Orchard Gold Star

Language Arts 7-9 Curriculum Bundle
Teacher’s Guide

LANGUAGE ARTS 7-9
Version 4.1 or Newer

Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 5 Bundle Overview ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Critical Concepts .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6 SkillBuilders ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Skill Trees and Implementation/Integration Ideas .............................................................................................................................. 7 Accessing Assignments ........................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Entering Orchard as a Pre-Enrolled Student ............................................................................................................................... 8 Entering Orchard as a Guest .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Accessing Information on Assigned Skill Trees........................................................................................................................... 8 Writing and Media Literacy 7................................................................................................................................................................ 9 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 10 Using Writing and Media Literacy 7 ........................................................................................................................................... 10 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 14 Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 ........................................................................................................................................ 15 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Using Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7...................................................................................................................... 16 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 22 Writing and Media Literacy 8.............................................................................................................................................................. 23 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 Using Writing and Media Literacy 8 ........................................................................................................................................... 24 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 27 Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8 ........................................................................................................................................ 29 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 30 Using Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8...................................................................................................................... 30 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 ................................................................................................................................ 36 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 37 Using Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2............................................................................................................. 37 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 41 Reading Comprehension ...................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 45 Using Reading Comprehension ................................................................................................................................................... 46 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 48 Grammar: Advanced ............................................................................................................................................................................ 50 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 Using Grammar: Advanced .......................................................................................................................................................... 50 Playing the Games ......................................................................................................................................................................... 52 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Parts of Speech: Advanced ................................................................................................................................................................... 56 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Using Parts of Speech: Advanced ................................................................................................................................................ 57 Playing the Game ........................................................................................................................................................................... 58 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Punctuation: Advanced ........................................................................................................................................................................ 62 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 Using Punctuation: Advanced ..................................................................................................................................................... 62 Playing the Game ........................................................................................................................................................................... 63 Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 ..................................................................................................................................................... 67 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 68 Using Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 ................................................................................................................................. 68 Playing the Games ......................................................................................................................................................................... 69 

Table of Contents (cont.)
Program Parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................... 72 Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................................................................. 73 License and Warranty ............................................................................................................................................................................ 74 

Introduction
The programs within the 7‑9 Language Arts Bundle reflect the Standards for the English Language Arts, which are supported by the National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) and the International Reading Association (IRA). Students are given ample opportunities to read a wide range of material and to learn and apply a number of proven reading and writing strategies. Students are encouraged to build understanding of spoken and written language, identify patterns, practice usage, and transfer appropriate language concepts. Through a framework of balanced curriculum programs and multiple instructional methods, Orchard’s 7-9 Language Arts Bundle focuses on helping students develop the skills necessary to become contributing members of a literate society. Orchard’s 7‑9 Language Arts Bundle offers a vehicle for teaching, practicing, and reviewing the language arts skills needed to meet the demands of our ever-changing society. Many programs include open-ended and higher-order thinking questions. These can be used as a means to generate large-group discussions. Orchard can be used effectively in single‑computer classrooms as well as in lab environments. If you identify a skill that is commonly deficient among students, you can assign Orchard to serve as a step-by-step guide to teach, remediate, and reinforce that skill with a larger audience. Alternatively, several of Orchard’s programs can be assigned to assess an individual’s deficient areas, and then you may create a customized assignment for that student. You and your students also can use the portfolio feature to conference on questions generated during Orchard sessions. In either setting, records and reports can be printed to ensure clear, consistent communication between lab and classroom faculty, or among students, parents, and teachers. The chart on page 7 outlines the Skill Trees included in the 7-9 Language Arts Bundle and the general goals of each Skill Tree, as well as a sample implementation or integration idea for each listing. Use the ideas here or visit our Web site at www.orchardtreeofknowledge.com to see how other educators successfully integrate and use Orchard’s 7-9 Language Arts programs to help their students. Note: The Orchard Tree of Knowledge Web site is available only to Orchard customers. If you do not have a login ID or access code, contact your local Orchard representative. The Skill Trees found in the 7-9 Language Arts Bundle include: Critical Concepts Writing and Media Literacy 7 178CC Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC Writing and Media Literacy 8 180CC Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8 181CC Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 205CC Reading Comprehension 206-207CC SkillBuilders Grammar: Advanced 35SB Parts of Speech: Advanced 40SB Punctuation: Advanced 42SB Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 143SB 

Bundle Overview
The 7-9 Language Arts Bundle covers a wide range of language skills. The bundle focuses on reading, writing, and grammar through a variety of instructional approaches designed to meet individual learning needs.

Reading Comprehension 1-2 206-207CC
This diagnostic and prescriptive tutorial program develops reading comprehension across the curriculum by combining both assessment and remediation, developing skills needed to read a variety of educational and technical materials, and diagnosing each student’s developmental skill level in the areas of main idea, details, vocabulary, inference, sequence, and fact/opinion (206CC only).

Critical Concepts
Writing and Media Literacy 7 178CC
Students learn to write creatively and for real-life purposes at the Writer’s Block center, where they can work on a variety of writing types such as scripts, poetry, e-mail, and memos. At the Radio Factory, students can design and produce their own radio program. A word processor is available throughout the program. Students use the writing process, organize and classify information, and create a variety of media works.

SkillBuilders
Grammar: Advanced 35SB
A standardized testing format gives students the opportunity to identify grammar usage errors. Tutorials provide needed instruction, followed by practice, a test, and a motivating game as a reward for mastery. Students learn the forms and practice proper usage of compound and complex sentences; adverb, adjective, and noun clauses; participial, gerund, infinitive, appositive, and prepositional phrases; direct and indirect objects; and predicate nominatives and predicate adjectives.

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC
Students can either visit the Mountain Trails to work on their grammar, punctuation, spelling, and vocabulary skills, or they can go to Books R Us, where they can focus on research skills and explore various forms of writing including novel extracts and short stories. Students work on sentence and language structure, vocabulary, punctuation, grammar, reading rate, and note-taking.

Parts of Speech: Advanced 40SB
This program provides in-depth practice identifying parts of speech. Students use the mouse to find the correct parts of speech they are studying. The program includes helpful tutorials, a practice mode, a test mode, and a motivating game as an award for mastery. Students identify gerunds, participles, objects of prepositions, predicate nouns, and predicate adjectives, in addition to advanced nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections.

Writing and Media Literacy 8 180CC
At the Writers’ Passage, students practice writing for purpose and audience. Both expressive and transactional writing are explored through stories, poetry, brochures, résumés, and persuasive paragraphs. The Megashow, in which students design and produce their own audiovisual programs, allows students to experience the full multimedia spectrum. Students can publish their written work with the word processor that is provided. Students practice communicating ideas and information, analyze and interpret media, revise and edit work, and illustrate ideas in presentations.

Punctuation: Advanced 42SB
This program uses a standardized testing format in which sentences appear on four lines. Students identify the lines that are punctuated correctly. The program includes helpful tutorials, a practice mode, a test mode, and a motivating game as a reward for mastery.

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8 181CC
Students go on rafting adventures on The River, where they take pretests, work through tutorials, and take quizzes on essential language skills. Students are exposed to fiction and nonfiction from various genres and can use the word processing tool to publish their work. Students work on skills that include spelling, vocabulary, grammar, skimming and scanning, cloze exercises, and evaluating the usefulness and reliability of data.

Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 143SB
Students concentrate their efforts on language arts skills and receive helpful feedback and ample opportunity for practice. Topics include sentence construction, writing and reading strategies, resource skills and following directions, and literary forms.

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 205CC
This interactive, multimedia program engages students with real‑life situations and practice in effective comprehension, abstract thinking, and problem solving. Students watch an introductory video relating to a story and critique and respond to the decisions the characters make. 

Skill Trees and Implementation/Integration Ideas
Skill Trees Objectives Implementation/Integration Ideas

Writing and Media Literacy 7 178CC Writing and Media Literacy 8 180CC Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8 181CC

Develop and implement a working knowledge of the components and effects of media in today’s society.

Develop and implement written and oral language skills while learning basic research and study techniques.

Grammar: Advanced 35SB Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 205CC

Reading Comprehension 1-2 206-207CC

Learn, practice, and reinforce advanced grammar and usage skills. Practice reading strategies, find information in text, think about complex problems, take notes in an electronic format, and express thinking in writing. Understand and identify key elements of reading comprehension including details, inference, main idea, sequence of events, vocabulary, and fact and opinion. Learn, practice, and reinforce the identification and correct usage of parts of speech. Learn, practice, and reinforce advanced-level usage of punctuation. Learn, practice, and reinforce necessary reading and writing strategies to communicate efficiently and effectively.

Parts of Speech: Advanced 40SB Punctuation: Advanced 42SB

Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 143SB

Talk to students about the importance of making a good first impression when using written communication such as a résumé, an e-mail, or a memo. Have students check each other’s work for errors in grammar, spelling, capitalization, and punctuation using skills they learned in other Skill Trees in 7-9 Language Arts. Show students examples of various types of writing (e.g., advertisements, personal and business letters, novels, poems, magazine and newspaper articles, journal articles, instructions for computer programs or small appliances, assembly instructions, etc.) and have them talk about the purpose of each type of writing and the style of language that is appropriate for each. Identify one of the skills as a Problem of the Week. Focus on this problem throughout class sessions. At the end of the week, assign just this skill as a computerized quiz. Allow students to select a story within one unit, or divide the class into groups and have each group go through one of the three stories in a unit. Use the Critical Thinking exercises as “quick writes” for sharing ideas with a partner or small group. Complement each skill area with group activities integrating a variety of texts students will encounter: graphs, charts and tables, maps, schedules, and instructions. Pair students based on reading level proficiency and instruct them to extrapolate information from a variety of media. After instruction on specific parts of speech is completed, assign this program and the corresponding skills as a study and review session. Then assess and evaluate using traditional tools. Use this program to reinforce skills taught in class by having small groups work together to complete rounds of questions posed in the program. The step-by-step area can offer discussion starters and help to struggling groups. Use the passages and questions to model comprehension strategies such as Think Aloud. Read the passage aloud. Then the students and teacher can talk about the passage and what they may need to review to fully understand its context.

7

Accessing Assignments
For information on management system functions, such as creating students and assigning students to classes, see your Orchard Gold Star Teacher’s Guide.

Entering Orchard as a Guest
By entering Orchard as a Guest, students can quickly access all available Orchard programs. This method requires little teacher involvement. However, keep in mind that when students use Orchard in the Guest mode, no names, records, or bookmarks are kept. Therefore, it is not recommended that students frequently use this option.

Entering Orchard as a Pre-Enrolled Student
Having students enter Orchard using a specific login name not only allows you to monitor student progress through the variety of records that are kept on each student, but it also allows students to access individualized assignments tailored to their specific needs. Note: A student must be enrolled in at least one class within the Orchard Manager to use this option.

1 Double-click the Orchard icon to open the login screen.* 2 Click the Guest button.  Enter the name by which you would like to be called.  Click OK.
A screen showing the available Skill Trees appears.

1 Double-click the Orchard icon to open the login screen.* 2 Enter your login name and password, if required, and
click OK. 

If you are enrolled in more than one class, you will be
asked to select a class. 

Click a Skill Tree name, and then click OK to launch the
program.

A screen showing your available Skill Trees for that class appears.

Accessing Information on Assigned Skill Trees
Instructors can access information on assigned Skill Trees.

1 Have the student log in and select a class.
The available Skill Trees are shown.

2 Right-click (Windows) or CONTROL+click (Macintosh)
any of the Skill Trees listed. A Program Info screen appears with the Skill Tree name, subject, grade level, type, and completion time. 

Click a Skill Tree name, and then click OK to launch the
program.

*The Orchard icon is located by default in the Orchard folder. For Windows users, the Orchard icon is also located by default in the Start Menu. For Macintosh users, the Orchard icon is also located by default in the Mac Dock menu. 

Click OK to return to the list of Skill Trees. 

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Writing and Media Literacy 7 178CC 7 Integrated Throughout
Use word processing when composing and revising Use writing for various purposes and in a range of contexts, including schoolwork Use conventions of written materials to help understand and use the materials Make connections among previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts

Core

Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Writing
Communicate ideas and information for a variety of purposes and to specific audiences, using forms appropriate for their purpose and topic Produce media texts using writing and materials from other media Revise and edit work, focusing on content and elements of style: use a variety of strategies and resources, use consistent verb tense, eliminate repetition, and use accurate spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure Use and spell correctly the appropriate vocabulary Use correctly the conventions specified: use periods consistently after initials, in abbreviations containing lower‑ case letters, and in decimal numbers; and use parentheses appropriately Produce pieces of writing using a variety of forms, techniques, and resources appropriate to the form and purpose Use variety in sentence type, length, and structure Organize information to develop a central idea, using well-developed, well-linked paragraphs Proofread and correct final drafts, focusing on grammar, punctuation, and spelling Use modifiers, including prepositional phrases, correctly and effectively Show growing awareness of the expressiveness of words in own word choice

Reading and Research
Read a variety of fiction and nonfiction materials for different purposes Explain personal interpretation of a written work, supporting it with evidence from the work and from own knowledge and experience Use textual cues to construct meaning and interpret text (organization, point of view, theme) Explain how various elements in a story function in relation to each other (plot, character, theme, setting) Identify language and visual images that create mood Identify forms of texts and describe their key features Identify and explain stylistic devices in literary works Use a thesaurus to expand vocabulary Use special terminology in a particular area of study

Oral and Visual Communication
Listen to and communicate connected ideas and relate carefully constructed narratives about real and fictional events Contribute and work constructively in groups: engage in dialogue to understand viewpoints of others, contribute to group harmony, organize and complete tasks, demonstrate respect, evaluate quality of contribution, set goals and plans, ask questions, and build on the ideas of others Use the appropriate conventions of oral language in discussions and presentations

9

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC (cont.)
Oral and Visual Communication (cont.)
Demonstrate the ability to concentrate by identifying main points and staying on topic Use repetition for emphasis Use tone of voice, gestures, variation in pace, and pauses when making presentations Speak clearly when making presentations Show respect for the presenter through active listening and viewing behaviors Rehearse and revise material to prepare for presentation Explain how sound and image work together to create an effect Identify descriptive and figurative language in oral and media texts Listen attentively and organize and classify information Identify various types of media works and techniques used in them Create and analyze media works Express and respond to a range of ideas and opinions concisely, clearly, and appropriately Describe the function of different elements in various media

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Introduction
In Writing and Media Literacy 7, students learn to write creatively and for real-life purposes at the Writer’s Block center, where they work on a variety of writing types such as scripts, poetry, e-mail, and memos. At the Radio Factory, students design and produce their own radio programs. A word processor is available through the program.

2 Follow the instructions that introduce you to the tutorial
and tasks. Click the Tutorial or Tasks button at the bottom of the screen to see more information about each.

• In the Tutorial, students learn about the drop-down menus and items in the tool bar of a word processor.

Using Writing and Media Literacy 7
1 After you log in and select Writing and Media Literacy 7
178CC, click on a location.

1 Click the Next button and the right arrow to
move through the tutorial. Note: Click Next to see definitions of the items in the menus, and click the right arrow when it flashes green to go on to the next screen. return to the menu by clicking Menu in the lower left corner of the screen, or you can proceed to the tasks by clicking Tasks in the center of the screen.

Word Processor Training Center
The Word Processor Training Center provides instruction and practice in using a word processor.

2 When you are finished with the tutorial, you can

Tutorial and Tasks 1 To learn about word processors and how to use them,
click Tutorial and Tasks.

• In the Tasks, students are given five activities to practice using the features of a word processor.

1 Click a task, and then click OK. 2 Read the instructions, clicking the scroll bar as
needed to see all of the text.

10

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC (cont.)
Writer’s Block
The Writer’s Block offers four locations for learning about and practicing writing styles and techniques.

1 Click one of the locations to begin an activity. 

If you would like to print the task instructions,
click the Print Task button. word processor. 

Click the Word Processor graphic to open the  Follow the directions for completing the task.  When you are finished, save your work, and then
select Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

Real Work Gym
In this location, you’ll learn about and practice three different types of writing for business: memos, e‑mails, and business letters.

7 Click Menu to return to the task menu.  Repeat steps 1-7 to complete another task, or click
Menu to return to the Writing and Media Literacy 7 main menu.

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click the doors to
enter the “workout room.”

2 Select a piece of equipment to begin a lesson:
The Memo Machine teaches you about the parts and structure of a memo and gives you practice writing a memo.

Word Processor 1 Click the Word Processor graphic.
A blank word processing screen appears for you to enter your text.

2 When you are finished, save your work, and then click
Exit to leave the word processor.

11

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC (cont.)
The E-mail Exercycle explains the parts of an e-mail message and allows you to practice writing an e-mail of your own.

Haunted Mansion
In the Haunted Mansion, you’ll learn about the narrative elements of plot, setting, and character while you write a mystery story.

1 Follow the on-screen instructions to brainstorm ideas,

describe a setting, develop characters, build a plotline, and draft a story.

Business Letter Weights teaches you the format and essential components of a business letter, while linking paragraphs and using a variety of sentence structures. 

Follow the on-screen instructions to learn about

the writing activity, access the word processor, and complete the assignment. return to the Real Work Gym main menu.

2 When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Writer’s Block main menu. 

When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to  Repeat steps 2-4 to complete another activity, or click
Menu to return to the Writer’s Block main menu.

12

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC (cont.)
Theater
In the Theater, you’ll explore the elements of plays and play writing: characters, costumes, sets, lighting, props, sound, and scripts. The focus is on script writing, and you’ll explore a script and learn how to write dialogue for a play. You’ll also write a monologue and a play script. Alliteration involves using an initial consonant sound repeatedly.

1 Follow the on-screen instructions to brainstorm ideas,

describe a setting, develop characters, build a plotline, and draft a story.

Onomatopoeia refers to words that sound like what they represent (e.g., hiss, bang, crunch).

Comparison Devices include metaphors, similes, and personification.

2 When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Writer’s Block main menu.

Poet Tree Café
In the Poet Tree Café, you’ll learn about poetic techniques like alliteration, onomatopoeia, metaphors, similes, and personification. You’ll practice these skills while composing a menu for the café, and then you’ll write song lyrics, create a parody of a nursery rhyme, and write a dramatic monologue.

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click the right arrow
to enter the “café.” the technique. 

When you have finished with the three activities, click
the right arrow to continue. portfolio.

2 Select an activity and follow the instructions for using 

Revise your writing as necessary, and save to your  Click the right arrow to continue.

1

Writing and Media Literacy 7 17CC (cont.) 
Select an activity and follow the instructions for using
the technique. In Song Station, you’ll examine songs as a style of poetry and write lyrics to music that you choose. In Juvenile Joint, you’ll rewrite a nursery rhyme as a parody. In Commentary Corner, you’ll write a dramatic monologue.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Writing and Media Literacy 7.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from.

7 Click the right arrow to listen to the end of the lesson.  Click Menu to return to the Writer’s Block main menu. Radio Factory
In the Radio Factory, you’ll assume the role of the program director and select the songs and other program features needed for a radio show. 

Highlight Writing and Media Literacy 7 178CC, and
click Edit. A parameters screen appears, showing the available program segments.

1 Click the Radio Factory sign.
The Radio Factory introductory screen appears. 

Click the check boxes in front of the program segments

to toggle on or off the availability of each segment to the student(s). Note: To see a brief description of the objectives for an activity, rest the cursor on the activity name. The descriptions appear as a ToolTip.

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to put together your
radio show. 

Click OK when you are finished. 

When you are finished, save your radio show.  Click Menu to return to the Writing and Media
Literacy 7 main menu.

1

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Read., Research, and Lang. Skills 7 179CC 7 Integrated Throughout
Use word processing when composing and revising Use writing for various purposes and in a range of contexts, including schoolwork Use conventions of written materials to help understand and use the materials Make connections among previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts

Core

Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Writing
Communicate ideas and information for a variety of purposes and to specific audiences, using forms appropriate for purpose and topic Produce media texts using writing and materials from other media Revise and edit work, focusing on content and elements of style: use a variety of strategies and resources, use consistent verb tense, eliminate repetition, and use accurate spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure Use and spell correctly the appropriate vocabulary Produce pieces of writing using a variety of forms, techniques, and resources appropriate to the form and purpose Organize information to develop a central idea, using well-developed, well-linked paragraphs Proofread and correct final drafts, focusing on grammar, punctuation, and spelling Show growing awareness of the expressiveness of words when making word choices Use correctly the conventions specified: use periods consistently after initials, in abbreviations containing lower‑ case letters, and in decimal numbers; and use parentheses appropriately Use variety in sentence type, length, and structure Use modifiers, including prepositional phrases, correctly and effectively Identify and name the major parts of the sentence Use a variety of subordinate clauses correctly and appropriately according to purpose

Reading and Research
Read a variety of fiction and nonfiction materials for different purposes Read independently, selecting appropriate reading strategies Explain personal interpretation of a written work, supporting it with evidence from the work and from own knowledge and experience Use comprehension strategies (reflecting, assessing, re‑reading, determining main and supporting ideas) Select reading strategies (skimming, scanning, close reading) Use textual cues to construct meaning and interpret text (organization, point of view, theme) Decide on a purpose for reading and select material from a variety of sources Understand the appropriate vocabulary, language structures, and conventions Recognize uses of slang, colloquialism, and jargon Identify the main ideas in information materials and explain how the details support the main ideas Make judgments and draw conclusions on the basis of evidence Explain how various elements in a story function in relation to each other (plot, character, theme, setting)

1

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
Reading and Research (cont.)
Examine techniques of persuasion Identify language and visual images that create mood Identify forms of texts and describe their key features Identify and explain stylistic devices in literary works Use a thesaurus to expand vocabulary Use a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words Use special terminology in a particular area of study Use punctuation to promote comprehension Determine literal and implied meaning of visual and written texts Formulate relevant questions on a topic for research purposes Prepare and use a plan to access information from a variety of sources Use criteria to evaluate the currency, usefulness, and reliability of sources Organize information and ideas Make notes using headings, subheadings, and graphic organizers Assess information collected related to audience, purpose, and form Plan and carry out a research project

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Oral and Visual Communication
Provide clear answers to questions and write well-constructed explanations or instructions Listen to and communicate connected ideas and relate carefully constructed narratives about real and fictional events Use appropriate tone of voice, gestures, variation in pace, and pauses when making presentations Express and respond to a range of ideas and opinions concisely, clearly, and appropriately Speak clearly when making presentations Show respect for the presenter through active listening and viewing behaviors Use repetition for emphasis Rehearse and revise material to prepare for presentation

Introduction
In Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7, you can either visit the Mountain Trails to work on your grammar, punctuation, spelling, and vocabulary skills, or you can go to Books R Us, where you can focus on research skills and explore various forms of reading, including novel extracts and short stories. A word processor and tutorial are also available.

Using Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7
1 After you log in and select Reading, Research, and
Language Skills 7 179CC, click on a location.

1

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
Word Processor Training Center
The Word Processor Training Center provides instruction and practice in using a word processor.

1 Click a task, and then click OK. 2 Read the instructions, clicking the scroll bar as
needed to see all the text.

Tutorial and Tasks 1 To learn about word processors and how to use them,
click Tutorial and Tasks. 

If you would like to print the task instructions,
click the Print Task button. word processor. 

Click the Word Processor graphic to open the  Follow the directions for completing the task.  When you are finished, save your work, and then
select Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

2 Follow the instructions that introduce you to the tutorial
and tasks. Click the Tutorial or Tasks button at the bottom of the screen to see more information about each.

• In the Tutorial, students learn about the drop-down menus and items in the tool bar of a word processor.

7 Click Menu to return to the task menu.  Repeat steps 1-7 to complete another task, or click
Menu to return to the main menu.

Word Processor 1 Click the Word Processor graphic.
A blank word processing screen appears for you to enter your text.

1 Click the Next button and the right arrow to
move through the tutorial. Note: Click Next to see definitions of the items in the menus, and click the right arrow when it flashes green to go to the next screen. return to the menu by clicking Menu in the lower left corner of the screen, or you can proceed to the tasks by clicking Tasks in the center of the screen.

2 When you are finished with the tutorial, you can

2 When you are finished, save your work, and then select
Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

• In the Tasks, students are given five activities to practice using the features of a word processor.

17

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
Books R Us
Books R Us offers four topics for learning about and practicing reading and writing skills. • In Creative Characters, you’ll learn about the qualities that make fictional characters believable, and how to show a character’s personality through his or her actions, appearance, and speech.

1 Click one of the signs to begin an activity.

Reference
The Reference section focuses on research and writing skills. You will learn about different sources for locating information (personal knowledge, interviews, and research texts), create questions for research, take notes, and organize research notes into an outline.

• In What’s Your Style, you’ll learn about formal and informal writing styles and how to determine which is appropriate for a given situation.

1 Follow the on-screen instructions to learn about sources

of information and how to examine what you know, ask questions to expand the topic, organize what you know, and write a short piece on the topic given. return to the Books R Us main menu.

2 When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to

• In The Plot Thickens, you’ll learn about the elements of plot.

Fiction
You’ll learn about the features of fiction writing, characterization, and the structure of a story.

1 Read the introduction to fiction, and then choose an
activity:

• In Take the Quiz, you can test what you have learned from the three other activities.

1

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. • In What About It?, you’ll learn about gathering information from research reports. 

When you are finished, click Menu to return to the
Fiction menu. menu. 

Click Menu again to return to the Books R Us main Do It Yourself
You’ll learn about the elements of writing to inform, and you’ll have the opportunity to write instructions.

1 Read the introduction, and then choose an activity:
• In How to Do It, you’ll learn about what to consider when writing instructions and procedures. You’ll arrange the steps for a of couple activities in order, and then you’ll write the steps for an activity of your choosing.

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. 

When you are finished, click Menu to return to the
Books R Us main menu.

Adventure
In this section, you’ll learn techniques to help you get more out of your reading.

1 Read the introduction, and then choose an activity:
• In Adventure with Words, you’ll learn how to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. You’ll also learn about slang, jargon, and colloquialisms.

• In How Does It Work?, you’ll learn how to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words by using context and what you already know.

19

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
• In Pen Pal Journey, you’ll learn about how passages can create a mood and evoke emotions. You’ll also learn how to make inferences when you read.

1 Listen to the introduction, choose a bike, and then click
the right arrow to continue.

2 Select a path.

• In Sailing Trip, you’ll learn reading techniques such as skimming, scanning, and reading closely. You’ll also determine the main idea and supporting details of a short passage.

• In Parts of a Sentence, you’ll learn about subjects, predicates, direct and indirect objects, phrases, clauses, modifiers, and subject completions.

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. 

When you are finished, click Menu to return to the
Books R Us main menu.

• In Sentence Structure, you’ll learn about independent and dependent clauses; simple, compound, and complex sentences; and structural errors such as sentence fragments, run-ons, and comma splices.

Mountain Trails
Activities in Mountain Trails focus on the instruction and practice of essential grammar, spelling, and sentence structure skills. The Mountain Trails main menu has three options: Grammar Path, Punctuation Path, and Spelling and Vocabulary Path.

1 Click one of the signs to begin an activity. Grammar Path
In this section, you’ll learn about sentence structure and the parts of a sentence. You can also take a quiz over the information presented on the Grammar Path.

20

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.)
• In the Path Quiz, you have the opportunity to take a quiz on the topics covered in Parts of a Sentence and Sentence Structure.

1 Listen to the introduction, choose a bike, and then click
the right arrow to continue.

2 Select a path.
• In Periods, you’ll learn about the use of periods after initials, after abbreviations, and as decimal points. 

If you selected either Parts of a Sentence or Sentence
Structure, select an activity: • The pretest enables you to find out what you already know about the topic. Immediate feedback is provided for correct and incorrect answers. • The tutorial provides instruction and examples of the topics. • In the practice, you identify examples of the concepts presented in the tutorials and receive feedback for correct and incorrect answers. • In Parentheses, you’ll learn how to use parentheses to correctly punctuate a sentence that has either an acronym that follows the full name or extra information not necessary to include in the sentence. You will also use parentheses to denote stage directions and to explain unfamiliar terms.

• In the Path Quiz, you have the opportunity to take a quiz on the topics covered in Periods and Parentheses. • The checkpoint allows you to see if you have learned the concepts presented in the tutorials. 

If you selected either Periods or Parentheses, select an
activity: • The pretest enables you to find out what you already know about the topic. Immediate feedback is provided for correct and incorrect answers. • The tutorial provides instruction and examples of the topics. • In the practice, you identify examples of the concepts presented in the tutorials and receive feedback for correct and incorrect answers. • The checkpoint allows you to see if you have learned the concepts presented in the tutorials. 

When you have finished the activity, click Menu to
return to the path. 

You can either select another activity or click Menu
again to return to the Mountain Trails main menu.

Punctuation Path
In this section, you’ll learn about the proper use of periods and parentheses. You can also take a quiz over the information presented on the Punctuation Path.

21

Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7 179CC (cont.) 
When you have finished the activity, click Menu to
return to the path. 

If you selected either Spelling and Capitalization or
Vocabulary, select an activity: • The pretest assesses what you already know about the topic. Immediate feedback is provided for correct and incorrect answers. • The tutorial provides instruction and examples of the topics. • In the practice, you identify examples of the concepts presented in the tutorials and receive feedback for correct and incorrect answers. • The checkpoint tests to see if you have learned the concepts presented in the tutorials. 

You can either select another activity or click Menu
again to return to the Mountain Trails main menu.

Spelling and Vocabulary Path
In this section, you’ll learn some spelling rules, practice selecting either the correctly spelled word or the correct homonym, and get tips on ways to increase your vocabulary. You can also take a quiz over the information presented on the Spelling and Vocabulary Path.

1 Listen to the introduction, choose a bike, and then click
the right arrow to continue.

2 Select a path.
• In Spelling and Capitalization, you’ll learn spelling rules and practice selecting the correctly spelled word or the correct homonym to complete a sentence. 

When you have finished the activity, click Menu to
return to the path. 

You can either select another activity or click Menu
again to return to the Mountain Trails main menu.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. • In Vocabulary, you’ll get tips about ways to increase your vocabulary, in addition to learning about dictionary and thesaurus entries. 

Highlight Reading, Research, and Language Skills 7
179CC, and click Edit. A parameters screen appears, showing the available program segments. 

Click the check boxes in front of the program segments

to toggle on or off the availability of each segment to the student(s).

• In the Path Quiz, you have the opportunity to take a quiz on the topics covered in Spelling and Capitalization and Vocabulary.

Note: To see a brief description of the objectives for an activity, rest the cursor on the activity name. The descriptions appear as a ToolTip. 

Click OK when you are finished.

22

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Writing and Media Literacy 8 180CC 8 Integrated Throughout
Use word processing when composing and revising Use writing for various purposes and in a range of contexts, including school work Use conventions of written materials to help understand and use the materials Make connections among previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts

Core

Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Writing
Communicate ideas and information for a variety of purposes and to specific audiences, using forms appropriate for their purpose and topic Produce media texts using writing and materials from other media Revise and edit work, focusing on content and elements of style: use a variety of strategies and resources, use consistent verb tense, eliminate repetition, and use accurate spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure Use and spell correctly the appropriate vocabulary Produce pieces of writing using a variety of forms, techniques, and resources appropriate to the form and purpose Use variety in sentence type, length, and structure Organize information to develop a central idea, using well-developed, well-linked paragraphs Proofread and correct final drafts, focusing on grammar, punctuation, and spelling Use modifiers, including prepositional phrases, correctly and effectively Show growing awareness of the expressiveness of words when making word choices Use a variety of styles of type appropriate to purpose Distinguish between fact and opinion, and use each appropriately Select and use words effectively

Reading and Research
Read a variety of fiction and nonfiction materials for different purposes Use textual cues to construct meaning and interpret text (structures and elements of specific genres) Identify forms of texts and describe their key features Use a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words Use punctuation to promote comprehension Determine literal and implied meaning of visual and written texts Distinguish between fact and opinion Organize information and ideas Assess information collected related to audience, purpose, and form Plan and carry out a research project Identify and explain stylistic devices in literary works Use a thesaurus to expand vocabulary Use special terminology in a particular area of study

2

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC (cont.)
Oral and Visual Communication
Use appropriate tone of voice, gestures, variation in pace, and pauses when making presentations Show respect for the presenter through active listening and viewing behaviors Rehearse and revise material to prepare for presentation Explain how sound and image work together to create an effect Identify descriptive and figurative language in oral and media texts Identify various types of media works and techniques used in them Create and analyze media works Express and respond to a range of ideas and opinions concisely, clearly, and appropriately Describe the functions of different elements in various media Use resource materials to illustrate ideas in presentations Evaluate the effectiveness of informational media works Describe a media work, outlining its different parts and the steps and choices involved in planning and producing it

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Introduction
In Writing and Media Literacy 8, students learn to write for various purposes and audiences at the Writers’ Passage, where they work on a variety of writing types such as poetry, a persuasive essay, and a career portfolio. At the Megashow, students explore how images and music can be combined to convey a message. A word processor is available throughout the program.

Tutorial and Tasks 1 To learn about word processors and how to use them,
click Tutorial and Tasks.

2 Follow the instructions that introduce you to the tutorial
and tasks. Click the Tutorial or Tasks button at the bottom of the screen to see more information about each.

Using Writing and Media Literacy 8
1 After you log in and select Writing and Media Literacy 8
180CC, click on a location.

• In the Tutorial, students learn about the drop-down menus and items in the tool bar of a word processor.

1 Click the Next button and the right arrow to
move through the tutorial.

Word Processor Training Center
The Word Processor Training Center provides instruction and practice in using a word processor.

Note: Click Next to see definitions of the items in the menus, and click the right arrow when it flashes green to go to the next screen. return to the menu by clicking Menu in the lower left corner of the screen, or you can proceed to the tasks by clicking Tasks in the center of the screen.

2 When you are finished with the tutorial, you can

2

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC (cont.)
• In the Tasks, students are given five activities to practice using the features of a word processor.

2 When you are finished, save your work, and then select
Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

Writers’ Passage
The Writers’ Passage offers four locations for learning about and practicing different styles of writing: the Transportation Depot, the Employment Center, the Courthouse, and Poet Tree Café.

1 Click one of the locations to begin an activity.

1 Click a task, and then click OK. 2 Read the instructions, clicking the scroll bar as
needed to see all the text. 

If you would like to print the task instructions,
click the Print Task button. word processor. 

Click the Word Processor graphic to open the Transportation Depot
In this location, you’ll learn about the purpose of brochures and flyers and develop a brochure and flyer of your own. You’ll consider design, selection of information, audience, purpose, and sentence variety. 

Follow the directions for completing the task.  When you are finished, save your work, and then
select Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

7 Click Menu to return to the task menu.  Repeat steps 1-7 to complete another task, or click
Menu to return to the Writing and Media Literacy 8 main menu.

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click Enter. 2 Follow the on-screen instructions to learn about
the writing activity, access the word processor, and complete the assignments.

Word Processor 1 To use the word processor, click the Word Processor
graphic. A blank word processing screen appears for you to enter your text. 

When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Writers’ Passage main menu.

Employment Center
In the Employment Center, you’ll assemble the information

2

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC (cont.)
you need for a career portfolio, including a self-assessment inventory, a résumé, a cover letter, an application form, and notes you can use to prepare for an interview. onomatopoeia, and rhyme) and forms (picture poems, tanka, cinquain, diamente, and free verse).

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click Enter. 2 Follow the on-screen instructions to collect the pieces for
your career portfolio.

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click the right arrow
to enter the “café.”

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to learn about and
practice using the poetic techniques and forms. 

When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Writers’ Passage main menu.

The Courthouse
In the Courthouse, you’ll learn how to write in order to persuade others. You’ll also learn the difference between facts and opinions and how facts can be used to support opinions. You’ll also learn about paragraph structure and supporting details.

1 Listen to the introduction, and then click Enter to enter
the “courthouse.”

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to get an idea and
write a persuasive paragraph. 

When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Writers’ Passage main menu. 

Click Menu to return to the Writer’s Block main menu. My Portfolio
You can review your work at any time.

1 Click the My Portfolio button to see a list of projects you
worked on during your time in the Writers’ Passage. Projects that you completed are in black, and projects you have not yet done are in gray.

2 Click any of the black text to see your work for that
project. 

When you are finished reviewing your work, click Menu
to return to the Writers’ Passage main menu.

Poet Tree Café
In the Poet Tree Café, you’ll practice with different poetic techniques (word choice, imagery, alliteration, assonance,

Megashow
At Megashow, you’ll learn how visuals and music can be combined to convey a message.

2

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC (cont.)
1 Click the doors to enter the studio. 2 Select a location:
• In the Work Shop, you’ll learn about factors to consider when developing a presentation, including selecting music that conveys the desired mood, and placing text appropriately. • In the Screening Room, you’ll review and critique several megashows. • In the Studio, you’ll design a megashow of your own. 

When you are finished, save your megashow.  Click Menu to return to the main menu. My Records
You can use My Records to review your progress through the locations in Writing and Media Literacy 8, view the amount of time you spent in each location, and review your quiz scores.

1 Click the My Records button.
The locations you have worked in are checked off.

2 Click the Activity or Scores button to see information on
your progress through the lessons. menu. 

When you are finished, click Close to return to the main 

Follow the on-screen instructions to learn about the

elements of megashows and to produce a show of your own.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Writing and Media Literacy 8.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Writing and Media Literacy 8 180CC, and
click Edit. A parameters screen appears, showing the available program segments.

27

Writing and Media Literacy  10CC (cont.) 
Click the check boxes in front of the program segments
to toggle on or off the availability of each segment to the student(s).

Note: To see a brief description of the objectives for an activity, rest the cursor on the activity name. The descriptions appear as a ToolTip. 

Click OK when you are finished.

2

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Read., Research, and Lang. Skills 8 181CC 8 Integrated Throughout
Use word processing when composing and revising Use writing for various purposes and in a range of contexts, including schoolwork Use conventions of written materials to help understand and use the materials Make connections among previous experiences, prior knowledge, and a variety of texts

Core

Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Writing
Communicate ideas and information for a variety of purposes and to specific audiences, using forms appropriate for purpose and topic Revise and edit work, focusing on content and elements of style: use a variety of strategies and resources, use consistent verb tense, eliminate repetition, and use accurate spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and sentence structure Use and spell correctly the appropriate vocabulary Produce pieces of writing using a variety of forms, techniques, and resources appropriate to the form and purpose Organize information using paragraph structures appropriate to purpose Proofread and correct final drafts, focusing on grammar, punctuation, and spelling Use correctly the conventions specified: case of pronouns, complex sentences, comma to separate introductory phrases and clauses and to separate phrases and clauses in a series, quotation marks to indicate titles and in direct speech, ellipsis, and dash in a sentence break or interrupted speech Use italics and underlining to indicate titles

Reading and Research
Read a variety of fiction and nonfiction materials from various genres and for different purposes Read independently, selecting appropriate reading strategies Explain personal interpretation of a written work, supporting it with evidence from the work and from own knowledge and experience Use comprehension strategies (adjusting rate, summarizing, SQ3R) Select reading strategies (scanning, skimming, close reading) Use textual cues to construct meaning and interpret text (structures and elements of specific genres) Decide on a purpose for reading and select material from a variety of sources Understand the appropriate vocabulary, language structures, and conventions Identify the main ideas in information materials and explain how the details support the main ideas Make judgments and draw conclusions on the basis of evidence Explain how various elements in a story function in relation to each other (plot, character, theme, setting) Identify forms of texts and describe their key features Identify and explain stylistic devices in literary works Use a thesaurus to expand vocabulary Use a variety of strategies to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words Use special terminology in a particular area of study Use punctuation to promote comprehension

29

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.)
Reading and Research (cont.)
Determine literal and implied meaning of visual and written texts Formulate relevant questions on a topic for research purposes Prepare and use a plan to access information from a variety of sources Use criteria to evaluate the currency, usefulness, and reliability of sources Organize information and ideas Make notes using headings, subheadings, and graphic organizers Assess information collected related to audience, purpose, and form Plan and carry out a research project Distinguish between fact and opinion Identify and describe techniques used to create mood in literary texts

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Oral and Visual Communication
Provide clear answers to questions and well-constructed explanations or instructions Use appropriate tone of voice, gestures, variation in pace, and pauses when making presentations Express and respond to a range of ideas and opinions concisely, clearly, and appropriately Show respect for the presenter through active listening and viewing behaviors Listen attentively and organize and classify information Contribute and work constructively in groups: engage in dialogue to understand viewpoints of others, establish clear purposes and procedures for solving problems and completing projects, contribute to group harmony, organize and complete tasks, demonstrate respect, evaluate quality of contribution, set goals and plans, and plan and facilitate small group activities to share information using a variety of engaging methods Use the appropriate conventions of oral language in discussions and presentations Demonstrate the ability to concentrate by identifying main points and staying on topic Adjust delivery to suit the size of different groups

Introduction
In Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8, you can either visit The River to work on grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure, or you can go to The Mall, where you can focus on developing your reading and research skills. A word processor and tutorial are also available.

Using Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8
1 After you log in and select Reading, Research, and
Language Skills 8 181CC, click on a location. 

0

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.)
Word Processor Training Center
The Word Processor Training Center provides instruction and practice in using a word processor.

1 Click a task, and then click OK. 2 Read the instructions, clicking the scroll bar as
needed to see all the text.

Tutorial and Tasks 1 To learn about word processors and how to use them,
click Tutorial and Tasks. 

If you would like to print the task instructions,
click the Print Task button. word processor. 

Click the Word Processor graphic to open the  Follow the directions for completing the task.  When you are finished, save your work, and then
select Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor.

2 Follow the instructions that introduce you to the tutorial
and tasks, and then click a button at the bottom of the screen to see the tutorial or tasks. • In the Tutorial, students learn about the drop-down menus and items in the tool bar of a word processor.

7 Click Menu to return to the task menu.  Repeat steps 1-7 to complete another task, or click
Menu to return to the Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8 main menu.

Word Processor 1 To use the word processor, click the Word Processor
graphic. A blank word processing screen appears for you to enter your text.

1 Click the Next button and the right arrow to
move through the tutorial. Note: Click Next to see definitions of the items in the menus, and click the right arrow when it flashes green to go on to the next screen. return to the menu by clicking Menu in the lower left corner of the screen, or you can proceed to the tasks by clicking Tasks in the center of the screen.

2 When you are finished with the tutorial, you can

• In the Tasks, students are given five activities to practice using the features of a word processor.

2 When you are finished, save your work, and then select
Exit from the File menu to leave the word processor. 

1

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.)
The Mall
The Mall offers four topics for learning about and practicing reading and writing skills. • Current Affairs focuses on the structure of a news article, reading for facts, and organizing the facts.

1 Click one of the signs to begin an activity.

• The Quiz tests you on your understanding of newspaper articles.

Newspaper Kiosk
The Newspaper Kiosk teaches about certain parts of the newspaper.

1 Read the introduction, and then choose an activity:
• In Editorials, you’ll learn about the structure of opinion pieces, how to support opinions, and how to influence readers through denotation and connotation. You’ll write a letter to the editor that presents and supports an argument.

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. 

When you are finished with the activity, click Menu to
return to the Mall main menu.

Travel Agency
At the Travel Agency, you’ll select a country to research for vacation planning. You’ll read information and take notes, complete a planning guide and a cost analysis, and then write a memo. 

2

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.)
1 Read the introduction and select a destination. 2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. menu. • Activities in Classic Tales focus on the elements of short stories, and you’ll create a character sketch and develop a plot graph. 

When you are finished, click Menu to return to the main Antique Shop
You’ll learn about the elements of different types of fiction at the Antique Shop.

1 Read the introduction and then choose an activity:
• In Myths, you’ll learn about the characteristics of myths, in addition to reading, interpeting, and analyzing myths.

2 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities. Note: Click the lower right corner of the book pages to turn the pages. 

When you are finished, click Menu to return to the main
menu.

AV Warehouse
In this section, you’ll learn how to gather information for comparison purposes, prepare research questions, analyze data, and prepare a recommendation. • In Legends, you’ll learn about the features of legends while reading for detail and connecting what you read to personal experience.

1 Follow the on-screen instructions to complete the
activities.

2 When you are finished, click Menu to return to the main
menu. 

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.)
My Portfolio
You can review your work at any time. 

For each topic, you have a choice of activities:
• The pretest enables you to find out what you already know about the topic. Immediate feedback is provided for correct and incorrect answers.

1 Click the My Portfolio button to see a list of projects you
have worked on during your time in The Mall. Projects that you completed are in black, and projects you have not yet done are in gray.

2 Click any of the buttons with black text to see your work
for that project. 

When you are finished reviewing your work, click Menu
to return to the Mall main menu.

The River
Activities in The River focus on instruction and practice of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence structure.

1 Click The River.
The River main menu appears. • The tutorial provides instruction and examples of the topics.

2 Click one of the topics:
• Commas 1 focuses on punctuating introductory phrases and clauses. • Commas 2 concentrates on using commas for items in a series, including words, phrases, and clauses. • In Dash, you’ll learn about correct placement of em dashes. • Ellipsis teaches how to use ellipses to represent omitted text. • Pronouns focuses on subjective and objective cases for pronouns. • In Spelling, you’ll learn how to spell words within the context of three activities: Historical Perspective, About Rafting, and Creating a Problem. • Titles shows you how to indicate titles of songs, poems, books, magazines, movies, and newspapers. • Speech focuses on punctuating direct speech and correctly using quotation marks, capitalization, commas, end punctuation, and speaker tags.

• The final test determines if you have learned the concepts presented in the tutorials.

Note: Activities in The River work much like a word processor. Click in the answer space to place the cursor, and use the keyboard to add or delete punctuation as appropriate. 

Reading, Research, and Language Skills  11CC (cont.) 
When you have finished the activity, click Menu to
return to the topic menu. 

To return to the River main menu, click Menu again.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Reading, Research, and Language Skills 8
181CC, and click Edit. A parameters screen appears, showing the available program segments. 

Click the check boxes in front of the program segments

to toggle on or off the availability of that segment to the student(s). Note: To see a brief description of the objectives for an activity, rest the cursor on the activity name. The descriptions appear as a ToolTip. 

Click OK when you are finished. 

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Read. Comp. & Crit. Think. 2 205CC Comprehension
Read and understand a grade-level story Improve vocabulary skills

Core

Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8 7
• • • • •

9

10 8
• • • •

11 9
• • • • •

12

Recall
Identify main character(s) Identify explicit details about a story (e.g., plot, setting, characters, characterization) Identify the main idea, conflict, and problem of a story Recall the sequence of events of a story Identify cause and effect

• •

• • • • • • • •

Inference
Interpret the main idea of a story Interpret the main conflict and problem of a story Draw conclusions Identify characters’ feelings and motives Describe characters and their relationships Interpret cause and effect Compare and contrast

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

Reading Strategies
Identify and interpret simile Interpret figurative language Use pre‑reading, during reading, and after reading strategies to comprehend what is read Distinguish between more and less important information Practice taking notes in electronic format Reflect on plot and conflict of story, and write about a similar personal experience Write about specific decisions made by characters Analyze and write about the causes and effects of characters’ decisions Write a narrative that logically continues a story Identify the characters’ main problems Write a solution to the characters’ problems

• • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • 

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.)
Introduction
Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 is designed to help students learn and practice reading strategies including finding information in text, thinking through complex problems, expressing their thinking in written form, and practicing note taking in electronic form (an environment students are increasingly expected to navigate and gain knowledge from in a critical manner). This Skill Tree is comprised of three units of three stories each: Unit 1 is geared toward the grade 7 reading level, Unit 2 toward the grade 8 reading level, and Unit 3 toward the grade 9 reading level. Students watch an introductory video and read a story. Each story is approximately 750 words long and is accompanied by 10 corresponding comprehension questions, 50-60 percent of which require inference. Four critical thinking exercises accompany the stories to encourage deeper, more abstract thinking and problem solving.

Unit 3 The Injury
A boy wants to pursue a basketball career; his counselor wants him to concentrate on academics as a backup plan.

Something for Nothing

A girl is tempted by friends to shoplift and has to suffer the unpleasant consequences of her actions.

A Little Harmless Teasing

A girl has a friend who gets teased for dressing and acting differently from everyone else, and she must decide whether to go along with the teasing or not.

Using Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2
The Notepad
The Notepad is available to add pieces of information to as you read a story. Type notes or select portions of text you think may be important for answering the Comprehension Questions or responding to the Critical Thinking exercises. The process of typing or selecting the text and clicking “Copy to Notepad” will help refine your ability to identify the salient parts of a story. The notes in the Notepad will be available to you when you are ready to respond to the Critical Thinking exercises.

The Storylines
Unit 1 Bullies
A seventh-grade boy is bullied by other boys in school and must decide what to do about it.

Sibling Rivalry

A twin who constantly battles with his sister has to decide whether or not to modify his behavior to keep his friends from getting frustrated with the twins’ incessant fighting.

No Time for Excuses

A girl argues with her parents about balancing extracurricular activities and helping around the house.

Unit 2 Who's Minding the House?
When older kids come over while his parents are not at home, a boy must decide whether to do nothing or demand that they leave before the party gets out of control.

A Little Respect

A boy calls in “sick” to work to make a point about how important his contributions at work are, but he is unsure of what the consequences of his actions will be.

I'm Not a Little Kid Anymore!

A boy and his parents usually spend a lot of time together; however, he thinks that his parents may be helping him too much and would like to make his own decisions.

1 After logging in and selecting this Skill Tree, an

introduction screen appears, presenting the components of the program. Click the right or left arrows to move through the Introduction, or click Skip Introduction to begin the program. Each story in this Skill Tree consists of three parts: The Story, Comprehension Questions, and Critical Thinking activities. You may freely move 

7

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.)
between the sections at any time by clicking on the tabs at the top of the screen. You also may review the Comprehension Questions and Critical Writing activities before or while you read using the tabs at the top of the screen. You may go back to the story while working on a Critical Thinking activity by clicking the Story tab. Use the Notepad to take notes while you read. Use your notes to help you answer the Comprehension Questions and complete the Critical Thinking exercises. Click Close Introduction to begin the program. 

Choose a story to read from the Main Menu. This will

open the Story section. A brief video is shown and you are instructed to predict what might happen in the story from the title and the video. Click the right arrow to move to the next screen. Note: If you click Quit in the middle of a story or activity, your place will be saved. When you log back in, you may pick up where you left off. 

The story begins. Reading Strategies appear on the left
side of the screen.

2 From the Main Menu, you may select a story and see

what sections of the programs you have completed. A check mark in the Read Story column means that you have read that story. A check mark in the Comprehension Questions column means you have completed the questions but could still get a higher score. A star in the Comprehension Questions column means you did very well on the questions for that story (i.e., achieved mastery). A check mark in the Critical Thinking column means you have submitted at least one written Critical Thinking activity for the story. A star in the Critical Thinking column means you have submitted all of the possible written Critical Thinking activities for the story.

Click Hear Story if you wish to hear the story out loud. Click Dictionary to look up a word. A pop-up box appears. Type in the word and click Search. Click Help for information about the program. Point the cursor to the parts of the screen to get more information about the function of each component. Click Close to return to the story. Click Main Menu to return to the Main Menu screen. Click Notepad to display your notepad. Note: You may use the Notepad in two ways: (1) Highlight a section to copy to your Notepad. Click the Copy to Notepad button. The text you highlighted will appear in the Notepad. (2) Click Notepad. Type your responses to the Reading Strategies. 

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.) 
Use the arrow buttons to read the entire story. Tip: The

Comprehension Questions and Critical Thinking exercises are accessible at any time to be used as prewriting and duringwriting guidance to focus your attention while reading. Click the tabs to access these activities. Note: If you click Quit in the middle of a story, you will be able to choose yes or no if you would like to continue where you left off when you access this Skill Tree again. 

At the end of the story, read the After Reading strategies
on the left side of the screen, click Notepad, and enter your responses in the Notepad. Then click the Comprehension Questions or Critical Thinking tab to work on the exercises related to the story. 

If you select an incorrect answer or need help, click

Hint and read the highlighted text for a clue about the answer. The Hint option provides support if you have difficulty answering the questions on your own.

9 Click the right arrow to move to the next question. If 7 The Comprehension Questions tab lists 10 questions

about the story designed to push you to think at a deeper level than what is explicitly contained in the text. At least half of the Comprehension Questions require inference, a building block of critical thinking ability. Click on the answer choices to hear them read aloud (the cursor will change to a voice bubble). Click the letter of the answer to highlight it, and click Submit Answer to check your work. Use the arrow buttons to move forward or backward through the questions (you may also use the arrows on the keyboard).

you select the wrong answer, you are prompted to try again by referring to the text of the story or clicking Hint. When you are finished answering all of the questions, you will see a screen showing your score. 

9

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.)
10 Click the Critical Thinking tab and pick the exercise you
would like to work on. The Critical Thinking exercises are accessible through all nine stories to focus your thinking while you read. The exercises can be used as pre-reading or during-reading guidance.

11 Click What Happens Next. An instruction screen

appears. To hear the instructions, position the cursor over the instructions field and click. The cursor will appear as a voice bubble. Click Start to enter your text. Click Save Draft to save your unfinished work before you exit the program. A draft of your text is saved when you exit the program. Click Submit when you are finished with the activity and want to submit it for the teacher to read. A check mark will appear in the “Completed” column for this activity in the Critical Thinking tab. Click Print to print your answer. Click Notepad to read your notes to find information that you typed or copied from the story. Click any of the notes you copied into the Notepad. This will highlight the section within the story where the note came from. Click the Critical Thinking tab to return to the activity.

What Happens Next? - You continue the story in narrative or expository form. Has This Ever Happened to You? - Tell what you did in a similar situation. Advise Me! - Provide advice to the main character as if he or she were your own sibling. Changing Critical Decisions - Identify critical decision points in the story, the consequences, and alternative decisions that could have been made. This activity requires you to identify at least two decisions made by the main character in the story and consider how those decisions, if made differently, would have impacted the plot. For example, for Unit 1, Story 1, Bullies, the first decision point could be when Matthew decides to talk to the boys who bullied him and apologize, resulting in the bullies further taunting him. A second decision point may be that Matthew decides to talk to a guidance counselor, resulting in a course of action to resolve the bullying problem.

Note: The teacher may view the submitted written responses to the Critical Thinking activities by selecting Portfolio Report from the Report List in the Orchard Manager. The text will not appear in the students’ portfolios until they click Submit. 

0

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.)
12 Click Has This Ever Happened to You? An instruction

screen appears. Read the instructions, and click Start to enter your text. Write about how you handled a similar situation in your own life, what you did, and what happened as a result of the decisions you made. Click Notepad to view your notes to help you complete this exercise. When you are finished, click Save Draft or Submit.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

1 Click Advise Me! An instruction screen appears. Click

Start to enter your text. Imagine that the main character in the story is your sibling, and give advice about key decisions made in the story. Click Notepad to view your notes to help you complete this exercise. When you are finished, click Save Draft or Submit.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Reading Comprehension and Critical
Thinking 2 205CC, and click Edit. A settings screen appears, showing the available program segments and options.

1 Click Changing Critical Decisions. An instruction screen
appears. Click Start to enter your text. Describe two key places in the story where the main character made a decision that influenced the plot. Number the decisions Decision 1 and Decision 2. Examples are given; scroll down to see all of the examples. Click Notepad to view your notes to help you complete this exercise. When you are finished, click Save Draft or Submit. 

From the Stories panel, select which stories are available
to your students by checking or unchecking the boxes. (Note: Only one grade level/Unit will be available if you are using Orchard for Your State.) 

1

Reading Comprehension & Critical Thinking 2 20CC (cont.) 
From the Activities panel, check the Comprehension
Questions box if you would like this activity to be available to your students. Adjust the Mastery Percent to determine the percentage a student must get correct to receive a star (indicating mastery) or check mark (indicating completion). The default setting is 90 percent (i.e., a student must answer 90% of the questions correctly to achieve mastery). Check or uncheck Critical Thinking Activities to make these activities available or unavailable to your students. Check Print Enabled if you would like to allow students to print their responses. Check or uncheck Block Inappropriate Student Entries. If a student types an inappropriate word in a text field, it automatically will be deleted if this box is checked.

7 From the Voice and Video panel, check or uncheck

the Video box. If Video is unchecked, the voice for the introductory video will be played, but the video will not (you will see a still of the video). If the Read Story box is not checked, the “Chunk Highlighting” option will be unavailable and the Hear Story button will not appear to students. Turn Chunk Highlighting on if you would like the story read aloud with sections of the story highlighted for the student to follow along. Turn it off to hear the story without the highlighting when you click Hear Story. If Read Questions, etc. is not checked, the questions/ instructions will not be read aloud when the student clicks on them (i.e., the cursor will not change to a voice bubble, allowing the student to hear the text aloud when they click on it). Check Display Introduction if you would like the Introduction screens displayed automatically when a student accesses the Skill Tree. 

When you have selected the desired settings, click OK to
return to the Orchard Manager. 

2

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC
Enrichment Grade Levels Reading Comprehension 1 7-8 206CC Reading Comprehension 2 8-9 207CC Core Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

7
Details
Understand the importance of details Distinguish between factual and fictional details Evaluate information to select the most important details Organize details chronologically Discern between written and implied details Identify supporting details

8
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

9
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Inference
Understand the meaning of an inferred idea Infer a specific outcome from a general account Identify an inferred synonym from a group of words Choose the correct inference from a table, list, or chart Distinguish between the words “all” and “some” to make an inference Evaluate information to select a negative inference

Main Idea
Understand the main idea of a paragraph including several themes Determine the main idea from reading a sequence of events or steps Identify an appropriate title indicating the main idea of a story Identify the sentence that captures the main idea of a paragraph Fill in a Cloze exercise with a word that completes the main idea of a story

Sequence
Understand the meaning of a sequence of events Identify a sequence from a sentence that uses time and order words (e.g., before, after, last) Arrange three or more sentences in a logical, sequential order Answer questions based on reading a sequence order in a paragraph Assign numbers to order a sequence of events from items in a table, chart, or list Select an appropriate title for a story based on reading a sequence of events

Vocabulary
Understand how to find the meanings of new vocabulary words Use synonyms and antonyms as a learning device to figure out an unfamiliar word Select an appropriate vocabulary word to complete a Cloze exercise Identify a different meaning of a word by comparing three sentences out of context Interpret the meaning of a word by examining contextual clues 

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.)
Fact and Opinion
Understand that a fact is a true, accurate statement that can be proven Understand that an opinion is a belief or feeling about something Distinguish between factual information and opinions Decide whether a sentence out of context is a factual piece of information Use dates and events from a reading to identify factual information

• • • • • ♦
7.0

• • • • •

Reading Comprehension 1
Reading Level Details Inference Informational reading Fact/opinion Main idea Sequence Variety of reading material Vocabulary 1.5-2.0 3.0


4.0

Recommended 5.0 6.0

Review and Reinforcement 8.0 9.0 10-12/ Adult

• • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

7.0

• • • • • • • •

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

Reading Comprehension 2
Reading Level Details Inference Informational reading Main idea Sequence Variety of reading material Vocabulary 1.5-2.0 3.0

Recommended 5.0 6.0

Review and Reinforcement 8.0 9.0 10-12/ Adult

4.0

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.)
Introduction
The Reading Comprehension series is a diagnostic and prescriptive tutorial program that develops reading comprehension across the curriculum and meets the recommendations of the latest research on reading intervention. Combining both assessment and remediation, the program is especially effective in developing and improving the skills needed to read textbooks and jobrelated technical manuals. Reading Comprehension 1 (grades 7-8, 206CC) and 2 (grades 8‑9, 207CC) first diagnose each learner’s developmental skill level in the areas of main idea, details, vocabulary, inference, sequence, and, in Reading Comprehension 1 (206CC) only, fact and opinion. Once these levels are determined, the learner is automatically prescribed individualized instruction at the appropriate level. This instructionally efficient method ensures the development of strong fundamental comprehension skills that also help raise reading scores. The passages include text reading, graphs, charts and tables, maps, and schedules. The lessons assist learners with the transition to textbooks and other print materials, preparing them for state competency tests as well as the GED and other national reading objectives.

Determination of Levels of Difficulty
All items, including those on the diagnostic tests, were tested by approximately 250 secondary-level students. The items were then ranked according to difficulty (measured by student performance) and correlated with standardized test scores in reading comprehension on the CTBS and SAT.

Approximate Times
Diagnostic Tests: 15-20 minutes for each test Skill Area Programs: 20-30 minutes per level By beginning at his or her own proficiency level and advancing to the next levels on the basis of his or her success, a learner should be reasonably successful at each level. A given level will take longer to complete for a student who is doing well than for a student whose lesson ends early because he or she misses too many points to be able to achieve the mastery percentage.

Rationale
The rate of language arts development varies greatly from student to student and is dependent upon many factors beyond an instructor’s control. Although teaching the same content to all learners at the same time is fairly effective, nearly all learners need additional reinforcement, practice, and review. In classes where there is a wide range of proficiency levels among students, where learners come from diverse backgrounds and where home and community factors may inhibit retention, a program like Reading Comprehension enables the busy instructor to provide manageable, individualized instruction and immediate feedback. In addition, this program gives each learner the opportunity to master language arts skills at his or her own pace, taking as much or as little time as needed to feel comfortable with the material.

Levels
Several types of educational levels are relative to this program. First, there is the instructional level of the curriculum. The content of the five levels in each skill area parallels that which is recommended in state curriculum guides and that which is used in major language arts textbook series for the appropriate grades. For example, Level 8 of Inference contains material that would normally be introduced in the eighth grade. Next is the readability level, which has been controlled and set at levels appropriate to each unit. The Bormuth and Fry Readability Indexes were used to evaluate and test passage readabilities. Finally, there is the interest level of the text itself, which ranges from upper elementary to adult, ABE, and GED, with obvious readability constraints. The careful fusion of these levels makes Reading Comprehension a valuable program for developmental use in upper-elementary and secondary grades and for remedial use in community college and adult basic education. Reading Comprehension 1: reading levels 3-8 Reading Comprehension 2: reading levels 6-10

Prerequisites
A learner must be reading at the 3.0 level for Reading Comprehension 1 and at the 6.0 level for Reading Comprehension 2. No other prerequisites are needed to run and understand the program. 

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.)
Using Reading Comprehension
Navigation
Click the Reading button to return to the passage from the glossary or from a question screen. Click the Questions button to return to the questions from the reading. Click the Glossary button to access the glossary for the current activity. Click the Help button to get information on navigation in the lessons and how to use the Glossary. Click the Hear It icon to have the information on the screen read to you. Click the arrow buttons on the bottom of the screen to move backward and forward through the activity.

Activities
Reading Comprehension 1 is comprised of six activities (Inference, Vocabulary, Details, Main Idea, Sequence, and Fact or Opinion). Reading Comprehension 2 features the same activities except Fact or Opinion.

Main Menu
When you have completed the initial Pretest for each activity, the circle in the Pretest column will change from a green circle with an arrow to a filled orange circle indicating completion. The column indicating level will have a partially filled orange circle indicating that you have not completed that activity. The circle will be filled when it is completed.

Pretests
The first time you select a skill, you will take a 14‑item placement test. The pretest does not give you any feedback on your performance, but it determines the level at which you will start in the program. Note: Taking a pretest is the default setting and can be changed by an instructor or administrator. See Program Parameters for more information. Course Pretest Number Correct 14 13 Reading Comprehension 1 10-12 7-9 4-6 0-3 14 Reading Comprehension 2 11-13 9-10 4-8 0-3 Starting Level 8 7 6 5 4 3 10 9 8 7 6

Pretest 1 Click Inference (or another activity) on the Main
Menu. This will launch the Inference Diagnostic Test, containing four passages with 3-4 questions each. Your score determines your initial level. 

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.)
2 Read the passage and then answer a series of questions

that follow. Click the letter of your answer choice. Click the right arrow to move to the next question. Note: In the Pretest, once you have answered a question, you may not go back and change your answer.

Click on the highlighted words to see their definitions in the glossary. 

When you are finished answering a group of questions

about the first passage, you will see a second, third, and fourth passage, each with a series of questions for a total of 14 questions. have chosen, you will see a screen showing your score and initial level for that activity. A circle will apear in the level column on the Main Menu indicating your level. To advance to the next level, you must achieve the mastery percentage set by a teacher or administrator (see Program Parameters). The default mastery percentage is 69 percent. At the point at which you have lost too many points to achieve mastery for the level you are working on, the lesson automatically discontinues. If you complete a level with a score at or above the mastery percentage, you are assigned to the next level. If you score lower than the mastery percentage or if the level is discontinued because of a low score, you will repeat the previous level for remediation. If the Instructional Alerts feature is set (see Program Parameters), multiple activity failures will present you with a notice to “Contact your instructor.” Contact your instructor, or click OK to repeat the level or select a different assigned skill, if available. After reading the definition in the glossary, click the Reading button to return to the passage. 

When you complete the Pretest for the activity you

2 Click the right arrow to see the entire passage. Read the

question, and click the number of the correct answer. You will get 2 points for each correct response. Click the Reading button to review the text, if needed. Click the right arrow button to check your work. You may keep track of your points at the bottom of the screen.

Lessons
After the Pretest, the activity begins at your prescribed level. Each lesson has 16 questions worth 32 points.

1 Read a short passage, using the arrow buttons to move
among the pages. 

7

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.)
If you choose the wrong answer, you are prompted to try again. If you get a correct answer on a second attempt, you will earn one point. If you get the answer wrong, you are given the correct answer and a brief explanation. You also will be taken back to the original passage where the information needed to answer the question is located.

Program Parameters
To customize students’ learning experiences, several program parameters are available for Reading Comprehension.

1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Reading Comprehension 1 or 2, and click
Edit. A settings screen appears, showing the available program segments and options. 

When you are finished answering all of the questions,
you will see a screen showing your score. 

To change the mastery percentage, click and drag the
If you get a high enough score, you will advance to the next level until you complete all of the levels for an activity. Continue with the Inference activity or click Menu to return to the Main Menu and select another activity. If you get too many questions wrong, you will start the previous level again. The level you did not pass will show a green circle with an arrow in it.

slider to the desired percentage. The default master percentage is 69 percent. To advance to the next level in an activity, the student must answer this percentage of questions correctly. will start each skill by taking a Pretest. To eliminate user access to certain skills, click to uncheck the boxes for those skills under Skill Settings. the arrow in the drop-down menu and select either Pretest or a specific level. (Reading Comprehension 1 features Pretest and Levels 3-8 in the drop-down menu. Reading Comprehension 2 features Pretest and Levels 6-10 in the drop-down menu.) Note: If the Pretest is indicated here, students will start the skill by taking the Pretest, which will assign them to a level based on their performance. If you choose a level, all students assigned the skill will begin at that level, regardless of ability. 

By default, students will have access to all skills and

7 To change the users’ initial assignment in a skill, click 

Reading Comprehension 20-207CC (cont.) 
Use the Sound checkbox under Sound Settings to turn

on or off the ability to hear the activity and instructions read aloud. Use the drop-down menu next to Sound to select either a male or female voice. Alerts feature, you will receive a message when the student exits the program if he or she does not achieve the mastery percentage for an activity more than the selected number of times. The default setting is 3; you may select 1-9 times from the drop-down menu. Select the number of times the student may fail to achieve the mastery percentage before you receive a message in the Messages tab. Use the Level Progression drop-down menu to change the progression of instructional flow: Continuous: The student moves directly into the next activity in the skill after completing an activity. If the student fails to reach the mastery percentage, he or she returns immediately to the previous activity. The default setting is Continuous. Return to Skills: When the student completes the activity, he or she is sent to the Main Menu screen.

9 Under Instructional Settings, if you set the Instructional

10 Click OK to return to the Orchard Manager. 

9

Grammar: Advanced SB
Enrichment Grade Levels Grammar: Advanced 35SB Core Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7 6

8 7
• • • • •

9

10 8
• • • • • • • • • •

11

12

Sentences
Compound Complex

• • •

Clauses
Types of clauses Adverb clauses Adjective clauses Noun clauses

Verbals
Types of phrases Participial phrases Gerund phrases Infinitive phrases

Phrases
Appositive phrases Prepositional phrases

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

• • • • • •

Objects
Direct objects Indirect objects

Complements
Predicate nominatives Predicate adjectives

Introduction
Grammar: Advanced focuses on the types and parts of sentences. Learners identify phrases and clauses as well as complements and direct and indirect objects. The program includes tutorials in addition to practice and test modes. Learners who achieve the preset mastery level can play a fun and motivating reward game.

Using Grammar: Advanced
After logging in to Orchard and selecting Grammar: Advanced, click on the splash screen. A dialog box appears, asking you to choose skills.

A second dialog box opens when any of the skills are selected. For more information about the subskills, see the Skills subsection under Program Parameters later.

1 Select a skill to work on by clicking the check box next to
the skill.

2 Choose the specific subskill(s) you want, and click OK. 

0

Grammar: Advanced SB (cont.)
You will return to the skills dialog box, where you may choose additional skills.

The Control Panel
Each SkillBuilder program offers several features to aid in the learning process. These features may be accessed through the control panel, which is the column of icons on the left side of the screen. Many of the items that appear in the control panel can be set up in Program Parameters later in this manual. 

If Yes is checked in the Let Students Choose Background
Colors command (this is the default), choose a background color, and click OK.

1 If you wish to view tutorial material on the
lesson, click the Introduction button. In Program Parameters you can turn the tutorial off, make it required, or give the student the option to use it. (See Program Parameters later.)

2 If you would like to answer a sample problem,
click the Sample button. Sample problems are not scored. The background color of the control panel changes as you make your choice. An introduction screen appears, listing the skills to be presented. 

To review definitions, rules, and examples for
the specific question types, click the Review button. the Check Mark button. 

If you would like to see your current score, click
The screen displays the raw score, the percent correct, and the percent required to play the game. 

Click the OK button to answer a question and
move to the next screen. After you have completed a practice lesson or a test, you are shown your scores and a new control panel.

If options are set to student’s choice (see Program Parameters), you must choose to complete a practice lesson or take a test. In both cases, the score is kept and recorded in the management system. 

If you wish to work on a practice lesson using
the skills you have chosen, click the Pencil button. If you choose a practice lesson, you have three chances to answer a problem correctly. Immediate feedback is given for incorrect answers. You may receive additional information to help guide you to the correct answer. 

If you mastered the percent specified in the 

Alternatively, you may take a test by clicking the
Pen button. If you take a test, you are presented with a problem and have only one chance to answer correctly.

Program Parameters, you may click the Treasure Chest button to play Blackbeard’s Ghost (Windows) or the Stepping Stones button to play Stepping Stones (Mac). See instructions for playing Blackbeard’s Ghost and Stepping Stones below.

7 If you want to continue answering a new set of
questions, click the Restart button. 

1

Grammar: Advanced SB (cont.) 
If you’d like to print your scores, click the Print
button. you, you are vaporized. You get three chances to collect the coins and escape.

9 To exit the program and return to the Orchard
Manager, click the Exit button. 

Use the arrow keys to move through the castle. 7 Pick up coins by moving over them.
Flashing coins are worth more points.

Playing the Games
Blackbeard’s Ghost
After clicking the Treasure Chest button (Windows), the Blackbeard’s Ghost introduction screen appears. 

When you have collected all the coins, leave through
the doorway at the top of the screen.

9 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically when the time runs out. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

10 Press OK to continue. Stepping Stones
After clicking the Stepping Stones button (Mac), the Stepping Stones introduction screen appears.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Level button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. Game. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click the Play button to play Blackbeard’s Ghost.
The Blackbeard’s Ghost game screen appears.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Level button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. Game. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click Play as Tass or Play as Tingo to play Stepping
Stones as that character.

You are the figure at the top of the screen in the doorway. The object is to collect the coins and escape without being caught by the ghost. If the ghost catches 

2

Grammar: Advanced SB (cont.)
The Stepping Stones game screen appears.

Program Parameters
1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Grammar: Advanced 35SB, and click OK.
Five menus are accessible from Program Parameters: File, Preferences, Options, Lessons, and Reward Game. Windows users (both students and teachers) also see the About menu. This menu is the same as the Apple About menu in the Macintosh version and contains the program version and credits. Macintosh users also may access a Help menu. 

Use the arrow keys to jump from stone to stone.
Stones turn orange the first time you step on them, and red the second time. When bananas thrown by the baboon land on a stone, they turn the stone green. Step on the stone again to turn it orange, and once more to turn it red.

Preferences Menu
Items in the Preferences menu are available to students if the teacher allows access in the Options menu.

7 Pick up gems to get extra points.  Avoid the coiled, jumping snake, since it will cause you
to slip off the stone and fall.

Sound
• To turn the sound on, select Preferences  Sound  On. • To turn the sound off, select Preferences  Sound  Off.

9 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically after you have turned all the stones red, when time runs out, or when you fall for the third time. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

Background Colors
• To change the background colors, select Background Colors from the Preferences menu. The Background Colors screen appears. • Click the desired background, and click OK.

10 Press OK to continue.

Skills 1 To change the skills you are working on, select Skills
from the Preferences menu.

2 Select thedesired skills and subskills as described earlier
in the Using Grammar: Advanced section. 

Grammar: Advanced SB (cont.)
Options Menu
The Options menu allows you to decide what options will be available to students.

Activity Format
To determine if students will work activities in practice mode, test mode, or their own choice of mode, select Format from the Options menu and select the appropriate mode.

Skill Selection
• To let students select their own skills to work on, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  Yes (this is the default). Note: If students are allowed to choose their own skills to work on, they will have a choice of all skills available. They will not be limited to specific skills, regardless of what skills you select in the Lessons menu. • To have students work on skills you select for them, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  No.

Background Colors
• To let students select the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  Yes (this is the default). • If you do not want students to change the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  No.

Lessons Menu
From the Lessons menu, you can determine what skills students will work on and select a format for the practice and tests.

Skills 1 Select Skills from the Lessons menu.
The Skills screen appears.

Each time you select a skill, a subskill menu appears.

2 Use the dialog boxes to select skills and subskills for
your students to work on. The default selections are shown in the following column. 

Grammar: Advanced SB (cont.) 
Click the Sample button next to a subskill to view a
sample question.

2 Decide if the introduction should be required, 

When you are done selecting skills and subskills,

click OK on the Skills menu to return to the Orchard Manager.

turned off, or accessible at the student’s choice. The introduction provides explanatory material, including examples. the introductory material during a test. 

Determine whether or not to allow students to review  Set the number of questions in a test from 1 to 25.  Determine whether students can try sample questions
before beginning a test. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager.

Practice Format 1 To establish the format of the practice questions, select
Practice Format from the Lessons menu. The default settings are shown here. 

When you are finished setting test parameters, click OK. Reward Game
From the Reward Game menu, you can choose whether students have access to the reward game and the percent correct needed to be able to play the game. You can also view and/or clear the top 10 high scores.

2 Decide if the introduction should be required,

turned off, or accessible at the student’s choice. The introduction provides explanatory material, including definitions and examples. the introductory material during the practice session. to 25.

The default setting is for the game to be available to students.

1 If you wish to make the game available or unavailable
to students, use the Blackbeard’s Ghost command (Windows) or Stepping Stones (Mac). 

Determine whether or not to allow students to review  Set the number of questions in a practice session from 1  Determine whether students can try sample questions
before beginning a lesson. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager.

2 To change the percent of questions a student must

answer correctly to play the game, select Percent to Play from the Reward Game menu, type a new percentage, and click OK. The default setting is 80%. 

To view the players who have the 10 highest game 

When you are finished setting practice parameters, click
OK.

scores, select Top 10 Players from the Reward Game menu. To clear the top 10 players, click Clear Names, and then click Yes.

Test Format 1 To establish the format of the test questions, select Test
Format from the Lessons menu. The default settings are shown here.

About Grammar: Advanced 1 If you wish to view program version information and
credits in Windows, select About Grammar: Advanced from the About menu. About Grammar: Advanced in the Apple menu.

2 To view program information on a Macintosh, select  Click OK to close the About window. Saving Your Changes
To save changes that you made to Program Parameters, choose Exit (Windows users) or Quit (Macintosh users). 

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB
Enrichment Grade Levels Parts of Speech: Advanced 40SB Core Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

6
Nouns
Appositives Concrete Abstract Predicate Collective Gerunds

7
• • • • •

8
Adjectives • • • • • •
Irregular Predicate Proper Demonstrative Participles

6
• • • •

7
• • • •

8
• • • • •

Adverbs
Intensifiers

Pronouns
Demonstrative Indefinite Interrogative Relative Intensive and reflexive

• • • •

• • • •

• • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Negatives

Conjunctions
Coordinating Subordinating Correlative

Verbs
Linking Present perfect Past perfect Future perfect Progressive Transitive Intransitive Active Passive

Prepositions
Prepositions Objects of prepositions

• • •

• • •

• • •

Interjections 

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB (cont.)
Introduction
Parts of Speech: Advanced focuses on identifying gerunds, participles, objects of prepositions, predicate nouns, predicate adjectives, and advanced nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections. The program includes tutorials, practice, and tests. Learners who achieve the preset mastery level can play a fun and motivating reward game. 

If Yes is checked in the Let Students Choose Background
Colors command (this is the default), you will have the option to choose a background color. After you make your selection, click OK.

Using Parts of Speech: Advanced
After logging in to Orchard and selecting Parts of Speech: Advanced, a dialog box appears asking you to choose skills.

1 Select a skill to work on by clicking the check box next to
the skill. The background color of the control panel changes as you make your choice. An introduction screen appears, listing the skills to be presented.

A second dialog box opens when certain skills (i.e., nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions) are selected. For more information about the subskills, see the Skills subsection under Program Parameters later.

If options are set to student’s choice (see Program Parameters later), you must choose to work a practice lesson or take a test. In both cases, the score is kept and recorded in the management system. 

If you wish to work on a practice lesson on the
skills you have chosen, click the Pencil button.

2 Choose the specific subskill(s) you want, and click OK.
You return to the skills dialog box, where you may choose additional skills.

If you work a practice lesson, you have three chances to answer each problem correctly. Immediate feedback is given for incorrect answers. You may receive additional information to help guide you to the correct answer. 

Alternatively, you may take a test by clicking the
Pen button. If you take a test, you have only one chance to correctly answer each problem.

The Control Panel
Each SkillBuilder program offers several features to aid in the learning process. These features can be accessed through the control panel, which is the column of icons on the left side of the screen. Many of the items that appear in the control panel can be set up in Program Parameters later in this manual. 

7

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB (cont.)
1 If you wish to view tutorial material on the
lesson, click the Introduction button. In Program Parameters you can turn the tutorial off, make it required, or give the student the option to use it. (See Program Parameters later.)

Playing the Game
After clicking the Treasure Chest button, the Blackbeard’s Ghost introduction screen appears.

2 If you would like to answer a sample problem,
click the Sample button. Sample problems are not scored. 

To review definitions, rules, and examples for
the specific question types, click the Review button. the Check Mark button. 

If you would like to see your current score, click
The screen displays the raw score, the percent correct, and the percent required to play the game. 

Click the OK button to answer a question and
move to the next screen. After you have completed a practice lesson or a test, you are shown your scores and a new control panel.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. Game. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click the Play button to play Blackbeard’s Ghost.
The Blackbeard’s Ghost game screen appears. 

If you mastered the percent specified in the

Program Parameters, you may click the Treasure Chest button to play Blackbeard’s Ghost. See instructions for playing Blackbeard’s Ghost below.

7 If you want to continue answering a new set of
questions, click the Restart button. button. 

If you’d like to print your scores, click the Print 9 To exit the program and return to the Orchard
Manager, click the Exit button. You are the figure in the doorway at the top of the screen. The object is to collect the coins and escape without being caught by the ghost. If the ghost catches you, you are vaporized. You get three chances to collect the coins and escape. 

Use the arrow keys to move through the castle. 7 Pick up coins by moving over them.
Flashing coins are worth more points. 

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB (cont.) 
When you have collected all the coins, leave through
the doorway at the top of the screen.

Options Menu
The Options menu allows you to decide what options will be available to students.

9 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically when the time runs out. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

Activity Format 1 To determine if students will work on activities in
practice mode, test mode, or their own choice of mode, select Format from the Options menu and select the appropriate mode.

10 Click OK to continue.

Program Parameters
1 To change settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

Skill Selection
• To let students select their own skills to work on, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  Yes (this is the default). Note: If students are allowed to choose their own skills to work on, they will have a choice of all skills available. They will not be limited to specific skills, regardless of what skills you select in the Lessons menu. • To have students work on skills you select for them, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  No.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Parts of Speech: Advanced 40SB, and click
Edit. Five menus are accessible from Program Parameters: File, Preferences, Options, Lessons, and Reward Game. Windows users (both students and teachers) also see the About menu. This menu is the same as the Apple About menu in the Macintosh version and contains the program version and credits. Macintosh users will also see a Help menu.

Background Colors
• To let students select the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  Yes (this is the default). • If you do not want students to change the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  No.

Lessons Menu Preferences Menu
Items in the Preferences menu are available to students if the teacher allows access in the Options menu. From the Lessons menu, you can determine what skills students will work on and select a format for the practice and tests.

Skills 1 Select Skills from the Lessons menu.
The Skills screen appears.

Sound
• To turn the sound on, select Preferences  Sound  On. • To turn the sound off, select Preferences  Sound  Off.

Background Colors 1 To change the background colors, select Background
Colors from the Preferences menu. The Background Colors screen appears.

2 Click the desired background and click OK. Skills 1 To change the skills you are working on, select Skills
from the Preferences menu. Each time you select certain skills (i.e., nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs), a subskill menu appears.

2 Use the dialog boxes to select skills for your students to
work on.

2 Select the desired skills and subskills as described

earlier in the Using Parts of Speech: Advanced section. 

9

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB (cont.)
The default selections are shown below. 

Click the Sample button next to a subskill to view a
sample question. 

When you are done selecting skills and subskills,

click OK on the Skills menu to return to the Orchard Manager.

Practice Format 1 To establish the format of the practice questions, select
Practice Format from the Lessons menu.

The default settings are shown here.

2 The introduction provides explanatory material,

including definitions and examples. Decide if the introduction should be required, turned off, or accessible at the student’s choice. introductory material during the practice session. to 25. 

Determine whether to allow students to review the  Set the number of questions in a practice session from 1  Determine whether or not students can try sample
questions before beginning a lesson. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager. 

When you are finished setting practice parameters, click
OK. 

0

Parts of Speech: Advanced 0SB (cont.)
Test Format 1 To establish the format of the test questions, select Test
Format from the Lessons menu. The default settings are shown here.

About Parts of Speech: Advanced 1 If you wish to view program version information and
credits in Windows, select About Parts of Speech: Advanced from the About menu.

2 To view program information on a Macintosh, select  Click OK to close the About window. Saving Your Changes
To save changes that you made to Program Parameters, choose Exit (Windows users) or Quit (Macintosh users) from the File menu.

About Parts of Speech: Advanced in the Apple menu.

2 The introduction provides explanatory material

including examples. Decide if the introduction should be required, turned off, or accessible at the student’s choice. introductory material during a test. 

Determine whether to allow students to review the  Set the number of questions in a test from 1 to 25.  Determine whether or not students can try sample
questions before beginning a test. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager. 

When you are finished setting test parameters, click OK. Reward Game
From the Reward Game menu, you can choose whether students have access to the reward game and the percent correct needed to be able to play the game. You can also view and/or clear the top 10 high scores. The default setting is for the game to be available to students.

1 If you wish to make the game unavailable to students,

select Reward Game  Blackbeard’s Ghost  Inactive. Game  Blackbeard’s Ghost  Active.

2 To make the game available to students, select Reward  To change the percent of questions a student must

answer correctly to play the game, select Percent to Play from the Reward Game menu, type a new percentage, and click OK. The default setting is 80%. 

To view the players who have the 10 highest game

scores, select Top 10 Players from the Reward Game menu. To clear the top 10 players, click Clear Names, and then click Yes. 

1

Punctuation: Advanced 2SB
Enrichment Grade Levels Punctuation: Advanced 42SB Core Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

6
Sentences
End marks Quotation marks Independent clauses

7
• •

8
Separators • • •
Commas—adjectives Commas—addresses Commas—dates

6

7

8

• •

• •

• • • •

• • • • •

Phrases
Commas—introductory Commas—interrupters

Joiners • • • • • • • •
Hyphens—compounds Hyphens—divided words

Series
Colons—lists Semicolons—series

Time
Colons

Introduction
Punctuation: Advanced focuses on the proper use of many types of punctuation. Learners practice using end marks, commas, colons, semicolons, hyphens, and quotation marks. The program includes tutorials, in addition to practice and test modes. Learners who achieve the preset mastery level can play a fun and motivating reward game.

Using Punctuation: Advanced
After logging in to Orchard and selecting Punctuation: Advanced, a dialog box appears asking you to choose skills.

You return to the skills dialog box, where you may choose additional skills. 

If Yes is checked in the Let Students Choose Background
Colors command (this is the default), choose a background color, and click OK. The background color of the control panel changes as you make your choice.

1 Select a skill to work on by clicking the check box next to
the skill. A second dialog box opens when certain skills (i.e., sentences, phrases, series, separators, and joiners) are selected. For more information about the subskills, see the Skills subsection under Program Parameters later.

2 Choose the specific subskill(s) you want, and click OK.

An introduction screen appears, listing the skills to be presented. 

2

Punctuation: Advanced 2SB (cont.)
If options are set to student’s choice (see Program Parameters later), you must choose to work on a practice lesson or take a test. In both cases, the score is kept and recorded in the management system. 

Click the OK button to answer a question and
move to the next screen. After you have completed a practice lesson or a test, you are shown your scores and a new control panel. 

If you wish to work on a practice lesson on the
skills you have chosen, click the Pencil button. If you work a practice lesson, you have three chances to answer a problem correctly. Immediate feedback is given for incorrect answers. You may receive additional information to help guide you to the correct answer. 

If you mastered the percent specified in the

Program Parameters, you may click the Snake button to play Snakebite. See instructions for playing Snakebite below.

7 If you want to continue answering a new set of
questions, click the Restart button. button. 

Alternatively, you may take a test by clicking the
Pen button. If you take a test, you are presented with a problem and have only one chance to answer correctly. 

If you’d like to print your scores, click the Print 9 To exit the program and return to the Orchard
Manager, click the Exit button.

The Control Panel
Each SkillBuilder program offers several features to aid in the learning process. These features can be accessed through the control panel, which is the column of icons on the left side of the screen. Many of the items that appear in the control panel can be set up in Program Parameters later in this manual.

Playing the Game
After clicking the Snake button, the Snakebite introduction screen appears.

1 If you wish to view tutorial material on the
lesson, click the Introduction button. In Program Parameters you can turn the tutorial off, make it required, or give the student the option to use it. (See Program Parameters later.)

2 If you would like to answer a sample problem,
click the Sample button. Sample problems are not scored. 

To review definitions, rules, and examples for
the specific question types, click the Review button. the Check Mark button. 

If you would like to see your current score, click
The screen displays the raw score, the percent correct, and the percent required to play the game.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. 

Punctuation: Advanced 2SB (cont.) 
You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten
button. Game. Five menus are accessible from Program Parameters: File, Preferences, Options, Lessons, and Reward Game. Windows users (both students and teachers) also see the About menu. This menu is the same as the Apple About menu in the Macintosh version and contains the program version and credits. Macintosh users will also see the Help menu. 

If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click the Play button to play Snakebite.
The Snakebite game screen appears.

Preferences Menu
Items in the Preferences menu are available to students if the teacher allows access in the Options menu.

Sound
• To turn the sound on, select Preferences  Sound  On. • To turn the sound off, select Preferences  Sound  Off.

Background Colors 1 To change the background colors, select Background  Use the arrow keys to change the snake’s direction.
Note: You do not have to hold down the arrow keys to keep the snake moving in the desired direction. Colors from the Preferences menu. The Background Colors screen appears.

2 Click the desired background, and click OK. Skills 1 To change the desired skills you are working on, select
Skills from the Preferences menu.

7 Eat as many bugs as you can during the allotted time
by moving the snake over them. The snake grows as it eats. 

When you hear the hawk scream, get out of the way
(the hawk can only travel straight down).

2 Select the skills and subskills as described earlier in the
Using Punctuation: Advanced section.

9 After you have eaten all the bugs, leave through the
break in the hedge at the left side of the screen.

Options Menu
The Options menu allows you to decide what options will be available to students.

10 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically after the time runs out. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

Activity Format
To determine if students will work on activities in practice mode, test mode, or their own choice of mode, select Format from the Options menu and select the appropriate mode.

11 Click OK to continue.

Program Parameters
1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

Skill Selection
• To let students select their own skills to work on, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  Yes (this is the default). Note: If students are allowed to choose their own skills to work on, they will have a choice of all skills available. They will not be limited to specific skills, regardless of what skills you select in the Lessons menu. • To have students work on skills you select for them, select Options  Let Student Choose Skills  No.

2 Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Punctuation: Advanced 42SB, and click OK. 

Punctuation: Advanced 2SB (cont.)
Background Colors
• To let students select the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  Yes (this is the default). • If you do not want students to change the background color, select Options  Let Student Choose Background Colors  No.

Lessons Menu
From the Lessons menu, you can determine what skills students will work on and select a format for the practice and tests.

Skills 1 Select Skills from the Lessons menu.
The Skills screen appears. 

Click the Sample button next to a subskill to view a
sample question. 

When you are done selecting skills and subskills, click
OK on the Skills menu.

Practice Format
Each time you select certain skills (i.e., sentences, phrases, series, separators, and joiners), a subskill menu appears.

1 To establish the format of the practice questions, select
Practice Format from the Lessons menu. The default settings are shown here.

2 Use the dialog boxes to select skills for your students to
work on. The default selections are shown below.

The introduction provides explanatory material including definitions and examples.

2 Decide if the introduction should be required, turned
off, or accessible at the student’s choice. 

Determine whether or not to allow students to review
the introductory material during the practice session. to 25. 

Set the number of questions in a practice session from 1  Determine whether students can try sample questions
before beginning a lesson. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager. 

Punctuation: Advanced 2SB (cont.) 
When you are finished setting practice parameters, click
OK. • To clear the top 10 players, click Clear Names, and then click Yes.

Test Format 1 To establish the format of the test questions, select Test
Format from the Lessons menu. The default settings are shown here.

About Punctuation: Advanced 1 If you wish to view program version information
and credits in Windows, select About Punctuation: Advanced from the About menu. About Punctuation: Advanced in the Apple menu.

2 To view program information on a Macintosh, select  Click OK to close the About window. Saving Your Changes
To save changes that you made to Program Parameters, choose Exit (Windows users) or Quit (Macintosh users).

The introduction provides explanatory material including examples.

2 Decide if the introduction should be required, turned
off, or accessible at the student’s choice. the introductory material during a test. 

Determine whether or not to allow students to review  Set the number of questions in a test from 1 to 25.  Determine whether students can try sample questions
before beginning a test. Scores on sample questions are not reported to the Orchard Manager. 

When you are finished setting test parameters, click OK. Reward Game
From the Reward Game menu, you can choose whether students have access to the reward game and the percent correct needed to be able to play the game. You can also view and/or clear the top 10 high scores. The default setting is for the game to be available to students.

1 If you wish to make the game unavailable to students,
select Reward Game  Snakebite  Inactive. Game  Snakebite  Active.

2 To make the game available to students, select Reward  To change the percent of questions a student must

answer correctly to play the game, select Percent to Play from the Reward Game menu, type a new percentage, and click OK. The default setting is 80%. 

To view the players who have the 10 highest game

scores, select Top 10 Players from the Reward Game menu. 

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB
Enrichment Grade Levels Reading & Writing Strategies 7-8 143SB Core Remedial

K

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9 7

10

11 8
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

12

Sentence Construction and Writing Strategies
Produce a variety of sentence structures including basic sentence patterns and variations Demonstrate understanding of the treatment of subject and verb relationships Use appropriate capitalization Use the fundamentals of punctuation Recognize appropriate spelling, capitalization, and punctuation within the context of existing text Design and implement a writing plan that includes a central idea and related ideas, and that addresses type of audience Identify the appropriate uses of parts of speech Recognize complete sentences, and avoid fragments and run-ons Use contractions, possessives, and compounds Recognize subjects, predicates, complements, and modifiers Identify types of sentences, i.e., declarative, interrogative, exclamatory, and imperative Select appropriate transitions

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Reading Strategies and Resource Skills
Use knowledge of the meanings of prefixes and suffixes to determine word meanings Use context clues to determine the meanings of unfamiliar and specialized words Make generalizations Evaluate and make judgments Recognize the author’s point of view and purpose in literary selections Identify themes and story elements, i.e., plot, climax, character, and setting Understand cause‑and‑effect relationships Understand literary forms by recognizing and distinguishing among types of texts Select a topic, formulate questions, identify key words, choose sources, skim, paraphrase, take notes, organize, summarize, and present Interpret figurative language, i.e., metaphors, similes, exaggerations, and analogies Recognize synonyms and antonyms Use common reference sources to find desired information Use graphic sources for information, i.e., diagrams, graphs, and statistical information Identify topic and supporting sentences Locate information using outlines, time lines, and graphic organizers Differentiate between fact and opinion Understand literary devices, i.e., flashback, foreshadowing, suspense, symbolism, and dialogue Identify tone, mood, and style Use referencing sources, i.e., endnotes, bibliographies, and citing sources Identify denotative and connotative meanings Use descriptive language Understand persuasion, bias, propaganda, and stereotyping 

7

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB (cont.)
Introduction
Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 is a completion Skill Tree included in this Orchard for Your State bundle. This SkillBuilder program is designed to supplement the student’s classroom instruction and textbook. Each program has a series of carefully selected skill levels. You choose the combination of skills appropriate for the student(s) using the program. SkillBuilders can help you teach one student, pairs of students, or entire classes, whether you have one computer or several.

Questions
When you begin working on the program, you will receive 10 questions randomly selected from the skills/subskills chosen.

Using Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8
After logging in to Orchard and selecting Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8, a dialog box appears asking you to choose skills (if the parameters are set to allow students to choose skills; see Program Parameters later).

1 Select a skill to work on by clicking the check box next to
the skill. For each question, choose the correct answer, and click OK. For an incorrect response, you’ll receive a message such as “Sorry, try again.” In some SkillBuilders, you will get a hint as to the correct solution. You will get one more chance to answer correctly. For a correct response on the second attempt, you’ll receive a congratulatory message, followed by the solution. If your second answer is incorrect, you will receive the solution.

A second dialog box opens.

2 Choose the subskills you want to work on, and click OK.
The skills menu appears again. 

Either choose another skill, or click OK to begin. 

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB (cont.)
Menus The File Menu
The File Menu offers the following options: • Print Setup, which allows you to select a printer, the paper size, and the orientation • Print, which allows you to print your score (only available at the Scores screen at the end of a lesson) • End Lesson, which skips the lesson content and takes you to the Scores screen • Exit, which ends Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 and takes you back to the program selection screen (Quit on Macintosh) At the Scores screen, you have several options: • To receive more problems using the skills already assigned but not yet mastered, click Restart. • To select one of three games to play, click Games. • To print the scores screen, click Print. • To leave the program, click Exit.

Playing the Games
Arthropod
The object of Arthropod is to eat all the bugs and escape through the hole before time runs out.

The Preferences Menu 1 To toggle the sound on or off, click Sound Enabled. 2 To select skills to work on, choose Skills from the
Preferences menu and select skills and subskills as described earlier. Note: You may only change the skills you are working on before you start answering questions.

The Help Menu 1 To see instructions for the program, select Instructions
from the Help menu.

2 To see information on the program, select About from
the Help menu (Windows only).

Finishing the Program
When you have answered the required number of questions, you will see a Scores screen which shows your scores.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit.  Click the Play button to play Arthropod.
The Arthropod game screen appears.

You may need to answer fewer than 10 questions to master all assigned/selected skills and subskills and be taken to the Scores screen. 

9

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB (cont.) 
Use the arrow keys to change the arthropod’s direction.
Note: Once you start the arthropod moving by pressing an arrow key, you do not have to hold down the arrow keys to keep it moving in the desired direction. The Racer game screen appears.

7 Eat as many bugs as you can during the allotted time
by moving the arthropod over them. Gold bugs are worth more points. The arthropod grows as it eats. 

When you hear the frog croak, get out of the way (the
frog can attack only straight down). hole at the left side of the screen.

9 After you have eaten all the bugs, leave through the 10 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically after the time runs out, or after the arthropod “dies” three times by either running into the wall or getting eaten by the frog. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

You’ll hear five beeps as the dots in the upper left corner of the screen turn white in the middle. When the final dot turns white, the car will move forward. 

Use the arrow keys to steer the car.
Speed bumps will slow the car down, and mud holes cause the car to skid out of control.

11 Press OK to continue. Racer
The object of Racer is to get around the track the number of times required by your level as quickly as possible, while gaining points by picking up gas cans, tools, and tires along the way.

7 Try to pick up gas cans, tools, and tires as you go around
the track, since this will give you extra points. 

If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically after you have driven the number of laps required for the level, or when the time runs out. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

9 Press OK to continue. Stepping Stones
The object of stepping stones is to turn all the stones from blue to yellow and then to orange by stepping on them before time runs out.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. Game. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click the Play button to play Racer. 1 To view instructions, click the Instructions button.

70

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB (cont.)
2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the Treasure Hunt
The object of Treasure Hunt is to gather all the coins and escape through the door as quickly as possible, while dodging the pirates who are trying to catch you.

Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit.  Click Play As Zade or Play As Zelda to play Stepping
Stones as that character. The Stepping Stones game screen appears.

1 To get instructions, click the Instructions button. 2 You can choose the difficulty level by clicking the
Difficulty Levels button and selecting Easy, Medium, or Hard. button. Game. 

Use the arrow keys to jump from stone to stone.
Stones turn yellow the first time you step on them, and orange the second time. When bananas thrown by the monkey land on a stone, they turn the stone blue. Step on the stone again to turn it yellow, and once more to turn it orange. 

You can see the top 10 scores by clicking the Top Ten  If you wish to quit without playing the game, click Exit  Click the Play button to play Treasure Hunt.
The Treasure Hunt game screen appears.

7 Pick up gems to get extra points.  Avoid the jumping monkey, since it will cause you to
stop and fall off the stone.

9 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically after you have turned all the stones orange, when time runs out, or when you fall for the third time. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

10 Press OK to continue.

You are the figure at the top of the screen in the doorway. The object is to collect the coins and escape without being caught by the pirates. If the pirates catch you, you start over at the top of the screen. You get three chances to collect the coins and escape. 

Use the arrow keys to move through the castle.

71

Reading and Writing Strategies 7- 1SB (cont.)
7 Pick up coins by moving over them.
Flashing coins are worth more points.

7 Choose whether or not students may select the skills
and subskills they want to work on by selecting the appropriate boxes under Lessons. If you decide not to allow students to select skills and subskills, click the Skills button and choose skills and subskills as described earlier. Initial subskills are shown here: 

When you have collected all the coins, leave through
the doorway at the top of the screen.

9 If you wish to quit early, press ESC.
The game stops automatically when the time runs out or when you are captured by the pirates three times. When the game is over, your score is shown, along with the top 10 scores.

10 Press OK to continue.

Program Parameters
1 To change the settings for this program, log in to the
Orchard Manager as a teacher.

2 Select a class, and click OK.  Click Edit Class Parameters on the Classes tab, or select
a student and click Edit Student Parameters on the Students tab. You will see a list of programs to choose from. 

Highlight Reading and Writing Strategies 7-8 143SB, and
click Edit. The Settings screen appears. Default settings are shown here.

Note: If you allow students to choose their own skills, they will be able to choose from all of the skills in the program. Setting skills through the program parameters will not limit the skills from which students may choose. 

Check or uncheck the Sounds (music and sound effects)
box to turn the audio for the games on or off. 

Set the minimum number of questions required for
mastery. If a student answers all the questions pertaining to a subskill correctly, this is the minimum number of questions he or she will see pertaining to that subskill. 

Choose whether or not students may choose to play a

game after they complete the program by checking or unchecking Game.

9 Determine the percent correct required for mastery,

which is the percent of questions a student must answer correctly before mastery is achieved. The default setting is 80 percent, or a minimum of four of five questions answered correctly.

72

Acknowledgments
The following kindly provided original material for use in the Reading, Reseach, and Language Skills and Writing and Media Literacy programs. Permission to use materials is gratefully acknowledged. Every effort has been made to secure permission from copyright holders. “Ads in Our Schools,” editorial, reprinted with permission of The Toronto Star. “African Creation Myth,” Anonymous. “Don’t Tell Us What to Wear” by D. Martin, Toronto: ITP Nelson, used with permission of ITP Nelson. “The Fateful Night,” by Robert D. Ballard, from Exploring the Titanic by Robert Ballard. Reprinted with permission of Penguin Books Canada. “Human Error Creates Serious Trouble on Mir,” reprinted with permission of The Associated Press. “In Just” by e. e. cummings, Copyright 1923,1951, ©1991 by the Trustees for the e. e. cummings Trust. Copyright ©1976 by George James Firmage, from Complete Poems: 1904-1962 by e. e. cummings, edited by George J. Firmage. Used by permission of Liveright Publishing Corporation. “In the Beginning” by Jackie Pearl Albany, from Tales from the Longhouse by Indian children of British Columbia, Gray’s Publishing, 1973 & 1975. “Johanna” by Jane Yolen, ©1978, used by permission of Curtis Brown, Ltd. All rights reserved. “A Lesser Hero,” Ottawa Citizen Editorial, reprinted with permission from the Ottawa Citizen. “Life Looks Better at the Ballyard,” Ottawa Citizen Editorial, reprinted with permission from the Ottawa Citizen. “The Midnight Visitor,” from Mystery and More Mystery by Robert Arthur, illustrated by Saul Lambert. Text ©1939, renewed 1967 by Robert Arthur. Illustration copyright©1966 Random House, Inc. Used by permission of Random House Children’s Books, a division of Random House Inc. “And Not a Drop to Drink,” Ottawa Citizen Editorial, reprinted with permission from the Ottawa Citizen. “Penny in the Dust” by Ernest Buckler, used by permission of Curtis Brown, Ltd. All rights reserved. “Picnicking Procedures,” Shape Magazine, used with permission. “The Promise” by John Steinbeck, from The Red Pony by John Steinbeck, ©1933, 1937, 1938, renewed 1961, 1965, 1966 by John Steinbeck. Used by permission of Viking Penguin, a division of Penguin Putnam Inc. “Rediscover Canada,” WHERE Calgary Magazine, used with permission. “Sailing In on Five Years of Memories” by Jack Cahill, used with permission of The Toronto Star Syndicate. “She’s Called Nova Scotia,” by Rita MacNeil, © Big Pond Publishing, Warner/Chappell Canada. “The Shark,” by E. J. Pratt, used with permission. ©University of Toronto Press Inc. “Silence” by E. Gomringer, used with permission of ITP Nelson. “Stormy but Sublime,” p. 61, Reading Comprehension, McGraw-Hill Children’s Publishing. Reading, used with permission, “Instructional Fair”-TS Denison. “Survivor: An Eye-Witness Account of the Sinking of the Titanic,” by Maggie Goh, in Context One, Nelson, interview, copyright and permission by Nelson. “Thunder and Lightning” by Kathleen Arnott, from Tales from Africa, by permission of Oxford University Press. “Undefeated” by Robert Froman, used with permission of the estate of Robert Froman. “The Underwater Jungle,” p. 69, Reading Comprehension, McGraw-Hill Children’s Publishing, used with permission, “Instructional Fair”-TS Denison. “What Do I Remember of the Evacuation” by Joy Kogawa, republished with the permission of the author Joy Kogawa. First published in A Choice of Dreams (McClelland and Stewart, 1974). “Where does this come from - Bubble Gum?” ©1989 by H.I. Peeples, Hodgkinson Report. “Why Mosquitoes Suck” by Patricia Gadsby, Discover Magazine, August 1997, used by permission of Patricia Gadsby. “Writing Concise Sentences,” p. 81, D. Martin (1998), from Communicating Skills Grade 8 Student Text, 2nd edition, ©1990. Reprinted with permission of Nelson Thomson Learning, a division of Thomson Learning.

7

License and Warranty
Use of the software program on the enclosed discs is subject to the terms of this License Agreement. By using this software, you signify that you have read the Agreement and accept its terms. Siboney Learning Group’s sole warranty to you the purchaser is that the discs provided with this document, when used with the specified equipment and system software, will perform substantially as described in this document for the warranty period. If the discs are found to be defective, the full extent of our liability is the replacement of the discs or the refund of your money, at our discretion, upon receipt of the defective discs; before returning discs to us, you must call or write for a Return Authorization Number. SIBONEY LEARNING GROUP makes no other warranties, oral or written, express or implied, including but not limited to implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. This limited warranty gives you specific legal rights, and you may also have other rights, which vary from state to state. Siboney Learning Group shall not be liable for damage or loss, direct or indirect, incidental or consequential, resulting from the use of or the inability to use this disc, even if Siboney Learning Group has been notified of the possibility of such damage or loss. Such damages or losses include but are not limited to loss of profits or income or damages or costs incurred as a result of loss of time or data. Some states do not allow the exclusion or limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so the above limitations may not apply to you. Macintosh is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Windows 98/2000/ME/XP/NT are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. QuickTime is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Java is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. At the request of Apple Computer, Inc., we include the following statement: Siboney Learning Group’s LICENSOR(S) MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, REGARDING THE SOFTWARE. Siboney Learning Group’s LICENSOR(S) DOES NOT WARRANT, GUARANTEE OR MAKE ANY REPRESENTATIONS REGARDING THE USE OR THE RESULTS OF THE USE OF THE SOFTWARE IN TERMS OF ITS CORRECTNESS, ACCURACY, RELIABILITY, CURRENTNESS, OR OTHERWISE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE RESULTS AND PERFORMANCE OF THE SOFTWARE IS ASSUMED BY YOU. THE EXCLUSION OF IMPLIED WARRANTIES IS NOT PERMITTED BY SOME JURISDICTIONS. THE ABOVE EXCLUSION MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. IN NO EVENT WILL Siboney Learning Group’s LICENSOR(S), AND THEIR DIRECTORS, OFFICERS, EMPLOYEES, OR AGENTS (COLLECTIVELY Siboney Learning Group’s LICENSOR) BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL OR INDIRECT DAMAGES (INCLUDING DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION, AND THE LIKE) ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE SOFTWARE EVEN IF Siboney Learning Group’s LICENSOR HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. BECAUSE SOME JURISDICTIONS DO NOT ALLOW THE EXCLUSION OR LIMITATION OF LIABILITY FOR CONSEQUENTIAL OR INCIDENTAL DAMAGES, THE ABOVE LIMITATIONS MAY NOT APPLY TO YOU. Siboney Learning Group’s licensor’s liability to you for actual damages from any cause whatsoever, and regardless of the form of the action [whether in contract, tort (including negligence), product liability or otherwise], will be limited to $50. Orchard is the result of the talents of many people: teachers, designers, programmers, and graphic artists. The cost of developing this program is recovered by its sale; illegal duplication of the software raises the cost to all legitimate users. Please do not make illegal copies. Program screens in this document were taken from the Windows version of the software. Macintosh screens may differ slightly.

Copyright © Siboney Learning Group and its licensors. All rights reserved.

7

Orchard Software is Published by:

GSLA79M2 12/05
Copyright © 2006 Siboney Learning Group

325 N. Kirkwood Road Suite 200 Saint Louis, MO 63122 1-888-726-8100 www.orchardsoftware.com

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