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Gothic Architecture in France

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 2

Reporters: Erika Kahanap, Kim Larisma, Miriam Oafallas, Karen Isidoro, Janrose Carpio

Gothic Architecture in France


Examples of Structures:

Abbey Church of St. Dennis


Reporter: Erika Kahanap

Abbey Church of St. Denis


Notable for its Gothic Architecture for being the burial site of French Monarchs and Kings, makes it comparable to Westminster Abbey in England. 1966- became a cathedral Rebuilt and enlarged four times from 7th to 13th century. 1122- Abbot Suger rebuilt the portions of the Abbey Church.

Plan

Architectural Character
( Exterior )

Westwork
The faade has a crowning rose window flanked by two towers and crenelated parapet on top 34 meter wide and 20 meter deep, having three portals the central one is larger than others. Entrances have free standing jamb figures which connects the three portals The overall design of the faade has a resemblance to a Roman city gatehouse helps to emphasise the traditional notion of great churches

Last Judgement twenty-four elders of the Apocalypse decorated arch Door post wise and foolish virgins Also contains carvings from 12th century of Dove and Lamb, God an Christ

Tympanum

Porte des Valois


Tympanum of North Transept

South facade

Architectural Character
( Interior )

The Choir

Clerestory window

The Nave

Glazed Triforium from the Nave

Rose Window

Axial Chapel

Tombs

Ambulatory

The Crypt

Amiens Cathedral
Reporter: Kim Larisma

Amiens Cathedral
Roman Catholic Cathedral 42.30 meters (138.8 ft) height of stone vaulted nave built between 1220 and 1270 1981 - UNESCO World Heritage site Renowed for the quality and quantity of early 13th Gothic sculpture in west faade, south transept portal and large quality of polychrome sculpture.

West Facade

West Faade Central Portal

West Faade Right Portal


Right Jamb
( Annunciation, Visitation, Presentation )

Left Jamb

( Adoration of the Magi )

Exterior from North West

The Choir ( Ext. )

The Choir ( Int. )

The Nave leading to the Choir

Nave

Transept

Gargoyle and Sculpture

Reporter: Miriam Oafallas

LAON CATHEDRAL
Cathdrale Notre-Dame de Laon Picardy, France 1160 1230

cruciform four towers portals

nave

statues of oxen rose window

stained glass white stone

SOISSONS CATHEDRAL
Cathdrale Saint-Gervais-SaintProtais Soissons, France 1197 1479

single western tower unusual transept that is rounded in the south with the a flat north arm south transept has four-story elevation (arcade, gallery, triforium, and clerestory)

octopartite vault flying buttress stained glass tapestry

FORTIFIED TOWNS
city wall, defensive wall protection two outer walls towers bridge over moat

Carcassonne

Chteau Plessis-Bourre

Aigues-Mortes

PALAIS DE JUSTICE
originally a medieval royal castle law court 1835-1842
courtyard colonnade

Chartres Cathedral, France


Reporter: Karen Isidoro

Chartres Cathedral, France


west front

HISTORY
o According to tradition, Chartres Cathedral has housed the tunic of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the Sancta Camisia, since 876. o The present cathedral is one of several French Gothic masterpieces built because fire had destroyed its predecessors. o After the first cathedral of any great substance burnt down in 1020, a glorious new Romanesque basilica with a massive crypt was built under the direction of Bishop Fulbert and later Geoffroy de Lves. o The construction project used the plans laid out by the first architect in order to preserve the harmonious aspect of the cathedral. o Work began first on the nave and by 1220 the main structure was complete, with the old crypt, the west towers and the west facade incorporated into the new building. On October 24, 1260, the cathedral was finally dedicated in the presence of King Louis IX and his family. o Chartres Cathedral was never destroyed nor looted during the French Revolution and the numerous restorations never have altered its glorious beauty. It always stayed the same: a great triumph of Gothic art. The cathedral was added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1979.

General Exterior
Floor plan of Chartres Cathedral

a Latin cross with three aisles a short transept and an ambulatory The rounded east end has five semi-circular radiating chapels The high nave is supported by double flying buttresses An extra row of single flying buttresses supported the apse from the beginning and a third row was added in the 14th century o They were necessitated by the unprecedented size of the clerestory windows and the height of the nave o The only aspect detracting from Chartres Cathedral's elegant symmetry are the mismatched west spires o In additon to the famed west front, both transepts have large rose windows, flanking towers and three sculptured portals each. This design was modeled on the rose-windowed transepts at Laon Cathedral, but the three-portal layout is unique to Chartres o o o o o

The exterior of Chartres Cathedral The Western Facade

The monumental faade standing to the west is impressive by its soaring height, emphasised by the two high towers that frame it. It is a very important work from the 12th century at the transition between Romanesque and Gothic art. It reflects the Byzantine influence driven by crusaders. The three large 12th century stained glass windows overhang the royal portal, from which they are separated by modillions representing human heads. They were inspired by Romanesque art. The upper part of the faade was added when the Gothic cathedral was built after the 1194 fire. Above it is located the opening of rose window which illustrates the Last Judgement from the inside. The rose window is topped by a Gallery of Kings and a gable, where you can see the Virgin with Child, then at the top Christ blessing.

The Royal Portal(Western Faade)


The central portal (or royal portal) constitutes the main entrance of the cathedral. This triple portal there is the oldest of the three portals of Chartres Cathedral. Surrounded by the North Tower and South Tower, it displays a considerable group of sculptures: 19 large statues (24 originally) and more than 300 figures form a decor in harmony with the architecture of the cathedral.

Behind the statues, the decor represents the last sparks of Romanesque style: interlaced designs, small columns, acanthus leaves.

Sculpture of Christ in Majesty on the Royal Portal

Kings and queens on the Royal Portal

The towers of the Cathedral


North Tower South Tower

The Portals of the South Transept


The south transept contains three portals housed by a deep porch The central portal is surmounted by a stained glass clerestory (4 lancet windows), a rose window and a clerestory gallery surrounded by turrets and dominated by a gable The portal to the left is dedicated to martyrs with Christ appearing to Saint Stephen and the Martyrdom of the Saint The central portal represents the Last Judgement with Christ, Mary and John, as well as scenes depicting the Procession of the Chosen and the Damned. The portal to the right refers to the legends of Saint Martin and Saint Nicolas.

The Portals of the North Transept


The portals of the North Transept have the Virgin Mary as their main theme The left portal is dedicated to the Incarnation with scenes showing the Adoration of the Magi and the Announcement of the Nativity to the Shepherds The central portal represents Marys Crowning with a statue of Saint Anne and Mary as a child on the trumeau The portal to the right refers to the announcement of a Saviour with scenes of Job and the Judgement of Solomon.

Side view of north portal and chapel

Sculptures of the north portal

The Chevet
numerous flying buttresses layout of minor apses, choir and transept arms two towers opened by twin bays and comprising a corner turret The balustrade which heads to the top links them to the choir

The interior of Chartres Cathedral


Nave
Chartres Cathedral is 130 metres long. The nave, 16.4 metres wide and 44 meters long, consists of seven bays punctuated by as many columns. The vaults of the central nave are 37 metres high in the nave. It is a three-storey elevation.

The Labyrinth

A work from the 12th century, it has a circular geometrical shape across the whole width of the main naves pavement, between the third and the fourth bays
The labyrinth seemed to represent a symbolic road where man meets God. The centre of the large design would therefore symbolise New Jerusalem, the hereafter. Its path is 261 metres long and the pilgrims used to walk along it on their knees during the celebrations of the Virgin Mary

The Choir and the Ambulatory


The significant size of the choir had to meet the large number of canons which were to be seated on the stalls. The choir extends the nave with seven columns arranged in a semi-circle, which is the ambulatory that surrounds it and opens onto seven apse chapels.

Ambulatory and chancel screen with 16th-century sculptures

Windows
The Stained Glass Window of Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrire

Notre-Dame de la Belle Verrire is a famous stained glass window, due to its exceptional and inimitable cobalt blue colour, the secret formula of which has not been discovered.

The Rose Window of the North Transept

Clerestory Windows

The Blue Virgin Window, survivor of the original Romanesque cathedral

Detail of the north rose window

Aries from the Zodiac Window in the south ambulatory

Bottom panel of the Jesse Window

REIMS CATHEDRAL in FRANCE, ITALY


Reporter: Janrose Carpio

Notre-Dame de Reims

BRIEF HISTORY
THE BASILICA CLOVIS WAS BAPTIZED BY SAINT REMI, BISHOPS OF REIMS IN 496 AD.
BURNED DOWN IN 1211

IN THE YEAR 13TH CENTURY


NAVE= ROOM FOR THE CROWDS KING OF FRANCE

CHARTRES AND AMIENS

REIMS = HIGH GOTHIC OR CLASSICAL FRENCH CATHEDRALS BUILT IN 13TH CENTURY

WEST FRONT VIEW OF THE CATHEDRAL


THE TOWERS- 267FT HIGH TO FT. 394
SOUTH TOWER CONSIST OF TWO GREAT BELLS * CHARLOTTE- (by the Cardinal of Lorraine in 1570). * WEIGHS MORE THAN 11 TONS THREE PORTALS = MEDIEVAL STATUES. *CENTRAL PORTAL = VIRGINS SURMOUNTED BY A ROSE WINDOW FRAMED IN AN ARCH GALLERY OF KINGS= BAPTISM OF CLOVIS

DETAIL SCULPTURE OF THE WEST FRONT OF THE CATHEDRAL


NORTH TRANSEPTS = PRINCIPAL BISHOP OF REIMS *LAST JUDGEMENT AND FIGURE OF JESUS
SOUTH TRANSEPTS = ROSE WINDOW WITH THE PROPHETS AND APOSTLES ROOF AND SPIRES BELL TOWER IN TIMBER = 59FT HIGH OR 18 M TALL

INTERIOR VIEW OF THE CATHEDRAL


138.75 m long, 30 m wide in the nave, and 38 m (about 125 feet) high in the centre.
NAVE AND TRANSEPTS = AISLES CHOIR = DOUBLE AISLES, APSE AND AMBULATORY STAINED GLASS AND ROSE WINDOWS ROBERT LENONCOURT = LIFE OF VIRGIN NORTH/SOUTH TRANSEPTS = FINE ORGAN WITH A FLAMBOYANT GOTHIC CASE

TRANSEPTS

STAINED GLASS AND ROSE WINDOWS

Gothic Architecture in France THANK YOU!


Reporters: Erika Kahanap, Kim Larisma, Miriam Oafallas, Karen Isidoro, Janrose Carpio