TECHNICAL ISO/IEC

REPORT DTR 8802-1
Third Edition
Information technology -
Telecommunications and information exchange
between systems - Local and metropolitan area
networks - Technical Reports and Guidelines -
Part 1 :
Overview of Local Area Network Standards
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Contents Page
1. Scope ............................................. 1
2. References ............................................. 2
3. Abbreviations ............................................. 3
4. ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 LMSC Co-operative Work................................. 4
4.1 Introduction ............................................. 4
4.2 The Cooperative Process ............................................. 4
4.3 Catalogue of Endorsed Standards ............................................. 4
5. Local Area Network Technologies ............................................. 4
5.1 Introduction ............................................. 5
5.2 The LAN Technologies ............................................. 5
5.2.1 CSMA/CD ............................................. 5
5.2.2 Token-passing Bus ............................................. 6
5.2.3 Token-passing Ring ............................................. 6
5.2.4 Distributed Queue Dual Bus ............................................. 6
5.2.5 Integrated Services LAN Interface ........................................... 6
5.2.6 Wireless LAN ............................................. 7
5.2.7 Demand Priority ............................................. 7
5.2.8 Fibre Distributed Data Interface ............................................. 7
5.3 Cabling Aspects ............................................. 8
6. Data Link Layer ............................................. 8
6.1 Introduction ............................................. 8
6.2 Provision and Support of the Data Link Layer Service .................... 8
7. Medium Access Control Sublayer ............................................. 8
7.1 Introduction ............................................. 8
7.2 Provision and Support of the MAC Service ...................................... 8
7.2.1 Connectionless-mode Service ............................................. 8
7.2.2 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Service ........................... 9
7.3 48-Bit MAC Address Format ............................................. 9
7.4 Standard Group MAC Addresses ............................................. 9
8. Logical Link Control Sublayer ............................................. 10
8.1 Provision and Support of the LLC Services ...................................... 10
8.1.1 LLC Type 1 Connectionless-mode Operation .......................... 10
8.1.2 LLC Type 2 Connection-mode Operation................................ 10
8.1.3 LLC Type 3 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Operation.. 10
8.2 Logical Link Control Addresses ............................................. 10
9. Internetworking ............................................. 11
9.1 Transparent Bridging ............................................. 11
9.2 Source Routing ............................................. 11
9.3 Source Routing Transparent Architecture........................................ 11
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10. System Load Protocol ............................................. 12
11. The Use of PICS Proforma ............................................. 12
12. Management ............................................. 12
Annex A. The Numbering Scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards 14
Annex B. The Catalogue of Endorsed IEEE 802 Standards………………….15
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Foreword
ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International
Electrotechnical Committee) together form a system for worldwide standardization as a
whole. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of
International Standards through technical committees established by the respective
organizations to deal with particular fields of technical activity. ISO and IEC technical
committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest. Other international organizations,
governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO and IEC, also take part in the
work.
In the field of information technology, ISO and IEC have established a joint technical
committee, ISO/IEC JTC1.
The main task of a technical committee is to prepare International Standards but in
exceptional circumstances, the publication of a technical report of one of the following
types may be proposed:
- type 1, when the necessary support within the technical committee cannot be
obtained for the publication of an International Standard, despite repeated
efforts;
- type 2, when the subject is still under technical development requiring wider
exposure;
- type 3, when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind
from that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of
the art”, for example).
Technical reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication, to
decide whether they can be transformed into International Standards. Technical reports of
type 3 do not necessarily have to be reviewed until data they provide are considered to be
no longer valid or useful.
ISO/IEC TR 8802-1, which is a technical report of type 3, was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC
1, Information technology.
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Introduction
This technical report introduces the set of International Standards produced to facilitate the
interconnection of information processing systems connected to a Local Area Network
(LAN). The LAN is a peer-to-peer communications network provided by a single
broadcast domain that enables all end stations to exchange information. As a consequence it
does not inherently provide privacy. A LAN is in general owned, used, and operated by a
single organisation and falls within a single administrative domain.
In November 1999 a Category C liaison was established between ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC6
WG1 and WG3, and the IEEE 802 LMSC to foster closer collaboration in the standards
making process. To that end cooperative working practices have been established such that,
both parties are able to contribute their particular and unique strengths to the standards
making process without introducing time delays into the other's procedures; and, each has
output for which they are responsible which records their involvement in that process.
There are two distinct elements to the cooperative working practice. The first provides the
means whereby ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies are able to contribute to the technical
work of the IEEE 802 standards developments; and the second, via the IEEE Sponsor
ballot process, provides the more formal mechanism whereby ISO/IEC JTC 1 National
Bodies can review IEEE 802 work which is nearing completion of the standards process. It
is this latter element of procedure which provides input into the revision of this technical
report providing the record of ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Body participation in the standards
making process.
This technical report therefore provides a source of reference to all International Standards
that relate to local area networks; specifically the ISO/IEC 8802 technologies and FDDI;
and in addition is the location where ISO/IEC involvement in IEEE 802 standards
development is recorded and any endorsements to particular IEEE 802 standards is noted.
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Information technology - Telecommunications and information
exchange between systems - Local and metropolitan area networks -
Technical Reports and Guidelines -
Part 1:
Overview of Local Area Network Standards
1. Scope
This technical report provides an introduction to the set of International Standards which describe local area
networks, specifically those which make use of the 48-bit MAC address format.
The MAC technologies described in this technical report have in common the ability to provide sufficient capability
to support the MAC Service which is defined in ISO/IEC 15802-1.
The scope of this Technical Report is therefore limited to those International Standards which describe processes
and procedures resident in the Data Link and Physical Layers of the OSI Basic Reference Model and can be said to
relate to local area networks.
This technical report does not itself describe new Service or Protocol definitions. Its intent is to set the context for
local area networks which include both the International Standards describing FDDI and the technologies described
by the set of ISO/IEC 8802 International Standards.
Additionally this technical report provides the record of cooperative work between ISO/IEC and the IEEE 802
LMSC as a part of the Category C liaison established in November 1999 either through the usual Fast Track
procedures or via the cooperative working procedures described in this technical report.
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2. References
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions of this
Technical Report. At the time of publication, the editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision,
and parties to agreements based on this Technical Report are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying
the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently
valid International Standards.
A revised numbering scheme was introduced from 1993 to provide alignment with the numbering scheme used by
the IEEE for their LAN/MAN Standards and the basis for this numbering scheme is shown in Annex A.
ISO 7498 : 1984, Information processing systems - Open Systems Interconnection - Basic Reference Model.
ISO 7498-3 : 1989, Information processing systems - Open Systems Interconnection - Part 3: Naming and
addressing.
ISO/IEC 8802-2 : 1998, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 2: Logical link control.
ISO/IEC 8802-3 : 1999, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with
collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification.
ISO/IEC 8802-4 : 1990, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 4: Token-passing bus access method and
physical layer specification.
ISO/IEC 8802-5 : 1998, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 5: Token ring access method and physical
layer specification.
ISO/IEC 8802-6 : 1995, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 6: Distributed queue dual bus (DQDB)
access method and physical layer specification
ISO/IEC 8802-9 : 1996, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 9: Integrated services (IS) LAN interface at
the medium access control (MAC) layer and physical (PHY) layer.
ISO/IEC 8802-11 : 1998, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN medium access
control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications.
ISO/IEC 8802-11/AM1 : 2000, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN medium access
control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications : High speed physical layer in the 5 GHz band
ISO/IEC 8802-12 : 1998, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Specific requirements - Part 12: Demand priority access method,
physical layer and repeater specifications.
ISO/IEC 8886 : 1992 | ITU-T Recommendation X.212, Information technology - Telecommunications and
information exchange between systems - Data Link service definition for Open Systems Interconnection.
ISO 9314-1 : 1989, Information processing systems - Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) - Token ring
physical layer protocol (PHY).
ISO 9314-2 : 1989, Information processing systems - Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) - Token ring
medium access control (MAC).
ISO/IEC 9314-3 : 1990, Information processing systems - Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) - Physical layer
medium dependent (PMD).
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ISO/IEC DIS 9314-6 : 1994, Information Processing system - Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) - Station
management (SMT).
ISO/IEC TR 9577 : 1993, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Protocol identification in the network layer.
ISO/IEC 10165-4 : 1992, Information technology - Open systems interconnection - Status of management
information - Part 4 : Guidelines for the definition of management objects.
ISO/IEC 10742 : 1994, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Elements of management information related to OSI Data Link layer standards.
ISO/IEC 11575 : 1994, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between systems
- Provision and support of the OSI Data Link service.
ISO/IEC 11801 : 1995, Information technology - Generic cabling for customer premises.
ISO/IEC TR 11802-1 : 1994, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Technical reports and guidelines - The structure and coding of
logical link control addresses in Local Area Networks.
ISO/IEC TR 11802-2 : 1999, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Technical reports and guidelines - Standard group MAC
addresses.
ISO/IEC TR 11802-5 : 1997, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Technical reports and guidelines - MAC Bridging of Ethernet
V2.0 in Local Area Networks
ISO/IEC 15802-1 : 1995, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area network - Common specifications - Medium access control service
definition.
ISO/IEC 15802-3 : 1998, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area network - Common specifications - MAC Bridging.
ISO/IEC 15802-5 : 1996, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area networks - Common specifications - Remote MAC Bridging.
ISO/IEC 15802-4 : 1994, Information technology - Telecommunications and information exchange between
systems - Local and metropolitan area network - Common specifications - LAN system load protocol.
3. Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this Technical Report.
CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
DLS Data Link Service
DQDB Distributed Queue Dual Bus
DSAP Destination Service Access Point
FDDI Fibre-Distributed Data Interface
LAN Local Area Network
LLC Logical Link Control
MAC Media Access Control
MAN Metropolitan Area Network
MCS Management Conformance Summary
MICS Management Information Conformance Statement
MOCS Managed Object Conformance Statement
MRCS Managed Relationship Conformance Statement
PHY Physical Layer
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PICS Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement
PMD Physical Layer Medium Dependent
SMT Station Management
SNAP Sub-network Access Protocol
SSAP Source Service Access Point
4. ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 LMSC Co-operative Work
4.1 Introduction
The association between ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 has over the years been most successful with the development of
International Standards for local and metropolitan area networks. This technical report provides an overview of this
family of standards together with a full reference list of published International Standards in this area.
However it was recognised that, in its original form, the joint processes of ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 introduced a
number of additional, and at times, difficult hurdles to be overcome in the production joint ISO/IEC and IEEE 802
Standards. This largely arose because the two organisations quite reasonably operated with differing timetables
which inevitably introduced delay into the publication process and whilst technical discussion was complete the
entire process to publication was not finished. This, combined with the undoubted standing of IEEE 802 as the
international body that makes LAN standards, led to the debate within the IEEE 802 as to the value of the
additional processing of their standards through ISO/IEC.
The main value of making use of ISO/IEC in the development cycle is to benefit from the wider audience that
ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Body participation is able to offer to the review process. This ensures that in addition to
the usual rigorous technical appraisal carried out by the IEEE 802, the opportunity exists for account to be taken of
regional and national perspectives which may otherwise be missed. The end result is a specification about which
there is overwhelming, indeed global, consensus. To lose this element of the development process would be
significant and to some extent would diminish the final product.
4.2 The Cooperative Process
IEEE 802 Working Groups (WG) have invited ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies to participate in their activities via
International Observers in their ballot process to review and comment on draft materials. Any such comments will
then be addressed in the normal way as a part of the 802 WG ballot resolution process.
When an IEEE 802 WG draft standard progresses to sponsor ballot, that is when the IEEE 802 WG is content that
the technical work is complete, a liaison will be sent to ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC6 providing necessary status information
and inviting SC6 to respond as a part of their Sponsor ballot process. This provides the opportunity for ISO/IEC
formally to contribute to the work, and the chance to record its involvement in the standardisation process.
Not withstanding issues of IEEE 802 LMSC permission and of copyright, the opportunity, where it is considered
appropriate, to make use of Fast track procedures for IEEE 802 work is available to ISO/IEC JTC 1 National
Bodies. However it is to be hoped that in the majority of cases this technical report will be of sufficient weight to
record the involvement and endorsement of ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies in the standards making process.
Therefore in the general case this technical report will catalogue both those IEEE 802 standards already published
as ISO/IEC International Standards, together with any International Standards approved via the Fast track
procedures of ISO/IEC as well as any IEEE 802 standards endorsed via the mechanism of cooperative working
described here. New editions of this technical report will record successive endorsements by ISO/IEC of IEEE 802
standards published under these cooperative arrangements together with any commentary agreed by ISO/IEC JTC
1 National Bodies.
4.3 Catalogue of Endorsed Standards
Annex B of this technical report lists those standards that have been developed as a part of the cooperative
agreement with the IEEE 802 LMSC together with any agreed commentary. Clause 2 of this technical report
provides a full reference list for this endorsed material.
5. Local Area Network Technologies
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5.1 Introduction
The local area network technologies considered in this Technical Report are shown in Table 1.
Table 1 - Local area network technologies and their related International Standards
LAN Technology Data Transmission Rate International Standard
CSMA/CD 10Mbit/s / 100Mbit/s / 1000Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-3
Token-passing Bus 5Mbit/s / 10Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-4
Token-passing Ring 4Mbit/s / 16Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-5
DQDB no upper limit defined ISO/IEC 8802-6
Integrated Services up to 20.48Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-9
Wireless LAN up to 54Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-11
Demand Priority 100Mbit/s ISO/IEC 8802-12
FDDI 100Mbit/s ISO/IEC 9314 -1 -2 -3 (-6)
These International Standards are organised along the architectural lines of the OSI Basic Reference model, and in
the case of the 8802 LANs into the medium-dependent aspects of the Physical Layer (PHY) and the formats and
protocols used by the particular media access control sublayer (MAC).
Figure 1 shows the relationship and dependencies of the various technologies within this overall architecture. This
family of International Standards deals with the physical and data link layers as defined by the Open Systems
Interconnection Reference Model. It comprises a set of medium access technologies and associated physical media,
each appropriate for particular applications or system objectives.
Figure 1 - Relationship of family of International Standards for Local Area Networks
5.2 The LAN Technologies
LANs cover a wide variety of Physical Layer International Standards, physical media, and methods of media
access control. The following is a brief synopsis for each of the LAN technologies identified in Table 1, however
the reader is referred to the International Standard documents (see Clause 2) for the precise detail for each of the
LAN technologies.
5.2.1 CSMA/CD
This form of LAN technology provides two distinct modes of operation, namely half duplex and full duplex, and a
given instantiation operates in either half or full duplex mode at any one time.
In half duplex mode Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection controls access to the medium by
means by which two or more stations share a common transmission medium. To transmit, a station waits (defers)
for a quiet period on the medium (that is, no other station is transmitting) and then sends the intended message in
bit-serial form. If, after initiating a transmission, the message collides with that of another station, then each
transmitting station intentionally sends a few additional bytes to ensure propagation of the collision throughout the
system. The station then remains silent for a random amount of time (backoff) before attempting to transmit again.
Full duplex operation allows simultaneous communication between a pair of stations using point-to-point media. It
does not require that transmitters defer, nor do they monitor or react to receive activity, as there is no contention for
ISO/IEC 8802-2
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LINK
LAYER
PHYSICAL
LAYER
8
8
0
2
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3
9
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a shared medium in this mode. In this respect, the multiple access (i.e., CSMA/CD) algorithms are unnecessary.
Full duplex mode can only be used when all of the following are true; the physical medium is capable of
supporting simultaneous transmission and reception without interference; there are exactly two stations connected
with a full duplex point-to-point link; and both stations on the LAN are capable of, and have been configured to
use, full duplex operation. The most common configuration envisioned for full duplex operation consists of a
centralised bridge (or switch) [9.1] with a dedicated LAN connecting each bridge port to a single device; such an
architecture being described in ISO/IEC 11801
The CSMA/CD LAN technology is defined for use on 50 ohm coaxial cable (10BASE5 and 10BASE2), on
unshielded twisted pair (10BASE-T), and on fibre optic cable (FOIRL and 10BASE-F).
100BASE-T couples the ISO/IEC 8802-3 CSMA/CD MAC with a family of 100 Mbit/s physical layers. While the
MAC is readily scaled to these performance levels, specific physical layer standards are required for 100 Mbit/s
operation and these include 100BASE-T4, 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX.
1000BASE-T provides the ISO/IEC 8802-3 CSMA/CD MAC with a set of 1000 Mbit/s physical layers. As with
100BASE-T, the MAC is readily scaled to these performance levels, the specific physical layer standards of
1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX are required for 1000 Mbit/s operation.
5.2.2 Token-passing Bus
This form of LAN technology controls access to the medium through the use of a bus transmitted token which
allows the holder to transmit information onto the bus. The token bus LAN technology is defined for use on
broadband coaxial cable, on baseband coaxial cable, and on fibre optic cable.
5.2.3 Token-passing Ring
In a token-passing ring, stations are serially connected to form a logical ring over which data and control
information is transmitted and received.
Access to this ring is controlled by a signalling sequence referred to as the "token" which circulates around the ring
from station to station.
A station desiring to transmit waits until it receives a token. The station changes the token to a start-of-message,
transmits its message and, upon completion of the message, releases a new token for use by other stations on the
ring.
Token ring is defined for operation on shielded and unshielded twisted pair medium at data rates of 4 and 16
Mbits/s. In addition, token ring may operate using fibre optic cable.
5.2.4 Distributed Queue Dual Bus
DQDB is defined to have the capability to work over the local area and to interoperate with the other local area
network technologies. In particular DQDB has the capability to use the 48-bit MAC address format and for that
reason it is included in this Overview.
However, DQDB is more often encountered in the Metropolitan Area and it introduces the concept of the
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) where the development of a high speed technology to support connectionless
data services is required. Because of the differing environments in which the DQDB MAN will be utilised, a
variety of Physical Layer protocols are required. Physical Layer protocols which make use of existing underlying
transmission standards have been defined. However it is intended that all Physical Layer specifications (PHY) will
be based upon a common framework.
5.2.5 Integrated Services LAN Interface
The ISLAN interface is an integrated voice, data and video interface that provides packet service and isochronous
digital channels on a full duplex interface to the desktop over unshielded telephone twisted pairs (UTTP). The
integrated service is provided to the terminal equipment across an interface called an access unit (AU). The AU
accommodates two fundamentally different application topologies; firstly the interface may be to a stand-alone
LAN where the AU provides the complete pathway; and secondly the ISLAN serves as an access interface that
feeds into a backbone comprising an ISO/IEC 8802-x LAN, an FDDI network, or an integrated services digital
network.
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The connection between the AU and the terminal equipment is a set of point-to-point links in a star topology.
Carried over these links is a multiplexed bit stream of packet data, voice, wideband data and other servcies such as
facsimile, image or video delivered over isochronous channels.
This specification is capable of supporting information transfer rates that are multiples of 4.096 Mbit/s in
isochronous frames delivered at 8 kHz with specifications provided for the use of 4.096 Mbit/s and 20.48 Mbit/s
time division multiplexed bearers with 64 and 320 slots each comprising one octet.
5.2.6 Wireless LAN
This form of LAN technology, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance, controls access to the
medium by means by which many stations share a common transmission medium. As in CSMA/CD, a station waits
to transmit (defers) until a quiet period occurs on the medium, i.e., when the station hears no other station
transmitting on the medium. When a quiet period is detected, the station then sends the intended message. As this
technology is used in ISO/IEC 8802-11, the station is not able to detect transmissions of other stations once its own
transmission has begun. In addition, because of the nature of electromagnetic propagation, it may not be possible
for every station to hear the transmissions of every other station. For these reasons, the MAC protocol of ISO/IEC
8802-11 distributes information about the duration of transmissions that allow stations to create a virtual sense of
the activity on the medium and, thus, avoid transmitting when other stations will be using the medium. Should a
station be required to transmit while the medium is determined to be in use, either from a physical or virtual sensing
of that activity, a collision is determined to have occurred, causing the colliding station to delay its transmission for
a random amount of time (backoff). Similarly, if the MAC protocol fails to deliver an acknowledgement for a
transmission, a physical collision is determined to have occurred and the station will attempt it transmission again,
after a random delay.
The CSMA/CA LAN technology is defined for use on wireless media. ISO/IEC 8802-11 couples the CSMA/CA
MAC with three physical layers providing 1 and 2 Mb/s, a baseband infrared physical layer, a frequency hopping
spread spectrum physical layer in the 2.4 GHz band, and a direct sequence spread spectrum physical layer in the
2.4 GHz band. The CSMA/CA MAC is also coupled with a higher speed direct sequence spread spectrum physical
layer in the 2.4 GHz band that provides up to 11 Mb/s and is compatible with the original direct sequence and
frequency hopping physical layers. In the 5 GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) band, the
CSMA/CA MAC is coupled with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) physical layer providing
up to 54 Mb/s.
5.2.7 Demand Priority
A Demand Priority LAN comprises three principal components; the end nodes, the repeaters, and the network
links. End nodes are typically personal or larger computers but may be special devices, for example bridges.
Repeaters are the network controllers which manage the Demand Priority Access Method. The link segments
provide the interconnection between a repeater and its connected end nodes or other repeaters.
Demand priority access is a priority-based, round-robin arbitration method where the central network controller (the
repeater) regularly polls its connected ports to determine which have transmission requests pending, and whether
the transmission request is normal priority (e.g. for data files) or high priority (e.g. for real time voice, video or
data).
The medium access protocol provides a means by which stations (end nodes) can communicate with each other
over a centrally controlled LAN that offers a choice of several different link media including 100 Ohm balanced
cable (4-UTP and 2-TP), 150 Ohm shielded balanced cable (STP), and optical fibre.
5.2.8 Fibre Distributed Data Interface
The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) provides the digital baseband channel for point to point communication
between nodes on the FDDI network. It provides all services necessary to transport a suitably coded digital bit
stream. The specific definition and characterisation may be found in ISO/IEC 9314-3.
The Physical Layer Protocol (PHY) provides the connection between the PMD and the MAC sublayer in the Data
Link Layer. It provides clock synchronisation with the upstream data stream and provides the encoding and
decoding of symbols, and the delineation of symbol boundaries as required for the transmission of information to or
from higher layers. The specific definitions and characterisations may be found in ISO 9314-1.
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5.3 Cabling Aspects
For the implementation of the LAN applications summarised in Table 1, an application independent solution has
been developed in ISO/IEC 11801. This document describes the generic cabling of customer premises, supporting
all major applications. Specific cabling definitions and characterisations may be found in this document. However
for completeness reference should also be made to the appropriate clause of the specific International Standard for
the LAN technology of interest to ensure cabling characteristics meet any particular requirements.
6. Data Link Layer
6.1 Introduction
For the specification of ISO/IEC 8802 Local Area Networks, the separation of the Data Link Layer of the OSI
Basic Reference Model into two sublayers is of benefit. The Data Link Layer is therefore refined to show a
Medium Access Control Sublayer and a Logical Link Control Sublayer.
6.2 Provision and Support of the Data Link Layer Service
ISO/IEC 8886 | ITU-T Recommendation X.212 contains the generic Data Link Service (DLS) definition for OSI
and, as such, the elements of service definition within LLC can be regarded as a subset of this generic service
definition. The OSI DLS definition describes the properties of individual instances of Data Link communication
between pairs of DLS users. It is expressed abstractly in terms of primitives and parameters exchanged, at the
Data Link service access points, between each DLS user and a single DLS provider. In this respect the service
definition contained in LLC is no different.
ISO/IEC 11575 seeks to unify the generic DLS definition with the specific instances of Data Link layer service,
e.g. LLC, and includes mapping the OSI DLS for LLC Types 1 and 2. The fundamental objective is to achieve
such a mapping without requiring any change to the protocols themselves; further it is specifically not the intent to
restrict the development of new protocols. It accepts that the service definitions contained in ISO/IEC 8802-2 for
LLC Types 1 and 2 while performing a similar function to the OSI DLS differ in some points of detail. It attempts
to identify places where there is a possible impact of mapping the DLS to the text of ISO/IEC 8802-2 and to
indicate how the text would need to change if the DLS mapping were to be incorporated into ISO/IEC 8802-2 as a
replacement for the existing LLC service definition.
7. Medium Access Control Sublayer
7.1 Introduction
The development of the concepts associated with the MAC sublayer have been intimately related to the
development of the different LAN technologies. Indeed each LAN Standard describes the MAC Service interface
for its particular requirements. A great deal of commonality exists in these definitions, to the extent that a definition
of a single generic MAC Service description was considered appropriate and has been standardised as ISO/IEC
15802-1. A number of differences are apparent in particular with regard to ISO/IEC 8802-4, the Token-passing bus
specification and these issues are dealt with below.
7.2 Provision and Support of the MAC Service
7.2.1 Connectionless-mode Service
ISO/IEC 15802-1 defines the MAC Service (the connectionless-mode service) found in local area network
architecture. This service is defined in terms of the primitive actions and events of the service together with the
parameters associated with each primitive action and event, their inter-relationship and valid sequences. Its intent is
to specify the characteristics of a conceptual service and to provide guidance for the development of MAC
protocols and OSI protocols that make use of the MAC Service.
The MAC Service provides for the transparent transfer of data between MAC service users and makes invisible the
way in which supporting communications resources are utilised. In particular the MAC Service provides
independence of the underlying MAC and Physical Layer to the MAC Service user and transparency of transferred
information by providing no restriction on the content, format or coding of the information beyond the maximum
number of octets of MAC Service user data that can be supplied in a user/provider interaction.
© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999
9
ISO/IEC 15802-1 introduces and discusses the quality of this service and classifies the parameters in terms of
MAC Service performance and other MAC service characteristics. Within each class examples of the quality of
service parameters are given and defined. These include,
- transit delay;
- residual error rate;
- probability of lost information;
- priority.
The subject of the quality of the MAC Service is more fully discussed in ISO/IEC 15802-3 and includes those
parameters listed above together with the following additional parameters,
- service availability;
- frame mis-ordering;
- frame duplication;
- frame lifetime;
- maximum service data unit size supported;
- throughput.
Taken together this provides an exhaustive examination of the parameters of quality of the MAC Service within the
context of quality of service maintenance.
7.2.2 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Service
ISO/IEC 8802-4, the Token-passing Bus protocol provides an acknowledged connectionless service to its user
making use of primitive actions and events which do not exist within ISO/IEC 15802-1. In particular it describes
primitive actions that support the local acknowledgement of requests passed across the service boundary. No
distinct MAC service definition currently exists to describe the acknowledged connectionless MAC Service - the
definition is integral with the protocol specification in ISO/IEC 8802-4.
7.3 48-Bit MAC Address Format
The network technologies described in this Technical Report all make use of the 48-bit MAC address format. Such
addresses are universally applicable and provide unique identification. The registration authority for the Universally
administered address is the American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee, IEEE
Standards Board.
The precise detail of address format and usage together with the definition of their representation in hexadecimal is
described within ISO/IEC 15802-1. The Hexadecimal Representation of the 48-bit MAC address is used at the
MAC service boundary to de-couple the specific requirements of the various MAC technologies.
The 48 bits are divided into two parts; the first 24 bits correspond to the Organisationally Unique Identifier as
assigned by the IEEE Standards Board
1
, excepting that the assignee may choose between group addressing or
individual addressing by modification of the Individual/Group Address bit. The second 24 bits of the address is
administered locally by the assignee to provide uniqueness.
The address format additionally allows for local administration of addresses by modification of the
Universally/Locally Administered Address bit.
7.4 Standard Group MAC Addresses
Group MAC addresses which form a part of the operation of a published International Standard protocol exist (e.g.
ISO/IEC 15802-3 spanning tree bridge protocol data units; ISO/IEC 10589 All Level 1 Intermediate Systems
Address). It was realised that there would be benefit if such group addresses were allocated from an approved,
assigned group MAC address block. ISO/IEC TR 11802-2 provides a record of the approved assignments from
this Standard group MAC address block and a record of group MAC addresses in use in International Standards
which are not part of the Standard group MAC address block.

1
IEEE Registration Authority, Standards Department, 445 Hoes Lane,
P.O.Box 1331, Piscataway NJ 08855-1331, USA
ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ©
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10
NOTE - Group MAC addresses for vendor specific proprietary protocols are not covered by this Technical Report;
such addresses should be assigned out of the vendor's universally administered address block.
8. Logical Link Control Sublayer
8.1 Provision and Support of the LLC Services
ISO/IEC 8802-2 (LLC) contains both the service description and the elements of protocol which realise the
functions, features, protocol and services of the Logical Link Control sublayer. This sublayer definition exists
between the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer and the Network layer. The service definition is provided in
terms of primitives that represent the logical exchange of information and control, in an abstract manner. It provides
a description of the peer-to-peer protocol procedures that are defined for the transfer of information and control
between any pair of data link layer service access points. These procedures are independent of the particular MAC
technology of the LAN as they themselves make use of the underlying generic MAC Service.
LLC Types 1 and 2 provide services which map well to the generic OSI Data Link Service (ISO/IEC 8886). LLC
Type 3 is able to make use of local acknowledgement and this service definition is currently absent from the OSI
Data Link Service described above.
In their turn the protocol data units exchanged by LLC make use of the MAC sublayer service. LLC Types 1 and 2
map directly to the connectionless-mode MAC Service defined in ISO/IEC 15802-1. LLC Type 3 is able to make
use of local acknowledgement, a service currently not described in ISO/IEC 15802-1 but described by the service
primitives in ISO/IEC 8802-4, the Token-passing bus.
8.1.1 LLC Type 1 Connectionless-mode Operation
LLC Type 1 provides a data link connectionless-mode service with the minimum of protocol complexity, so that
any required recovery mechanism or sequencing services must be provided elsewhere in the higher layer protocols.
With this type of service there can be no guarantee of delivery of each transmitted data link layer frame. This style
of operation exists without the need to establish a data link connection and there are no acknowledgement
mechanisms, flow control or error recovery procedures provided by this service.
8.1.2 LLC Type 2 Connection-mode Operation
LLC Type 2 provides a data link connection-mode service across a LAN and is comparable to existing non-LAN
data link control procedures (e.g. ISO/IEC 7776, LAPB). The service includes support of sequenced delivery
together with a comprehensive set of data link layer error recovery techniques. With this operation, a data link
connection is established prior to the exchange of information. Whilst information is being exchanged in both
directions, frames acknowledging receipt are passed in the opposite direction.
8.1.3 LLC Type 3 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Operation
LLC Type 3 provides acknowledgement of transmitted information while retaining the simplicity of protocol of
LLC Type 1. The acknowledgement scheme allows only the acknowledgement of a single frame at a time;
mechanisms for ensuring sequencing are minimal, and a basic mechanism for re-transmission is provided.
Additionally Type 3 operations allow one end system to poll another for data.
8.2 Logical Link Control Addresses
LLC protocol data units contain addressing information which comprise the Destination Service Access Point
(DSAP) and the Source Service Access Point (SSAP). Each of these fields is further sub-divided; the DSAP into
the address type designation bit and the actual address and the SSAP into the command/response identifier bit and
the actual address . In the general case, an individual actual address identifies a protocol or set of protocols
operating above the LLC sublayer.
The addressing terminology and conventions of LLC are introduced and defined in ISO/IEC 8802-2. ISO/IEC TR
11802-1 deals comprehensively with the subject and includes a tabulation of current LLC address assignments for
both individual and group address values. Private and proprietary protocols do not qualify for inclusion within
© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999
11
ISO/IEC TR 11802-1 but, within the LAN environment, the use of SNAP encoding is recognised and it is
described within an Annex to that Technical Report.
In the case of the Network Layer protocols operating in the environment above the LLC sublayer, complete
protocol identification may require the application of ISO/IEC TR 9577 which comprehensively deals with the
subject of protocol identification in the Network Layer.
9. Internetworking
9.1 Transparent Bridging
ISO/IEC 15802-3 describes and defines the mechanisms whereby 8802 LANs of all type may be connected
together with MAC bridges. Each LAN has its own independent MAC, however the use of bridges allows the
interconnection of end systems attached to separate LANs, that is to say access domains, as if they were attached to
a single LAN.
Where a MAC bridge interconnects considerably more than two access domains, it is usually referred to as a
switch. Some switches are used to interconnect access domains each containing a very small number of end
systems (often, a single end system). Others interconnect multiple access domains containing principally other
bridges, thus forming a backbone for the bridged LAN. Bridged LAN configurations involving these kinds of
interconnection have now become widespread allowing the construction of networks with much larger numbers of
end systems and much higher aggregate throughput than was previously achievable.
A bridge operates below the MAC Service boundary and is transparent to protocols operating above this boundary.
A bridge is not directly addressed by communicating end systems, except by an end system for the purposes of
management. Within the LAN environment frames transmitted between end systems carry the MAC address of the
peer-end system in their Destination address field, not the MAC address of the bridge.
The operation of a bridge is dependent upon the existence and operation of an internal sublayer service provided by
each MAC entity to the central MAC relay entity within the bridge. The bridge will observe the appropriate MAC
procedures and protocol for each LAN to which it is connected. A mapping of the internal sublayer service to the
specific MAC procedures of each of the 8802 MAC types and the FDDI MAC type is defined.
A bridge has three principle elements of operation; the ability to relay and filter frames, the maintenance of
information required to make frame filtering and relaying decisions and the provision of management of the above.
In addition the provision of expedited traffic capabilities, to support the transmission of time-critical information in a LAN
environment; and the provision of filtering services that support the dynamic definition and establishment of Groups in a LAN
environment, and the filtering of frames by bridges such that frames addressed to a given Group are forwarded only on those LAN
segments that are required in order to reach the members of that Group, are both supported.
ISO/IEC TR 11802-5 describes the problems of interoperability between end systems that exist in mixed
environments that include Ethernet V2.0 in addition to ISO/IEC 8802-3 conformant end systems and any other
OSI-based LAN technology, and in addition provides the accepted solution.
ISO/IEC 15802-5 describes the operation of the Remote MAC bridge. The Remote MAC bridge is defined to
interconnect a locally bridged local area network and the non-LAN communications equipment of one or more
remotely bridged local area networks. In addition it provides MAC sublayer interworking between end stations
attached to any of the LANs within this configuration.
9.2 Source Routing
A source routing bridge will build routes for end system communication and then route frames accordingly. The
acquisition and discovery of routes involve communication processes in end systems and this marks the major
distinction between transparent bridging and source routing. Source routing brings the benefit of a richer and more
arbitrary active network topology when compared against the spanning tree of transparent bridging, with its single
active route between any pair of LANs.
9.3 Source Routing Transparent Architecture
The source routing transparent bridge (SRT) architecture has been developed (ISO/IEC 15802-3 and ISO/IEC
8802-2) to connect multiple network segments into a single bridged network. SRT bridging allows a source to
specify the path (the bridged route) that a frame will take through the bridged network. Additionally this
ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ©
ISO/IEC
12
architecture allows end systems that need and use source routing, and those that do not, to coexist, interoperate and
communicate on the bridged LAN.
A source-routing-transparent bridge is a MAC bridge which performs source routing when provided with routing
information in the received frame and performs transparent bridging when no routing information is available in the
frame.
10. System Load Protocol
ISO/IEC 15802-4 describes the services and procedures necessary remotely to load equipment within the LAN
environment where that equipment is minimally configured. These procedures make use of LLC Type 1 operations
and are therefore of use under particular circumstances where a fully configured management is not available. The
scope of application of this load protocol is therefore limited both to the particular environment where LLC Type 1
operations are available and to the particular conditions where minimal procedures are appropriate.
11. The Use of PICS Proforma
A Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement Proforma is a statement of which capabilities and options of a
particular protocol have been implemented. As such PICS can have a number of uses,
- by the implementor as a check-list to reduce the risk of non-conformance of the particular
implementation;
- as a detailed indication of the capabilities of the implementation;
- as the basis for initially checking the possibility of interworking with another implementation.
PICS are produced for those International Standards which define protocol and therefore form an essential part of
the majority of those International Standards which are the subject of this Technical Report.
12. Management
ISO/IEC 10742 describes the elements of management information related to the OSI Data Link layer. Specifically
it defines the managed object class definitions of the Data Link layer managed objects; the relationship of the
managed objects and attributes to both the operation of the layer and to other objects and attributes of the layer; and
the action type operations on the attributes that are available. This work is based upon and follows the guidelines
from ISO/IEC 10165, The Structure of Management Information.
Layer specific managed object definitions are to be found as Amendments to the base International Standards that
relate to local area networks that are discussed in this Technical Report.
Implementation Conformance Statements comprise four distinct entities, the management conformance summary
(MCS), the management information conformance summary (MICS), the managed object conformance statement
(MOCS), and the managed relationship conformance statement (MRCS).
These Statements provide the mechanism whereby a supplier of an implementation which claims conformance to
provide information in a standard form for, respectively, any of the listed set of documents that specify
conformance requirements to OSI management (MCS); the manager role in management information (MICS); to
any managed object class (MOCS); and to any name binding (MRCS)
© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999
13
Annex A. The Numbering Scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards
The numbering scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards was designed to provide a framework which was
simple, unambiguous, extensible, easy to correlate to equivalent IEEE 802 Standards numbers, and which provided
a LAN/MAN International Standards family resemblance.
Based on this requirement the following the numbering scheme was developed,
- 8802-x: Specific requirements;
- 11802-x: Technical reports and guidelines;
- 15802-x: Common specifications;
- 16802-x: (reserved);
- 18802-x: Conformance test specifications.
ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ©
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14
Annex B. The Catalogue of Endorsed IEEE 802 Standards
To date no standards have been progressed via the cooperative agreement between ISO/IEC and the IEEE 802
LMSC.

ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC

©

ii

.....................1 Provision and Support of the LLC Services .......... 7 5.................2.....................3 48-Bit MAC Address Format 7............... 10 8....... 8 7................................................................... 9 ..............................2................ 11 i .................. 10 8....1........ Abbreviations .................................. 8 7........................................ 2 ...© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 Contents 1...................... 9 7..... 5 ............... 10 ......7 Demand Priority ....................................... Medium Access Control Sublayer 7.1 Introduction .................... 8 ............................................ 11 .........................2....... 10 8...................................1 LLC Type 1 Connectionless-mode Operation .......3 Token-passing Ring 5.......................... 4 ................... Scope 2.1 Introduction 4.....3 Source Routing Transparent Architecture...... 6 5........2 Token-passing Bus 5..... 5 ........1 Connectionless-mode Service ............................................................. Logical Link Control Sublayer ................................... 3 Page 4......3 LLC Type 3 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Operation....................................2 The Cooperative Process 4.. Data Link Layer 6.................. 4 4.......4 Standard Group MAC Addresses 8.............. 4 .......................... 8 6.. 11 ..........................................4 Distributed Queue Dual Bus ................ 8 ....................... 11 9..............2 Provision and Support of the MAC Service ...2............ 6 ................................2 LLC Type 2 Connection-mode Operation............2 Logical Link Control Addresses 9.......... 6 5...............................................1 CSMA/CD 5.................................................. 5 .3 Catalogue of Endorsed Standards 5... ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 LMSC Co-operative Work ......... 7 ..........2 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Service .... 10 8.. 6 ...............2........ 1 .2.................................5 Integrated Services LAN Interface .........................................................2 Source Routing ................................2......................1.......... 4 .........1 Transparent Bridging 9.....1 Introduction 5.........2............................ 8 .............6 Wireless LAN 5.............. Internetworking 9..................2.................1 Introduction .................................................... 8 7......................... 10 8..... 8 7......2 The LAN Technologies 5..........3 Cabling Aspects 6.............8 Fibre Distributed Data Interface .. Local Area Network Technologies 5...................... 4 ...... 7 5....................................1................ 9 ...2.......................... References 3.2 Provision and Support of the Data Link Layer Service ...............................

.. 12 ..................................15 ii ... 12 Annex A........ System Load Protocol 11.....................................ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC 10. The Catalogue of Endorsed IEEE 802 Standards…………………... The Numbering Scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards 14 Annex B.................. Management © ........ 12 ............... The Use of PICS Proforma 12.............

ISO/IEC TR 8802-1. Technical reports of type 3 do not necessarily have to be reviewed until data they provide are considered to be no longer valid or useful.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 Foreword ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Committee) together form a system for worldwide standardization as a whole. Technical reports of types 1 and 2 are subject to review within three years of publication. which is a technical report of type 3. ISO and IEC technical committees collaborate in fields of mutual interest.type 1. for example).type 3. Information technology. ISO and IEC have established a joint technical committee. in liaison with ISO and IEC. ISO/IEC JTC1.type 2. The main task of a technical committee is to prepare International Standards but in exceptional circumstances. when a technical committee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard (“state of the art”. to decide whether they can be transformed into International Standards. National bodies that are members of ISO or IEC participate in the development of International Standards through technical committees established by the respective organizations to deal with particular fields of technical activity. also take part in the work. despite repeated efforts. was prepared by ISO/IEC JTC 1. In the field of information technology. when the subject is still under technical development requiring wider exposure. . governmental and non-governmental. iii . Other international organizations. . the publication of a technical report of one of the following types may be proposed: . when the necessary support within the technical committee cannot be obtained for the publication of an International Standard.

and the second. To that end cooperative working practices have been established such that. The first provides the means whereby ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies are able to contribute to the technical work of the IEEE 802 standards developments. and the IEEE 802 LMSC to foster closer collaboration in the standards making process. A LAN is in general owned. It is this latter element of procedure which provides input into the revision of this technical report providing the record of ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Body participation in the standards making process. used. There are two distinct elements to the cooperative working practice. via the IEEE Sponsor ballot process. and operated by a single organisation and falls within a single administrative domain. iv . and in addition is the location where ISO/IEC involvement in IEEE 802 standards development is recorded and any endorsements to particular IEEE 802 standards is noted. both parties are able to contribute their particular and unique strengths to the standards making process without introducing time delays into the other's procedures.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © Introduction This technical report introduces the set of International Standards produced to facilitate the interconnection of information processing systems connected to a Local Area Network (LAN). each has output for which they are responsible which records their involvement in that process. provides the more formal mechanism whereby ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies can review IEEE 802 work which is nearing completion of the standards process. In November 1999 a Category C liaison was established between ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC6 WG1 and WG3. This technical report therefore provides a source of reference to all International Standards that relate to local area networks. specifically the ISO/IEC 8802 technologies and FDDI. The LAN is a peer-to-peer communications network provided by a single broadcast domain that enables all end stations to exchange information. and. As a consequence it does not inherently provide privacy.

© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 v .

.

1 . specifically those which make use of the 48-bit MAC address format.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 Information technology . Additionally this technical report provides the record of cooperative work between ISO/IEC and the IEEE 802 LMSC as a part of the Category C liaison established in November 1999 either through the usual Fast Track procedures or via the cooperative working procedures described in this technical report. The scope of this Technical Report is therefore limited to those International Standards which describe processes and procedures resident in the Data Link and Physical Layers of the OSI Basic Reference Model and can be said to relate to local area networks.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Local and metropolitan area networks Technical Reports and Guidelines Part 1: Overview of Local Area Network Standards 1. Its intent is to set the context for local area networks which include both the International Standards describing FDDI and the technologies described by the set of ISO/IEC 8802 International Standards. This technical report does not itself describe new Service or Protocol definitions. Scope This technical report provides an introduction to the set of International Standards which describe local area networks. The MAC technologies described in this technical report have in common the ability to provide sufficient capability to support the MAC Service which is defined in ISO/IEC 15802-1.

ISO/IEC 8802-11 : 1998.Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Open Systems Interconnection .Part 5: Token ring access method and physical layer specification. Information technology . Information technology . Information technology . 2 . ISO/IEC 8802-11/AM1 : 2000.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © 2.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information processing systems .Specific requirements . Members of ISO and IEC maintain registers of currently valid International Standards. through reference in this text.Open Systems Interconnection . Information technology .Local and metropolitan area networks .Physical layer medium dependent (PMD).Part 9: Integrated services (IS) LAN interface at the medium access control (MAC) layer and physical (PHY) layer. ISO 9314-1 : 1989.Specific requirements .Local and metropolitan area networks . Information technology .Local and metropolitan area networks .Local and metropolitan area networks . constitute provisions of this Technical Report.Part 11: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications : High speed physical layer in the 5 GHz band ISO/IEC 8802-12 : 1998.Token ring medium access control (MAC).Specific requirements .Local and metropolitan area networks . ISO 7498-3 : 1989.Part 4: Token-passing bus access method and physical layer specification.Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) . ISO/IEC 8886 : 1992 | ITU-T Recommendation X.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . ISO/IEC 8802-6 : 1995.Basic Reference Model.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . References The following standards contain provisions which. Information processing systems .Part 12: Demand priority access method.Specific requirements . physical layer and repeater specifications.Specific requirements .Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) .Token ring physical layer protocol (PHY). Information processing systems . Information processing systems . At the time of publication.212. Information technology .Specific requirements . A revised numbering scheme was introduced from 1993 to provide alignment with the numbering scheme used by the IEEE for their LAN/MAN Standards and the basis for this numbering scheme is shown in Annex A. the editions indicated were valid.Local and metropolitan area networks . Information technology . ISO/IEC 9314-3 : 1990.Part 3: Naming and addressing.Specific requirements .Local and metropolitan area networks . and parties to agreements based on this Technical Report are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below. ISO 7498 : 1984. ISO/IEC 8802-5 : 1998.Part 6: Distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) access method and physical layer specification ISO/IEC 8802-9 : 1996.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Specific requirements .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information technology .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . All standards are subject to revision.Part 11: Wireless LAN medium access control (MAC) and physical layer (PHY) specifications.Local and metropolitan area networks .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Data Link service definition for Open Systems Interconnection.Local and metropolitan area networks . Information processing systems . Information technology .Part 2: Logical link control. ISO/IEC 8802-4 : 1990. ISO/IEC 8802-3 : 1999.Specific requirements .Part 3: Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) access method and physical layer specification. ISO/IEC 8802-2 : 1998.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information technology . ISO 9314-2 : 1989.

CSMA/CD DLS DQDB DSAP FDDI LAN LLC MAC MAN MCS MICS MOCS MRCS PHY Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection Data Link Service Distributed Queue Dual Bus Destination Service Access Point Fibre-Distributed Data Interface Local Area Network Logical Link Control Media Access Control Metropolitan Area Network Management Conformance Summary Management Information Conformance Statement Managed Object Conformance Statement Managed Relationship Conformance Statement Physical Layer 3 .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Local and metropolitan area network .Local and metropolitan area network .MAC Bridging. ISO/IEC 15802-5 : 1996.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . ISO/IEC TR 11802-5 : 1997.Status of management information .Part 4 : Guidelines for the definition of management objects.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Technical reports and guidelines . ISO/IEC 11575 : 1994.Protocol identification in the network layer.Provision and support of the OSI Data Link service. ISO/IEC 10742 : 1994.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information technology . 3.MAC Bridging of Ethernet V2.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 ISO/IEC DIS 9314-6 : 1994. ISO/IEC 11801 : 1995.Common specifications .Elements of management information related to OSI Data Link layer standards.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Technical reports and guidelines .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Open systems interconnection . Information technology .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information technology .Remote MAC Bridging. ISO/IEC 15802-3 : 1998. Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this Technical Report. ISO/IEC TR 11802-2 : 1999. Information technology . Information technology . Information technology .Station management (SMT). ISO/IEC 15802-4 : 1994.Medium access control service definition.Telecommunications and information exchange between systems . Information technology .Common specifications .0 in Local Area Networks ISO/IEC 15802-1 : 1995. ISO/IEC TR 11802-1 : 1994.Fibre-Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) .The structure and coding of logical link control addresses in Local Area Networks.Standard group MAC addresses.Technical reports and guidelines . Information Processing system . ISO/IEC 10165-4 : 1992. Information technology . Information technology . Information technology . ISO/IEC TR 9577 : 1993.Local and metropolitan area networks .Common specifications .Local and metropolitan area networks .Telecommunications and information exchange between systems .Local and metropolitan area network .LAN system load protocol. Information technology .Local and metropolitan area networks . Information technology .Local and metropolitan area networks .Generic cabling for customer premises.Common specifications .

indeed global. together with any International Standards approved via the Fast track procedures of ISO/IEC as well as any IEEE 802 standards endorsed via the mechanism of cooperative working described here. This provides the opportunity for ISO/IEC formally to contribute to the work. 4. 4. This largely arose because the two organisations quite reasonably operated with differing timetables which inevitably introduced delay into the publication process and whilst technical discussion was complete the entire process to publication was not finished. To lose this element of the development process would be significant and to some extent would diminish the final product. and at times. Clause 2 of this technical report provides a full reference list for this endorsed material. the opportunity exists for account to be taken of regional and national perspectives which may otherwise be missed.2 The Cooperative Process IEEE 802 Working Groups (WG) have invited ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies to participate in their activities via International Observers in their ballot process to review and comment on draft materials. where it is considered appropriate.1 Introduction The association between ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 has over the years been most successful with the development of International Standards for local and metropolitan area networks. This technical report provides an overview of this family of standards together with a full reference list of published International Standards in this area. difficult hurdles to be overcome in the production joint ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 Standards. Not withstanding issues of IEEE 802 LMSC permission and of copyright.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC PICS PMD SMT SNAP SSAP Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement Physical Layer Medium Dependent Station Management Sub-network Access Protocol Source Service Access Point © 4. When an IEEE 802 WG draft standard progresses to sponsor ballot. consensus. the joint processes of ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 introduced a number of additional.3 Catalogue of Endorsed Standards Annex B of this technical report lists those standards that have been developed as a part of the cooperative agreement with the IEEE 802 LMSC together with any agreed commentary. However it was recognised that. and the chance to record its involvement in the standardisation process. ISO/IEC and IEEE 802 LMSC Co-operative Work 4. However it is to be hoped that in the majority of cases this technical report will be of sufficient weight to record the involvement and endorsement of ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies in the standards making process. to make use of Fast track procedures for IEEE 802 work is available to ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies. led to the debate within the IEEE 802 as to the value of the additional processing of their standards through ISO/IEC. Local Area Network Technologies 4 . New editions of this technical report will record successive endorsements by ISO/IEC of IEEE 802 standards published under these cooperative arrangements together with any commentary agreed by ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Bodies. that is when the IEEE 802 WG is content that the technical work is complete. in its original form. This ensures that in addition to the usual rigorous technical appraisal carried out by the IEEE 802. The end result is a specification about which there is overwhelming. Any such comments will then be addressed in the normal way as a part of the 802 WG ballot resolution process. combined with the undoubted standing of IEEE 802 as the international body that makes LAN standards. 5. a liaison will be sent to ISO/IEC JTC 1 SC6 providing necessary status information and inviting SC6 to respond as a part of their Sponsor ballot process. The main value of making use of ISO/IEC in the development cycle is to benefit from the wider audience that ISO/IEC JTC 1 National Body participation is able to offer to the review process. the opportunity. Therefore in the general case this technical report will catalogue both those IEEE 802 standards already published as ISO/IEC International Standards. This.

after initiating a transmission. It does not require that transmitters defer. physical media. To transmit.Relationship of family of International Standards for Local Area Networks 5. This family of International Standards deals with the physical and data link layers as defined by the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model. The following is a brief synopsis for each of the LAN technologies identified in Table 1. a station waits (defers) for a quiet period on the medium (that is.2 The LAN Technologies LANs cover a wide variety of Physical Layer International Standards. then each transmitting station intentionally sends a few additional bytes to ensure propagation of the collision throughout the system. each appropriate for particular applications or system objectives. no other station is transmitting) and then sends the intended message in bit-serial form. The station then remains silent for a random amount of time (backoff) before attempting to transmit again. In half duplex mode Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection controls access to the medium by means by which two or more stations share a common transmission medium.48Mbit/s up to 54Mbit/s 100Mbit/s 100Mbit/s International Standard ISO/IEC 8802-3 ISO/IEC 8802-4 ISO/IEC 8802-5 ISO/IEC 8802-6 ISO/IEC 8802-9 ISO/IEC 8802-11 ISO/IEC 8802-12 ISO/IEC 9314 -1 -2 -3 (-6) These International Standards are organised along the architectural lines of the OSI Basic Reference model. If.2. Figure 1 shows the relationship and dependencies of the various technologies within this overall architecture. and in the case of the 8802 LANs into the medium-dependent aspects of the Physical Layer (PHY) and the formats and protocols used by the particular media access control sublayer (MAC). Full duplex operation allows simultaneous communication between a pair of stations using point-to-point media. as there is no contention for 5 .1 Introduction The local area network technologies considered in this Technical Report are shown in Table 1.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 5.1 CSMA/CD This form of LAN technology provides two distinct modes of operation. the message collides with that of another station. 5. Table 1 . namely half duplex and full duplex.Local area network technologies and their related International Standards LAN Technology CSMA/CD Token-passing Bus Token-passing Ring DQDB Integrated Services Wireless LAN Demand Priority FDDI Data Transmission Rate 10Mbit/s / 100Mbit/s / 1000Mbit/s 5Mbit/s / 10Mbit/s 4Mbit/s / 16Mbit/s no upper limit defined up to 20. however the reader is referred to the International Standard documents (see Clause 2) for the precise detail for each of the LAN technologies. nor do they monitor or react to receive activity. and methods of media access control. ISO/IEC 8802-2 DATA LINK LAYER 8802-11 8802-12 8802-3 8802-4 8802-5 8802-6 8802-9 9314 PHYSICAL LAYER Figure 1 . It comprises a set of medium access technologies and associated physical media. and a given instantiation operates in either half or full duplex mode at any one time.

specific physical layer standards are required for 100 Mbit/s operation and these include 100BASE-T4. full duplex operation. As with 100BASE-T. and secondly the ISLAN serves as an access interface that feeds into a backbone comprising an ISO/IEC 8802-x LAN. The AU accommodates two fundamentally different application topologies. the multiple access (i.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © a shared medium in this mode. While the MAC is readily scaled to these performance levels. there are exactly two stations connected with a full duplex point-to-point link. The token bus LAN technology is defined for use on broadband coaxial cable.2. the specific physical layer standards of 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX are required for 1000 Mbit/s operation. the physical medium is capable of supporting simultaneous transmission and reception without interference. Token ring is defined for operation on shielded and unshielded twisted pair medium at data rates of 4 and 16 Mbits/s. on baseband coaxial cable. In this respect. upon completion of the message. However. Access to this ring is controlled by a signalling sequence referred to as the "token" which circulates around the ring from station to station. token ring may operate using fibre optic cable.5 Integrated Services LAN Interface The ISLAN interface is an integrated voice.2 Token-passing Bus This form of LAN technology controls access to the medium through the use of a bus transmitted token which allows the holder to transmit information onto the bus. an FDDI network. The integrated service is provided to the terminal equipment across an interface called an access unit (AU). 1000BASE-T provides the ISO/IEC 8802-3 CSMA/CD MAC with a set of 1000 Mbit/s physical layers. a variety of Physical Layer protocols are required. and on fibre optic cable.2. Physical Layer protocols which make use of existing underlying transmission standards have been defined. 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX. A station desiring to transmit waits until it receives a token. However it is intended that all Physical Layer specifications (PHY) will be based upon a common framework. and have been configured to use. data and video interface that provides packet service and isochronous digital channels on a full duplex interface to the desktop over unshielded telephone twisted pairs (UTTP).3 Token-passing Ring In a token-passing ring. In particular DQDB has the capability to use the 48-bit MAC address format and for that reason it is included in this Overview. 5. The most common configuration envisioned for full duplex operation consists of a centralised bridge (or switch) [9. 100BASE-T couples the ISO/IEC 8802-3 CSMA/CD MAC with a family of 100 Mbit/s physical layers.2. and both stations on the LAN are capable of. In addition. 5. firstly the interface may be to a stand-alone LAN where the AU provides the complete pathway. or an integrated services digital network.4 Distributed Queue Dual Bus DQDB is defined to have the capability to work over the local area and to interoperate with the other local area network technologies. Full duplex mode can only be used when all of the following are true. CSMA/CD) algorithms are unnecessary. on unshielded twisted pair (10BASE-T). transmits its message and. such an architecture being described in ISO/IEC 11801 The CSMA/CD LAN technology is defined for use on 50 ohm coaxial cable (10BASE5 and 10BASE2). stations are serially connected to form a logical ring over which data and control information is transmitted and received.e.. DQDB is more often encountered in the Metropolitan Area and it introduces the concept of the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) where the development of a high speed technology to support connectionless data services is required. The station changes the token to a start-of-message. Because of the differing environments in which the DQDB MAN will be utilised. 6 . 5.2. the MAC is readily scaled to these performance levels. releases a new token for use by other stations on the ring. 5. and on fibre optic cable (FOIRL and 10BASE-F).1] with a dedicated LAN connecting each bridge port to a single device.

the CSMA/CA MAC is coupled with an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) physical layer providing up to 54 Mb/s. a physical collision is determined to have occurred and the station will attempt it transmission again.g.g.6 Wireless LAN This form of LAN technology.48 Mbit/s time division multiplexed bearers with 64 and 320 slots each comprising one octet. For these reasons.4 GHz band. avoid transmitting when other stations will be using the medium. wideband data and other servcies such as facsimile. a baseband infrared physical layer. It provides all services necessary to transport a suitably coded digital bit stream. It provides clock synchronisation with the upstream data stream and provides the encoding and decoding of symbols.2. video or data). Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance. the MAC protocol of ISO/IEC 8802-11 distributes information about the duration of transmissions that allow stations to create a virtual sense of the activity on the medium and. When a quiet period is detected. The medium access protocol provides a means by which stations (end nodes) can communicate with each other over a centrally controlled LAN that offers a choice of several different link media including 100 Ohm balanced cable (4-UTP and 2-TP). it may not be possible for every station to hear the transmissions of every other station. In addition. for data files) or high priority (e. for real time voice. controls access to the medium by means by which many stations share a common transmission medium. the station is not able to detect transmissions of other stations once its own transmission has begun.4 GHz band. End nodes are typically personal or larger computers but may be special devices. Demand priority access is a priority-based. for example bridges.2.7 Demand Priority A Demand Priority LAN comprises three principal components. and optical fibre. The specific definitions and characterisations may be found in ISO 9314-1. the repeaters. Should a station be required to transmit while the medium is determined to be in use. As this technology is used in ISO/IEC 8802-11. after a random delay. The link segments provide the interconnection between a repeater and its connected end nodes or other repeaters.e. thus. and the delineation of symbol boundaries as required for the transmission of information to or from higher layers. Carried over these links is a multiplexed bit stream of packet data.2. and the network links. 5. a collision is determined to have occurred. The specific definition and characterisation may be found in ISO/IEC 9314-3.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 The connection between the AU and the terminal equipment is a set of point-to-point links in a star topology.096 Mbit/s and 20. Similarly. In the 5 GHz Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure (UNII) band.. causing the colliding station to delay its transmission for a random amount of time (backoff). ISO/IEC 8802-11 couples the CSMA/CA MAC with three physical layers providing 1 and 2 Mb/s. if the MAC protocol fails to deliver an acknowledgement for a transmission. a frequency hopping spread spectrum physical layer in the 2. Repeaters are the network controllers which manage the Demand Priority Access Method. and a direct sequence spread spectrum physical layer in the 2. and whether the transmission request is normal priority (e. because of the nature of electromagnetic propagation. The Physical Layer Protocol (PHY) provides the connection between the PMD and the MAC sublayer in the Data Link Layer. 5. image or video delivered over isochronous channels. 7 . a station waits to transmit (defers) until a quiet period occurs on the medium. voice. round-robin arbitration method where the central network controller (the repeater) regularly polls its connected ports to determine which have transmission requests pending. The CSMA/CA LAN technology is defined for use on wireless media. the station then sends the intended message. when the station hears no other station transmitting on the medium. The CSMA/CA MAC is also coupled with a higher speed direct sequence spread spectrum physical layer in the 2.8 Fibre Distributed Data Interface The Physical Medium Dependent (PMD) provides the digital baseband channel for point to point communication between nodes on the FDDI network. This specification is capable of supporting information transfer rates that are multiples of 4. either from a physical or virtual sensing of that activity. 150 Ohm shielded balanced cable (STP). the end nodes.4 GHz band that provides up to 11 Mb/s and is compatible with the original direct sequence and frequency hopping physical layers.096 Mbit/s in isochronous frames delivered at 8 kHz with specifications provided for the use of 4. As in CSMA/CD. i. 5.

Medium Access Control Sublayer 7.1 Introduction The development of the concepts associated with the MAC sublayer have been intimately related to the development of the different LAN technologies.212 contains the generic Data Link Service (DLS) definition for OSI and.3 Cabling Aspects © For the implementation of the LAN applications summarised in Table 1. to the extent that a definition of a single generic MAC Service description was considered appropriate and has been standardised as ISO/IEC 15802-1. 6. However for completeness reference should also be made to the appropriate clause of the specific International Standard for the LAN technology of interest to ensure cabling characteristics meet any particular requirements. an application independent solution has been developed in ISO/IEC 11801.2. It is expressed abstractly in terms of primitives and parameters exchanged. and includes mapping the OSI DLS for LLC Types 1 and 2. It attempts to identify places where there is a possible impact of mapping the DLS to the text of ISO/IEC 8802-2 and to indicate how the text would need to change if the DLS mapping were to be incorporated into ISO/IEC 8802-2 as a replacement for the existing LLC service definition.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC 5. A number of differences are apparent in particular with regard to ISO/IEC 8802-4. 8 . format or coding of the information beyond the maximum number of octets of MAC Service user data that can be supplied in a user/provider interaction. The fundamental objective is to achieve such a mapping without requiring any change to the protocols themselves.2 Provision and Support of the MAC Service 7. their inter-relationship and valid sequences. the elements of service definition within LLC can be regarded as a subset of this generic service definition. This service is defined in terms of the primitive actions and events of the service together with the parameters associated with each primitive action and event. The Data Link Layer is therefore refined to show a Medium Access Control Sublayer and a Logical Link Control Sublayer. e. the separation of the Data Link Layer of the OSI Basic Reference Model into two sublayers is of benefit. 7. further it is specifically not the intent to restrict the development of new protocols. 7. Its intent is to specify the characteristics of a conceptual service and to provide guidance for the development of MAC protocols and OSI protocols that make use of the MAC Service. It accepts that the service definitions contained in ISO/IEC 8802-2 for LLC Types 1 and 2 while performing a similar function to the OSI DLS differ in some points of detail. Data Link Layer 6. the Token-passing bus specification and these issues are dealt with below. LLC. In this respect the service definition contained in LLC is no different. A great deal of commonality exists in these definitions.1 Introduction For the specification of ISO/IEC 8802 Local Area Networks. between each DLS user and a single DLS provider. Indeed each LAN Standard describes the MAC Service interface for its particular requirements. Specific cabling definitions and characterisations may be found in this document. as such.2 Provision and Support of the Data Link Layer Service ISO/IEC 8886 | ITU-T Recommendation X. The OSI DLS definition describes the properties of individual instances of Data Link communication between pairs of DLS users. 6. at the Data Link service access points.1 Connectionless-mode Service ISO/IEC 15802-1 defines the MAC Service (the connectionless-mode service) found in local area network architecture.g. supporting all major applications. This document describes the generic cabling of customer premises. The MAC Service provides for the transparent transfer of data between MAC service users and makes invisible the way in which supporting communications resources are utilised. ISO/IEC 11575 seeks to unify the generic DLS definition with the specific instances of Data Link layer service. In particular the MAC Service provides independence of the underlying MAC and Physical Layer to the MAC Service user and transparency of transferred information by providing no restriction on the content.

. ISO/IEC 10589 All Level 1 Intermediate Systems Address). . The address format additionally allows for local administration of addresses by modification of the Universally/Locally Administered Address bit.3 48-Bit MAC Address Format The network technologies described in this Technical Report all make use of the 48-bit MAC address format.maximum service data unit size supported. Taken together this provides an exhaustive examination of the parameters of quality of the MAC Service within the context of quality of service maintenance.2 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Service ISO/IEC 8802-4. 445 Hoes Lane. The second 24 bits of the address is administered locally by the assignee to provide uniqueness.probability of lost information. 7.g. Within each class examples of the quality of service parameters are given and defined. . USA 9 . Piscataway NJ 08855-1331.O. Standards Department. These include. . . P.2. . The precise detail of address format and usage together with the definition of their representation in hexadecimal is described within ISO/IEC 15802-1. It was realised that there would be benefit if such group addresses were allocated from an approved. Such addresses are universally applicable and provide unique identification. 7. IEEE Standards Board.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 ISO/IEC 15802-1 introduces and discusses the quality of this service and classifies the parameters in terms of MAC Service performance and other MAC service characteristics.frame lifetime.4 Standard Group MAC Addresses Group MAC addresses which form a part of the operation of a published International Standard protocol exist (e. ISO/IEC TR 11802-2 provides a record of the approved assignments from this Standard group MAC address block and a record of group MAC addresses in use in International Standards which are not part of the Standard group MAC address block.service availability. The registration authority for the Universally administered address is the American National Standards Institute Accredited Standards Committee.residual error rate. In particular it describes primitive actions that support the local acknowledgement of requests passed across the service boundary.frame duplication. the Token-passing Bus protocol provides an acknowledged connectionless service to its user making use of primitive actions and events which do not exist within ISO/IEC 15802-1.frame mis-ordering. 1IEEE Registration Authority. . excepting that the assignee may choose between group addressing or individual addressing by modification of the Individual/Group Address bit. No distinct MAC service definition currently exists to describe the acknowledged connectionless MAC Service .throughput. the first 24 bits correspond to the Organisationally Unique Identifier as assigned by the IEEE Standards Board1. The 48 bits are divided into two parts. . 7. ISO/IEC 15802-3 spanning tree bridge protocol data units.transit delay. The Hexadecimal Representation of the 48-bit MAC address is used at the MAC service boundary to de-couple the specific requirements of the various MAC technologies.the definition is integral with the protocol specification in ISO/IEC 8802-4. assigned group MAC address block. . .priority.Box 1331. The subject of the quality of the MAC Service is more fully discussed in ISO/IEC 15802-3 and includes those parameters listed above together with the following additional parameters.

the DSAP into the address type designation bit and the actual address and the SSAP into the command/response identifier bit and the actual address . Each of these fields is further sub-divided. These procedures are independent of the particular MAC technology of the LAN as they themselves make use of the underlying generic MAC Service.1. 8. The service includes support of sequenced delivery together with a comprehensive set of data link layer error recovery techniques. The acknowledgement scheme allows only the acknowledgement of a single frame at a time.Group MAC addresses for vendor specific proprietary protocols are not covered by this Technical Report. The addressing terminology and conventions of LLC are introduced and defined in ISO/IEC 8802-2. ISO/IEC TR 11802-1 deals comprehensively with the subject and includes a tabulation of current LLC address assignments for both individual and group address values. frames acknowledging receipt are passed in the opposite direction.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © NOTE . Whilst information is being exchanged in both directions. LLC Type 3 is able to make use of local acknowledgement and this service definition is currently absent from the OSI Data Link Service described above. and a basic mechanism for re-transmission is provided.3 LLC Type 3 Acknowledged Connectionless-mode Operation LLC Type 3 provides acknowledgement of transmitted information while retaining the simplicity of protocol of LLC Type 1. In their turn the protocol data units exchanged by LLC make use of the MAC sublayer service. The service definition is provided in terms of primitives that represent the logical exchange of information and control. LLC Types 1 and 2 map directly to the connectionless-mode MAC Service defined in ISO/IEC 15802-1. a service currently not described in ISO/IEC 15802-1 but described by the service primitives in ISO/IEC 8802-4.g. LLC Type 3 is able to make use of local acknowledgement. Additionally Type 3 operations allow one end system to poll another for data. so that any required recovery mechanism or sequencing services must be provided elsewhere in the higher layer protocols. This style of operation exists without the need to establish a data link connection and there are no acknowledgement mechanisms. such addresses should be assigned out of the vendor's universally administered address block. a data link connection is established prior to the exchange of information. flow control or error recovery procedures provided by this service. 8. features. in an abstract manner. ISO/IEC 7776. Logical Link Control Sublayer 8. With this type of service there can be no guarantee of delivery of each transmitted data link layer frame.1. With this operation. the Token-passing bus. an individual actual address identifies a protocol or set of protocols operating above the LLC sublayer. LLC Types 1 and 2 provide services which map well to the generic OSI Data Link Service (ISO/IEC 8886). Private and proprietary protocols do not qualify for inclusion within 10 . 8. It provides a description of the peer-to-peer protocol procedures that are defined for the transfer of information and control between any pair of data link layer service access points.1 Provision and Support of the LLC Services ISO/IEC 8802-2 (LLC) contains both the service description and the elements of protocol which realise the functions. mechanisms for ensuring sequencing are minimal.1 LLC Type 1 Connectionless-mode Operation LLC Type 1 provides a data link connectionless-mode service with the minimum of protocol complexity. LAPB).2 LLC Type 2 Connection-mode Operation LLC Type 2 provides a data link connection-mode service across a LAN and is comparable to existing non-LAN data link control procedures (e. 8. 8. This sublayer definition exists between the MAC sublayer of the Data Link layer and the Network layer.2 Logical Link Control Addresses LLC protocol data units contain addressing information which comprise the Destination Service Access Point (DSAP) and the Source Service Access Point (SSAP). protocol and services of the Logical Link Control sublayer.1. In the general case.

to support the transmission of time-critical information in a LAN environment. and the filtering of frames by bridges such that frames addressed to a given Group are forwarded only on those LAN segments that are required in order to reach the members of that Group. Source routing brings the benefit of a richer and more arbitrary active network topology when compared against the spanning tree of transparent bridging. thus forming a backbone for the bridged LAN. Where a MAC bridge interconnects considerably more than two access domains. ISO/IEC TR 11802-5 describes the problems of interoperability between end systems that exist in mixed environments that include Ethernet V2. A bridge is not directly addressed by communicating end systems. A bridge has three principle elements of operation. The bridge will observe the appropriate MAC procedures and protocol for each LAN to which it is connected. Additionally this 11 . Some switches are used to interconnect access domains each containing a very small number of end systems (often. within the LAN environment. the ability to relay and filter frames. In the case of the Network Layer protocols operating in the environment above the LLC sublayer. the use of SNAP encoding is recognised and it is described within an Annex to that Technical Report. 9.© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 ISO/IEC TR 11802-1 but. A bridge operates below the MAC Service boundary and is transparent to protocols operating above this boundary. ISO/IEC 15802-5 describes the operation of the Remote MAC bridge. Internetworking 9. Each LAN has its own independent MAC. however the use of bridges allows the interconnection of end systems attached to separate LANs. SRT bridging allows a source to specify the path (the bridged route) that a frame will take through the bridged network.1 Transparent Bridging ISO/IEC 15802-3 describes and defines the mechanisms whereby 8802 LANs of all type may be connected together with MAC bridges. are both supported. with its single active route between any pair of LANs. A mapping of the internal sublayer service to the specific MAC procedures of each of the 8802 MAC types and the FDDI MAC type is defined. In addition it provides MAC sublayer interworking between end stations attached to any of the LANs within this configuration. a single end system). Within the LAN environment frames transmitted between end systems carry the MAC address of the peer-end system in their Destination address field.2 Source Routing A source routing bridge will build routes for end system communication and then route frames accordingly. The acquisition and discovery of routes involve communication processes in end systems and this marks the major distinction between transparent bridging and source routing. not the MAC address of the bridge. 9. 9. the maintenance of information required to make frame filtering and relaying decisions and the provision of management of the above. that is to say access domains. and the provision of filtering services that support the dynamic definition and establishment of Groups in a LAN environment. Others interconnect multiple access domains containing principally other bridges. as if they were attached to a single LAN. In addition the provision of expedited traffic capabilities.0 in addition to ISO/IEC 8802-3 conformant end systems and any other OSI-based LAN technology. The Remote MAC bridge is defined to interconnect a locally bridged local area network and the non-LAN communications equipment of one or more remotely bridged local area networks. except by an end system for the purposes of management. complete protocol identification may require the application of ISO/IEC TR 9577 which comprehensively deals with the subject of protocol identification in the Network Layer.3 Source Routing Transparent Architecture The source routing transparent bridge (SRT) architecture has been developed (ISO/IEC 15802-3 and ISO/IEC 8802-2) to connect multiple network segments into a single bridged network. it is usually referred to as a switch. Bridged LAN configurations involving these kinds of interconnection have now become widespread allowing the construction of networks with much larger numbers of end systems and much higher aggregate throughput than was previously achievable. and in addition provides the accepted solution. The operation of a bridge is dependent upon the existence and operation of an internal sublayer service provided by each MAC entity to the central MAC relay entity within the bridge.

The Structure of Management Information. These procedures make use of LLC Type 1 operations and are therefore of use under particular circumstances where a fully configured management is not available. A source-routing-transparent bridge is a MAC bridge which performs source routing when provided with routing information in the received frame and performs transparent bridging when no routing information is available in the frame. 12. . PICS are produced for those International Standards which define protocol and therefore form an essential part of the majority of those International Standards which are the subject of this Technical Report. and to any name binding (MRCS) 12 . These Statements provide the mechanism whereby a supplier of an implementation which claims conformance to provide information in a standard form for. Management ISO/IEC 10742 describes the elements of management information related to the OSI Data Link layer. interoperate and communicate on the bridged LAN. the management information conformance summary (MICS). any of the listed set of documents that specify conformance requirements to OSI management (MCS).as the basis for initially checking the possibility of interworking with another implementation. As such PICS can have a number of uses. the managed object conformance statement (MOCS). and the action type operations on the attributes that are available. to any managed object class (MOCS).by the implementor as a check-list to reduce the risk of non-conformance of the particular implementation. the manager role in management information (MICS). .as a detailed indication of the capabilities of the implementation. to coexist. 11. Implementation Conformance Statements comprise four distinct entities. and those that do not. Specifically it defines the managed object class definitions of the Data Link layer managed objects. and the managed relationship conformance statement (MRCS). the relationship of the managed objects and attributes to both the operation of the layer and to other objects and attributes of the layer. This work is based upon and follows the guidelines from ISO/IEC 10165. Layer specific managed object definitions are to be found as Amendments to the base International Standards that relate to local area networks that are discussed in this Technical Report. System Load Protocol ISO/IEC 15802-4 describes the services and procedures necessary remotely to load equipment within the LAN environment where that equipment is minimally configured. The scope of application of this load protocol is therefore limited both to the particular environment where LLC Type 1 operations are available and to the particular conditions where minimal procedures are appropriate. respectively.ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © architecture allows end systems that need and use source routing. The Use of PICS Proforma A Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement Proforma is a statement of which capabilities and options of a particular protocol have been implemented. the management conformance summary (MCS). 10. .

13 .8802-x: .18802-x: Specific requirements. Common specifications. Conformance test specifications. easy to correlate to equivalent IEEE 802 Standards numbers. and which provided a LAN/MAN International Standards family resemblance. The Numbering Scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards The numbering scheme for LAN/MAN International Standards was designed to provide a framework which was simple. extensible. Technical reports and guidelines. .16802-x: . Based on this requirement the following the numbering scheme was developed.11802-x: .15802-x: .© ISO/IEC ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:1999 Annex A. (reserved). unambiguous.

ISO/IEC DTR 8802-1:199 9 ISO/IEC © Annex B. 14 . The Catalogue of Endorsed IEEE 802 Standards To date no standards have been progressed via the cooperative agreement between ISO/IEC and the IEEE 802 LMSC.

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