mat. As the embankment
grows, the pressure on the matrix of soil
and PVDs increases and the water begins
to flow up the PVDs, into the drainage
layer, and out to the side ditch. The drains
are designed so that consolidation will
occur within a suitable construction time
frame. On this project the embankment
will be as high as about 6 m and the max-
imum associated settlement is estimated
to be in the order of 450 mm.
The prefabricated vertical drains (also
known as wick drains) are a composite
material supplied in rolls 152 m long.
The drain consists of an inner core made
out of corrugated polypropylene which is
wrapped with a heat-bonded non-woven
geotextile. A standard wick drain is 93
mm wide and approximately 4 mm thick.
The wick drains supplied on this site each
had a maximum drainage capacity of 6.6
One interesting aspect of this project
was the use of the newest style of hy-
draulic prefabricated vertical drain (PVD)
installation equipment. This patented hy-
draulic equipment mounts to the mast of
an excavator and uses hydraulic motors
to press the drains into the ground with
over 130 kN of static force. The PVD
is carried into the ground inside a steel
mandrel that is driven into the ground
and then extracted. The PVD is wrapped
around a small metal plate at the bottom
of the mandrel to hold it in place and to
keep the soil out of the mandrel as it is
driven down. When the mandrel is ex-
tracted the metal plate anchors the PVD
to the bottom of the hole. In the typically
saturated soils where PVDs are used, the
mandrel presses easily into the ground
without predrilling or other preparation.
An advantage of the new hydraulic
equipment over older cable operated
designs is that vibratory assist is integral
to the drive unit and is efficiently trans-
mitted along the mandrel if a difficult
section of soil is encountered. Using the
vibration assist adds an additional 350
kN of dynamic force for a total static plus
dynamic force of 480 kN. On this project
the clay became progressively stiffer as
the depth increased and at approximately
the 14 m depth mark vibration assist
needed to be turned on. The requirement
for vibro assist had been indicated in
the study of the borehole logs. The logs
showed that the SPT count increased with
the depth of the clay. Typically the vibro
assist is required with an SPT blow count
value of 13 N or greater. With the vibro
assist the wick drain unit had no trouble
pressing the PVDs into this soil.
The prefabricated vertical drain por-
tion of this project took about a month
and a half including weather delays. A
good production day would include 230
wicks of 20 m each or about 4,000 lineal
metres per day. In total over 6,500 wicks
were inserted.
This was the first PVD job that Craig
Erb from Hugh Munro Construction was
aware of in Manitoba. Compared to the
sand column drains they installed last
year on a similar job the PVD process
was like “night and day,” said Erb. Last
year he had three drilling rigs drilling 450
mm holes 20 m deep at 3 m spacings to
achieve the same type of drainage. The
sand columns also needed a full time
excavator for the tailings, a sand truck,
and a water truck. The PVDs went much
more quickly and are expected to provide
similar drainage at a significantly lower
Hugh Munro Construction is now
completing the embankments over the
PVD treated area. Bridge construction
is planned to take place in the summer
of 2008 and the rail alignment will be
switched over in 2009.
Layfield Environmental Systems Ltd.
Enter #1065 on Reader Reply Card
PV drains key to Red River Floodway expansion
Over 6,500 Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) were inserted into the ground using hydraulic
installation equipment mounted to the mast of an excavator.
Enter #1066 on Reader Reply Card
Enter #1067 on Reader Reply Card
Please see our Product Index at
Tel: 604-986-9168 Fax: 604-986-5377
E-mail: saneng@sanitherm.com
Package Water and Wastewater Treatment
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JanFebCEP5.indd 16 1/17/2008 1:04:38 PM
January/February 2008 • Canadian Environmental Protection 17
As Vancouver prepares for the 2010
Winter Olympics, work continues on
the supporting infrastructure including
upgrading and expanding the region’s
transit system.
The new Canada Line is an automated
light metro system running 19 kilometres
from downtown Vancouver to Richmond
Centre and the Vancouver International
Airport. Approximately half of the new
line runs underground.
On one of the underground sections,
known as the “Cambie Street Cut and
Cover”, limited space meant that reliev-
ing hydrostatic pressure would be a
challenge using conventional techniques.
Nilex Nudrain WD15 was used to pro-
vide the necessary drainage in a fraction
of the space normally required.
Nilex Nudrain WD15 prefabricated
drain combines high-flow drainage ca-
pabilities with very good compressive
strength and is typically used in verti-
cal applications as was the case on the
Canada Line.
The Nilex Group
Enter #1071 on Reader Reply Card
Prefab drainage system
used on Vancouver’s
new Canada Line
Strata Systems, Inc., a company special-
izing in advanced geogrid solutions for
soil reinforcement and slope stabiliza-
tion, is now offering its StrataGrid line of
geosynthetic products available in 18-foot
Measuring 18-foot wide by 600-foot
long, each panel unfurls to cover 1,200
square yards of subsoil. Compared to
geogrids manufactured in standard 12,
6 and 4-foot widths, StrataGrid’s wider
coverage translates into less individual
rolls for installers to handle per job; and
fewer seams to be spliced between adja-
cent panels.
StrataGrid is an advanced geogrid fab-
ric made exclusively from high tenacity,
knitted polyester yarns. Manufactured by
Strata Systems in an array of grid aper-
tures, strengths and designs, StrataGrid
provides superior grade separation per-
formance in segmental retaining wall and
slope soil reinforcement applications.
Unlike other geogrid materials that
require end-to-end splicing of rolls, using
the more labour-intensive Bodkin connec-
tion, StrataGrid needs only a simple over-
lap connection between end rolls.
StrataGrid is the first geosynthetic ma-
terial knitted exclusively from polyester
fibre, giving it superior flexibility over
geogrids made from polyethylene. One
significant advantage is that StrataGrid
unrolls flat, retaining virtually no mate-
rials memory. Additionally, StrataGrid
maintains uniform contact with subgrade
contours, making it easier to install in
cold weather. These same properties
also mean StrataGrid is easier to backfill
and less likely to be damaged during fill
placement operations.
When worker safety is an issue, Strata-
Grid again has the edge in job-site per-
While polyethylene geogrids can be-
come slick and difficult to handle when
wet, StrataGrid provides an easy-to-grip
surface under all weather conditions.
Technical director Lance Carter says
the StrataGrid’s time and labour saving
advantages go well beyond materials han-
dling. “With its superior tensile strength,
StrataGrid eliminates the need to place
soil layers between reinforcing layers.
Bi-directional tensile strength is achieved
by placing opposing layers of StrataGrid
directly on top of each other with no soil
between the layers, resulting in signifi-
cant savings in construction time, labour
and materials cost.
Independent soil interaction testing has
confirmed that even when no soil is back-
filled between opposing layers, Strata-
Grid develops full pullout and anchorage
Strata Systems, Inc.
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February 13-15, 2008 – Design-Build for
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March 4-7, 2008 – Water China 2008 / PVP
China 2008 Trade Fair. Guangzhou, China.
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March 11-15, 2008 – IFPE 2008.
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March 12-14, 2008 – GLOBE 2008.
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April 1-3, 2008 – Asia Water 2008 - 5th Asia-
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April 21-22, 2008 – Canadian Environmental
Conference & Trade Show.
Toronto, ON; Metro Toronto Convention Centre.
Tel: 1-888-254-8769.
April 26-30, 2008 – BC Water & Waste Asso-
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May 5-9, 2008 – IFAT 2008. Munich,
Germany; New Munich Trade Fair Centre.
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May 11-15, 2008 – Waste - The Social
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May 25-27, 2008 – Water Environment
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September 23-26, 2008 – Western Canada
Water & Wastewater Association 60th An-
niversary Conference. Regina, Saskatchewan;
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Contact your nearest sales office for more information about this product and our
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JanFebCEP5.indd 17 1/17/2008 1:04:40 PM
18 Canadian Environmental Protection • January/February 2008
Pradeep Kharé, award-winning regional director general of Environment Canada,
explains how environmental regulations have changed over the years

by Andrew Topf
he Water Environment Federation
presented the Emerson Distin-
guished Service Medal in Octo-
ber to Pradeep Kharé, regional director
general of Environment Canada, during
WEFTEC 2007 – WEF’s annual techni-
cal exhibition and conference – in San
The prestigious award is presented to
an individual whose contributions to the
wastewater collection and treatment in-
dustry most deserves recognition.
CEP: What was your first job in the
environmental regulation field?
Kharé: After working for Seagrams
Distilleries I moved into the Ontario
government’s Ministry of Environment.
I was an environment officer in the in-
dustrial section and I was tasked with
cleaning up industrial pollution – air,
water and solid waste. In those days we
were focused on command and control,
regulations and prosecutions, particularly
on sources from industries – mostly pulp
mills, forestry and mining.
CEP: How did you become interested
in the environment?
Kharé: After receiving my bachelor’s
degree in India I landed a job with Lever
Brothers. I won a scholarship soon after
graduation to do a Master’s degree (in
chemical engineering) at the University
of Saskatchewan. I was 21 years old and
I saw it as an adventure to go to a differ-
ent country and at the same time to do a
Master’s degree. Originally I didn’t plan
to settle here, but Canada has been very
good to us. Gradually I went up the lad-
der and that’s what kind of brought me
CEP: How would you characterize the
relationship with industry then?
Kharé: Industry saw Environment as
a nuisance, they never took it seriously.
They usually appointed an environment
officer to keep the inspectors happy. It
was a very adversarial role. The regula-
tions started to come into force in the
late ‘60s and early ‘70s. Before that there
were health regulations mostly focused
on things like sickness and bacteria.
Some of the companies (that broke regu-
lations) took the small fines as a cost of
doing business and just carried on.
CEP: When did that attitude start
Kharé: In the 1980s we started talking
to the big polluters to figure out ways to
curb them; not just pollution control but
how to minimize waste. We began mov-
ing into waste management. Also, at the
time, the ENGOs were quite effective in
mobilizing public opinion against pollut-
ers. They started to organize boycotts of
B.C. paper products in Europe, and that
woke up a lot of boardrooms. Before,
they left it up to the operational guys, but
after that they started to take pollution
control a lot more seriously.
CEP: Have the regulations become
Kharé: Yes. We’ve seen a significant
improvement in point and non- point
source pollutants like storm runoff, and
the legislation has been strengthened
throughout this process. In B.C. the Pol-
lution Control Act became the Waste
Management Act in the ‘80s, and in the
‘90s changed to the Environmental Pro-
tection Act. Now it’s not just about pipes
and treatment but planning ahead of time,
from the point of view of recycling waste
and not introducing waste into the stream.
The rules are a lot stricter than they were
in the ‘70s.
CEP: Can you single out areas that
have improved significantly?
Kharé: There were several pulp mills
in the (B.C.) north and Lower Mainland
that were sources of huge pollution. We
used various methods, such as enforce-
ment, and negotiations by convincing
them that by recycling and recovering
(waste) they could save money in the
long run. For example the Canfor mill in
Port Mellon was one of the biggest pol-
luters in the 1980s. They partnered with
a Japanese company and spent $1 billion
to clean up the discharges from the mill.
This was a good way to modernize the
mill, make it more efficient, and also to
clean up the environment. Some of the
companies were harder to negotiate with
and their management was a little more
old-style. They were only interested in
producing and selling the pulp. But most
of them have been shut down.
CEP: How much has technology
played a role in pollution control?
Kharé: In the past technology played
the major role when we were trying to
find methods of treating more and more
complex pollutants e.g. from primary to
secondary to tertiary wastewater treat-
ment. Today, while technology is still
important, pollution prevention systems
have become as critical in solving com-
plex problems. The entire system has to
be examined and the processes and poli-
cies have become equally important. You
have to find ways to recover and recycle
(the chemicals) before they get into the
system. We’re able to reduce the waste
load and that’s the key to removing and
recycling some of those chemicals. Also
there’s been changes in processes. In the
‘80s and ‘90s the processes for manu-
facturing chlorine and caustic soda were
mercury-based. There was no way of
getting rid of the mercury. Now through
technological advances, we have im-
plemented new ways of manufacturing
chlorine and caustic soda. Wastewater
processes now are very efficient.
CEP: The Walkerton tragedy shone a
spotlight on water quality in Canada, and
in B.C. there have been a number of boil-
water advisories recently. How would you
describe our quality of water?
Kharé: B.C. is blessed with a large
number of clean drinking water sources
and that has caused us to become com-
placent. In this province we have the
lowest amount of treatment investment
across Canada. It caused occasional
problems like boil-water advisories for
pollution from natural causes. Slowly the
municipalities are moving toward treat-
ment systems, and this has been helped
by infrastructure money – typically split
between the three levels of government.
Elsewhere in the country we still have
hot spots that need to be cleaned up from
natural causes and industry pollution –
like the Great Lakes which have elevated
pollution levels. In other places we have
to take preventative action so they don’t
get that way.
Pradeep Kharé, (right) director general of
Environment Canada for the Yukon and Pacific
region, receives the Emerson Distinguished
Service Medal at WEFTEC in San Diego.
Getting tough with polluters

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JanFebCEP5.indd 18 1/17/2008 4:08:14 PM
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