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# abc conjecture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The abc conjecture (also known as Oesterlé–Masser conjecture) is a conjecture in number theory, first proposed by Joseph Oesterlé (1988) and David Masser (1985) as an integer analogue of the Mason–Stothers theorem for polynomials. The conjecture is stated in terms of three positive integers, a, b and c (hence the name), which have no common factor and satisfy a + b = c. If d denotes the product of the distinct prime factors of abc, the conjecture essentially states that d is usually not much smaller than c. In other words: if a and b are composed from large powers of primes, then c is usually not divisible by large powers of primes. The precise statement is given below. The abc conjecture has already become well known for the number of interesting consequences it entails. Many famous conjectures and theorems in number theory would follow immediately from the abc conjecture. Goldfeld (1996) described the abc conjecture as "the most important unsolved problem in Diophantine analysis". In August 2012, Shinichi Mochizuki released a series of four preprints containing a claim to a proof of the abc conjecture. Mochizuki calls the theory on which this proof is based "inter-universal Teichmüller theory", and it has other applications including a proof of Szpiro's conjecture and Vojta's conjecture.[1][2] Experts were expected to take months to check Mochizuki's new mathematical machinery, which was developed over decades in 500 pages of preprints and several of his prior papers.[3] When an error in one of the articles was pointed out by Vesselin Dimitrov and Akshay Venkatesh in October 2012, Mochizuki posted a comment on his website acknowledging the mistake, stating that it would not affect the result, and promising a corrected version in the near future.[4] He proceeded to post a series of corrected papers of which the latest was dated March 2013.[1]

1 Formulations 2 Examples of triples with small radical 3 Some consequences 4 Theoretical results 5 Computational results 6 Refined forms and generalizations 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

The abc conjecture can be expressed as follows: For every ε > 0, there are only finitely many triples of coprime positive integers a + b = c such that c > d1+ε, where d denotes the product of the distinct prime factors of abc. To illustrate the terms used, if a = 16 = 24,

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rad(18) = rad(2·32) = 2·3 = 6. q(a.Wikipedia. c) > 1. c) > 1 + ε.. and for only a few exceptions is c > d1+ε. 127. Triples with q > 1 such as in the second example are rather special. c) of coprime positive integers with a + b = c such that q(a. is the product of the distinct prime factors of n. it turns out that "usually" c < rad(abc). the free encyclopedia http://en. b. For every ε > 0.. c) < 1. 128) = log(128) / log(rad(3·125·128)) = log(128) / log(30) = 1. of the triple (a. b. The abc conjecture deals with the exceptions. According to the conjecture. i.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture b = 17. A typical triple (a. there exist only finitely many triples (a. q(3.01 or q > 1. For every ε > 0. ABC Conjecture III. c) of positive coprime integers. there exist only finitely many triples (a. they consist of numbers divisible by high powers of small prime numbers. For every ε > 0. b. b. b. Specifically. with a + b = c.426565. defined by: For example. denoted rad(n). 2 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM .001 or even q > 1. c is not greater than d1+ε. and c are coprime[5] positive integers such that a + b = c. the inequality holds. etc. for all ε > 0. For example rad(16) = rad(24) = 2. q(4. b..46820. it states that: ABC Conjecture. the radical of n.. c) of coprime positive integers with a + b = c such that q(a. b. Whereas it is known that there are infinitely many triples (a. 131) = log(131) / log(rad(4·127·131)) = log(131) / log(2·127·131) = 0. A third formulation of the conjecture involves the quality. If a. such that An equivalent formulation states that: ABC Conjecture II. q(a. most coprime triples where a + b = c are like the ones used in this example. b. rad(17) = 17. the conjecture predicts that only finitely many of those have q > 1. 125.0001. there exists a constant Kε such that for all triples (a. with a + b = c.abc conjecture . then d = 2·17·3·11 = 1122. b. Therefore. and c = 16 + 17 = 33 = 3·11.wikipedia. c). b. c) of coprime positive integers with a + b = c will have c < rad(abc). c). c) of coprime positive integers. which is greater than c. Adding additional terminology: For a positive integer n. b.e.

the highest quality of these.y. A list of the highest quality triples (triples with a particularly small radical relative to c) is given below.wikipedia. because 2p(p−1) ≡ 1 (mod p2) and 2p(p−1) − 1 will be a factor of b. rad(abc) < 2c/3 for these examples. c with rad(abc) < c.y) exceeds C. as there exist infinitely many triples a. These include both known results (some of which have been proven separately since the conjecture has been stated).2+ε (Oesterlé 1988). Thue–Siegel–Roth theorem on diophantine approximation of algebraic numbers Fermat's Last Theorem for all sufficiently large exponents (already proven in general by Andrew Wiles) (Granville 2002) The Mordell conjecture (already proven in general by Gerd Faltings) (Elkies 1991) The Erdős–Woods conjecture except for a finite number of counterexamples (Langevin 1993) The existence of infinitely many non-Wieferich primes (Silverman 1988) The weak form of Marshall Hall's conjecture on the separation between squares and cubes of integers (Nitaj 1996) The Fermat–Catalan conjecture. was found by Eric Reyssat (Lando & Zvonkin 2004. 3 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM . has no Siegel zero (this consequence actually requires a uniform version of the abc conjecture in number fields.(−d/. By replacing the exponent 6n by other exponents forcing b to have larger square factors. the free encyclopedia http://en. and Pillai's conjecture (1931) concerning the number of solutions of Aym = Bxn + k. It is equivalent to the Granville–Langevin conjecture.max{|x|.436. While an earlier proof of the conjecture would have been more significant in terms of consequences. 137): a=2 b = 310·109 = 6. which would yield a bound of rad(abc)1. the ratio between the radical and c may be made arbitrarily small. p. then for every real β>2 there is a constant C(f .)) formed with the Legendre symbol.6299. a generalization of Fermat's last theorem concerning powers that are sums of powers (Pomerance 2008) The L function L(s. the abc conjecture itself remains of interest for the other conjectures it would prove.|y|}n-β. and conjectures for which it gives a conditional proof. the radical of f (x. b. that if f is a square-free binary form of degree n > 2. such a triple may be taken as a=1 b = 26n − 1 c = 26n As a and c together contribute only a factor of two to the radical. with quality 1. For instance.abc conjecture .Wikipedia. replacing 6n by p(p − 1)n for an arbitrary prime p will make b divisible by p2.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture The condition that ε > 0 is necessary for the truth of the conjecture.β) such for all coprime integer x. together with its numerous links with deep questions in number theory.[7][8] It is equivalent to the modified Szpiro conjecture.436.[6] A generalization of Tijdeman's theorem concerning the number of solutions of ym = xn + k (Tijdeman's theorem answers the case k = 1).341 c = 235 = 6. not only the abc conjecture as formulated above for rational integers) (Granville 2000) P(x) has only finitely many perfect powers for integral x for P a polynomial with at least three simple zeros. Specifically.343 rad(abc) = 15042 The abc conjecture has a large number of consequences. while b is divisible by 9.

Specifically. Although no finite set of examples or counterexamples can resolve the abc conjecture. In 2006. the Mathematics Department of Leiden University in the Netherlands. However. and K2 and K3 are constants that depend on ε (in an effectively computable way) but not on a. or c. and (Stewart & Yu 2001). launched the ABC@Home project. The bounds apply to any triple for which c > 2. b. exponential bounds are known. together with the Dutch Kennislink science institute. it is hoped that patterns in the triples discovered by this project will lead to insights about the conjecture and about number theory more generally.wikipedia. (Stewart & Yu 1991). c with rad(abc) < c. b. K1 is a constant that does not depend on a.abc conjecture . The abc conjecture implies that c can be bounded above by a near-linear function of the radical of abc. the free encyclopedia http://en.Wikipedia. the following bounds have been proven: (Stewart & Tijdeman 1986). In these bounds. or c. 4 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM . a grid computing system which aims to discover additional triples a.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture Dąbrowski (1996) has shown that the abc conjecture implies that n! + A= k2 has only finitely many solutions for any given integer A. b.

05 q > 1.6299 2 a b 310·109 32·56·73 511·132 2·37 2 1.abc conjecture .041 184.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture q>1 c < 102 c < 103 c < 104 c < 105 c < 106 c < 107 c < 108 c < 109 c < 1010 c < 1011 c < 1012 c < 1013 Distribution of triples with q > 1[9] q > 1.028 4. b.693 7. 5 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM .987 22. and its present goal is to obtain a complete list of all ABC triples (a.396. b and c (Bombieri & Gubler 2006.266 23.075. Abderrahmane Nitaj 54·7 Benne de Weger Note: the quality q(a.1 million triples.843 q > 1.499 8.890 24.168 463.2 q > 1. ABC@Home has found 23. b.233 37.035 13.856 528.3 6 31 120 418 4 17 74 240 667 1.1 q > 1.232 1.773 41.Wikipedia.275 c < 1014 1.118 17.714 139.047 115.352.316 51.4 0 1 3 6 11 17 25 34 51 64 74 84 98 112 126 143 160 1.119.5808 283 5 1.013 0 3 8 13 29 60 98 144 218 327 455 599 769 998 1. A stronger inequality proposed by Baker (1998) states that in the inequality.612 73.669 3. p.869 8.194 2 8 22 51 102 210 384 706 1. Juliusz Brzezinski. one can replace rad(abc) by ε−ωrad(abc) where ω is the total number of distinct primes dividing a.6235 19·1307 7·292·318 28·322·54 Jerzy Browkin.801.947 3.677 116.[10] Highest quality triples[11] c Discovered by 235 221·23 Eric Reyssat Benne de Weger q 1 1. c) of the triple (a. Juliusz Brzezinski 28·38·173 Jerzy Browkin.105 As of September 2012.497 13.665 9.wikipedia.446 812.438 70.268 3.762 258.727 290.065 2.6260 112 4 1.410 c < 1017 7.965 449.5679 1 3 1.319 c < 1015 2. c) is defined above.b.482.c) with c no more than 1020.530 1. the free encyclopedia http://en.499 4 14 50 152 379 856 1.334 1.519 6.909 c < 1018 14.159 1.131.742 18.978 252. 404).671 c < 1016 4.801 3.

Zbl 0973.11034). ABC@Home.rekenmeemetabc.nl/?item=h_stats). ISBN 978-0-521-71229-3. Kálmán. ^ Kevin Hartnett (3 November 2012).2277%2F0521846153).Wikipedia.nl/~desmit/abc/index.. ^ Mollin (2009) 8. ^ Note that when it is given that a + b = c.pdf 7.kyoto-u. Browkin & Brzeziński (1994) formulated the n-conjecture—a version of the abc conjecture involving n > 2 integers. retrieved October 3.com/data/).sciencemag. c implies pairwise coprimeness of a. Proceedings of the international conference.11378). 1996.abc conjecture . b. 5.bostonglobe. computational and algebraic aspects. ^ "100 unbeaten triples" (http://www. Zbl 1130. Eger. Nature. ^ Ball. Inter-universal Teichmuller Theory IV: Log-volume Computations and Set-theoretic Foundations.html).php?set=1). Baker. 3. Boston Globe. Bombieri. RekenMeeMetABC. 2010-11-07. 2012 (Dutch). ^ Mollin (2010) p. retrieved September 10.math. Diophantine. July 29-August 2. ^ http://www.org/10. the free encyclopedia http://en. c. 4. Number theory. "An ABC proof too tough even for mathematicians" (http://www. Heights in Diophantine Geometry. Walter (2006).11047 (http://www. Science.com/news/proof-claimed-for-deep-connection-between-primes-1. "Proof claimed for deep connection between primes" (http://www. 2012). Hungary. In Győry. New Mathematical Monographs 4.org/zmath/en/search/?format=complete&q=an:0973.org/zmath/en/search /?format=complete&q=an:1130. ^ "Synthese resultaten" (http://www.wikipedia. Reken mee met ABC. it does not matter which concept we use.com/ideas/2012/11/03/abc-proof-too-tough-even-for-mathematicians /o9bja4kwPuXhDeDb2Ana2K/story.nl. Inter-universal Teichmuller Theory II: Hodge-Arakelov-theoretic Evaluation.ac. pp.kurims.doi. Alan (1998). "ABC Proof Could Be Mathematical Jackpot" (http://news.nature. Inter-universal Teichmuller Theory I: Construction of Hodge Theaters.2277/0521846153 (http://dx.11034 (http://www.html). Inter-universal Teichmuller Theory III: Canonical Splittings of the Log-theta-lattice. ^ "Data collected sofar" (http://abcathome. 6 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM . ^ a b Mochizuki.jp /~motizuki/papers-english. Phillip (10 September 2012).leidenuniv. Shinichi (August 2012). Berlin: de Gruyter.zentralblatt-math.org/wiki/Abc_conjecture Baker (1998) also describes related conjectures of Andrew Granville that would give upper bounds on c of the form where Ω(n) is the total number of prime factors of n and where Θ(n) is the number of integers up to n divisible only by primes dividing n. 6. So in this case. "Logarithmic forms and the abc-conjecture".org/sciencenow/2012/09/abc-conjecture.zentralblatt-math. 10.html 2. List of unsolved problems in mathematics 1. ^ Cipra. available at http://www. coprimeness of a. Enrico. 2012 11. b.uu.nl/people/beukers/ABCpresentation. Barry (September 12. doi:10. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 3-11-015364-5.297 9.11047).math. Gubler. 37–44.

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org/w/index.org/issue1_1/elkies.. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. By using this site.edu/~mazur/papers/scanQuest.org/mathland/mathtrek_12_8. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. 8 of 8 7/14/2013 7:22 AM . abc Conjecture (http://www. Eric W.wikipedia.columbia.harvard.math.unicaen.nl/~desmit/abc/) http://www. Inc.wolfram. the free encyclopedia http://en.fr/~nitaj/abc.youtube.math.Wikipedia. Weisstein.maa.math.com/abcConjecture.math..html) Bart de Smit's ABC Triples webpage (http://www.leidenuniv.html) The ABC's of Number Theory (http://www. a non-profit organization.pdf) by Barry Mazur Philosophy behind Mochizuki’s work on the ABC conjecture (http://mathoverflow.wikipedia. additional terms may apply. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation.abc conjecture .org/wiki/Abc_conjecture Hayes.org/polymath1/index.pdf) by Noam D. Abderrahmane Nitaj's ABC conjecture home page (http://www.thehcmr.com/watch?v=RkBl7WKzzRw) Numberphile video Retrieved from "http://en. Elkies Questions about Number (http://www.edu/~goldfeld/ABC-Conjecture. MathWorld.net/questions /106560/philosophy-behind-mochizukis-work-on-the-abc-conjecture) on MathOverflow ABC Conjecture (http://michaelnielsen. "abc Conjecture (http://mathworld.php?title=ABC_conjecture) Polymath project wiki page linking to various sources of commentary on Mochizuki's papers.pdf The amazing ABC conjecture (http://www.html)".php?title=Abc_conjecture&oldid=563412428" Categories: Conjectures Number theory Unsolved problems in mathematics This page was last modified on 8 July 2013 at 18:44.