Aung Din - The Irrawaddy, Peace and Memories

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uRefawmfwdkUrodEdkifyg? a':atmifqef;pkMunf&Jh {&m0wDjrpfMuD;tay:
oabmxm;rajymif;vJ&ifawmifrS vuf&zdS UJG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'udk rjyif
qifyeJ aYJ ':atmifqef;pkMunfor®wjzpfzUkd qdw
k mrvG,v
f yS g? wu,fvUkd
zGJUpnf;yHkudk tcsdefrDjyifqifay;vdkufvdkU a':atmifqef;pkMunf or®w
jzpfvmjy;D ESpEf ikd if cH sKyq
f x
kd m;wJph mcsKyrf sm;udk av;pm;vdu
k f em&r,fqw
kd hJ
&yfwnfcsufeJU jrpfqHkqnfMuD;udk jyefvnfwnfaqmufcGifhay;vdkuf&if
uRefawmfwdkUtm;vkH;&ifusdK;Mu&rSmyg?
2015rSm b,fol or®wjzpfrvJ? uReaf wmfuawmh ]]ESpEf ikd if pH mcsKyf
rsm;udk av;pm;vdkufem&r,f}} qdkjyD; {&m0wDjrpfMuD;udk w½kwftpdk;&xH
a&mif;csrnfhor®wrsdK;udk rvdkcsifyg? uRefawmfwdkYEdkifiH&JUaus;Zl;&Sif?
toufaoG;aMum? twdw?f ypöKyef? tem*wf umvok;H yg;pvk;H rSm wefz;kd
tMu;D rm;qk;H jzpfwhJ rdcif{&m0wDjrpfMu;D udk w½kwt
f pd;k &eJUw½kwu
f rk P
Ü D
awGvufxaJ &mufroGm;atmif tumtuG,af y;rnfh or®wrsKd ;udyk J arQmf
vifhrdygw,f/
pmNyD;&uf(Mo*kwfv 17? 2013)

(ukrkj'mowif;*sme,f?twGJ 3 trSwf22? pufwifbmv3&uf 2013)

14

atmif'if

ESpfEdkifiHpmcsKyfrsm;udk av;pm;vdkufemjcif;
usaemfuawmh ESpfEdkifiHcsKyfqdkxm;wJh pmcsKyfrsm;udk av;pm;vdkuf
em&r,fqdkwm tjynfht0rSefw,frxifyg/ tpdk;&opfwpfck[m t&if
tpdk;&ucsKyfqdkcJhwJh EdkifiHwumpmcsKyfrsm;udk jyefvnfavhvmokH;oyfzdkU
vdktyfygw,f/ wdkif;jynftwGuf trSefwu,f tusdK;&Sd? r&Sdqef;ppfa0
zefjyD; wdkif;jynftwGuf tusdK;r&Sd&if? tusdK;tjrwfxuf qkH;½HI;&rnfh
twdik ;f twmu ydjk y;D Mu;D rm;ae&if? jynfov
l x
l w
k pf&yfv;Hk u vufrcH&if?
pmcsKyfudk rSefrSefuefuef rQrQwwcsKyfqdkcJhwmr[kwfwJh taxmuft
xm;awGawGUcJ&h if wpfzufEikd if t
H pd;k &eJY ndE§ iId ;f jy;D pmcsKyu
f kd jyifqifa&;qGJ
wm? zsufodrf;wm jyKvkyfEdkifcGifh taotcsm&Sdygw,f?
pmcsKyfrsm;udk wpfzufowfzsufodrf;cGifU
EdkifiHwumpmcsKyfpmwrf;wdkif;rSm wpfzufzufuvHkavmufwJh
taMumif;&Sw
d ,fq&kd ifpmcsKyu
f zkd suo
f rd ;f cGihf odUk r[kwf jyefvnfnEd§ iId ;f cGihf
&Sdw,fqdkwJh jy|mef;csufrsdK; xnfhoGif;csKyfqdk&ygw,f/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh
uefx½dkufpmcsKyfudkzsufodrf;cGifh (The Right to Terminate) ESpfrsdK;
&Sdygw,f/ eHygwf (1)ucdkifvkHaomtaMumif;jycsufjzifh zsufodrf;cGifh
(Termination for Cause or Default)eJU eHygwf(2)u vdktyfcsufrsm;
udkjznfhqnf;&efzsufodrf;cGifh(Termination for Convenience) wdkUjzpf
Muygw,f/ cdik v
f akH omtaMumif;jycsujf zifzh suo
f rd ;f cGiq
hf &kd mrSm wpfzuf
tpd;k &odUk r[kww
f pfzuftpd;k &udw
k m0efcw
H yhJ *k K¾d v^f ukrP
Ü u
D uefx½du
k f
pmcsKyfyg pnf;urf;csufawGudkcsdK;azmufvdkU (Material Breach of the
Contract) zsufodrf;wmrsdK;jzpfygw,f/ vdktyfcsufrsm;udk jznfhqnf;zdkU
zsufodrf;cGifhuawmh tJ'Dvdk zsufodrf;cGifh&SdaMumif;azmfjywJh jy|mef;csuf
uefx½dkufpmcsKyfxJrSmyg0ifzdkUvdktyfygw,f/
tcsKd UpmcsKyaf wGxrJ mS b,fvt
kd ajctaersKd ;rSm pmcsKycf sKyq
f o
kd w
l pf
a,muf? pmcsKyfrSmyg0ifwJhtzGJUwpfzGJU (A Party to the Contract)[m
pmcsKyfygpnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;awGudk csdK;azmuf&ma&mufw,fvdkUowfrSwf
Edik w
f ,f? b,fvt
kd ajctaersKd ;rSm pmcsKyyf gtzGUJ wpfzUJG uvdt
k yfcsurf sm;

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

15

udjk znfq
h nf;&eftaMumif;jycsuef UJ uefx½du
k pf mcsKyu
f zkd suo
f rd ;f Edik w
f ,f
qdkjyD; ]tajctaeawG} (Conditions) jy|mef;xm;avh&Sdygw,f/ 'gayrJh
jrpfqq
kH nftygt0if arc? rvdceJU{&m0wDjrpftprSmqnfMu;D 8ckwnf
aqmufa&; etzppftpdk;&eJU w½kwftpdk;&wdkYcsKyfqdkwJh pmcsKyfudkawmh
trsm;jynfolodcGifhr&vdkYb,fvdkcsKyfqdkxm;w,fqdkwmrod&yg/
txufazmfjyyg uefx½dkufpmcsKyf zsufodrf;cGifhrsm;udk tokH;csjyD;
jrpfqHkqnfwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;udk jrefrmEdkifiHbufu vHkavmufwJh
taMumif;jycsufrsm;? w½kwfukrÜPD&JU uefx½dkufpmcsKyfygtcsufrsm;udk
(Terms of the Contract)csdK;azmufrIrsm;aMumifh zsufodrf;r,fqdk&if
jrefrmEdik if u
H awmif w½kwu
f rk P
Ü x
D u
H avsmaf Mu; (Damages) awmif;
cHEdkifygao;w,f/ 'gayrJh pmcsKyfudk aoaocsmcsmavhvmjyD; pmcsKyfyg
tcsurf sm;eJUw½kwu
f rk P
Ü &D UJ vufawGUaqmif&u
G cf surf sm;udk taotcsm
EdIif;,SOfavhvmzdkY? EdkifiHwumOya'uGßrf;usifolrsm;&JU tultnDeJU
w½kwu
f rk P
Ü &D UJ pmcsKycf sKd ;azmufrI(Material Breach of the Contract)
awGudkaphaphpyfpyf&SmazGzdkUvdktyfygw,f/
a,bk,stm;jzifh uefx½dkufpmcsKyfyg tcsufrsm;udk csdK;azmuf&m
a&mufw,fvUkd qk;H jzwfEikd w
f hJ tajctae 4ck&ydS gw,f/ tJ'gawGuawmh
(1) uefx½dkufpmcsKyfrSm(jrefrmEdkifiHudk yg0ifvufrSwfxdk;atmif
qGJaqmifEdkifcJhwJh) t"duuswJhtcsuftay:rSm wpfzufygwD&JU aqmif
&GufrIratmifjrifwm&SdcJhovm;?
(2) wpfzufygwD&UJ uefx½du
k pf mcsKycf sKd ;azmufr[
I m (jrefrmEdik if &H UJ )
'D uefx½dkufrSmyg0if&jcif;&JU&nf&G,fcsuf(tESpfom&) udk ysufjym;ap
cJo
h vm;?
(3) wpfzufygwD&JU uefx½dkufpmcsKyfcsdK;azmufrI[m uefx½dkufpm
csKyf&Jh t"du tESpfom&? &nf&G,fcsufatmifjrifa&;udk xdcdkufcJhovm;
(4) 'DpmcsKyft& vkyfief;aqmif&GufrIrsm;uae (jrefrmEdkifiH[m)
arQmfvifhwm? xdkufoifhwmxuf ododomomavsmhenf;jyD; &&SdcJhovm;?
'gawGukd qk;H jzwfzUkd qdw
k m wu,fawmh uefx½du
k pf mcsKyu
f kd rjrif&?
rzwf&? ravhvm&bJeJU b,fvdkrSrjzpfEdkifyg/ 'gayr,fh jrifcGifh? awGUcGifh

16

atmif'if

{&m0wDjrpfudk ppfudkif;wHwm;teD; awGU&pOf ("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

&wJt
h ajctaeawGukd avhvmok;H oyfjy;D usaemfuawmh jrefrmEdik if [
H m
w½kwftpdk;&eJU csKyfqdkxm;wJh jrpfqHkqnfwnfaqmufa&;pmcsKyfudk
wpfzufowfzsufodrf;cGifh&Sdw,fvdkUtav;teuf,HkMunfygw,f/ 'g
aMumifh uefx½du
k pf mcsKyrf csKyq
f ckd if w½kwt
f pd;k &&JUvSnzhf sm;rIrsm;eJU r½d;k
om;rIrsm;? tusdK;tjrwfcGJa0a&;qdkif&mrrQwrIrsm;? pmcsKyfcsKyfpOfu
aoaocsmcsm ravhvmcJMh uwJjh refrmEdik if t
H wGuf qd;k usKd ;rsm;udak tmuf
ygtwdkif; axmufjycsifygw,f?
tapmfum;cH&wJU ucsifjynfolrsm;
ucsifjynfolrsm;&Jh jrpfqkHqnfaqmufvkyfa&;udk uefUuGufrIu
tifrwefrS tm;aumif;? cdik rf m? jyif;xefvw
S m vGecf w
hJ hJ ESprf sm;wnf;u
ae tcktcsed t
f xdyg/ 'gayrJh w½kwt
f mPmydik af wGu ucsijf ynforl sm;
u jrpfqHkqnfeJU tjcm;qnfMuD;rsm; ucsifjynfe,ftwGif;rSm wnf
aqmufwm udk us,fus,fjyefUjyefU MudKqdkaxmufcHMuw,fvdkU vdrfnm
a<u;aMumfMuygw,f/
[dk;0g;'l;0g;aZmf*rfqw
kd m jrpfMu;D em;rSmaewJh trsm;MunfnKd av;pm;

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

17

{&m0wDjrpfudk ppfudkif;wHwm;teD; awGU&pOf ("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

wJh ucsifacgif;aqmifwpfa,mufyg/ olu w½kwftpdk;&u 'DqnfMuD;
awG aqmufwmrSm &,f&G,fcsufESpfck&Sdw,fvdkU tcdkiftrm ,HkMunfyg
w,f/ olu 'Dvdkajymygw,f/ ]]'Da&umwmudpöu &nf&G,fcsufESpfck
&dSw,fxifw,f/ yxr&nf&G,fcsufu a&tm;vQyfppf&zdkY? 'kwd,&nf
&G,fcsufu w½kwfjynfujrefrmjynfudk BudK;udkifzdkY? vHkNcHKa&;xdef;csKyfzdkY
a&umwmudkAHk;wpfvHk;axmifxm;ovdk vkyfxm;wm/ 'gaMumifh udk,fh
jynfolawG aorSmudkaMumufwJhacgif;aqmifawGuolwdkY(w½kwf) bmyJ
ajymajymem;axmif&awmhrSmyJ/ udk,fhjynfolawG oef;csDaozdkYudpö jzpf
oGm;Ny/D pOf;pm;p&mawGwoDwwef;Bu;D jzpfomG ;Ny/D 'gaMumifh awmfawmf
aMumufw,f/ igwdkYtusdK;uenf;NyD; olwdkY tusdK;ursm;aew,f/
'gaMumifv
h nf;vufrw
S x
f ;kd tBuKH jyKcw
hJ ,f/ t&ifq;kH vufrw
S x
f ;kd cJw
h ,f/
ac:cJ&h ifvnf;ajymp&m trsm;Bu;D &dyS gw,f}} wJ/h 'l;0g;aZmf*rf[m olUb0
oufwrf;rSm qnfawGusdK;aygufvdkU jrpfMuD;em;jrdKUMuD;a&vTrf;cH&wm
tMudrfMudrfMuKHzl;cJholyg/ olYtwGufawmhjrpfMuD;em;jrdKUeJU 18 rdkifavmuf
tuGmrSmwnf&rdS ,f?h txyf 50taqmufttHw
k pfcak vmuf jrifrh m;r,fh
jrpfqq
kH nfMu;D [mtcsed rf a&G;aygufurJG ,fh Ak;H tMu;D Mu;D wpfcyk gyJ/ ucsif

18

atmif'if

jynfolawG[m'DqnfMuD;awGivsifeJU rdk;onf;xefjcif;pwJhobm0
ab;&efaMumifhjzpfap? vlom;&JhtrSm;csdKU,Gif;csufaMumifhjzpfap jydKus
ysufpD;jyD;olwdkU&JUjrdKU? &GmawG a&vTrf;zsufqD;cH&rSmudk aMumuf&GHU pdwfeJU
&SifoefaeMu&rSmyg? 'gaMumifhvnf;2007 ckESpf? arvrSm jrefrmppf
tpd;k &eJUw½kwt
f pd;k &wdUk ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f rSm qnfMu;D 8 ck aqmuf
zdkU oabmwlvdkufMuw,fqdkwJh owif;udk Mum;Mum;csif;'l;0g;aZmf*rfeJU
wjcm;ucsiaf cgif;aqmif 11 OD;[m jrefrmppftyk pf ak cgif;aqmif Adv
k cf sKyf
rSL;Mu;D oef;a&Tqu
D kd pmwpfapmifvufrw
S af &;xd;k ay;ydUk jy;D uefUuGucf MhJ u
ygw,f/ olwUkd csn;f yJvm;qdak wmh r[kwyf gbl;/ ucsijf ynfe,frmS aexdik f
MuwJhaxmifeJUcsDwJh ucsifjynfolawG? jrefrmEdkifiH wpf0ef;vkH;ujynfol
awGu 'Dqnfaqmufvkyfa&;udk&yfwefUzdkUw½kwfeJUjrefrm tmPmydkif
rsm;xH tMurd Mf urd af wmif;qdck ?hJ awmif;qdak eMuwm 2007 ckEpS u
f wnf;
yg? 'gayrnfh w½kwt
f pd;k &uawmh't
D oHawGukd vk;H vk;H vsm;vsm;rsuu
f ,
G f
jyKjyD;qnfwnfaqmufa&;udk qufvufaqmif&GufzdkUydkif;jzwfxm;yHk&
ygw,f?
2011ckEpS f pufwifbmv 17 &ufrmS {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nfprD u
H ed ;f eJU
ywfoufjy;D tvky&f aHk qG;aEG;yGJ (3^2011)udk aejynfawmfrmS trSwf (1)
vQyfppfpGrf;tm;0efMuD;Xmeu OD;aqmifusif;ycJhjyD; 'DpDrHudef;eJU ywf
oufaewJh 0efMuD;Xmersm;? ynm&Sifrsm;? w½kwftpdk;& ukrÜPDudk,fpm;
vS,frsm;u jrpfqHkqnfwnfaqmufa&;eJUywfoufjyD; pmwrf;awG
wifoGif;cJhMuygw,f/ tJ'DaqG;aEG;yGJrSm w½kwftpdk;&bufu CPI
Yunnan International Power Investment Co., Ltd (CPIYN) &Jh
Ouú|rpöwmvD (Mr. Li Guanghua) wufa&mufjyD; ]]{&m0wDjrpf
0Srf;a'oa&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;rsm; wnfaqmufjcif;onf jrefrmEdkifiH
vQypf pfprG ;f tm;vkyif ef;rsm;twGurf [mAsL[musaoma&G;cs,rf jI zpfonf}}
(Ayeyawady Basin Hydropower Projects are Strategic Selection for Myanmar Electric Power Industry)vdUk acgif;pOfwyfxm;wJh

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

19

pmrsuEf mS 30 &Sw
d hJ pmwrf;wpfapmifuw
kd ifoiG ;f cJyh gw,f/ tJ'pD mwrf;rSm
rpöwmvD u ]]ucsiv
f rl sKd ;rsm;onf jrpfqq
kH nfaqmufvyk af &;vkyif ef;udk
axmufcMH uonf}}vdUk wifjyoGm;ygw,f/ olu'Dvakd jymygw,f/ pDru
H ed ;f
eJUywfoufjyD; avhvmokH;oyfwJhtzGJUtpnf;awG[m rwlnDwJhbmom
w&m;? b0? vlrsKd ;pk? ynma&;aemufcH toD;oD; u a'ocHjynfoal wGukd
olwdkU&JU oabmxm;ppfwrf;awGudkaumufcHcJhygw,fwJh/ tJ'Dppfwrf;
awGt& oabmxm;ay;olaygif;&JU 80 &mcdik Ef eI ;f ausmu
f a&tm;vQypf pf
pDru
H ed ;f [m a'ocHjynfoal wGtwGuf tvkyt
f udik f tcGit
hf vrf;awGeUJ
0ifaiGjrifrh m;rIawGzefw;D ay;vdrrhf ,fvUkd ,HMk unfMuygowJ/h 62 &mcdik Ef eI ;f
ausmfu a&tm;vQyfppfpDrHudef;[m a'owpfckvkH;&Jh zGHUjzdK;wdk;wufrIeJU
pD;yGm;a&;udk ododomomjr§ifhwifay;vdrfhr,fvdkU ,HkMunfMuygowJh/
jyD;awmh oabmxm;ay;oltrsm;pku EdkifiH&JhzGHUjzdK;wdk;wufrIeJU pDrHudef;
aqmif&GufrIrsm;udk axmufcHMuygowJh/ rvTJra&Smifom 14 &mcdkifEIef;
avmufu raxmufcaH Mumif;ajym&mrSmawmifrS rpöwmvDu tJ'v
D al wG
[m pDru
H ed ;f a'o jrpfqu
Hk ae yxrqk;H a&TUajymif;ay;&r,fh wefzaJ us;&Gm
ujzpfjyD;'DpDrHudef;aumif;aMumif;udktaotcsmem;rvnfMuvdkUjzpf
w,f}} vdkU qifajcay;ygao;w,f/
tJ'D ppfwrf;awGudk b,fwkef;u? b,folawGu? b,folawGudk?
b,frSm? b,fvdk&Sif;jyjyD; aumuf,lcJhw,fqdkwmawmh olu &Sif;rjyyg
bl;/ ucsiv
f rl sKd ;rsm;u qnfwnfaqmufa&; pDru
H ed ;f rsm;udk axmufcMH u
w,fvUkd ol t&Si;f qk;H eJU armufarmufrmrm a<u;aMumfvu
kd w
f muawmh
'Djrpfqq
kH nf aqmufvyk af &;udk &yfwefUzdUk enf;vrf;aygif;pHek UJ wpdu
k rf wf
rwf awmif;qdak eMuwJu
h csijf ynforl sm;udk tMu;D tus,af pmfum;vdu
k f
wmygyJ/
pmNyD;&uf-(Mo*kwfv 18? 2013)

(ukrkj'mowif;*sme,f? twGJ 3 trSwf 23? pufwifbmv 10 &uf 2013)

20

atmif'if

jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;\uefYuGufcsufudk rsufuG,fjyKjcif;
rpöwmvD uajymygao;w,f/ olwdkU ukrÜPD[m ywf0ef;usifxdef;
odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;udk txl;*½kpdkufygw,fwJh/ 'gayrJh vufawGUrSm
awmh olwdkU[molwdkU&JUtvdkqE´eJYrudkufnDwJh? olwdkU&JUqnfpDrHudef;udk
raxmufcHwJh jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;wifjywJhywf0ef;usifxdcdkufrIqdkif&m
ok;H oyfcsut
f pD&ifcpH mudk vk;H 0vspv
f sL½Ixm;wmawGU&ygw,f/ olUtqdk
t& 2008 ckEpS f 'DZifbmvrSm CPI uiSg;&rf;xm;wJh w½kw?f jrefrmynm
&Sif ta,muf 100 ausm[
f m {&m0wDjrpfzsm;u jrpfqakH e&m wpf0u
kd rf mS
uGif;qif;ppfaq;rIawG ajcmufvausmfaqmif&GufcJhygw,fwJh/ jrefrm
ynm&Siaf wGu BANCA vdUk ac:wJh Biodiversity And Nature Conf nm&Siaf wGuawmh CISPDR
servation Association ujzpfNy;D w½kwy
vdkUtwdkaumufac:wJh Changjiang Institute of Survey, Planning,
Design and Research ujzpfygw,f/ tJ'Dynm&SifawG[m uGif;qif;
ppfaq;rIawGjyD;wJhaemuftjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;rIawGudk 2009 ckESpf
ZGefveJU pufwifbmvtwGif; jrpfMuD;em;? 0l[ef eJU tjcm;ae&mawG
rSm tMudrfMudrfjyKvkyfcJhygw,fwJh/ tJ'Daemuf 2010 jynfhESpf? rwfvrSm
CISPDR u {&m0wDjrpfzsm;u qnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyi
f ef;rsm;aMumifh
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kd rf I avhvmok;H oyfcsut
f pD&ifcpH m (Environmental
k PI xHwifjyygw,fw/hJ tJ'DCISPDR
Impact Assessment) (EIA)udC
uwifoGif;wJh EIA uqnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;udk ywf0ef;usif
xdcu
kd rf I tenf;tusO;f om&Sv
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f ifah Mumif; axmufcw
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'gayrJh rpöwmvDu jrpfqq
kH nfwnfaqmufa&;udk pGeUf vTwzf Ukd tMujH yKwhJ
jrefrmynm&Sirf sm;? BANCA uwifjywJh EIA udak wmh vk;H 0ud;k um;jcif;
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tJ'D tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJrSmyJ BANCA &JU Ouú|jzpfwJh a'gufwm
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uGif;qif;ppfaq;wJh ynm&Sif 100 ausmfqdkayrJh BANCA u jrefrm
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awmhrSyJ 0dk;wdk;0g;wm;odMu&wmyg/
rJacgifjrpfaumfr&Sif(Mekong River Commission)u owf
rSwfxm;ygw,f/ jyD;jynfhpHkwJh Environmental Impact Assessment
f usKd ;oufa&mufraI vhvmok;H oyfcsuf (10) ck&dS
(EIA) rSmywf0ef;usit
&ygr,f/ tJ'gawGu (1) jrpf0Srf;eJU jrpfnma'o ouf&Sdrsm;wnf&SdrIESifh
zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufrIqdkif&mavhvmokH;oyfcsuf (Basin and Catchment Ecosystems and Habitats) (2) jrpfa&pD;qif;rIESifh a&teuf
wdkif;wmokH;oyfcsuf (River Flows and Water Levels) (3) a&vTrf;
rd;k rIobm0ok;H oyfcsuf (Flooding Patterns) (4) tedryhf ikd ;f a&jrKyaf 'o
ouf&Sdrsm;wnf&SdrIESifh zGJUpnf;wnfaqmufrIqdkif&m avhvmokH;oyfcsuf
(Wetlands Ecosystems and Habitats) (5) qnfajrmif;a&oGif;pepf
pdkufysdK;a&;vkyfief;rsm;qdkif&mokH;oyfcsuf (Irrigated Agriculture) (6)
tdrfESifhpufrIvkyfief;rsm;wGif jrpfa&okH;pGJrIESifh qufET,faomvlOD;a&
wd;k wufrq
I ikd &f mavhvmok;H oyfcsu(f Population Growth in Relation
k f
to Domestic and Industrial Water Use) (7) a&\t&nftaoG;qdi
&mavhvmokH;oyfcsuf (Ekef;ajravsmhenf;rItygt0if) (Water Quality, Including Suspended Sediments) (8) jrpf0uGße;f ay:wGif qm;iH
a&0ifa&mufrq
I ikd &f m avhvmok;H oyfcsuf (Saline Intrusion in River
hf ;Hk rsm;ydUk csjcif;qdik &f m avhvmok;H
Delta) (9) jrpfurf;yg;rsm;jyKd usjcif;ESiE
oyfcsuf?(Riverbank Erosion and Sedimentation/Channel EroS ;f tedryhf ikd ;f eJjY rpf0uGße;f ay:rSma&vTr;f rd;k rI pDrcH efcY jJG cif;
sion) eJU (10) jrpf0r

28

atmif'if

{&m0wDjrpfudk yckuúLNrdKUteD; awGU&pOf ("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

qdik &f m avhvmok;H oyfcsuf (Flood Management in the Lower Basin
f nm&Sirf sm;pHpk rf;wifjy
and Delta) rsm;jzpfMuygw,f?BANCAeJUw½kwy
cJw
h hJ EIA[m txufazmf jyyg tqifah wGxu
J yxtqifh jrpfMu;D em;jrKd U
txufjrpf0rS ;f eJU jrpfnma'oouf&rdS sm;wnf&rdS EI iS hf zGUJ pnf;wnfaqmuf
rIqikd &f m avhvmok;H oyfcsuo
f mjzpfygw,f/ aemufxyfaqmif&u
G &f r,fh
avhvmokH;oyfrIawG trsm;MuD;usefaeygao;w,f/
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atmufyikd ;f rSmtxl;avhvmrIawG pwifaqmif&u
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oufa&mufrI? jrpfcGJ? jrpfvufwufrsm;\ zGJUpnf;jzpfay:rItay: ouf
a&mufr?I jrpfatmufyikd ;f rSmwnf&w
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I ay:
oufa&mufrIeJU jrpfatmufydkif;a&t&if;tjrpf cGJa0okH;pGJrItay: ouf
a&mufrIawG jzpfygw,f/ aemufusaeygjyD/ 'DavhvmrIawGudkqnfMuD;

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

29

{&m0wDjrpfurf;yg;NydKaerIudk jrefrmEdkifiHtv,fydkif;wpfae&mwGif
awGU&pOf ("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

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vlx&k UJ toHawGeUJ aygif;pyf? rQrQwwpOf;pm;jy;D rS qnfMu;D aqmufoif?h
raqmufoifh qkH;jzwf&rSmyg/
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txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;udkMunfh&if jrefrmEdkifiHbufu jrpfqHk
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vHkavmufwJhtcsuftvufawG&Sdaew,fvdkU usaemf,HkMunfygw,f/
jrefrmppftpdk;&upmcsKyfrcsKyfqdkrDrSm a'ocHvlxk&JUuefUuGufcsufrsm;
udk vspfvsL½IcJhwm? w½kwftpdk;&ydkifukrÜPDrsm;u ucsifjynfolawGudk
vSnfhjzm;cJhwm? pmcsKyfrcsKyfcifrSm vdktyfwJhvlrIb0qdkif&m (Social)?
ywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f m (Environmental)? a*[qdik &f m (Ecological) ouf
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kH akH vmuf
avmufrvkyfcJhwm? jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;&JU jrpfqHkrSmqnfrwnfaqmuf

30

atmif'if

oifhaMumif; tMuHjyKcsufudk jrefrmppftpdk;&xH wifoGif;wJh Environh iG ;f yJcsev
f yS x
f m;cJw
h m?
mental Impact Assessment (EIA)rSmrxnfo
{&m0wDjrpfMuD;&JUatmufydkif;u oef;aygif;rsm;pGmaom jynfolawGxH
oufa&mufr,fh qd;k &Gm;aomtusKd ;qufawGukd rodcsiaf ,mifaqmifcw
hJ m
pwJt
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f kd wpfzufowfzsuo
f rd ;f zdUk vHak vmufwhJ w½kwf
ukrÜPD&JUcsdK;azmufrI (Material Breach of the Contract)awGyg/
pmNyD;&uf-(Mo*kwfv 18? 2013)

(ukrkj'mowif;*sme,f? twGJ 3 trSwf 24? pufwifbmv 17 &uf 2013)

uG,fvGefoGm;aom jrpfMuD;rsm;
jrpfMu;D wpfpif;&Jh t"du&Sio
f efru
I c&D;rdik af ygif;rsm;pGm? awmifwef;
awG?awmtkyfawG? vQdKajrmifawG? vGifjyifawG? jrdKU&GmawG? tauGU t
aumuf axmifaygif;rsm;pGmudk jzwfoef;pD;qif;jyD; yifv,f (odkUr[kwf)
ork'´&mxH aygif;pyfcdkvIH&jcif;yg/ yifv,fxHa&mufatmifrpD;qif;Edkif
awmhwhJ jrpfMu;D awGuakd oqk;H w,fvUkd owfrw
S Mf uygw,f/ jrpfMu;D aoqk;H
ovdk jrpfudktrSDjyK&SifoefMuwJh jynfolrsm;&JUb0&yfwnfrIawGvnf;
tMuD;tus,fysufpD;Mu&wmyg/ obm0w&m;aMumifhjzpfap/ vlwdkU&JU
zefw;D rIaMumifjh zpfapvlUordik ;f wpfavQmufrmS aoqk;H cJ&h wJh jrpfMu;D awG
trsm;Mu;D &Scd yhJ gw,f/ vlUya,m*aMumifh aoqk;H cJ&h wJh xif&mS ; wJh jrpfMu;D
wpfpif;uawmhw½kwjf ynfujrpf0gjrpfMu;D (Yellow River) yJjzpfygw,f/
w½kwfjynf&JU t"dujrpfMuD; okH;pif; (,efZD? rJacgif eJU jrpf0g) xJu
jrpf0gjrpfMu;D udk w½kwjf ynf&hJ rdcifjrpfMu;D vdUk owfrw
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f ifpm;Muygw,f/
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H
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wnfwHhcJhwJh atmifjrifrIrsm;&JUtxdrf;trSwf? aMumuf&GHUjyD;cefYnm;&wJh

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

31

obm0tiftm;pkMu;D jzpfcyhJ gw,f/ tckawmht'J jD rpf0gjrpfMu;D [m aoqk;H
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jynfEh u
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n§pf tEdik u
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t&ifvdk rwnfNidrfawmh? olUa&yrmP[m t&ifvdkrrsm;jym;awmh?
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vmwJw
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avmufatmifudkqif;&JMu? ysufpD;Mu&rSmyg/ {&m0wDudk jrpf0gjrpfvdk
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jrpfa&pD;udk [efUwm;zdUk wnfaqmufxm;wJh eH&MH u;D wpfcyk g/ tJ'eD &H MH u;D eJU
jrpfa&pD;udkwm;jyD; tJ'Djrpfa&awGudk pkaqmif;zdkUa&avSmifuef (Res-

32

atmif'if

ervoir) ac:wJh vlvkyfa&uefMuD; (Artificial Lake) wpfckudk qufpyf
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tcg tJ'Da&wHcg;MuD;rsm;uwpfqifh jrpfxJudk rvdktyfawmhwJha&awG
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

33

&efukefjrdKUawmfxufvnf;MuD;? {&d,mpwk&ef;rdkif 268 &SdwJh pifumyljrdKU
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a&awGunpfywfjyD;roefU&Sif;awmhyg/

34

atmif'if

(C) a&umwmu xkwfvTwfwJh a&uroefU&Sif;awmhvdkUtJ'Da&
(Polluted Water)udk aomufokH;Mu&r,fhvlawG? wd&pämefawGtwGuf
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

35

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36

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kd mudk

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

37

apmifMh uyfavhvm wGe;f tm;ay;oifyh gw,f/ vdt
k yf&if {&m0wDjrpfMu;D udk
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or®wOD;odef;pdefu olU&JJUusefwJh oufwrf;twGif;rSm jrpfqkHqnfta&;
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ckESpf or®wavmif;rsm;u {&m0wDjrpfMuD;udku,fwifzdkU wm0ef,lr,fh
taMumif; a&G;aumufyGJrwdkifcif uwday;apcsifygw,f/
pmNyD;&uf-(Mo*kwfv 18? 2013)

(ukrkj'mowif;*sme,f? twGJ 3 trSwf 25? pufwifbmv 24 &uf 2013)

'Daqmif;yg;twGuf atmufygpmwrf;? pmtkyfrsm;udk udk;um;ygw,f?
(1) Ayeyawady Basin Hydropower Projects are Strategic Selection for Myanmar Electric Power Industry, by Mr.
Li Guanghau, CPI Yunnan International Power Investment
Co., Ltd (CPIYN), September 2011
(2) obm0ywf0ef;usifESifh vlrIywf0ef;usifqdkif&mtusdK;ouf a&muf rI?
a'gufwmxifvS? Ouú|? Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association (BANCA), September 2011
(3) Environmental Impact Assessment (Special Investigation) On Hydropower Development of Ayeyawady River
Basin above Myitkyina, Kachin State, Myanmar, by Biodiversity And Nature Conservation Association (BANCA),
October 2009
(4) The New Great Wall, A Guide to China's Overseas
Dam Industry, by International Rivers Network, July 2008
(5) ucsifvGwfajrmufa&;tzGJUOuú|MuD; va&mfaZmif[&mu w½kwfuGefjrLepf
ygwDtMuD;tuJ[l*sifawmifxHay;aompmESifhyl;wGJygtaxmuftxm;rsm;? rwf 16?
2011
(6) "Understanding Contract Termination" by John T.
Trout, Hellmuth and Johnson PLLC
ukrkj'm*sme,fwGifazmfjycJhaom {&m0wD & J U tem*wf aqmif;yg;av;yk'fudk
wpkwpnf;wnf; azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf/

38

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

39

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2013 ckESpf? 'DZifbmvwGif arc? rvdcjrpfESpfoG,faygif;qHkpD;qif;&m {&m0wDjrpfzsm;udk
a0[ifrSjrif&yHk ("mwfyHk-vif;0PÖ)

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ucsipf pfwyf ESpzf ufpvk;H rSm tustqk;H awG? 'Pf&m&olawG tajrmuf

40

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

41

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42

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a'ou a&cJawmifrsm;qDu tpjyK? w½kwjf ynfMu;D wpfcv
k ;Hk udk rdik af ygif;
3ç400 ausmfjzwfoef;jyD; bdk[dkif;yifv,f (The Bo Hai Sea) xH pD;0if
cJw
h myg/ w½kwEf ikd if o
H m;awGtwGuf 'DjrpfMu;D [m tD*spEf ikd if u
H Edik ;f jrpf

50

atmif'if

Mu;D vdyk gyJ/ ,Ofaus;rIwUkd arG;zGm;&Sio
f ef&m? ESpaf ygif;axmifcsw
D nfwchH w
hJ hJ
atmifjrifrrI sm;&JU txdr;f trSw?f aMumuf&UHG jy;D cefn
Y m;&wJh obm0 tif
tm;pkMu;D jzpfcyhJ gw,f/ tckawmh tJ'D jrpf0gjrpfMu;D [m aoqk;H aeygNy/D
vlawGzefw;D wJh tnpftaMu;awG pGe;f xif;? trdu
I o
f ½du
k af wG jynfEh u
S /f
ajrmufjrm;vSpGmaom qnfMuD;rsm;? a&umwmMuD;rsm;&JUvnfrsdKn§pf
tEdkifusifhcH&rIawGeJUolUa&[mt&ifvdkroefU&Sif;awmh? olUa&pD;[m
t&ifvrkd wnfNird af wmh? olUa&yrmP[m t&ifvrkd rsm;jym;awmh? olU&JU
c&D;[mvnf;yifv,fqrD a&mufEikd af wmh? 'DaeUrSmawmhaoqk;H aewJh jrpf0g
jrpfMu;D [m w½kwjf ynf&UJ obm0ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f a&; *½krpdu
k rf u
I kd
txift&Sm;jyowJh trSwftom;wpfcktjzpfeJUom &yfwnfae&ygjyD/
w½kwjf ynforl sm;eJU urÇmwpf0ef;uwm0efot
d zGUJ tpnf;rsm;? tpd;k &rsm;
u tjyif;txef axmufjya0zefMuvdt
Yk vefw
Y Mum;Ed;k xvmwJh w½kwf
tpdk;&u jrpf0gjrpfjyefvnf xlaxmifa&; pDrHudef;awG pwifaqmif
&Gufaeayr,fh tvGefudkyJ aemufuscJhygjyD/
usaemfwdkU&JU {&m0wDjrpfMuD;vnf; jrpf0gjrpfMuD;vdk yifv,fqDr
a&mufEikd af wmhwhJ b0rsKd ; MuK&H avmufatmifuykd J tEdik u
f sichf aH e&ygjy/D
ucsijf ynfe,fu arc? rvdc jrpfqaHk 'orSm w½kwt
f pd;k &ydik f ukrP
Ü rD sm;
u aqmufvyk af ewJh jrpfqq
kH nfprD u
H ed ;f Mu;D jy;D oGm;cJ&h if ,leefjynfe,f
Mu;D vQypf pf"mwftm;awG tvHt
k avmuf&jy;D pD;yGm;a&;ydrk w
kd ;kd wuf? jrefrm
ppfAdkvfawG eJU tvdkawmf&dpD;yGm;a&;orm;awG tusdK;tjrwfjzpfxGef;jyD;
{&m0wDjrpfMu;D uawmh uG,v
f eG o
f mG ;wJh jrpfrsm;pm&if;xJ aemufw;kd 0if
a&muf? jrefrmjynfoal wGuawmh vuf&q
dS if;&JErG ;f yg;rIxuf tqaygif;
rsm;pGm edru
hf sjy;D uke;f aumufp&m r&Sad vmufatmifukd qif;&JMu? ysupf ;D
Mu&rSmyg/ {&m0wDudk jrpf0gjrpfvdkb0rsdK; ra&mufatmif usaemfwdkU
tcsdefrD umuG,fMuzdkU ta&;wMuD; vdktyfaeygjyD/
(2) qnf? a&umwm? a&avSmifwrH
pum;vkH; okH;vkH;uGJaeayrJh t"dyÜm,futwlwlygyJ/ jrpfudk jzwfjyD;
jrpfa&pD;udk [efUwm;zdUk wnfaqmufxm;wJh eH&MH u;D wpfcyk g/ tJ'eD &H MH u;D eJU

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

51

jrpfa&pD;udkwm;jyD; tJ'Djrpfa&awGudk pkaqmif;zdkUa&avSmifuef (Reservoir) ac:wJh vlvkyfa&uefMuD; (Artificial Lake) wpfckudk qufpyf
wnfaqmuf&ygw,f/ tJ'v
D kd jrpfa&pD;udk qnf (odUk ) a&umwm (Dam)
eJU[efUwm;? jrpfxJua&awGudk a&avSmifuef (Reservoir) xJrSm pk
aqmif;jy;D a&avSmifuefeaH b;rSmuyfvsuf wnfaqmufxm;wJh a&tm;
vQyfppf"mwfxkwfvkyfa&;wmbdkif (Turbine) MuD;rsm;eJUvQyfppf"mwf
xkwv
f yk u
f m oG,w
f ef;xm;wJh r[m"mwftm;vdik ;f rsm;eJU tvd&k w
dS ahJ e&m
udkydkUaqmifygw,f/ 'DjrpfqHkqnfu&r,fh vQyfppf"mwftm; tm;vkH;
eD;yg;udk w½kwEf ikd if ?H ,leefjynfe,fuw
kd ifyUkd rSmyg/ a&umwmrSm a&wHcg;
MuD;rsm;&Sdygw,f/ wmbdkifrsm;xJa&awG jzwfoef;jyD; vQyfppf"mwftm;
xkwjf y;D wJt
h cg tJ'aD &wHcg;Mu;D rsm;uwpfqifh jrpfxu
J rkd vdt
k yfawmhwhJ
a&awG jyefxkwfay;rSmyg/ 'Dawmh jrpftxufu usvmwJha&udk a&um
wmMuD;eJU ydwfqdkU[efUwm;? a&avSmifuefMuD;xJrSmvdktyfwJhyrmP&wJh
txdpkaqmif;? vdktyfwJhyrmP&awmhrS tJ'Da&awGudk vQyfppf"mwf
tm;xkwfr,fhwmbdkifMuD;awGudkjzwfoef;? jyD;awmhrSrvdktyfawmhwJha&
awG udk a&wHcg;Mu;D rsm;uwpfqifh jrpf&UJ atmufyikd ;f qDukd jyefvnf xkwf
vTwfay;rSmyg/ 'g[mjzifha&tm;vQyfppf"mwfxkwfr,fhqnfpDrHudef;
wpfck&JUa,bk,svkyfief;pOfyg/
'Dawmh vQypf pf"mwftm; rsm;rsm;xkwcf siw
f meJUtrQ pkaqmif;&r,hf
a&yrmPu ydkjyD;rsm;jym;? a&umwmMuD;u ydkjyD;jrifhrm;? a&avSmifuef
Mu;D &JUtus,t
f 0ef;uydjk y;D Bu;D rm;us,jf yef?Y tJ'aD &umwmMu;D aqmuf
vkyfzdkUtwGuf qnfaqmufvkyfr,fh ae&mu z,f&Sm;ay;&r,fh vlxk&JU
ay;qyf&rIu ydkjyD;rsm;jym;jyD; jrpfatmufydkif;u vlxk&Jh cHpm;emusif&rI?
qk;H ½I;H rIawGuvnf; ydjk y;D Mu;D rm;euf½iId ;f ygvdrrhf ,f/ tck jrpfqq
kH nfupd u
ö kd
Munfrh ,fq&kd if a&tm;vQypf pf uDv0kd yfo;kH oef;ajcmufoed ;f uae ajcmuf
oef; (3.6 million kw-6 million kw) ESppf Of xkwv
f yk zf Ukd arQmv
f ifx
h m;
wmrdkUqnfBuD;&JUtvsm;eJU tjrifhutifrwef MuD;rm;yg w,f/ tvsm;
ay500? tjrifah y 500qdw
k mtxyf 49xyftaqmufttHw
k pfcak vmuf
jrifhygw,f/ jyD;awmh a&avSmifuefMuD;&JU {&d,m tus,ft0ef;uvJ

52

atmif'if

295 'or 8pwk&ef;rdkifqdkawmh {&d,mpwk&ef;rdkif 231 'ór2 &SdwJh
r[m&efuek jf rKd Uawmfxufvnf;Mu;D ? {&d,mpwk&ef; rdik 2f 68&Sw
d hJ pifumyl
jrdKUBuD;xufvnf;BuD;NyD; tar&duefjynfaxmifpku {&d,mpwk&ef;rdkif
301 &SdwJh e,l;a,mufNrdKUawmfBuD;avmufudk us,f0ef;vSygw,f/ 'D
avmuf Bu;D rm;wJh a&avSmifuefBu;D udk aqmufzjYkd rpfqaHk 'owpf0u
kd u
f
aus;&Gmaygif; 47&Gm a&TUajymif;ay;&rSmjzpfjy;D ucsiv
f rl sKd ; 20ç000 ausmf
olwUkd &Jh Zmwdajr? olwUkd &JUbd;k pOfabmifqufu tarGtESpaf wGukd qk;H ½I;H Mu
&rSmyg/ ydkjyD;MuD;rm;wJh qkH;½IH;rIuawmh a&atmufa&mufoGm;awmhr,hf
tNrpJ rd ;f opfawmMu;D awG? awmifwef;awG? vGijf yifawGeUJ ucsiv
f rl sKd ;rsm;
trGet
f jrwfwefz;kd xm;MuwJzh cife*g;Bu;D eJUom;e*g;ESpaf umif arG;zGm;&m?
aysmjf rL;&m jrpfqakH 'oudq
k ;Hk ½I;H &rSmyg/ 'Dq;Hk ½I;H rIawGukd b,fvkd avsmaf Mu;
eJUrStpm;xdk;vdkUr&Edkifyg/
(3) jrpfatmufydkif;rS qkH;½IH;rIrsm;
ydkjyD;&Sif;atmif trSwfpOfxdk;jyD; ajymjycsifygw,f/
(u) tvsm; ay 500? tjrifah y 500 &Sw
d hJ a&umwmBu;D u arceJU
rvdc jrpfBu;D ESppf if;u pD;qif;vmwJah &awGukd ydwq
f Ukd [efUwm;jy;D e,l;
a,mufNrKd UBu;D avmuf us,jf yefNY y;D 66xyf taqmufttHw
k pfcak vmuf
(ay 950)jrihw
f hJ a&avSmifuefMu;D xJrmS t&iford ;f qnf;xm;vdu
k rf mS yg/
'gaMumifhrdkU {&m0wDjrpfMuD;&Jh yifrtp[m arceJYrvdc r[kwfawmhyg/
jrpfqq
Hk nfMu;D jzpfomG ;ygjy/D jrpfqq
Hk nfMu;D ua&vTwaf y;rSom {&m0wD
qufvufpD;qif;EdkifrSmyg/
(c) tJ'D a&avSmifuefMuD;xJrSm vdktyfwJh a&yrmP&zdkU tcsdeft
awmfMum pkaqmif;&rSmyg/ tcsKd UqnfBu;D awGrmS a&umwmtjynfh a&pk
csdef wpfESpfuae wpfESpfcGJ Mumygw,f/ a&avSmifuefMuD; a&pkaewJht
csdefrSm{&m0wDjrpfBuD;xJ a&pD;rSmr[kwfyg/
(*) a&avSmifuefxrJ mS a&jynfjh y;D wJah emuf vQypf pf"mwftm;xkwf
vkyjf y;D rSrvdak wmhwahJ &udk a&wHcg;Mu;D rsm;uwpfqifh {&m0wDjrpfxx
J w
k f
vTwfrSmjzpfygw,f/tJ'DawmhrS {&m0wDjyefvnfpD;qif;Edkifygvdrfhr,f?

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

53

'gayrJha&awGu npfywfNyD;roefU&Sif;awmhyg/
(C) a&umwmu xkwfvTwfwJh a&uroefU&Sif;awmhvdkUtJ'Da&
(Polluted Water) udk aomufo;Hk Mu&r,fh vlawG? wd&pämefawG twGuf
a&m*gb,awG &apygw,f/ a&avSmifuefMuD;udk,fwdkifu jcifvdk iSuf
zsm;pwJh a&m*gb,jzefUa0wwfwJh ydk;rTm;awG pka0;yGm;rsm;&m a'oMuD;
jzpfvmjy;D ywf0ef;usiv
f x
l &k UJ use;f rma&;udt
k Mu;D tus,f xdcu
kd af pEdik f
ygw,f/
(i) arceJU rvdc jrpfrsm;u pD;qif;vmwJh a&[m Eke;f rsm;? oJrsm;udyk g
o,faqmifvmcJhjyD; tJ'D Ekef;awG? oJawG(Sediment) u {&m0wDjrpf
aMumif; wpfavQmuf jrpfnmydik ;f rSm ajrMoZmtifrwefaumif;wJh Eke;f wif
ajrEkawG zefw;D ay;jy;D jrefrmEdik if &H UJ pdu
k yf sKd ;a&;vkyif ef;udk tMu;D tus,f
axmufyahH ewmyg/ qnfBu;D jy;D oGm;&ifawmh tJ'ED ek ;f awG[m a&avSmif
uefMuD;&Jh atmufajcrSmyJ tenfxdkifusef&pfcJhjyD; jrpfatmufydkif; udk
b,fvrkd aS &mufrmS r[kwaf wmhyg/ Eke;f wifajrEkyg;&Sm;oGm;r,fh jrpf0uGße;f
ay:rSm pdkufysdK;a&;vkyfief;awGxdcdkufygvdrfhr,f/
(p) qnfMuD;uyJ jrpftwGif;ig;tygt0if a&aeowå0grsm;&JU
jrpfzsm;uae jrpfaMumif;wpfavQmuf a&TUajymif;oGm;vmrIukd ydwq
f [
Ykd efY
wm;vdkufygvdrfhr,f/ ig;rsdK;qufwkH;rI? ta&twGuf&Sm;yg;rIawGu a&
vkyfief;vkyfudkifolrsm;udk tMuD;tus,f xdcdkufygvdrfhr,f/
(q) jrpfa&yrmPeJYa&pD;udkqnfMuD;u xdef;csKyfvdkufjyDrdkUvdkU jrpf
twGi;f oabFmrsm;? armfawmfrsm;? avSrsm;eJUc&D;oGm;vmrI[m ydjk y;D cufcJ
vmygvdrrhf ,f/ jrefrmEdik if &H UJ jrKd Uaygif; &Gmaygif;rsm;pGm? qdyu
f rf; aygif;rsm;
pGm[m {&m0wDjrpfaMumif;wpfavQmuf0?J ,m wpfzufwpfcsurf mS wnf&dS
aeMujyD; c&D;oGm;vma&;eJUukefpnfpD;qif;rItwGuf 'DjrpfMuD;udk jrefrm
Edik if &H UJ vlO;D a& 60&mcdik Ef eI ;f u tm;ud;k ae&wmyg/ a&enf;oGm;wJh jrpfMu;D
twGif;? a&wdrfoGm;wJh jrpfMuD;twGif;? a&pD;enf;jyD;rrSefwJh jrpfMuD;
twGi;f rSm oabFmrsm;? armfawmfrsm;? avSrsm;rd;k &moDuvG&J if usew
f t
hJ
csdefawGrSm oGm;vmEdkifrSmr[kwfawmhyg/
(Z) a&pD;aES;jy;D a&yrmPenf;oGm;wJh jrpfMu;D &JU urf;yg;wpfzufwpf

54

atmif'if

csufu jrpfa&udktrSDjyKjyD;aygufaewJh 'Da&awmawG ysufpD;ukefygvdrfh
r,f/ 'Da&awmawG r&Sad wmhwt
hJ wGuu
f rf;yg;awGNyKd usNy;D {&m0wDjrpfeUJ
jrpfvufwufrsm;twGif;rSm aomifxGef;jyD; tJ'DajryrmPua&yrmP
xufyrkd sm;vmygvdrrhf ,f/ a&enf;oGm;wJjh rpfMu;D eJU'Da&awmawG ysuo
f Ok ;f
rIu{&m0wDjrpf0Srf;a'oudkajcmufaoGUZkeftjzpf toGifajymif; vdkufyg
vdrfhr,f/
(ps) wpfcgwpf&H rdk;tjyif;txefeJUtqufrjywf&GmoGef;wJh tcg
qnfxJrSm a&yrmPuqnfu xdef;xm;Edkifwmxuf tqrwefydkrsm;
vmwwfygw,f/ tJ't
D cgrSm a&tiftm;aMumifh qnfjyKd usrmS udk a&SmifwhJ
taeeJU qnfa&wHcg;awGudkzGifhjyD;a&awG ½kwfw&uf xkwfypfwwfMu
ygw,f/ tJ'Dta&;ay:a&xkwfrIu {&m0wDjrpfxJudk awmifusacsmif;
a&awG 'va[m t&Sdeft[kefMuD;rm;pGm pD;qif;vmovdkrsdK; jzpfygvdrfh
r,f/ jrpfxrJ mS vnf; urf;NyKd xm;vdUk aomifawGu urf;yg;xufyjkd rifah ewJh
tcsdef? urf;yg;rSmvnf; 'Da&awmawGr&SdawmhwJhtcsdefrSm 'Da&pD;qif;
rIu jrpferYJ vSr;f rurf;u NrKd U&Gmrsm;udk a&vTr;f rd;k wJt
h xd jzpfEikd yf gw,f/
ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f u NrKd UBu;D rsm;tm;vk;H eD;yg; 'D½w
k w
f &uf a&vTr;f rd;k
rI'Pfudk rMumcPcHpm;Mu&rSmyg/
(n) jrefrmEdkifiHrSm ajcmufaoGUwJhtcsdef aEG&moD (azazmf0g&D v
uae arvtwGif;)qnfxJrSmvnf; a&enf;rSmrdkUqnfua&jyefxkwf
wmvnf;tvGefenf;NyD; {&m0wDjrpftwGif; a&pD;qif;rI r&Sdoavmuf
jzpfawmhrSmyg/ tJ'DtcsdefrSm {&m0wDjrpfpD;0if&r,fh b*Fvm;yifv,f
(Andaman Sea) ua&awGu {&m0wDjrpfbufudk jyefvnfpD;0ifjyD;
{&m0wDjrpf0uRe;f ay:wpfcv
k ;Hk qm;iHa&awGvrT ;f oGm;ygvdrrhf ,f/ aEGuek f
vdUk rd;k &moD pyg;pdu
k yf sKd ;&r,ft
h csed rf mS qm;iHa&vTr;f Ny;D ysupf ;D aewJh v,f
ajrawGu jrefrmEdik if v
H ,form;xkBu;D &JU tusKd ;pD;yGm;udk tMu;D tus,f
xdcdkufrSmjzpfovdk jrefrmwpfEdkifiHvkH; qefpyg;&Sm;yg;rI? pm;eyf&du©mrvHk
avmufrIrsm;jzpfay:ygvdrfhr,f/
txufrmS wifjyxm;wmawGeUJ obm0ywf0ef;usif ysupf ;D rI? &moD
Owkazmufjyefr?I &Sm;yg;opfyifrsm;? yef;rsm;?a&aeowå0grsm;? iSurf sKd ;pkrsm;

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

55

rsd K ;wk H ; aysmuf u G , f r I a wG a ygif ; pyf v d k u f r ,f q d k & if w½k w f t pd k ; &&J U
{&m0wDjrpfzsm;rSm jrpfqHkqnfwnfaqmufjcif;[m jrefrmjynfol oef;
aygif;rsm;pGmudk pD;yGm;a&;? vlraI &;? use;f rma&;? touf&iS o
f efa&;? pm;eyf
&du©mzlvHka&;? EdkifiHa&;tbufbufu twdkif;tqr&SdysufpD;aprSmyg/
olwdkU&JUEdkifiHrSm jrpf0gjrpfMuD; aoqkH;oGm;wJhom"utxift&Sm;&Sdvsuf
eJU usaemfwUkd Edik if u
H rdcifjrpfBu;D udk owfzUkd BuKd ;pm;aewm[m w½kwt
f pd;k
&u jrefrmjynfolrsm;udk wdkuf½dkufzdESdyfapmfum;aewmvdkU usaemf,lq
ygw,f/ w½kwt
f pd;k &eJUyl;aygif;Ny;D jrefrmjynforl sm;udk vlUtcGit
hf a&;csKd ;
azmufaewJ?h jrefrmEdik if &H UJ rdcifjrpfBu;D udk owfjzwfaewJh jrefrmppfacgif;
aqmifawGuv
kd nf; tvGet
f MhH ordygw,f/ wu,fawmh olwUkd awGvnf;
rsKd ;½d;k pOfquf{&m0wDeUJ Bu;D jyif;Ny;D {&m0wD&UJ apmifah &Smufru
I kd cH,cl MhJ u&
olawGyg/ {&m0wD[musaemfwdkUtm;vkH;&JUtarjzpfovdkolwdkU&JUtar
vnf;jzpfygw,f/ {&m0wD&UJ aus;Zl;awGow
l Ukd tay:rSmvnf; trsm;Mu;D
&Sdygw,f/
(4) qif;&JEGrf;yg;rI avQmUcsa&;
OD;ode;f pdef or®wjzpfvmjy;D wJah emuf jrefrmEdik if w
H iG ;f rSm us,u
f s,f
jyefUjyefUajymqdv
k mMuwmuawmh ]]qif;&JErG ;f yg;rI avQmch sa&; eJyY aysmuf
a&;}} ygyJ/ OD;odef;pdefuOD;aqmifjyD; aqG;aEG;yGJawG? pmwrf;zwfyGJawG
tMuD;tus,fjyKvkyfaeMuwmyg/ OD;odef;pdef&JU pD;yGm;a&;tMuHay;tzGJU
acgif;aqmif a'gufwmOD;jrifhuvnf;2011ckESpf arv 20?21 aejynf
awmfrmS usi;f ywJh ]]aus;vufa'ozGUH jzKd ;a&;ESihf qif;&JErG ;f yg;rI yaysmufa&;
tvkyf½HkaqG;aEG;yGJ}} rSm ]]jrefrmEdkifiHwGif qif;&JEGrf;yg;rI avQmUcsa&;
a&SUquf aqmif&u
G &f efrsm;}} qdw
k hJ pmwrf;wpfapmif wifoiG ;f cJyh gw,f/
olU&JUpmydk'faygif; 97ck&SdwJh pmwrf;rSmpmydk'f trSwf 57 uae 87 txd
pmydk'faygif; 30 eJU jrefrmEdkifiH&JUv,f,mpdkufysdK;a&; u@udk OD;pm;ay;
wifjyoGm;wmawGU&ygw,f/ olU&JUwifjycsuaf wGuawmh v,f,mu@
udk jri§ w
hf ifjcif;[m qif;&JErG ;f yg;rI yaysmufa&;t wGuf t"duusaMumif;
tpcsDjyD; qefpyg;pdkufysdK; xkwfvkyfrIudk jynfwGif; zlvkH½kHru jynfyudk

56

atmif'if

wd;k jri§ w
hf ifyUkd a&mif;csEikd zf Ukd ? urÇmay:rSm t"duqefpyg;pdu
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

57

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atmif'if

58
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

59

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60

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

61

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DISSENT qdw
k hJ pmapmif &JU 2011 ckEpS af qmif;ul;^aqmif;&moD
xkwf (AUTUMN^WINTER 2011) rSm Melody Kemp a&;wJh
KACHIN CAPERS qdkwJhaqmif;yg;? pmrsufESm 32 rSm a[m'Dvdk
a&;xm;ygw,f/ ]]wu,fvUkd rsm;urÇmajrBu;D ua&GUvsm;Ny;D (jrpfq)kH qnf
jyKd vcJ &hJ if jrpfatmufyikd ;f rSmwnf&w
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f hJ ucsif
jynfe,f&hJ jrKd UawmfMu;D [m puúeUf 20twGi;f rSm aysmufq;Hk oGm;vdrrhf ,f}}
(If the earth moves and the dam collapses, the downstream
capital of Kachin State, a city of over 150,000, would disappear in 20 seconds.)? Melody Kemp u MopaMwvs vlrsdK; pma&;

q&mr wpfa,mufjzpfjy;D tm&Swu
kd rf mS tESpf 20ausmaf exdik af e oljzpfyg
w,f? olr[m tifrwef MoZmMu;D rm;wJh tar&duefywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f m
owif;tzGUJ tpnf; (U.S. Society for Environmental Journalism)
&JU tzGJU0ifwpfa,mufvnf; jzpfygw,f/

atmif'if

62

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pmNyD;&uf-(Mo*kwf 2? 2011)

(rdk;rcrD'D,m? Mo*kwf 2011)

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

jrpfqHkqnfaMumifh wdrfaumyaysmufoGm;Edkifonfh {&m0wDjrpfwpfae&m
("mwfyHk-Nidrf;csrf;pdrf;vef;)

63

64

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65

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66

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

67

(2) w½kwfjynf&JU r[mwHwdkif;topf
w½kwfjynfu xif&Sm;ausmfMum;vSwJh r[mwHwdkif; (The Great
Wall) MuD;udk tm;vkH;Mum;zl;MurSmyg/ bDpD 5 &mpkavmufupjyD; rif
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oGm;wJhpdkufysdK;cif;awG? towfcHvdkuf&wJhopfawmBuD;awG? jzdKcscHvdkuf

68

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

69

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jrifw
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enf;vmygw,f/ 'gaMumifrh Ukd vdUk a&avSmifuefxrJ mS Eke;f awG rsm;vmwmeJY
trQ? atmufMurf;jyif jrifhwufvmwmeJUtrQ? avSmifEdkifwJha&yrmP
enf;vmwmeJUtrQ? vQypf pfprG ;f tm;xkwEf ikd pf rG ;f [mvnf; avsmeh nf;vm
ygvdrfhr,f/ 'gaMumifhrdkUa&avSmifuefwpfck? a&umwmwpfck&JU vQyfppf
"mwftm;xkwEf ikd pf rG ;f [m trsm;qk;H ESpf 20 eJU ESpf 30 Mum;rSmyJ &Sw
d wfyg
w,f/ ESpf 20ausmo
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jynfEh u
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zdkY tokH;r0ifawmhovdk c&D;oGm;vma&;eJYwjcm; udpörsm;twGufvnf;
tokH;0ifrSmr[kwfawmhyg/
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rsm;twGuf w½kwftpdk;&u ESpf 50pmcsKyfeJU (BOT/Build, Operate
and Transfer) vkyfudkifcGifh&rSmjzpfvdkU ESpf 50 jynfhvdkU w½kwftpdk;&u
usaemfwUkd udk 'DqnfMu;D rsm;jyefvaJT jymif;ay;wJt
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xJu t*FkvdrmvcGßwfcef;udk Mum;zl;MurSmyg/ bk&m;vufxufu
t*FkvdrmvowdkUom;qdkwm&SdcJhw,f/ wuúodkvfrSm 'domygarmu©
q&mMu;D xH csO;f uyfjy;D ynmoifaewJt
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aMumif;ajymNyD; t*FkvdrmvudkvlYvufnd§K;tacsmif;wpfaxmifeJUolUudk
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D ufnK§d ;awGukd aysmufomG ;rSmpd;k vdUk

atmif'if

70

BuKd ;eJo
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wpfaxmifjynfzh Ukd wpfacsmif;yJvykd gawmhw,f/ tJ't
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"m;0ifNh y;D vdu
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Y Mum;a&SUuajy;?
aoG;qmaewJh vlowform;t*Fkvdrmvu aemufuvdkufaecsdefrSm
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aemufvdkufwmudk&yfjyD; bk&m;udkowfzdkUvdkufawmh bk&m;ua&SUuae
jznf;jznf;av;<uaeayrJh olb,fvrkd S vdu
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rmv igum;rajy;? oifom ajy;oljzpfonf}} vdkUtpcsDNyD; w&m;a[mjy
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tckvnf; usaemfwdkUacwf&JU t*FkvdrmvawGudk awGUae&jyefygjyD/
olwdkU&JUq&mMuD; w½kwftpdk;& auseyfapzdkUtwGuf wdkif;jynfrSm &SdorQ
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&wemawGtm;vk;H udk ay;tyfjy;D wJah emuf tckw½kwt
f pd;k &tvdu
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rcH&atmif bk&m;<ujyD;w&m;jyzdkUuawmh rjzpfEdkifyg/ usaemfwdkU jrefrm
jynfolrsm;uyJ pnf;vkH;nDñGwfwJhvIyf&Sm;rIeJYtiftm;jyjyD; t*Fkvdrmv
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vSefa&;pygjyD/
pmNyD;&uf-(pufwifbm 12? 2011)

(rdk;rcrD'D,m? pufwifbm 2011)

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

{&m0wDjrpfzsm;ydkif; jrpfqHkteD;a&TusifaeonfhjrifuGif;("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

71

72

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

73

{&m0wD? jrefrmjynfeJY
vdrfnmaewJh e*g;teD

{&m0wDjrpfqHkwGif a&TusifaeonfhjrifuGif;("mwfyHk-pdk;0if;Nidrf;)

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

87

tusKd ;pD;yGm;udk qefUusiaf eorQ? vlx&k UJ qE´urkd av;pm;orQ vlx&k UJ
a'goeJYwkHYjyefrI? pdefac:rIudkolwdkU&ifqdkif&rSmyg/
{&m0wDawmf vSefa&;paeygjyD/
pmNyD;&uf-(pufwifbm 22? 2011)

(rd;k rcrD',
D m? pufwifbm 2011)
'Daqmif;yg;twGuf atmufygpmwrf;? pmtkyfrsm;udk udk;um;ygw,f/
(1) Ayeyawady Basin Hydropower Projects are Strategic Selection for Myanmar Electric Power Industry, by Mr. Li Guanghau, CPI
Yunnan International Power Investment Co.,Ltd (CPIYN), September 2011

(2) obm0ywf0ef;usiEf iS hf vlryI wf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f mtusKd ;oufa&mufr?I a'guf
wmxifvS? Ouú|? Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Association
(BANCA), September 2011
(3) Environmental Impact Assessment (Special Investigation)
On Hydropower Development of Ayeyawady River Basin above
Myitkyina, Kachin State, Myanmar, by Biodiversity And Nature Conservation Association (BANCA), October 2009
(4) The New Great Wall, A Guide to China's Overseas Dam Industry, by International Rivers Network, July 2008

(5) ucsifvGwfajrmufa&;tzGJUOuú|BuD;va&mfaZmif[&mu w½kwfuGefjrLepf
ygwDtBuD;tuJ [l*sifawmifxHay;aompmESifh yl;wGJygtaxmuftxm;rsm;/
rwf 16? 2011

88

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

89

'kwd,ydkif;
jid r f ; csrf ; a&; [d k ; ...ta0;rS m

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rdkif*sm;,efteD;&Sd ucsifppfab;'ku©onfuav;i,frsm; jzpfovdkpmoifMum;ae&yHk
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90

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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

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wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkifrsm; nDvmcH("mwfyHk-tifwmeuf)

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pufwifbmv 8&ufaeUu jrefrmtpd;k &&JU jynfaxmifpjk ird ;f csr;f a&;
azmfaqmifrv
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(United Nationalities Federal Council, UNFC)wdkU xdkif;EdkifiH?
csi;f rdik jf rKd UrSm awGUqHak qG;aEG;cJMh uygw,f/ tJ'aD qG;aEG;yGrJ mS jrefrmtpd;k
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oufjy;D owif;|mersm;udk &Si;f jyMu&mrSmrwlnw
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hJ jrifEpS rf sKd ;udk Mum;
od&ygw,f/

92

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k pf m;vS,f
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tzGUJ 0ifrsm;u atmufwb
kd m vufrw
S af &;xd;k yGu
J kd wufa&mufzUkd oabm
wlaMumif;ajymw,fvdkUod&ygw,f/ 'gayrJhtJ'Dowif;rSmyJ zuf'&,f
aumifp&D YJ ud,
k pf m;vS,f Edik [
f o
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f ;l vdUk ajymygw,f/
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

93

aygif;ay;vku
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r,fqw
kd mav;udk aygif;ay;vku
dk rf ,f/ tJ'gav;udk atmufwb
kd m vukef
avmufrmS vkyzf Ukd vkyx
f m;ygw,f/ vkyif ef;pOfu wpfqufwnf; jzpfaomf
vnf;oabmobm0csi;f urwlMubl;/ rwlawmh Mum;xJrmS vdik ;f av;
wpfvidk ;f wm;csiw
f maygh/ tJ'v
D ikd ;f ubmvJq&kd if ckeuajymwJh vufrw
S f
xd;k zdq
Yk Nkd y;D vkyw
f myg/ tJ'aD wmh 'Dupd aö wGvnf; ud,
k w
f aYdk qG;aEG;Muw,f}}
vdkUajymjyefygw,f/
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]]wpfjynfvkH;twdkif;twmjzifh typftcwf&yfpJa&; xyfrHvufrSwfa&;
xdk;&ef udpöESifhywfoufí}} qdw
k ahJ cgif;pOfeUJ aMunmcsuw
f pfapmifukd
t*Fvyd ?f jrefrmESpb
f momeJU xkwjf yefygw,f/ tJ'D aMunmcsurf mS zuf'
&,faumifpu
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J m;jy;D aom tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;
tm;vk;H [m oufqikd &f mjynfe,f tqifw
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f nf;aumif;? jynfaxmifpk
tqifw
h iG v
f nf;aumif; wpfzUJG csi;f vufrw
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aMumifx
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f wfrw
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&&Sad &;twGun
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kd yfaMumif;}} ¤if;wdUk &JUoabmxm;
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om; vufeufuikd t
f zGUJ tpnf; 14 ckeUJ typftcwf&yfpaJ &; vufrw
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a&;xd;k xm;jy;D jzpfw,fvUkd od&ygw,f/ zuf'&,faumifprD mS yg0ifww
hJ ikd ;f

94

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&if;om;vufeufuikd t
f zGUJ tpnf; 11 zGUJ xJrmS 6 zGUJ u typftcwf&yfpJ
a&; vufrw
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f kd (ac:) ucsiv
f w
G af jrmufa&;tzGUJ
(Kachin Independence Organization, KIO) eJU watmif;-yavmif
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k yf aJG wG qufjzpf&if;typftcwf&yfpzJ Ukd MuKd ;pm;ndE§ iId ;f
TNLA) wdUk uwdu
aewJt
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D H (Lahu Democratic Union, LDU)?
&cdik t
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k yf JG
om;tzGYJ (Wa National Organization, WNO) awGeUJ uawmh wdu
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OD;ode;f pdet
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f ifx
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H ;Hk twdik ;f twmeJU typftcwf
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ypfcwfraI wG&yfpaJ &;? (2) ESpzf ufoabmwlxm;wJh e,fajrrSmomaexdik f
a&;? (3) owfrw
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atmufwb
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{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

95

]]Edik if aH &; aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;usi;f y&ef vdt
k yfaomvkyif ef;pOf(Framework
k gw,f/
for Political Dialogue)}}rsm;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;r,fvUkd qdy
tJ'aD emufwpfqifu
h kd jzwfoef;Ny;D awmhryS J Edik if aH &;aqG;aEG;yGt
J qifu
h kd
a&mufygvdrrhf ,f/
zuf'&,faumifpb
D ufuawmh 'Dtypftcwf&yfpaJ &;vufrw
S f a&;
xd;k wmeJt
Y wl Edik if aH &;aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;twGuf vkyif ef;pOfukd wpfygwnf;
csrw
S af Munmapcsiyf gw,f/ zuf'&,faumifpt
D aeeJU olwUkd a&;qGx
J m;
wJh aqG;aEG;ajz&Si;f a&;vkyif ef;tpDtpOf (Comprehensive National
S f arvu wnf;u
Peace and Ceasefire Agreement) udk 2013 ckEp
OD;ode;f pdet
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od&ygw,f/ tJ't
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&if;om;vlrsKd ;pkrsm; yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G af &;vkyif ef;tzGUJ (Working Group
J NhJ y;D tcsuf 15 csuyf g
for Ethnic Cooperation, WGEC) ua&;qGc
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tpd;k &u olU&JU rl0g'udk wpfqifah vQmjY y;D zuf'&,faumifpu
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aygif;pktjzpf todtrSwjf yKvUkd wyfaygif;pktaeeJU n§Ed iId ;f aqG;aEG;rIawG
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aeUrSm usi;f ywJh jrefrmtpd;k & ud,
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f zGUJ eJU zuf'&,faumifpD
udk,fpm;vS,ftzGJUwdkU&JU n§dEdIif;tpnf;ta0;rSm zuf'&,faumifpDu
Nird ;f csr;f a&;aqG;aEG;yGaJ wGrmS ukvor*¾? tar&duef? t*Fvef? *syef?
w½kwef YJ xdik ;f Edik if w
H Ukd rS ud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk Mum;0ifzseaf jzay;olrsm;
(Mediators) tjzpf (odUk r[kw)f Mu;D MuyfapmifMh unfo
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tjzpfzw
d af c:&efwifjywmudk tpd;k &bufuvufrcHyg/ tpd;k & bufu
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H umuud,
k pf m;vS,rf sm;udk avhvmol (Observers) tjzpfom
wufa&mufciG jhf yKEikd af Mumif;eJU vdt
k yf&ifEpS zf ufoabmwlpmcsKyrf mS ouf
ao (Witness)tjzpf yg0ifvufrw
S af &;xd;k Edik af Mumif; wkjYH yefygw,f/
aemufwpfcg 2013 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f 13 &ufaeUrSm usi;f ywJh aqG;aEG;yGrJ mS
zuf'&,faumifpu
D Edik if w
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rsm;xm;&Sad &;xyfraH wmif;qdak wmh tpd;k &bufu xyfryH ,fcscyhJ gw,f/
2013 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f 17 &ufaeUrSm vufeufuikd w
f ikd ;f &if;om;
tzGUJ ESpzf UJG &JU acgif;aqmifrsm;u yl;wGaJ Munmcsuw
f pfck xkwjf yefygw,f/
zuf'&,faumifpt
D zGUJ 0if u&iftrsKd ;om;tpnf;t½k;H (KNU) &JU Ouú|
apmrlw;l ap;zd;k (Adv
k cf sKyrf w
l ;l ) eJUzuf'&,faumifp0D if r[kww
f t
hJ jyif
b,fwyfaygif;pkrmS rS ryg0ifwhJ &Sr;f jynfjyefvnfxal xmifa&; aumifpD
(RCSS, SSA-North) (&Sr;f jynfwyfrawmf ajrmufyi
kd ;f ) &JU Ouú| pyf
,Gufppf (AdkvfcsKyf ,Gufppf) wdkUjzpfMuygw,f/ 'Dwdkif;&if;om;acgif;
aqmifEpS Of ;D u zuf'&,faumifpu
D awmif;qdx
k m;wJh Nird ;f csr;f a&;aqG;
aEG;yGrJ mS Edik if w
H umzseaf jzolrsm;? Edik if w
H umapmifMh unfh Bu;D Muyforl sm;

116

atmif'if

udk yg0ifapa&;[m ]]jrefrmEdik if \
H Edik if aH &;awGUqHak qG;aEG;jcif; vkyif ef;
pOf[m tvGe½f yI af xG;wmrdUk oifw
h ifah vsmu
f efjcif;r&Sad Mumif;}}olwUkd &JU
oabmxm;udk xkwjf yefaMunmygw,f/
'DrmS zuf'&,faumifprD mS autef,&l UJ yg0ifru
I kd ar;cGe;f xkwpf &m
&Sv
d mygw,f/ wu,fawmh autef,l acgif;aqmifyikd ;f rSm Adv
k cf sKyrf w
l ;l
tkyfpkeJU z'dka';ApfwmuabmtkyfpkqdkjyD; *dkPf;ESpfckuGJaewmMumygjyD/
vGecf w
hJ hJ wpfEpS af usmu
f z'dak ';Apfwmuabmu autef,&l UJ Ouú|
vnf;jzpfjy;D autef,u
l ,
kd pf m;vS,t
f jzpfeUJ zuf'&,faumifprD mS 'kOuú| (2) wm0ef,cl yhJ gw,f/ ol autef,l Ouú|jzpfcsed rf mS Adv
k cf sKyf
rlw;l eJY taygif;tygrsm;udk A[dak umfrwD&UJ cGijhf yKcsurf &Sb
d J jrefrmppfwyf
udk,fpm;vS,frsm;eJY awGUqHkaqG;aEG;vdkUqdkjyD; tzGJUu xkwfy,fypfcJhyg
w,f/ aemufawmh atmufajcwyfrsm;&JU awmif;qdrk t
I & Adv
k cf sKyrf w
l ;l eJY
tzGUJ udk jyefvnfvufccH yhJ gw,f/ 'gayrJh aemufq;Hk usi;f ywJh autef,l
nDvmcHrmS Adv
k cf sKyrf w
l ;l tkypf u
k tompD;&jy;D Ouú|ae&mudk Adv
k cf sKyf
rlw;l u &&So
d mG ;jy;D z'dak ';Apfwmuabmuawmh A[dak umfrwD0if tqifh
txd xd;k usomG ;ygw,f/ wpfzufrmS awmh olu zuf'&,faumifp&D UJ
'k-Ouú| (2) wm0efukd quf,x
l m;qJyg/ jrefrmppf acgif;aqmifrsm;&JU
txl;ta&;ay;jcif;cH&wJh Ouú|opf Adv
k cf sKyrf w
l ;l u olryg0ifbJ csrw
S w
f hJ
zuf'&,faumifp&D UJ rl0g'tcsKd Uudk vufrcHEikd af wmh zuf'&,faumifprD mS
autef,&l hJ ud,
k pf m;jyKr[
I m rcdik rf mawmhyg/
zuf'&,faumifpDESifU
wdkif;&if;om;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;tvkyftzGJY
2012 ckEpS f pufwifbmv 14 &ufrS 16 &uftxd xdik ;f Edik if rH mS
usi;f ycJw
h hJ (yxr) wdik ;f &if;om;nDvmcHuae Nird ;f csr;f a&;vrf;jyajryHk
6 csufudk csrSwfcJhwJhtjyif EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJqdkif&m rlabmifrsm;
(Framework for Political Dialogue) udk jyifqifa&;qGz
J Ukd twGuf
wdik ;f &if;om;yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G af &;tvkyaf umfrwD (Working Group
for Ethnic Cooperation, WGEC ) udk zGUJ pnf;cJMh uygw,f/ tJ'D tvkyf

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

117

aumfrwDrmS zuf'&,faumifpD wpfcv
k ;Hk uvnf; tzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg0ifjy;D
e,fpyfa'otajcpdkuf wdkif;&if;om;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;eJU jynfya&muf
wdik ;f &if;om;ynm&Sirf sm; pkaygif;yg0ifMuygw,f/
'DtvkyfaumfrwDuae wdkif;&if;om;rsm;&JU EdkifiHa&;aqG;aEG;yGJ
rlabmifrsm;jzpfwhJ ]]us,jf yefUaom jynfaxmifpjk ird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf typf
tcwf&yfpJa&; oabmwlnDcsuf (Comprehensive Union Peace
and Ceasefire Agreement)}}udk 2013ckESpfrwfvrSm a&;qGJ NyD;cJhyg
w,f/ tJ'aD emufrmS awmh oabmxm;uGv
J rJG aI wG pwifjzpfvmygawmh
w,f/ tvkyaf umfrwD (WGEC) rSmyg0ifwhJ vufeufuikd rf [kww
f hJ
tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;u zuf'&,faumifpu
D ?kd tpd;k &udk 'DEikd if aH &; rlabmif
rsm;wifjyNy;D n§Ed iId ;f zdUk twGuf olwYkd (wdik ;f &if;om;vlxk tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;eJU
ynm&Sirf sm;)yg yg0ifwhJ tpd;k &ESiahf qG;aEG;n§Ed iId ;f a&;tzGUJ (Negotiation
D vufrcH
Team)udk zGUJ pnf;zdUk awmif;qdMk uygw,f/ zuf'&,faumifpu
yg/ zuf'&,faumifprD mS vufeufuikd w
f yfzUJG 11zGu
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k pf m;jyKjy;D Edik [
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om acgif;aqmifwhJ ]]Edik if aH &; aqG;aEG;a&;tzGUJ }} zGUJ pnf;wm0efay;jy;D jzpf
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k ;l vdUk taMumif;
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u zGJUpnf;ay;cJhwJh tvkyfaumfrwD&JUwm0ef[m EdkifiHa&;rlabmifrsm;
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kd ifjyjy;D nDvmcHuo
kd m 'Dtvkyaf umfrwD qufvuf&o
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r&So
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k w
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D u
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G af Mumif; 2013ckEpS f ZGev
f rSmaMunmvdu
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2013 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f 29&ufuae 31&ufaeYtxd ('kw,
d ) wdik ;f &if;om;
nDvmcHudk xdkif;EdkifiH? csif;rdkifjrdKUrSm nDñGwfaom wdkif;&if;om;rsm;
zuf'&,faumifpD (UNFC)u Bu;D rSL;Ny;D wdik ;f &if;om;yl;aygif;aqmif

118

atmif'if

&Guaf &;tvkyaf umfrwD (WGEC) ryg0ifbu
J si;f ycJyh gw,f/
tJ'aD emufrmS 'Dtyk pf Ek pS cf &k UJ oabmxm;uGv
J rJG u
I ydNk y;D Bu;D rm;vmyg
awmhw,f/ 2013ckESpf Mo*kwfvrSm wdkif;&if;om;tvkyfaumfrwD
(WGEC) udt
k "dutaxmuftuljyKaewJh Oa&my-jrefrm|me (Eurod hJ ]]zuf'&,faumifpD (UNFC) \
Burma Office,EBO)u jzefUcsw
rl0g'rsm;udq
k ef;ppfavhvmjcif;}} (Analysis of The UNFC Position)
qdw
k hJ pmrsuEf mS av;rsuEf mS ygpmwrf;rSm ]]zuf'&,faumifp[
D m Edik if aH &;
t&jzpfEikd af cs&w
dS t
hJ jcm;enf;vrf;awGukd &SmazGjyifqifurf;vSr;f jcif;r&Sb
d J
tpd;k &&JU aqG;aEG;yGq
J ikd &f murf;vSr;f csuaf wGukd jiif;y,faew,f}} vdUk pGypf JG
a0zefygw,f/ ]]zuf'&,faumifp[
D mjynfwiG ;f ppfukd jyefvnfawmuf
avmifapwJh tifrweftEÅ&m,fMu;D wJh upm;yGu
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kd pm;aew,f}} vdUk vnf;
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ud,
k pf m;vS,af wG[m trSew
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bl;}}vdUk vnf;axmufjyygw,f/ zuf'&,faumifpu
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f 15 &uf
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d hJ pmwrf;wpfapmifxw
k jf yefjy;D ]]Oa&myjrefrm|me (EBO)[m wdik ;f &if;om;tvkyaf umfrwDuwpfqifh aiGaMu;
tiftm;ok;H jy;D wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;tMum;rSm tpd;k &eJUajyvnfatmif qufqH
a&;eJU a'oqdik &f mzGUH jzKd ;wd;k wufru
I kd OD;pm;ay;a&; tawG;tac:rsm;udk
jzefUcspd nf;½k;H jy;D wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;pkrsm;&JUvGwv
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JG u
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tvkyaf umfrwDwUkd [m oD;jcm;tiftm;pkrsm;jzpfvmMujy;D tpd;k &eJUoD;jcm;
pDaqG;aEG;aeMuygjy/D rlvu Edik if aH &;rlabmifrsm;a&;qGzJ Ukd om wm0ef&cdS hJ
wJh wdik ;f &if;om;tvkyaf umfrwD[m tckawmh zuf'&,faumifpt
D zGUJ 0if
wpfcjk zpfwhJ autef,el UJ zuf'&,faumifp0D ifr[kww
f hJ &Sr;f jynfjyefvnf
H ahJ emufxyfwikd ;f &if;om;
xlaxmifa&;ygwD (RCSS)wdUk u axmufcw
wyfaygif;pkwpfckjzpfvmygjyD/
pmNyD;&uf-(pufwifbm 18? 2013)

(ukrkj'mowif;*sme,f? twGJ 3 trSwf 30? atmufwdkbmv 29 &uf 2013)

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

119

jidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh 'Drdkua&pDwyfaygif;pk
jrefrmjynf ta&SUajrmufyikd ;f a'orSm tajcpdu
k w
f hJ wdik ;f &if;om;vuf
eufuikd w
f yfaygif;pk wpfc&k ydS gao;w,f/ jird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDwyf
aygif;pk (Peace and Democracy Front, PDF) vdUk trnf&jy;D yefqef;
tajcpdu
k f 0jynfaoG;pnf;nDñw
G af &;ygwD (United Wa State Party,
k ;f vm;tkypf v
k Ukd ac:MuwJh trsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pD r[m rdww
f yf
UWSP)? rdi
rawmf(National Democratic Alliance Army, NDAA)? jrefrm
trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pD r[mrdwfwyfrawmf(udk;uefUtzGJU) (Myan-mar
National Democratic Alliance Army, MNDAA)eJU 'Drdkua&pD
wyfrawmfopf (ucsi)f (New Democratic Army-Kachin, NDAG f a&;ygwD
K) wdUk yg0ifMuygw,f/ 'Dwyfaygif;pkrmS 0jynfaoG;pnf;nDñw
(UWSP) u wyftiftm; ok;H aomif;avmuf? rdi
k ;f vm;tkypf k (NDAA)
uwyftiftm;ESpaf xmifavmuf&MdS ujy;D ESpzf UJG pvk;H utpd;k &eJUtypf t
cwf&yfpjJ y;D om;jzpfygw,f/ 'Dru
kd a&pDwyfrawmfopf(ucsi)f (NDA-K)
eJU jrefrmtrsKd ;om;'Dru
kd a&pDr[mrdww
f yfrawmf (MNDAA) (ud;k uefU
tzGUJ )uawmh wyftiftm;wpfaxmifavmufpD toD;oD;&SMd ujy;D ESpzf UJG pvk;H
u jrefrmwyfrawmfvufatmufcH e,fjcm; apmifw
h yfzUJG rsm; (Border
Guard Force, BGF)tjzpf&yfwnfaeMu wmyg/ wyftiftm; pkpak ygif;
oH;k aomif;av;axmifavmuf&w
dS hJ 'DwyfzUJG awGukd nDñw
G af omwdik ;f &if;
om;rsm;zuf'&,faumifpD (UNFC) tzGUJ 0iftjzpfyg0ifzUkd zuf'&,f
aumifpu
D pnf;½k;H aecJw
h mtawmfMumjyD jzpfayr,fah tmifjrifrrI &Sad o;yg/
zuf'&,faumifpu
D OD;aqmifjy;D 2013 ckEpS f Zlvikd v
f rSm usi;f ywJh
('kw,
d ) wdik ;f &if;om;nDvmcHukd yD't
D ufzf (PDF) wyfaygif;pkrS ud,
k f
pm;vS,frsm;wufa&mufcJhMuayrJh avhvmoltjzpfomwufa&mufwm
jzpfvUkd nDvmcHuqk;H jzwfcsuaf wGukd yD't
D ufzf (PDF) u oabmwl
w,fvdkUajymvdkUr&yg/ yD'Dtufzf wyfaygif;pk0ifwyfzGJUrsm;&JUoabm
xm;u tpd;k &udk twdu
k t
f cHvyk zf Ukd xuf tpd;k &eJU ajyvnfatmif quf
qHjy;D olwUkd vdck siw
f mudk awmif;r,fqw
kd rhJ 0l g'rsKd ;&Syd gw,f/ wdik ;f &if;om;
vufeufudkifwyfzGJUrsm;xJrSm wyftiftm;tBuD;rm;qkH;jzpfwJh0jynf

120

atmif'if

aoG;pnf;nDñw
G af &;ygwDuawmh 2008 zGUJ pnf;yHu
k zefw;D ay;xm;wJh
&Sr;f jynfe,fajrmufyikd ;f ? w½kw-f jrefrme,fpyfu NrKd Ue,fajcmufc?k c½dik f
ESpfckyg0ifwJh ]]0 udk,fydkiftkyfcsKyfcGifh&wdkif;}} (Wa Self-Administrak ufrcHbJ &Sr;f jynfe,feUJ wef;wl jynfe,ft qifah y;zd?Yk
tive Division) udv
0jynfe,fuv
kd nf; vuf&zdS UJG pnf;yHu
k ay;xm;wJh NrKd Ue,frsm;(0 ajrmufyikd ;f )
omru &Sr;f jynfe,fawmifyikd ;f ? xdik ;f -jrefrm e,fpyfa'ou olwUkd u
0awmifyikd ;f vdUk ac:wJNh rKd Ue,fawG? awmifyikd ;f eJUajrmufyikd ;f tMum; qufpyf
e,fajrrsm;udyk g xnfo
h iG ;f ay;zdUk awmif;qdak eMuygw,f/ ydjk y;D &Si;f atmif
ajym&&if0wyfzUJG u&Sr;f jynfe,f&UJ av;yHw
k pfyakH vmufukd 0jynfe,ftjzpf
owfrw
S af y;zdaYk wmif;qdak ewmyg/
tjcm;wdkif;&if;om;vufeufudkifwyfzGJYrsm;
nDñw
G af omwdik ;f &if;om;rsm; zuf'&,faumifpD (UNFC) rSm ygwJh
vufeufuikd w
f yfzUJG 11 zGUJ ? jird ;f csr;f a&;ESihf 'Dru
kd a&pDwyfaygif;pk (PDF)
rSmyg0ifwhJ vufeufuikd w
f yfzUJG 4zGUJ ? wdik ;f &if;om;yl;aygif;aqmif&u
G af &;
tvkyaf umfrwD (WGEC) eJU oabmxm;xyfw&l yfwnfwhJ &Sr;f jynfjyef
vnfxlaxmifa&;aumifpD (RCSS/ SSA-North) wdkUtjyif tjcm;
wdik ;f &if;om;vufeufuikd w
f yfzUJG awG&ydS gao;w,f/
wyftiftm; 1500 avmuf&w
dS hJ 'Dru
kd &ufwpf u&iftusKd ;jyK wyfr
awmf (Democratic Karen Benevolent Army, DKBA-KHB)?
wyftiftm; 500avmuf&w
dS hJ u&ifjird ;f csr;f a&;aumifpD (Karen Peace
dS hJ em*trsKd ;om; qd&k ,
S f
Council,KPC)? wyftiftm; 1000 avmuf&w
vpfaumifpD(National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Kaplan,
dS hJ &cdik jf ynfvw
G af jrmuf a&;ygwD
NSCN-K)? wyftiftm;100avmuf&w
(Arakan Liberation Party,ALP)wdUk utpd;k &eJY typftcwf&yfpx
J m;
MuNyD;EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&mtypftcwf&yfpJa&;vufrSwfa&;xdk;yGJudk BudKwif
pnf;urf; owfrw
S cf surf sm;rxm;bJ wufa&mufMur,fyh &kH ydS gw,f/
'DwyfzUJG awGtjyif tpd;k &eJU jird ;f csr;f a&;,ljy;D ½Hrk u jrefrmhwyfrawmf
vufatmufcHe,fjcm;apmifhwyfzGJUrsm;jzpfaewJh wyftiftm; 4ç000

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

121

avmuf&w
dS hJ 'Dru
kd &ufwpf u&ifA'k b
¨ momwyfrawmf (Democratic
dS hJ u&if
Karen Buddhist Army,DKBA)? wyftiftm; 500avmuf&w
eDtrsKd ;om;rsm; jynfoUl vGwaf jrmufa&;wyfO;D (Karenni Nationalities
Peoples' Liberation Front, KNPLF)? jrefrmhwyfrawmf vufatmuf
cH jynfoUl ppfwyfzUJG rsm;jzpfaewJw
h yftiftm; 500 avmuf&w
dS u
hJ ,ef;
jynfopfygwD (Kayan New Land Party, KNLP)? wyftiftm;
1ç000 avmuf&w
dS v
hJ m;[ljynfoUl ppfwyfzUJG (Lahu Militias)? wyftif
tm; 1ç000 avmuf&w
dS hJ yavmifjynfe,fvw
G af jrmuf a&;tzGUJ (Plaung
State Liberation Organization,PSLO)? wyftif tm; 1000
avmuf&w
dS yhJ tdUk trsKd ;om;tzGUJ (Pa-O National Organization, PNO)?
wyftiftm; 1ç000avmuf&w
dS hJ &Sr;f jynfe,fwyf rawmf (ajrmufyikd ;f )
wyfr[m (3)ESiw
hf yfr[m (7) (Shan State Army-North 3rd and 7th
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122

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D rdeUf u touf0if
vmcJjh y;D qd;k ygw,f/ rdu
k yf gw,fqw
kd hJ &mZ0wftusO;f om; wcsKd Uaxmif
0ifpmrSm olw&Ykd UJ rdom;pkawG a&SUrSmususeeyHpk x
H ikd jf y;D jyefvmcJMh uygjy/D
olwUkd tm;vk;H u usaemfwUkd Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;awG b,fvw
kd jYHk yefMu
rvJqw
kd m apmifMh unfah eMuav&JU/
usaemfwUkd Edik if aH &; tusO;f om;awGrmS vJ axmif0ifpmvmEdik w
f hJ
rdom;pkuenf;wJhtjyif a0;vHvGef;vdkUoHk;av;vavmufrS wpfacguf
vmEdik Mf uwmyg/ 'Dawmh wpfywfrmS Edik if aH &;tusO;f om; ESpaf ,muf
oH;k a,mufavmufyJ axmif0ifpmvmwm&Syd gw,f/ tJ'D trdeUf xGuw
f hJ
tywfrmS axmif0ifpmvmzdYk uReaf wmfwUkd taqmifu tvSnu
hf swmu

172

atmif'if

uReaf wmfwUkd nDtpfukd ESpaf ,mufyg/ &JabmfawGtm;vk;H u uReaf wmfwUkd
nDtpfuu
kd kd bmzdtm;rSray;ygbl;/ vGwv
f w
G v
f wfvwf qk;H jzwfjy;D ,Hk
Munfovdk&ifqdkifzdkUyJajymMuygw,f/ [kwfygw,f/ 'g[mjzifh wpf
a,mufcsif;&JUwdkufyGJyg/
usaemfwUkd nDtpfuEkd pS af ,muf acgif;csi;f qdik Mf uygw,f/ a&Tbek ;f
uajymygw,f/ ]]udu
k kd qk;H jzwfyg? i,fi,faemufuvdu
k yf ghr,f}}wJ/h 'geJU
usaemht
f pDtpOfuo
kd Ul ud&k iS ;f jyw,f/ olucsucf si;f yJoabm wlygw,f/
axmif0ifpm vmwJah eUudak &mufygNy/D reufr;kd vif;wnf;u bk&m;
&Scd ;kd Ny;D ? bk&m;pmawG&w
G zf wfNy;D ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd f pdw&f iS ;f vif;atmif vkyMf u
ygw,f/ b,foel UJ rSvnf;pum;rajymjzpfyg/ 'Dvekd UJ reuf10em&Davmuf
axmif0ifpm½k;H u 0efxrf;wpfa,mufeUJ taqmifaxmifrLS ; a&mufvmNy;D
usaemfwUkd ESpaf ,mufukd axmif0ifpmawGUzdUk vmac:ygw,f/ nDtpfukd
ESpaf ,mufpvk;H wpfNyKd iw
f nf;rawGU&yg/ wpfa,mufjy;D rSwpf a,muf
awGU&rSmyg/ 'geJU wdik yf ifxm;wJt
h wdik ;f usaemft&if vdu
k o
f mG ;cJyh gw,f/
taqmif½kH;cef;rSmyJ usaemfutaqmifaxmifrSL;udk owif;ydkUp&m
&Sad Mumif;ajymygw,f/ axmifrLS ;ucGijhf yKwt
hJ cgusrS usaemfu usaemf
'DaeYaxmif0ifpmawGU&r,ft
h cGit
hf a&;udk pGeUf vTwaf Mumif;? axmif0ifpm
awGUrSmr[kww
f t
hJ aMumif;wifjyvdu
k yf gw,f/ olrarQmv
f ifw
h m Mum;vdu
k f
&wJt
h wGuaf xmifrLS ;vnf;tvefUwMum;jzpfomG ;ygw,f/ ]]bmjzpfvUkd vJ}}
vdUk tarmwaum ar;ygw,f/
]]axmif0ifpmawGUcsed rf mS q&mwdUk u yHpk v
H Ukd atmfvu
kd &f if usaemf
wdUk u rdom;pkeUJ pum;ajymaewm csucf si;f &yfNy;D ta&;ay:yHpk x
H ikd &f r,f
vdUk trdeUf xkwx
f m;w,fvUkd usaemfwUkd od&ygw,f/ tJ'v
D v
kd yk zf Ukd twGuf
uReaf wmfUrSmjyóem&Syd gw,f/ usaemf azazutouf70 ausmyf gjy/D
araruvnf;touf 60ausmfygjyD/ olwdkUrSmvJESvkH;a&m*g? aoG;wdk;
a&m*gawGeJUyg/ jyD;awmh [dk;ta0;MuD;uae usaemfwdkUudkawGUzdkU
um;wpfwef? &xm;wpfwefeUJ {&m0wDjrpfMu;D udjk zwfjy;D vdiI ;f awG av
awGMum;upGeUf Ny;D vmMu&wmyg/ usaemfwu
Ykd kd cPwjzKwaf wGU& csed rf mS yJ
usaemfwUkd olwUkd a&SUrSm yHpk x
H ikd &f wmudo
k m awGUvdu
k &f &if olwUkd &ifusKd ;

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

173

MurSmyg/ usaemfah Mumifh olwUkd pdwx
f cd u
kd &f ? aMuuG&J wm rjzpfapcsiyf g
bl;/ 'ghaMumifh usaemf&h UJ axmif0ifpmawGU&r,hf tcGit
hf a&;udk usaemf
pGeUf vTwyf gw,f/ usaemfrawGEY ikd yf g}}
axmifrLS ;vnf; bmjyefajym& rSe;f rodjzpfomG ;Ny;D wJah emuf usaemhu
f kd
taqmifrSL;½kH;cef;rSmyJ 0efxrf;wpfa,mufeJUxm;cJhjyD; axmifydkifxH
owif;ydUk zdUk xGucf mG oGm;ygw,f/ 15 rdepfavmuf tMumrSmawmh axmif
0efxrf;awG wpftyk Bf u;D eJU jyefa&mufvmjy;D usaemhu
f kd axmifyikd ½f ;Hk cef;
qD tjypf&o
dS w
l pfa,mufvkd twif;qGaJ c:oGm;Muygawmhw,f/ axmif
ydik ½f ;Hk cef;xJrmS awmh a'gotrsuaf csmif;acsmif;xGuaf ewJh axmifyikd u
f
usaemhu
f kd Murd ;f armif;ygawmhw,f/
]]a[haumif? rif;bm vlyg;0wmvJ/ 'g axmifu/G igu axmifyikd f
uG? igxkwjf yefwhJ pnf;urf;udk rif;vdu
k ef m&r,f}}
usaemfuvJ jyefajymygw,f/
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k Mf u;D axmif0ifpmawGUw,fqw
kd m usaemh&f UJ tcGit
hf a&;yg/ tck
usaemh&f UJ tcGit
hf a&;udk usaemhzf mom pGeUf vTww
f myg}}
axmifyikd rf mS ajymp&m pum;r&Sad wmhygbl;/ axmifrLS ;udk ]]'Daumifu
h kd
jypf'Pf wdu
k u
f ykd Ukd vdu
k }f }vdUk ñTeMf um;ygw,f/ 'Dvekd UJ usaemhu
f kd jypf'Pf
wdkufxJydkUvdkufygawmhw,f/
jypf'Pfwu
kd rf mS tcef; 12cef;&Sjd y;D wjcm;wdu
k yf w
d cf &H olawG tjzpf
ruou rif;aZ,s? vSrsKd ;aemifeUJ Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;wcsKd U&Syd gw,f/
odyfrMumygbl;/ usaemhfab;u tcef;wpfcef;wHcg;zGifhoH? jyefydwfoH
Mum;&ygw,f/ 0efxrf;awG xGucf mG oGm;wJt
h oHMum;&jy;D cPtMumrSm
awmh ]]udu
k kd b,ftcef;rSmvJ}} vdUk atmfar;vdu
k w
f hJ a&Tbek ;f vl&UJ toH
udMk um;vdu
k &f ygw,f/ oleUJ usaemfeUJ tMum; tcef;wpfcef;jcm;ygw,f/
usaemfwdkU MudKwifwdkifyifxm;wJhtwdkif;yJ oluvnf;olUtvSnfhrSm
axmif0ifpmawGUzdUk udk pGeUf vTwaf Mumif; aMunmvdu
k w
f t
hJ wGuaf Mumifh
usaemfv
h ykd J axmifyikd u
f ac:awGU Murd ;f armif;jy;D wdu
k x
f yJ Ukd vdu
k w
f myg/
aemuf em&D0ufavmufMumawmh wdkufxJudkaemufwpfa,muf
xyfa&mufvm jyefygw,f/ oluawmh (1)aqmifu pnfolxGwfyg/

174

atmif'if

pufrIwuúodkvf ausmif;om; wpfa,mufjzpfjyD; trsdK;om;'Drdkua&pD
tzGJUcsKyf&JU A[dkaumfrwD0if? vTwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f OD;wifxGwf&JU
om;yg/ olUtaruvnf; 'DaeUrSmyJ axmif0ifpmvmawGUjy;D oluvnf;
usaemfwUkd vdyk yJ pkH H rxdik cf siv
f Ukd axmif0ifpmrawGUcsiaf Mumif; jiif;qefvUkd
axmifyikd u
f wdu
k x
f yJ Ukd vdu
k w
f myg/ ola&mufvmwJh tcsed [
f m aeUvnf
wpfem&D ausmfaeygjyD/ usaemfwdkUudk b,folurS aeUv,fpmxrif;
rauGß;yg/ wdu
k cf ef;usO;f uav;xJrmS vnf; xdik pf &m0g;zsmawmifr&Syd g/
aeUv,f oH;k em&DavmufrmS awmh usaemfwUkd nDtpfukd ESpaf ,muf
udk axmif0efxrf;awGu vmac:ygw,f/ axmifydkif½kH;cef;rSmawmh
axmifyikd ?f 'k axmifyikd ?f axmifrLS ;Mu;D eJU wjcm;axmift&m&Sad wG tjyif
usaemfwUkd &JU rdbawGyg &Sad eMuygw,f/ usaemfwUkd tcef;xJukd a&muf
a&mufjcif;yJ axmifyikd u
f uReaf wmfwUkd rdbawGukd ]]uJ cifAsm; om;awG
udk cifAsm;ud,
k w
f ikd af r;Munf/h usKyw
f Ukd u ½du
k o
f vm;? r½du
k o
f vm;qdw
k m}}
azazu ]]om;wdUk azazUudk rSerf eS f ajymprf;/ rif;wdUk udk axmift&m
&Sad wGu ½du
k Ef u
S x
f m;ovm;? n§O;f yef;ESyd pf ufovm;}}
usae,fwUkd ESpaf ,mufpvk;H u tckxad wmh t½du
k rf cH&ao;aMumif;
ajymygw,f/ csucf si;f yJ azazuaxmifyikd b
f ufvn
S Nhf y;D ]]tckxd t½du
k f
rcH &ao;bl;qdak wmh igwdUk jyefomG ;&if rif;uighom;awGukd ½du
k rf mS vm;}}
touf 70ausmf azazu axmifyikd u
f kd rif; eJU ig eJU ajymwm udk
touf 40ausmfaxmifydkif tawmfcH&cufaeyHkygyJ/ a'gowMuD;eJU
wkjYH yefygw,f/ ]]usKyf cifAsm; om;awGukd vufzsm;eJUawmifrxdz;l }} azaz
u olUudk rMunfah wmhbJ uReaf wmfwu
Ykd kd ]]bmaMumifh axmif0ifpmrawGU
Edik &f wmvJ}} vdUk ar;ygw,f/ usaemfu axmifyikd af emufq;Hk xkwjf yefwhJ
axmif0ifpmawGUcsed f rdom;pka&SUrSm yHpk x
H ikd &f r,hf trdeUf ud&k iS ;f jyjy;D usaemf
wdUk taeeJUtJ'v
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f Ukd tckvkd axmif
0ifpmawGUcGiphf eG Uf vTw&f wJh taMumif;&Si;f jyygw,f/
tJ'geJUazazu axmifyikd u
f akd r;ygw,f/ ]]'Dvkd pnf;urf;rsKd ;b,f
axmifrmS rSr&Sb
d ;l ? rif;ubmvdUk 'DtrdeUf udx
k w
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J ufqo
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175

tawmhu
f kd vlrqefwt
hJ rdeUf yJ}}/
axmifyikd f a'goaygufuyJG gawmhw,f/ ]]'g usKyaf xmif usKyBf uKd uf
ovdk tkycf sKyrf ,f? usKyMf uKd uo
f vdk trdeUf xkwrf ,f/ cifAsm;bmrSajym
p&mrvdb
k ;l ? cifAsm;om;awG 'DaxmifxrJ mS &Sad eoí usKyt
f rdeUf udk emcH
&rSmyJ}}
araru 0ifajymygw,f/ ]]at;uG,f rif;u 'Daxmifukd tkycf sKyf
aeovd?k rif;uwdUk om;awGukd tkycf sKyaf eovd?k rif;udv
k nf; tkycf sKyaf ewJh
vl &Sw
d mygyJ/ rif;eJUaqG;aEG;vdUk r&&if rif;udt
k yk cf sKyw
f hJ vlawGeUJ wdUk pum;
ajym&rSmaygh}}
axmifyikd q
f ufjy;D onf;rcHEikd af wmhygbl;/ ]]awmfjyD awmfjyD cifAsm;wdUk
rauseyf&if MudKufwJhae&mwdkif? usKyf*½krpdkufbl;/ a[haumifawG?
'DaumifEpS af umif udjk yefac:oGm;awmh/ cifAsm;wdUk vnf;oGm;Muawmh}}
usaemfwUkd ESpaf ,mufvnf; uref;uwef; 'l;axmufjy;D azazeJU
ararudu
k efawmh Mu&ygw,f/ tJ'aD emuf 0efxrf;awGu usaemfwUkd
ESpaf ,mufukd wdu
k x
f jJ yefxnfv
h u
kd Mf uygw,f/ pnfox
l w
G u
f v
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rdcifeUJ axmifyikd ½f ;Hk cef;rSm tvm;wlay;awGUygw,f/
aemufrS usaemfwUkd od&wmu azazeJaY rarudk axmift&m&Sad wG
u usaemfwUkd ESpaf ,mufuaxmif0ifpmrawGUEdik b
f ;l vdUk jiif;qefaMumif;
ajymwmudk azazeJU araruvufrcHygbl;/ ]]'g rif;wdUk ighom;awGukd
½du
k Ef u
S x
f m;vdUk ? olwUkd ud,
k rf mS 'Pf&m'Pfcsuaf wG&adS evdUk ighom; awGu
igwdUk udk rawGUapcsiw
f mbJjzpf&r,f}} vdUk azazu pGypf yJG gowJ/h jy;D awmh
axmifyikd ef UJ awGUcGiahf wmif;awmh axmifyikd u
f awGUzdUk jiif;qefygowJ/h tJ'D
rSmwif 'Dupd u
ö w
kd ikd rf ,fqjkd y;D o&ufjrKd Uv,faumifuc½dik (f c0w)Ouú|
½k;H udk csw
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dS l
wpfa,mufu axmifyikd x
f zH ek ;f qufjy;D 'Dupd u
ö w
kd ;kd wd;k wdww
f w
d af jz&Si;f
zdkUwdkufwGef;ygowJh/
tJ't
D csed rf mS &efuek u
f vmwJh tbd;k Mu;D ? tbGm;Mu;D ESpaf ,muf olwUkd
om; ausmif;om;tusO;f om;awGukd axmif0ifpmawGUcGirhf &vdUk a'go
aygufuaJG eMuw,fqw
kd hJ owif;uo&ufjrKd U usO;f usO;f uav;rSmysUH ESUH

176

atmif'if

ausmMf um;aeygjy/D tJ'D tbd;k Mu;D ? tbGm;Mu;D ESpaf ,mufukd Munfjh rif
csiv
f Ukd o&ufaxmifa&SUudk pka0;a&mufvmMuolrsm;vnf; &SMd uygw,f/
azazu c½dik (f c0w) Ouú|½k;H udo
k mG ;r,fqNkd y;D jrif;vSn;f iSg;awmh vdu
k yf Ukd
ay;csiw
f hJ jrif;vSn;f orm; ig;a,mufajcmufa,mufavmuf&ydS gowJ/h
vdu
k yf Ukd ay;wJh jrif;vSn;f q&mMu;D uvnf; c½dik f (c0w)Ouú|½k;H rSm apmifh
ay;? jy;D awmh axmifujkd yefyUkd ay;wJt
h jyif ydu
k q
f aH y;awmhvnf; r,lb;l wJ/h
'gaMumifv
h nf; aemufq;Hk rSm axmifyikd u
f ol½u
kd Ef u
S x
f m;wmr[kww
f hJ
taMumif;oufaojyzdkUtwGuf azazeJUararudk olU½kH;cef;udkac:jyD;
usaemfwUkd ESpaf ,mufeUJ ay;awGUwmyg/
wdkufudkjyefa&mufjyD; odyfrMumcifrSm usaemfwdkU&JUaxmif0ifpm
ypön;f awGukd 0efxrf;awGuvmydUk ygw,f/ azazeJUarar o,faqmif
vmMuwJh tpm;taomufawG? aq;0g;awGyg/ txkyaf wGtm;vk;H uawmh
aoaocsmcsm &Smxm;vdkU z½dkz&Jjzpfaeygw,f/ naeapmif;rSmawmh
0efxrf;awGu usaemfwUkd taqmifrmS usecf w
hJ hJ tdy&f mvdyaf wGvmydUk jyef
ygw,f/ wdu
k rf mS usaemfwUkd Mumr,f qdw
k o
hJ abmygyJ/
wdu
k rf mS ae&wJh umvawG[m usaemfwUkd nDtpfuEkd pS af ,muf&UJ
teD;pyfq;Hk ? tnDñw
G q
f ;Hk ? wpfa,mufeUJ wpfa,muf em;vnfrt
I &Sq
d ;Hk
aeU&ufawGyg/ usaemfwUkd pum;awGtrsm;Bu;D ajymjzpfMuw,f/ twdw?f
ypöKyeÜ ?f tem*wf uReaf wmfwYkd b0awG&UJ umvok;H yg; taMumif;awG
aqG;aEG;jzpfMuw,f/ uAsmawG trsm;Mu;D pdwu
f ;l eJUa&;jy;D wpfa,mufa&;
wJh uAsmwpfa,mufukd &Gwzf wfjyjy;D a0zeftBujH yKMuw,f/
nwpfnrSmawmh olu usaemhu
f kd ar;ygw,f/
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k kd axmifuvGw&f if bmvkyrf ,f pdwu
f ;l xm;ovJ}}
usaemfu ]]t&ifq;Hk tvkyw
f pfcck k &Sm&rSmayghumG / azaza&m arar
a&m nDrav;a&m olwUkd tm;vk;H yifyef;vSjy/D tdrrf mS vnf; ta<u;awG
wifaewmrsm;vSjy/D 'D ta<u;awGtjrefq;Hk qyfEikd af tmif MuKd ;pm;&rSm
aygh}}
olu ]]i,fi,fawmh axmifuvGw&f ifpmayavmuxJ ajcpkyH pf0if
awmhr,f? pma&;q&m wpfa,muftjzpf&yfwnfawmhr,f}}

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177

usaemfu ]]aumif;ygw,fuGm}}vdkU axmufcHvdkufwJh tcgolu
]]i,fi,f udu
k Ukd qDu wpfcak wmif;csiw
f ,f}} vdUk ajymygw,f/
]]bmrsm; vJumG }} vdUk usaemfu ar;vdu
k af wmh olu]]wm&mrif;a0
qdw
k ehJ mrnfukd i,fi,fu
h avmifemrnf tjzpfo;Hk csiw
f ,f/ udu
k kd tJ'D
emrnfi,fi,fhudkay;Edkifrvm;}}
]wm&mrif;a0} qdw
k m usaemh&f UJ uavmiftrnfcw
JG pfcyk g/ ]'w¬}
qdw
k hJ uavmiftrnfeUJ uAsmawGa&;aewJt
h csed rf mS yJ pum;ajya&;&if
ok;H zdUk ]wm&mrif;a0} qdw
k hJ uavmiftrnfukd arG;xm;cJw
h myg/ 1986ck
ESpaf vmufu xkwaf 0wJh awmifOuúvmyjrKd Ue,f ESpv
f nfr*¾Zif; wpf
tkyrf mS usaemh&f UJ ]acwf &JU [mo} qdw
k hJ uAsmwpfy'k f ]wm&mrif;a0}
uavmifeUJ azmfjycJh jy;D ygjy/D tck usaemhn
f u
D 'Demrnfukd usaemhx
f u
H
awmif;cHaeygw,f/ usaemf MunfMunfE;l El;yJ ]],lyguGm}} vdUk ay;vdu
k yf g
w,f/
(7)
wdu
k rf mS ESpyf wfavmuf aejy;D wJt
h cg usaemfwUkd udk taqmifjyefyUkd
ygw,f/ axmifyw
d cf sed w
f ef;pDaeMuwJh tcsed rf mS 0efxrf;awGa&muf vmjy;D
wdu
k cf ef;wHcg;awGziG jhf y;D usaemfwUkd udk ypön;f awGord ;f jy;D xGucf MhJ uzdUk ajym
ygw,f/ tJ'aD emuf taqmifujkd yefac:oGm;ygw,f/ taqmifujkd yef0if
wJh tcsdefrSmaxmifydwfcsdef vla&wGufzdkU jidrfoufpGmwef;pDaeMuwJh
tusO;f om;tkyMf u;D udk jzwfoef;oGm;&ygw,f/ olwUkd tm;vk;H u usaemf
wdUk udk 0rf;omwJ?h aus;Zl;wifwhJ rsuv
f ;Hk rsm;eJU Munfah eMuygw,f/ tJ'D
tcsed rf mS axmifyikd u
f olU&JUaxmif0ifpm awGUcsed rf mS yHpk x
H ikd &f rnfh trdeUf
udkjyefvnf½kyfodrf;vdkufygjyD/
axmifyw
d jf y;D wef;jzKwjf y;D wJh tcsed rf mS awmh Edik if aH &;tusO;f om;
awGa&m? &mZ0wf tusO;f om;awGa&m? usaemhw
f Ukd nDtpfukd ESpaf ,muf
tem; 0dik ;f tHak &muf&v
dS mMujy;D usaemfwUkd udk aus;Zl;wifpum;ajymMu
ygw,f/ trde½Yf yk o
f rd ;f oGm;vdUk tm;vk;H 0rf;omaysm&f iT af eMuayrJh usaemf
wdUk udk taqmifujkd yefyUkd vdu
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178

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xifaeqJjzpfygw,f/ usaemfxifwm rSeaf Mumif;odyf rMumcifrmS yJod
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cPydwfcsdefrSm axmifrSL;wpfa,mufeJU 0efxrf;awGa&mufvmjyD;
a&Tbek ;f vlukd ypön;f awGord ;f jy;D vdu
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vnf; olUypön;f av;awG uref;uwef;odr;f jy;D vdu
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&wmu a&Tbek ;f vlukd o&ufaxmifuae om,m0wDaxmifuakd jymif;
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]atmif'if} eJU ]a&Tbek ;f vl} nDtpfuEkd pS af ,mufukd wpfaxmifwnf;rSm
twlxm;&iftkyfcsKyf&cufwmrdkU wpfa,mufa,mufudkolU&JUo&uf
axmifuae tjcm;axmifwpfaxmifukd ajymif;a&TUay;zdUk awmif;qdyk g
owJ/h 'Dvekd UJ usaemfwUkd nDtpfuEkd pS af ,muf o&ufaxmifrmS twlae
&wJu
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f rSm o&ufaxmifuvGwyf gw,f/ a&Tbek ;f
vlu 1994ckESpf'DZifbmvrSm om,m0wDaxmifuvGwfygw,f/ ol
rvGwcf ifrmS usaemfom,m0wDaxmifukd ok;H Murd o
f mG ;jy;D a&Tbek ;f vlukd
axmif0ifpmawGUcJhygw,f/ om,m0wDaxmif&JUMurf;MuKwf&ufpufrI
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Mum? 1998 ckESpfrSm wpfvMum? ESpfMudrf jyefcJhcsdefawGrSm oleJYjyefawGU
cJyh gao;w,f/ tJ't
D csed rf mS ol[m ]wm&mrif;a0}qdw
k hJ atmifjrifausmf
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I wGuf
usaemf0rf;om*kP,
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awGUcJh&wmyg/ tJ'Daemuf usaemfjrefrmEdkifiHudk jyefra&mufjzpfawmh
ygbl;/

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

179

olU&JU aemufq;Hk tajctaeudk uReaf wmfq
h D taMumif;Mum;wmu
udZk m*emyg/ 2007 ckEpS f Mo*kwv
f 4&ufaeU aeUv,fyikd ;f (&efuek rf mS
awmh 4&ufaeYn) rSm udZk m*emeJU usaemfeUJ tGev
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ting) vkya
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&if;eJU ]]udu
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ua,mifacsmufcsm;x&if; olUudu
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atmif'if

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odUk aemufq;Hk EIwq
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rif;udkEdkifu tm;vkH;&JUudk,fpm; ]Mu,fa<uowdkUom;} uAsmudk&Gwfqdk
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ay;EdkifMuwmyg/ az;rjyKpkzdkU rjidKjiifMuwmyg/ aoG;pufawGudk rsuf
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(&eHUopfr*¾Zif;? Mo*kwfv 2013)

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a':vSMunf okH;a,muftaMumif;
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a':vSMunf ESpfOD;udk cspfcif&if;ESD;pGmawGU&pOf(rif;udkEdkif\rdcif(0J)?
udkatmif'ifESifhwm&mrif;a0wdkY\rdcif(,m))

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184

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hH m;nm;rSnYf

{&m0wD? Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifhtrSwfw&rsm;

185

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ray;Edik yf g/ azazuawmh owif;Mum;Mum;csi;f olwUkd tdru
f o
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(The Weekly Eleven

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