International Refrigerant Standards and their Influence on the Global HVAC Industry and Refrigerant Replacement

Tom Watson, P.E. Fellow ASHRAE, Life Member President ASHRAE

Issues
• Choosing a refrigerant requires more knowledge • Environmental concerns due to:
– – – – ODP (ozone depleting potential) GWP (global warming potential) energy efficiency LCCP (life cycle climate performance

• Safety standards being updated to reflect increasing interest in flammable/mildly flammable working fluids

ISO 817) • Other organizations adopt ASHRAE technical requirements into codes and regulations • Major ASHRAE standards dealing with refrigerants are: – Standard 34. Reducing the Release of Halogenated Refrigerants from Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Equipment. ASHRAE Position Document on Refrigerants and their Responsible Use .Standards • Flammability/toxicity requirements covered by ASHRAE safety standards 15 and 34 and their international equivalents (ISO 5149. Designation and Safety Classification of Refrigerants – Standard 15. Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems – Standard 147.

ASHRAE Standard 34 .

2L Flammability Classification .

Standard 34 • Toxicity Classification Based on – chronic (long term) measure • Class A has PEL > 400 PPM • Class B has PEL < 400 PPM • PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit • Flammability Classification Based on – ASTM E 681 with electrically activated match – Class 1 .10 kg/m^3 or hc > 19 MJ/kg .LFL > 0.LFL < 0.10 kg/m^3 and hc < 19 MJ/kg – Class 2L – Cl 2 w/ burning velocity < 10 cm / sec – Class 3 .no flame propagation – Class 2 .

Standard 34 Activity • ASHRAE 34 defined Class 2L – Years of work to differentiate Class 2L from Class 2/3 – Single criteria: Flame speed < 10 cm/s – Refrigerants that fall into new category include: A2L R-32 R-143a R-1234yf R-1234ze B2L Ammonia – Change in flammability rating does not alter toxicity rating – Approved by Standards Committee in Feb 2010 .

ISO 817:2005. Refrigerants – Designation System • ISO 817:2005 is second edition of ISO 817 • First edition published in 1974 • Direct adoption of nomenclature system and refrigerant designations included in Standard 342004 • Does not include safety classifications .

ISO/FDIS 817:2012. Refrigerants – Designation and Safety Classification System • Proposed third edition of ISO 817 includes safety classification system in Standard 34 • Standard under development by ISO/TC 86/SC 8 • ASHRAE is secretariat of committee • Following countries are participating members (Countries in red participated on working group developed third edition of ISO/817 ): • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Belgium Bulgaria Denmark Egypt France Germany Italy Japan Republic of Korea Netherlands Poland Romania Russian Federation United Kingdom United States .

. Refrigerants – Designation and Safety Classification System • Final approval ballot.ISO/FDIS 817:2005. failed with 9 positive and 6 negative votes • 119 comments received • SC 8 to meet April 18-19 to address comments and prepare for second approval ballot • Primary concerns expressed by members voting against – 1000 ppm default value for NOEL for cardiac sensitization – 2L flammability classification – lack of requirements addressing toxicity of combustion products. ISO/FDIS 817:2012.

Standard 34 sets limit as 80% of NOEL . 25% of LFL in Standard 34 – Set CNS effect (anesthetic limit) as 100% of NOEL (no observed effect level).ISO/FDIS 817:2005. Refrigerants – Designation and Safety Classification System • ISO 817 contains few variances from Standard 34 – More conservative refrigerant concentration limit (using flammable concentration limit) for certain refrigerants. set at 20% of the LFL vs.

ASHRAE Standard 15 .

including Standard 34 . operation and inspection of mechanical and absorption machines – modifications if not identical in function and capacity – refrigerant substitutions with different designation • Generally written as self-sufficient document. it normatively references other standards. installation. construction.Standard 15 • First developed as Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration in 1930 • Scope – design.

committee sought input through Advisory Public Review • Review of Addendum a to Standard 15-2010 initiated in July 2011 • Committee has reviewed comments and continues to work on inclusion of requirements for 2L refrigerants .Status • Standard 15 Committee formed ad hoc committee to draft requirements for use of all 2L refrigerants based on data and additional information made available to committee • Prior to formal public review of proposed changes.

rules should not be altered . Failing this. there is no point in having Class 2L • General guidance for Ad Hoc Working Group – Understand safety considerations in real applications considering most flammable refrigerants in new class – Rules given in ISO 5149 for use of Class 2L should be considered – Standard 15 and IIAR 2 have rules for ammonia .Class 2L Refrigerants Background • Rules for Class 2L must be changed when compared to Class 2 and 3 to be useful.

000 .10.000) NH3 (100-300) R-32 (30-100) R-600a (45) R-152a (Class 2) R-290 (39) E-170 (54) R-1150 (80) Class 2L 1.Correlations with Burning Velocity HFO-1234yf (5. Similar graphs for other properties (example : HOC) Burning Velocity not a perfect measure but provides reasonable discrimination of refrigerants Class 2L refrigerants are flammable and can be ignited . 2.

.Standard 15 Concept • Avoid ignition event entirely – Eliminate sources of ignition from areas where 2L refrigerant migrates during leak event • Provide air movement to mitigate ignition – Risk of ignition directly proportional to time that large refrigerant leak fills a space at concentration above LFL. Use Ventilation to dilute and exhaust refrigerant Standard 15 Committee needed technical justification for proposed standards change through CFD and/or testing.

but not in spill zone for any wall mounted unit.Concepts Used for ASHRAE 15 • If RCL is exceeded. • No open flames and hot surfaces (< 700 ̊C) • Equipment located outdoors and low probability system have no special requirements . then equipment is located in MER – MER Emergency Ventilation is 30 ACH • Lower edge of mechanical ventilation opening shall be as low as practical (heavier than air refrigerant) • Ceiling ventilation (lighter than air refrigerant = ammonia) • Any permanent source of electrical ignition shall be located > 0. above the ground.5 m.

maintenance. marking and documentation – Part 3 Installation site – Part 4 Operation.ISO/FDIS 5149 Refrigerating Systems and Heat Pumps – Safety and Environmental Requirements • Consists of four parts – Part 1 Definitions. classification and selection criteria – Part 2 Design. testing. construction. repair and recovery .

taking into consideration refrigerant flammability classification • Proposed class 2L limitations consider reduced combustion risk as compared with class 2 and 3 refrigerants • Standard would permit higher refrigerant quantities of class 2L refrigerant than for class 2 or 3 .ISO/FDIS 5149 Refrigerating Systems and Heat Pumps – Safety and Environmental Requirements • Part 1 includes table of refrigerate charge limitations.

ISO/FDIS 5149 Refrigerating Systems and Heat Pumps – Safety and Environmental Requirements • ASHRAE is secretariat of committee • Following countries are participating members (Countries in red represented on working group that developed ISO/FDIS 5149): – – – – – – – Australia Belgium Bulgaria Canada Denmark Egypt Finland – – – – – – – – – – – France Germany India Italy Japan Republic of Korea Netherlands Poland Russian Federation United Kingdom United States .

to include environmental safety aspects and refrigeration safety • Based on EN 378 • Currently under development by ISO/TC 86/SC 1 .ISO/FDIS 5149 Refrigerating Systems and Heat Pumps – Safety and Environmental Requirements • Efforts began in 1997 to revise ISO 5149:1993. Mechanical refrigerating systems used for cooling and heating – Safety requirements.

ASHRAE. Part 4 passed). Total of 384 comments received on all parts • Primary concerns expressed by members voting against include: – Drafting error in table for flammability class 3 – 2L refrigerant quantity limit requirements still being developed in IEC. Need for harmonization before publication – Treatment of class 3 refrigerant limits (alignment with EN 378. UL JTG and AHRI working groups. expected to begin this summer .ISO/FDIS 5149 Status • ISP/5149-1 failed with 7 positive and 8 negative votes (Parts 2 and 3 also failed. use of either cap limits or absolute kg values) • SC 1 met in January 2013 to resolve comments and prepare for second approval ballot.

Global Warming GWP Power Generation 24 .

Summary • ASHRAE and ISO Standards – Including Low GWP Refrigerants • A2L – Low burning velocity • Natural Refrigerants • Energy Efficiency is a Key – CO2 Reduction Due to Power generation for HVAC&R .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful